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Shot Peening and Fatigue Strength of Steels

**Karl-Heinz Lang, Volker Schulze, Otmar Vohringer
**

Institut fiir Werkstoffkunde I, Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), Karlsruhe, Germany

1 Introduction

**Shot peening is a commonly used production process which changes the material state
**

close to the surface. Dcpending on thc material, the material state and the microstructure

nearby the surface of the concerning workpiece, the topography, the residual stress state, the

workhardening state and the microstructure may be altered. A11 these changes may influence

the fatigue properties of a component more or less significantly. The lifetime may increase if

shot peening is performed with optimized peening parameters. For this effect a smoothing of

the surface, a workhardening of surfacc near areas of the material or the introduction of stable

residual stresses can be responsible. The greatest lifetime increase may be reached if all three

mechanisms act simultaneous. In [I] the characteristics of surface layers produced by shot

peening are described in a systcmatical overview. In principle, the greatest potential for the

lifetime increase is ascribed to residual stresses. Residual stresses may alter the cyclic

deformation behavior, promote or retard crack initiation, accelerate or decelerate crack

propagation, and may be beneficial or detrimental to finite fatigue life and the endurance

limit.

The consequences of residual stresses at a concrete application depend strongly on the

effects, which are connected with the production of residual stresses like thc change of thc

surface and of the ~nicrostructtire of surfacc ncar areas. Furthermore, the stability of the

produced residual stresses under the operating conditions and the mechanical properties of the

regarded material are relevant. In particular, the material strength is very important. Low

strength materials (for example normalized steels or wrought alloys), medium strength

materials (for example quenched and at a medium temperature tempered steels or y'-hardened

Ni-base alloys) and high strength materials (for example quenched and at a low temperature

tempered steel) have to be distinguished in this context.

In the present paper a systematic overview of the knowledge about the influence of

residual stresses - especially of shot peening induced residual stresses - on the different stages

of fatigue process and on the endurance limit of different steels and steels in different states

will be given using selected examples. A more detailed survey of this topic is given in [2].

2 Influence of Residual Stresses on the Cyclic Deformation Behavior

**The influence of macro and micro residual stresses produced by shot peening on the
**

cyclic deformation behavior is shown in Fig. 1. As characteristic cyclic deformation curves

the plastic strain amplitude from stress controlled push-pull fatigue tests (R = om,,/ om,, = -1)

at different stress amplitudes is plotted versus the number of cycles. The behavior of different

be- o.-K material statcs.. . strength compared with the steel condi- tion in Fig. in the unpeened condi- ' ~p~ -1 tion. In the norn~alizedstate (Fig. in MPa a) 42 CrMo 4 ( A M 4140) are compared in 0. it is in- teresting to note that for identical stress 10' 10' 10' l o 3 l o 4 lo5 10' amplitudes and comparable numbers of number of cycles N cycles. for the same 0.--. I b. la). . cyclic sof- .250 a -. . lb.. the higher plastic strain ampli- tudes are always measured for the shot Figure 1: Cyclic deformation for stress controlled push.3 .4 -------. After shot pecning which gcnerates surface compressive re- C) sidual stresses crrS= -400 MPa. the onset oS cyclic softening is shifted to smaller - Q fo: numbers of cycles. 7 . the shot peened condition which has surface conipressive residual stresses orS= -530 MPa is characterized for all investigated 0. . Furthermore. I-Iowcver. first cycles for stress amplitudes 0.- values the plastic strain amplih~des of . ------. the -------.-values by small measurable plastic strain amplitudes during the first cycle which diminish or disappear first of all with an increasing number of cycles. After a subsequent regime of quasi-elastic behavior.. in MPa b w e e 5 M F ' and 0 W f t c r some numbers of cycles the opposite tendency can be detected and thc plastic strain amplitudes of thc shot peened conditions are smaller than those of the unpeened . and (c) quenched and tempered (570°C/2h) another quenched and tempered smooth specimens of the steel 42 CrMo 4 in unpeened and (570°C/21i) 42 CrMo 4 steel with a higher shot peened conditions. In this case. since the shot peened specimens with surface compressive rc- . unpeened - unpeened and in shot peened conditions a. the characteristic cyclic defonnation bchavior of quenched and tcmpered steels occurs with a quasielastic incubation pe- riod which is followed by cyclic softening until crack initiation. heat treated smooth specimens of the steel o. Corresponding results for a quenched and On O' O2 I@'O4 O5 Ofi at 73O0C/2h ternpcred 42 CrMo 4 are pre- number of ~ y ~ l Ne s senied in Fig. Fig. (b) quenched and tempered pilation of cyclic defonnation curves for (73O0C/2 h).325 onsct of cyclic deforniation is different in ---.41. l c shows a com- pull loading of (a) nornlalized. 0. surface [3. sidual stresses or" -400 MPa show cy- 10' 10' l o 2 103 10' 105 l o b clic softening from the first cycle and number of cycles N higher plastic strain amplitudes d ~ ~ r i nthe g -g 0. both conditions approach another at relatively high numbers of cycles. + - 300 4 both conditions.peened specimens.4 . shot peened u with compressive residual stresses at the .

