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UK

EUROCODES

Damascus University – Spring 2015
Instructor: Dr. Nachwan Khair

Lecture 2

‫‪UK‬‬
‫‪EUROCODES‬‬

‫جامعة دمشق – كلية الهندسة المدنية‬
‫الفصل الثاني من العام الدراسي ‪2014/2015‬‬
‫الدكتور المهندس نشوان الخاير‬
‫‪Lecture 2‬‬

Tension members
•A tension member
transmits a direct axial
pull between two points
in a structural frame
Lecture 2

tension members occur as: • tension chords and internal ties in trusses. • hangers supporting floor beams. In building frames. Lecture 2 . • tension bracing members.

Examples of these members Lecture 2 .

Lecture 2 .

tees. channels. joists. Lecture 2 . The main sections used for tension members are: • open sections such as angles. universal beams and columns.

Lecture 2 . square and rectangular hollow sections. The main sections used for tension members are: • closed sections. Circular.

The main sections used for tension members are: • compound and built-up sections. Double angles and double channels are common compound sections used in trusses. Built-up sections are used in bridge trusses. Lecture 2 .

but its efficiency may be seriously affected by the following factors: • The end connections. bolt holes reduce the member section. in which case it is liable to buckle because a tension member is more slender than a compression member. The moment is due to eccentricity in the end connections or to lateral load on the member. For example. • Many tension members must also resist moment as well as axial load. Lecture 2 . Theoretically. • The member may be subject to reversal of load. the tension member is the most efficient structural element.

End connections Comments on the various types are: • Bolt or threaded bar. The strength is determined by the tensile area at the threads. Lecture 2 .

The outstanding leg is not fully effective. Lecture 2 Lecture 2 . End connections Comments on the various types are: • Single angle connected through one leg. and if bolts are used the connected leg is also weakened by the bolt hole.

Design of tension members The resistance of tension members is covered in clause 6.Ed (axial design effect).3. whichever is the lesser. design tensile resistance Nt. In Eurocode 3. Rd is limited either by yielding of the gross cross-section (to prevent excessive deformation of the member) or ultimate failure of the net cross-section (at holes for fasteners). The design tensile force is denoted by Nt. similarly to BS 5950: Part 1. Lecture 2 .2.

Design of tension members The Eurocode 3 design expression for yielding of the gross cross-section (plastic resistance) is therefore given as Lecture 2 .

Lecture 2 .2.2.2). the design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section should be less than the design ultimate resistance of the net cross-section. Design of tension members And for the ultimate resistance of the net cross- section (defined in clause 6. For ductility (capacity design). the Eurocode 3 design expression is The design tensile resistance is taken as the smaller of the above two results.

Lap splice in tension member with a staggered bolt arrangement Lecture 2 . 200 mm wide and 25 mm thick. is to be used as a tie. Erection conditions require that the bar be constructed from two lengths connected together with a lap splice using six M20 bolts. assuming grade S275 steel. Calculate the tensile strength of the bar. as shown in Figure. Example: tension resistance A flat bar.

fu.3. For a nominal material thickness (t = 25 mm) of less than or equal to 40 mm the nominal values of yield strength.2.2 for the calculation of cross-section properties. Note that reference should be made to the UK National Annex for the nominal material strength.Example: tension resistance Cross-section resistance in tension is covered in clause 6. and ultimate tensile strength.1 to be 275 and 430 N/mm2. are found from Table 3. Lecture 2 .2. respectively. with reference to clause 6. fy.

reference should be made to the National Annex). Gross area of cross-section A = 25 × 200 = 5000 mm2 Lecture 2 .25 (though for buildings to be constructed in the UK.00 and γM2 = 1.Example: tension resistance The numerical values of the required partial factors recommended by EN 1993-1-1 are γM0 = 1.

. the net area of the cross-section Anet = 5000 – 594 = 4406 mm2 Lecture 2 . the total area to be deducted is taken as the larger of: 1. = 25 × (2 × 22 – 902/4 × 100) = 594 mm2 (> 550 mm2) Therefore. the deduction for non-staggered holes (A–A) = 22 × 25 = 550 mm2 2.Example: tension resistance In determining the net area. Anet .

Nt.25 = 1364 kN The tensile resistance. is taken as the smaller of Npl. Rd = 0. Rd. BS 5950: Part 1 gives a tensile resistance of 1325 kN.Example: tension resistance The design plastic resistance of the gross cross- section Npl. Rd = 1364 kN Note that for the same arrangement. Rd (1364 kN). Rd = 5000 × 275/1.9 × 4406 × 430 /1. Nt.00 = 1375 kN The design ultimate resistance of the net cross- section Nu. Lecture 2 . Rd (1375 kN) and Nu.

or unequal angle welded along its larger leg. Lecture 2 . the effective area = gross area.13 of EN 1993-1-8 states that for an equal angle. Angles with welded end connections Clause 4.

Angles with welded end connections The gross cross-sectional area of an equivalent equal-leg angle of leg size equal to that of the smaller for an unequal-leg angle connected by its smaller leg. Lecture 2 .

Angles with welded end connections Lecture 2 .

Angles Connected by a single row of bolts Refer to EN 1993-1-8. Lecture 2 .

12) For 3 or (3. Angles Connected by a single row of bolts For 1 bolt: (3.11) For 2 bolts: (3.13) more bolts: Lecture 2 .

Angles Connected by a single row of bolts Values of reduction factors β2 and β3 can be found in Table 3.8: Lecture 2 .

Lecture 2 .

Choose a section 3. Get the gross area A and the net area Anet Lecture 2 .Tension Member Design Steps Summary 1. Find fy and fu from the product standards 4. Determine the design axial load NEd 2.

Rd (6. Substitute the values into the equations to work out Npl.7) Lecture 2 .6) (6.Tension Member Design Steps Summary 5.Rd and Nu.

For 1 bolt: (3.13) more bolts: Lecture 2 .Tension Member Design Steps Summary For angles connected by a single row of bolts.11) For 2 bolts: (3. use the required equation to work out Nu.12) For 3 or (3.Rd from EN 1993-1-8 which will depend on the number of bolts.

Rd 7.Rd and Nu.Tension Member Design Steps Summary 6. Rd Lecture 2 . The design tensile Resistance is the lesser of the values of Npl. Carry out the tension check N t . Ed  1.5) N t .0 (6.

‬‬ ‫‪Lecture 2‬‬ . ‫مالحظة هامة‪:‬‬ ‫يمنع الكتابة على الكود منعا ً‬ ‫باتا ً وإضافة أي جداول غير‬ ‫المصرح بها من قبل أساتذة‬ ‫المقرر‪.

Thank you Dr. Nachwan Khair Lecture 2 .