. in [ l o ] for the plain carbon steel . the consequences of mechanical surface treatments like shot peening or deep rolling on the cyclic deformation behavior are mainly caused by near surface micro residual stresses.-1..p. However. I3 impede localized slip. i. This is due to thc difficulties conncc:ed with the observation of the fornation and the propagation of small cracks.g. 3 Influence of Residual Stresses on the Crack Initiation Crack initiation occurs as a consequence of microstructural changes in nictallic materials during cyclic loading. no persistent no damage slip band is observed at all. Different mechanisms are responsible for their formation [e. 'The small plastic strain amplitudes of the shot peened or deep rolled conditions and the resulting increase in fatigue life are caused by the restricted mean free path of the mobile dislocations in the work hardened surface layers. crack initiation normally takes place at positions of high localized slip. . the changes in the cyclic defonnation behavior result not only from surface hardening or softening effects but also from the more stable residual stresses.&. at extrusions and intrusions which are connected with persistent slip bands. In these surface micro cracks (<200pm) work hardened conditions. marks -. as shown in Fig. 81.o:". because the macro residual stresses are relaxed very soon by cyclic plastic deformation [5-71. grain and twin boundaries) in the work hardened surface layer which S. A recently published investigation gives a report on the influence of mechanical surface treatments on crack initiation and crack propagation in push-pull loading of steels 191. Similar results are found in 191 steel AISI 304 = 320 MPa. crack fornmation occurs later @ deep rolled than in the untreated state due to the con- . If it is accepted that for given materials states at comparable load amplitudes increasing amounts of plastic strain amplitudes lead to decreasing numbers of cycles to crack initiation N.cks sequence of numerous obstacles for slip (dislocations. p = b) N ~ =for the normalized steel Ck 45 (SAE . e. The dislocation structures in the ferrite after the mechanical surface treatment are not stable and change during cyclic loacling in energetically more favorable arrangements. In relatively soft material states. 2 in shot peened and deep (3 untreated rolled conditions of the austenitic steel @ shot peened AISI 304. work hardening of the surface layers.. experimental investigations concerning the influence of macro and micro rc~iduilistresses oil crack iiiitiati~iiare scarce. shorten or leave the number of cycles unchanged to crack initiation. crack propagation is slower than in the untreated state due to the effect of Figure 2: Influcucc of mechanical surface treatments on microstnlcture and compressive residual the damage evoluhm of the push-poll loaded austenitic stresses. as for example in nonnalized as well as in quenched and at high temperatures tempered conditions. Furthermore. e. !n un- treated materials. In hardened as well as in quenched and at low temperatures tempered conditions. 4445: C)Ni= 20265) [g] 1045). a) N ~ 3859.g.n>y5. I-Iowever. it follows that residual stresses may extend. tening is dominant which yields to lower plastic strain amplitudes and larger numbers of cycles to failure in comparison with the unpecned conditions.

4 am'" (a) and an overload of AK .94. 43 fcr a high strength sti-uctura! stccl of the Euiopeaii grade S69GQii [15.8 am"^) is given in Fig.161. distance from crack tip of the steel S690QLl after a mode I-base load of AK = 47.12] for a hlgh strcngth sprmg steel 50 CrV 4 (AISI 6150) However. the cracks are formed earher rn shot peened speclmens than In ground ones T h ~ s lind~ng1s attributed to an enhanced crack mltlat~onat mlcro-notches resultmg from shot peenmg w h c h 1s obviously number of cycles N supported by corloslon p~ltmgi In thc case of seawater covlronment However. a larger maximum value and a larger area with compressive residual stresses compared to Fig. which acts perpendicular to thc crack flanks. the crack ~ n ~ t ~ a t lt o~nm eof shot peened speclmens 1s sometnnes shorter than that of unpeened ones desp~te Increased l~fetlmes One example 1s glven in Fig 3 for the quenched and tempered steel Ck 45 (SAE 1045) In the case of betldlng fat~guetests In sea water [14] W ~ t hthe except~onof hlgh stress ampllhtdes. The alteration of this distribution after application o f 2 0 overload cycles with an overload ratio h = 2 (AKr = 94.16] . A crack was produced by cyclic loading up to a stress intensity range of' AKI = 47. The distribution of lhc macro rcsidual stress component o.'". 200 a 6 % 0 9 w V) g -200 - m B $ -400 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 distance from crack tip [mm] distance from crack tip [mm] a) b) Figure 4: Residual stress component o. In front of the crack tip. 4b. as reported In [13]. shows maximum compressive residual stresses of -350 Ml'a at the crack tip."!~!)nm'/'.' vs. Ck 80 (SAE 1080) and In [11.8 am"' (b) [15. In some cases. number of cycles to crack the numbels of cycles to €allure of the initiation and to Sailurc of a qucnched and tempered steel shot peened cond~tlonsale h~ghel than Ck 45 under bending fatigue loading in sea water [I41 that of ground conditions 4 Influence of Residual Stresses on the Crack Propagation 'The tip of a propagating crack is surrounded by a typical residual stress field as shown exe~np!ari!y i : ~ Fig. Figure 3: Stress amplitude vs.

... by sufficient high over- loads.. 6 for differently surface rolled stain- less stecl ASS1 304. for small AK-values the crack propagation behavior is entirely controlled by the welding residual stress state which leads to identical crack propagation rates irrespective of the loading ratio R = 0. thc daldN. . Krnak is the stress at rcsidual stressesbis= ~ a bar)... [mm] behavior can be considerably influenced by magnitude and distribution of the Figure 5: Crack propagatioii rate tla/dN vs./0. This is dclnonstrated in for overloads with h = 2 and 3 115.Kop. The crack pro- pagation rate daldN. -400 MPa (225bar). bpCGllllGllb LIOJ. 4K-relations are completely changed Particularly. which was deter- mined by analyzing striations on cracked .. the crack propagation crack length a. If a crack propagates into a macro residual stress field. the stress . Crack velocity is in- fluenced mainly by work hardening and other microstructural changes as well as by rcsidual stresses in the mechanically treated surface laycrs.161 Fig.. 0 . i\Keffcan be estimated and used to predict thc fatigue crack growth. This portion is influenced by the loading conditions itself and the mar crack tip residual stress distribution. U surfaces increases with increasing rolling pressure and is considerably diminished u r l i r%LCU c'" . 5 for h = 2 and 3. : " 0. surface Kinax -. it is very i n - 0 1 2 3 portant to know that crack propagation crack length a [mm] through residual stress fields caii be described quantitatively by introducing an Figure 6: Fatigue crack propagation rates da/dN in anncaled and with different rolling pressures deep rolled effective intensity range = steel AlSI 304 (stress amditude o. 4a are developed. crack arrest can be produced [17]. . Using 4Keffthe crack propagation behavior in macro rcsidual stress fields can be quantitatively described if crack propagation data of macro residual stress free materials are ava~lableand the residual stress distribution is known .2 0 d ~ (75 bar). -300 MPa (300 bar)) 1181 intensity at the loading at which the crack opens.. The influence of different overload cycles on the crack propagation rate is shown in Fig. is known. The validity of this idea could be proved with the crack propagation behavior in the heat-affected zone of welded specimen of SAE 1019 steel specimens In comparison w ~ t hthe one In unwelded spcclmens 1191 In the welded specimens.. If the influence of the residual stress contribution on KO. = 320 MPa. For both overload ratios a de- layed retardation of crack propagation - occurs which is more pronounced for h = 3 than for h 2 due to the effect of over- load induced compressive residual stresses. It is important to note that a mode- I crack can only grow during that portion of loading cycle where the crack is open.. -350 MPA (150 inaxirnum loading and KO. Thus. crack length aoi residual stresses. For practical purposes.

However. With increasing stress \\:: . hence. generated surface residual stresses of 242 and -234 MPa.5 results Figure 7: Alternating hcnding S-N c ~ ~ r v cof s ~lotclictl in a significant increase of bending spwimens of noniialized plain carbon steel Ck 45 aftcr fatigue strength. 5 mm-' at specimens with kt = 2. q = 5 even though the range of residual stresses covered comes to more than 1000 MPa regarding specimens with kt = 4. Again. 7 [20-231. different 6 O ----- 10" 10" ' 1O6 ' lo' . down cut milling and up-cut ~iiii~ing [20-23] note that specimens with I<( = 4. surface residual stress 120.= 1. but to different hardness of the specimen and.--.261 correction of the data points given in Fig.. The corresponding S-N curves are almost identical.5. tudes at N. 11- 15 mm-' have a somewhat higher strcngth than specimens with kt = 2. The alternating bending fatigue strengths of milled smooth and notched specimens with different geometries are plotted in Fig. It is also interesting to annealing.4. 5 Influence of Residual Stresses on the Lifetime Behavior S-N curves for alternating bending of normalized Ck 45 steel (SAE 1045) are shown in Fig. the same value q = 2 ~ n m .. respectively. All data are nominal stress amplitudes and are valid for a failure probability o f 5 0 96. 42 2.7 and 2. 5' 300 . the increase of q h o m 2 to number of cycles to failure N.values kt = 1. q = 2 mm-'. After steel Ck 45 vs. a fa. for . the bending fatigue strength decreases. Careful inspection of the hard- - o . .= lo7.g 200 + 5 a 2 5$ 100 4:' = 0 MPa 7 - up cut milling concentration factor and decreasing stress gradient.8 .'but . The notched specimens had a stress concentration factor kt = 2.5.4. with regard lo the residual k. On the other hand. The annealing results in a reduction of bending fatigue life and bending fatigue strength [20-231. The bending fatigue strength was evaluated at an ultimatc number of cycles N. = 10". Down- cut milling and up-cut milling. . and the bending fa- *Own cut milling tigue strengths are nominal stress ampli- ' a or" -234 MPa .5. q = 2 stress state. The influence of the stress - -z LI) o" = 242 MPa concentration factor is clearly visible . q 15 mm-l. A third batch of specimens was annealed 2 h at 700 OC after down cut milling." [MPa] stress state. The stress gradient at the notch root related to the maximum stress (normalized stress gradient 11) was 5 mm-'.5. there is no significant in- * \ fluence on the bending fatigue strength. 8 as a function of the surface residual stresses [20-261.ilure -i probability o f 5 0 %. all- data -are given .- u notched ness of the specimens tested shows that a positive slope of the lines in Fig 8 is not related to the changing (macro) residual surface residual stress o. respectively. dirferenccs in Figure 8: Alternating bending fatigue strength of milled the micro residual stress state produced smooth and notched specimens of normalized plain carbon by different machining procedures.7. from a comparison of the specimens with m .

ci.. number of cycles to failure N. In Fig. S-N curves of notched specimens. lob. The relative k-. a) b) Figure 10: Alternating bending S-Ncurves of spccimens made from quenchcd and tempered (600°C/2h) Ck 45 steel. a) Smooth specimens after grinding and after additional shot pcening. increased by one older of maginhldc or more. in the range of finite fatigue life.231 .gth by a l r +~k1~e11i116 ~ -'-. The re- Ck15 steel in the as heat treated state and after an sults shown in Fig. LOa.ease of the bending fatigue s:rei. which were millcd.- 0" is inore prono~mced compared to smooth specimens. but a rather small influence on finite fatigue life. There is a distinct increase of the bending fatigue strcngth by shot peening. ~f the res~dual stresses change from com- pressive ones to tensile ones [23] S-N curves for rotatmg bending 3 220 loadlng of smooth specimens made from normalized Ck 15 steel (SAE 1015) In the m as heat treated state and after an add~tronal deep lolling ale shown in Fig 9 [27] lo4 I o5 10" Now. 10.= lo7. T 320 to thc same hardness. L. even though they have lower compressive residual slresscs (-150 MPa) at the surface than thc lattcr ones (-221 Ml'a). the influence of thc different manufacturing proccs- -- ses is alrrlosi ilegligyole. by deep rolling finlte fatigue l ~ f eis number of cycles to failure N. b) Notched specimens after milling. 'Thc S-N curves of smooth specimens in the ground statc and after an additional shot peening are compared in Fig. In Fig. shot peened ground number of cycles to failure N. It is interesting to note that milled specimens have a higher bending fatigue strcngth than ground ones. Again. ground and shot peened after grinding are compared. Again all data are valid for a failurc probability of 50 % and N. 8 and 9 arc charac- additional deep roiling for rotating bending loading 1271 teristic for a low strength state of steels. S-N curves which were de- termined in alternating bending on smooth and notched specimens of quenched and tempered (600 "C12 h) Ck 45 stecl (SAE 1045) as a typical representative of medium strength state of steels are shown [20-231. grinding and grinding with additional shot peening 120. and the rotatmg bendmg tat~gue Figure 9: S-N curves of spccimens rnadc from tiorinalizcd strength is increased significantly. ~t turns out that the bendlng fatigue strength is hardly changed or shghtly dlminlshed at most.

12 (after 128.4 0. 4: v = 53 mis. Additionally. 2: shot velocity v = 23 mls. 6: v 53 t d s . - c = 100 %. c = 100 %. c = 600 %. In Fig. The arrows mark the shift in bcnding fatigue strengths and surface residual stresses produced by shot peening.1 0.2 0. d 0. 12. coverage . d = 0.3 mni. From the comparison of both figures it becomes clear that the surface residual stress is not a suitable parameter for the assessment of the influence of the various treatments on the fatigue behavior. the residual stress influence of tensile residual stresses on the bending fatigue strength is much more pronounced than the influence of compressive residual stresses. S-N curves for alternating bending of smooth specimens (q = 1 mm-') of blank- hardened 16 MnCr 5 steel (AISI 51 15) detennined in the unpeened and various shot peened states including one with electrolytically removed surface layer are shown [28-301. 100 pm surface layer electrolytically removed) (after [28-301) . surface surface. 13. - * :400 c . data points of ground specimens with negligible or tensile residual stresses are included [21- 231.- C I o4 10" I o6 10' number of cycles to failure N. The corresponding depth distributions of residual stresses are given in Fig.4 and 5) with an subsequently electro-polished surface (I : as corresponding to Fig. d = 0. 11. 5: v = 81 mls.5 distance from surface [mm] Figure 12: Alternating bending S-N curves of smooth Figure 13: Depth distribution of the residual stress in specimens made from blank-hardened 16 MnCr 5 steel specimens made from blank-hardened 16 MnCr 5 steel in the as blank-hardened and in additional with in the as blank-hardcned (I) and in additional with different conditions shot peened states including one diffcrent conditions shot peened state (3.6 nun. 0 0. the alternating bending fatigue strengths evaluated from Fig. d = 0. all -750 -500 -250 0 250 500 750 data points lie on a common line with the maximum residual stress 0.301) blank-hardened. 3: v 53 mds. In the case of notched specimens. Regarding smooth specimens.3 0.'" [MPal dope -0. 10 are plotted as a function of the surface residual stresses. In Fig. mean diameter of the shot d = 0.6 mm.154 except for ground specimens Figure 11: Alternating bending fatigue strength of with compressive residual stresses at the quenched and tcmpered (60O0C/2h) Ck 45 steel vs. c = 100 %.6 mrn. c = - 100 %.6 mm.

shot peening produces a much stronger increase of the bending fatigue strength. the bcnd~ng Cat~gue strength data already plotted In Flg 14 dre comple~nented by datd evaluated from d~fferentlyglound speclmens [20-231 The arrows m a ~ kthe s h ~ f t111 bend~ngfatlgue stlcllgths and surface residual stresses produced by shot pecnlng Slmmldr to the d ~ s c u s s ~ oofn Flg 12 and 13. therc is dlso a very pronounced Increase of finitc fatigue Ilfe. 14b. ~t becomes obvlous that the magmtude of surface - o shot peened A milled . a) Sn~ootil specimens after grinding and after additional shot peening. The S-N curves of smooth speclmens of q~lenchedCk 45 steel as a typ~calrepresentatwe of a high strength state of steels in the ground stdtc and after a d d ~ t ~ o nshot a l peenlng arc com- pared ~n Fig 14a [20-231 Similar to quenched dnd tempered speclmens (see Flg lo). w h ~ c hcomes up to one and a half order of magnlttide at h ~ g hstress amphtudes .7 q = 2 residual ?tress is not a sultable palameter tor thc assessment of the ~nfluenccof shot peenmg mduced res~dual stresscs on the -1000 -500 0 500 1000 fat~gucstrength surface residual stress 0.'" [MPaj One obvlous way to account for the influence of (macro-) residual stlesscs on Figure 15: Alternating bending fatigue strength of smooth fatigue behavior is to treat them as and nolchcd specimens made from quenched Ck 45 steel with different surface conditions vs. shot peening produces d s~gnificantIncrease of the bendmg fatlguc strength Contrarily to the re- sults of the medmm strength steel. I 1 k. number of cycles to failure N. b) Notched specimens aftcr grinding. the S-7-4 curve of milled specimen is included. a) b) Figure 14: Altel-nating bending S-N curves of specimens made lrom quenched Ck 45 steel.= 1. Finite fatigue life and bending fatigue strength of these specmens are lower compared to shot peened oms. Compared to smooth spccimens. Again. therc is aiso a remarkable increase of finite fatigue i i k Acidiiiuiially.7 - shot peened \ -1 ' "aa YUU r ground 1 1 number of cycles to failure N. milling and gi-inding with additional shot peening with shot of the indicated hardness 120-231 The S-N c u ~ v e sof notched speclinens o r the same steel state after grlndmg and aftel ad&- tional shot peening with shot of diffcrent hardness are shown in Fig. even though they conta~nvery hlgh sul- race compressrve lesrd~lalstlesses of -1200 ivli'a In Fig 15. however. surface rcsidual stress Ioca1 ''lean stresses' In doing has to realize that there are several important .

In thc range of tensile residual stresses.3 I]. = 1910 MPa of smooth specimens was taken from [23]. residual stress (schcmaticaliy) (after 113. 3 11) differenccs between (loading-) mean stresses and rcsidual stresses /2]. In Fig. The ultimate tensile strength R. c 'Then. and the line AB gives the influence of the residual stress on the f a t i g ~ ~strength. which is a function of the cyclic yield strength 151. From these relationships. this is always again the surface. If the amount of the minimum stress or the maximum stress in smooth spccimens does not exceed the critical stress amplitude n. The arrows connecting some data points illustrate the residual stress relaxation which occurs during bending fatigue loading. However. The cyclic yield stresses of smooth and notched specimens are also unknown. and the fatigue strength remains constant at the value given by thcse points. However. 17b as open square (smooth specimens) and open circle withomt arrow (notched . if the amount of the minimurn stress or the maximum stress cxceeds the critical stress amplitude. 17b. 16 schcmatically shows a High-diagram for sniooth and notched spccimens made fro~iia medium strength steel ( 1 3. the Goodmati-relationship holds betwecn points C and D. all combinations of rcsidual stress and stress amplitude inside thc shaded area do neithcr result in residual stress relaxation nor in fatigue failurc. Fig. the data points give the correlation between the residual stress and the nominal stress amplitude at the surface. fatigue strength R. However. 17a. Now. In Fig. it is expected that the residual stress sensitivity of notched specimens is less than that of smooth specimens.. of notched specimens is unknown. As examples Fig 17 show Haigh-diagrams for smooth and notched spccimens made from a high strength steel... it is assumed that the rcsidual stresses relax to the value given by the points A and U. The Goodmau-approximation is used to account for the influence of residual stresses on thc fatigue strength. The corresponding data points are given in Fig. but the value 2000 MPa is reasonable for this high strength material statc and the stress concentration factor 1. and residual stress relaxation occurs ontside the bright shaded area. In the case of notchcd specimens.'" Figure 16: Haigh-diagram: Bending fatigue strength Rr of smooth and notched specimens made from medium strength steel vs.. the ultimate tensile strength of notched specimcns is larger than that of smooth ones in such a material statc because of the triaxial stress statc in the interior of the notched speciniens. t residual stress 0. The ultimate tensile strength R.... the data points give the correlation between the maximum residual stress and the nominal stress amplitude at the locus of the maximum residual stress. the resid~ialstresses do not relax. the cyclic yield strength and the notch fatigue strength (both In tenns of nominal stress amplitudes) are less than the respective values of smooth specimens. respectively.7 [32.33]...... ~isingresults from [20-231 a reasonable borderline for residual stress relaxation can be assumed which indicate the loading at which no residual stress relaxation takes place.

35]. if crack initiation and crack propagation or crack arrest arc treated separately.35] . [34. the residual stress sensitivity is determined approximately by m(z) = ~ : ( z ) /R.35]. maximum residual stress These lindings can be understood. These areas are transferled to F1g 17a. This will be possible with ine conccpt of the locally cffeciive i'aiigue strength which has its origin in /34. the residual stress sensitivity in is smaller than the mean stress sensitivity M.. b) vs. if the relaxed residual strcss distribution is used." [MPa] max~mumres~dualstress (7. However.respect~vely. if residual stress relaxation occurs. confirinmg t h ~ se s t ~ m a t ~ oF:xt~apolahon n of t h ~ rhne to zero lcs~dual?tress y~eldsthe values 1785 MPa (smooth specm~ens)nrid 1660 MPa (notched ~pecnnens). Assuming.m(z) .' [MPa] a) h) Figure 17: Haigh-diagrams: l3ending Fatigue st[-engtll Kr of smooth and notched specimens ma& from qucnched Ck 45 with different surface cond~tions. [36]). one gets the shaded areas in which the residual stresses are stable. (z) = R: ( z ). Especially in the case of relatively hard materials. The depth distributions of the tensile strength R. e. However. too The two open cncles connected w ~ t han arrow ~llustratethe change of the amount of the rurfacc rcs~dualstless (Fig 17a) and of the rnlnlmum stress (Fig 17b) durmg the cycl~cloading of notched specmens In mlled specimens. For that purpose. specimens). where the residual stress sensitivity m(z) approaches the mean stress sensitivity M of the Goodman relationship if the residual stresses are stable.(z) 1351..w h ~ c hale h ~ g h ethan ~ the coriespond~ngy~eldstrength? [23] A milled surface res~dualstress o.(z) and of ~ : ( z ) can be estimated fiom appropriate correlations with measwed depth distributions of the hardness (see e. that residual stress relaxation starts at a limiting amount of the minimum or maximum strcss irrespective of the fractions of the mean stress and the strcss amplitude.g. the rcsidual stress sensitivity m again approaches the mean stress sensitivity M. Then. there 1s also some resldual stress lelaxatmn as lnd~catedby the t ~ ~ a n g l econnected s wlth an arrow Obviously. The calculation of the locally effective fatigue strength RAz) as a f~~nction of the distance z from the surface is done by the relationship R.o" (z) . it is necessary to have a good knowledge of the depth distrib~~tions of the fatigue strength in the residual stress free condition I<: (z) as well as of the macro residual stress o'yz) and the residual stress sensitivity in(z). this conccpt yields to a good estimation of the corresponding properties.. if the initial residual stress distribution is used [31. the amounts of the m ~ n ~ m ustresses ~n are reduced to a value correspondlng to the borderline.g.a) vs.g. surface rcsidunl stt-ess. This concept enables quantitative predictions of the effect of thc depth dlstl~but~ons ol ~csldualstlcsses on the locus ol clack mtlatlon as wcll as on the tatguc st~ength I he basic assunipt~onof the conccpt IS that a crack can only be initiated at or below the surface if the local loading stress exceeds the local fatigue strength. hardened steels. This way by the conipariso~lof the dcpth distribution of local fatigue strength with the depth distribution of the loading both the locus of crack initiation as well as the specimens or component fatigue strength could he estimated (see e.

crack initiation may occur below the surface because the gradient of loading strcsses is small. < *K. 17a) falls significantly above the corresponding Goodman-line... (x) = kt .. However.rj{x) approaches the threshold value betwecn 85 and 100 pn below thc surface.Ao (x) .r of the unpeened and shot peened specimens [40] . such sharp notches are not relevant for components [37...7 (Fig. the fatigue limit corresponds to the boundary between propagating or non-propagating cracks which initiate at the notch root... 240 MPa and cr. For shot peened specimens AK. It is well-known.. Mti.ss: Men.. J n T .38]..K. 17..sfalso depends on x (the depth bclow the surface) because of the carbon gradient.&-. Therefore. Concerning the shape of the surface cracks which extend along the notch root.. = 1. the fatigue strength falls below thc values expected by the FIaigh-diagrams. Hence.i.. this means that cracks initiate at the notch root. is thc range of thc nominal stress. 18 together with the depth distribution of AKth... Then. Both situations are illustrated by the Haigh-diagrams in Fig.5 ~ ~ a ( m ) For ' / ~the . where the driving force for crack propagation falls below its threshold value because of the steep drop of the loading stress. = 365 MPa . .l. it is assumctl that K...Y (2) for R -= 0. Contrarily. Since compressive residual stresscs are present in the specimcns investigated. (the stress intensity factor when thc crack opens) equals zero. resulting in AK. Y = K . the maximum stress is decreased and the ininirnum stress becomes less than zero. in smooth specimens with large compressive residual stresses at and below the surface. but are arrested below the surfacc.df (1) 111 a rough approximation. cracks once initiated at oxidized grain boundaries will continue propagation ~intilfailure and thc fatigue limit is determined by the cyclic loading necessary for crack initiation. Determination of AKtl. AKefi(x) exceeds AKtl. a geometry factor Y = 1.. that in notched specimens or components which are loaded in the range of the fatigue strength. K. In the case of shot-peened smooth specimcns. On thc other hand. carburized surface material state a reasonable threshold value of about 4. the combination of surfacc loading stress and surface residual stress occurring at thc notch root of specilnens with I .5 ~ ~ a ( m was ) " ~assumed [39]. leading to Herf (x) = (kt . because crack initiation occurs bclow the surfacc. The interaction estimated depth distributions of the residual stresses with the depth - distribution of the loading due to a nominal loading stress amplitude on.erswith CT-specimens machined out of the core region yield values betwecn 6. the question arises whether or not the crack can propagate towards the surface where its propagation is hindered by the residual stress ficld. It is interesting to note that at depths greater than 150 .&) in a depth of only 15 pm. Acr .n(~). the interaction of loading stresses and residual stresses may produce strong gradients of the driving force for crack propagation making crack arrest possible even in notches with low stress concentration factor.. cracks may initiate in thc root of sharp notches and may arrest in a certain depth.... Ao.. where no beneficial effect of the compressive residual strcsses is effective..results in the depth distributions of AKer(x) shown in Fig.which corresponds to the nominal Fatigue strengths R.... In most cases... in the presence of high residual stresses.Regarding unpeened specimens. A crack is arrested..0 and 6. Hence.12 is assumcd. and cracks may propagate or not. when the driving force for its propagation AKer (the range of the effective stress intensity factor) falls below the threshold valuc AK. As already mentioned. (x) (3 As an example notched specimens of case hardencd 16 MnCr 5 steel regarded [39]. ..1 and specimens without rcsidual stresscs.n + o (x) ..x .

in the low cycle fatigue range relaxation becomes more complete with increasing amplitude and the influence of the macro residual stress vanishes. However.. Contrarily. . pm.. crack initiation increases. there will be no or only little influence of macro residual strcsscs on the Catigue stlmgtll Ri and on the lirctime in the rangc of infinitc lifc. Meft(x) becomes relatively large as a consequence ol the high loadmg amphtude T h ~ s means that the significant Increase of finite fatigue l ~ f eby shot peening IS entirely based on small crack propagat~onrates at low distances from surface ?or. 'Tensile residual stresses are always detrimental to Rf. Then. Stress relaxation in the range of Rf only occurs in notched specimens bearing very high compressive residual stresses. vely high magnitudes of the miniinurn stress occur which leads to some residual stress relaxation.. in the rangc of high tensile residual stresses and cyclic loadings which lead to infinite life or to technically relevant lifetimes the occurring maximum stresses are much lower and no residual stress relaxation is observed even in the range of low cycle fatigue.. In a medium strength steel there is a significant influence of thc macro residual stress on Rf since only a sinall part of crrs relaxes during cyclic loading in thc range of the fatigue limit. bccausc residual stresscs rclax more or less completely at the latest if thc cyclic loading approaches the fatigue strength. the resulting Rr is also high and during corresponding cyclic loading. .Res~dualstress deolh below swiace imml Figure 18: Depth distribution o C the residual stresses (a) and local effective stress intensity factors at different distances froin surface (b) 6 Summary Regarding residual stresses and fatigue behavior the following conclusions can be drawn: * In a low strength steel. A change of the micro residual stress state by work hardening may significantly increasc Rs since the resistance against cyclic plastic deformation and hencc. In high strength steels there is a pronounced influence of residual stresses on Rf as well as on the lifctime in the range of infinite life because residual stresses are relative stable during cyclic loading.

in: Ermuduugsverl~altei~netallischerWerkstoffe. I-lh. J.. 327-336. Kloos. O. 1977. Kuhn. T. 1987. B.. Mater.. R. Eng A 2114.. Thesis.K. 1331 Wellinger. Inoue. ICRS 5... Lohe. M. Struct. Vohringcr. Forschungsberichte dcs lnstituts f i r Wel-kstoffkunde . V. JBgg. ICSP 4. ICRS I. Ebenau. Dietmann. p. A. H. 807-81 1.. A 264. Helms. 50. B. in: Structural and Residual Stress Analysis by Nondestructive Metbods : Evaluation. 1294-1301. R. Lohe. Kopp.. Sci. Obernrsel. (eds.-13. in: K.).. in: lZcsidual Stresses in Science and Tcchnology. Macherauch.. Ahner-. Handbook of Residnal Stress and Deformation. K. 237-283. L. 1991. E. 13. Macheraoch. Weinheim. ICSP 3. 167-171.J. lida (ed. Lang. Festigkeitsberechnu~ig. 1401 Kmg. 669. 1998. Eifler. Oberursel.). 63 1-638. Berichte aus der Werksiofftccbnilc.. 207-210. ii..K. p. Ui~iversitatG M Kassel. p. 2002. Amsterdam. E. 1976. in: Blom.-Ing. (eds.. K. Bakker. 378-389. Dr. Dr. Proc. Scholtes. [36] Winderlich. u. Verlag Universitatsbibliothek I<asseI. p.. 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