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# Control System

EMT478 Instrumentation
Chapter Outline
• Control system concepts
• Basic control action
• Basic controller configuration
• Electronic controller
• Digital controllers
Control system concepts
System – An interconnection of elements and devices for a
desired purpose.
The interaction is defined in terms of variables.
•system inputs input ouput
Process
•system outputs
•environmental disturbances
Control System – An interconnection of components
forming a system configuration that will provide a desired
response.
Process – The device, plant, or system under
control. The input and output relationship represents
the cause-and-effect relationship of the process.
Importance of control
• Safety: Prevent injury to plant personnel, protect
the environment by preventing emission and
minimizing waste and prevent damage to the
process equipment.
• Maintain product quality (composition, purity,
color, etc.) on a continuous basis..
• Maintain plant production rate at minimum cost.
• Reduce demand on human labor.
Classification of process control
system
1) Open-Loop Control Systems
Utilizes a controller or control
actuator to obtain the desired
response.

2) Closed-Loop Control
Systems
Utilizes feedback to compare
the actual output to the desired
output response.

## 3) Multivariable Control System

Used for complex control parameters
and wide range of applications
Basic controller configuration
• Receiving a signal corresponding to the measurement to be
controlled
• Comparing the value with the set point
• Determining the difference / error in the measurement value
• Providing a controlled output

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Basic controller
Eref

Em Controller Output

Error,e = Em – Eref

## e = error signal to be fed to controller

Em = measured value
Eref = set point
Error
• Error is most often expressed as an
percentage of full scale variable range. It
is given by the expression:

## Em  Emin Eref  Emin

Ep   100%
Emax  E min Emax  Emin

Em  Eref
 100%
Emax  Emin
Example 1
Find the percentage error in measurement if the
variable range is 4 – 20 mA and the measured
value is 13 mA with the set point of 10 mA

Solution:
Ep = Em – Eref x 100% = 13 – 10 x 100% = +?
Emax – Emin 20 - 4
Example 2
2. Find the percentage error in measurement if the variable
range is 4 – 20 mA and the measured value is 7 mA with
the set point of 10 mA

Solution
Ep = Em – Eref x 100% = 7 – 10 x 100% = -?
Emax – Emin 20 - 4
Example of control system
• Original system: the antenna with
electric motor drive systems.
• Control objective: to point the
antenna in a desired reference direction.
• Control inputs: drive motor voltages.
• Outputs: the elevation and azimuth of the
antenna.
• Disturbances: wind, rain etc
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Antenna Control System
Functional Block Diagram

## Error Wind force

Antenna System
volts torque Angular
Ref. + volts power position
input _ Diff. Power
amp amp Motor Antenna

volts
Angle
sensor
Feedback Path
On-off Controller
Synonyms:
“two-position” or “bang-bang” controllers.

## Controller output has two possible values.

Practical case (dead band)

δ = tolerance

## -system never reaches steady-state

- value of measured variable go beyond the differential gap
- presence of dead band = delay in corrective action of controller
On-off Controller
• Simple
• Cheap
• Used In residential heating and domestic
refrigerators
• Limited use in process control due to continuous
cycling of controlled variable  excessive wear
on control valve.
Electronic controllers (EC)
• Provides a very fast control process as
compared to hydraulic and pneumatic
controllers.
• The main components of EC is the very high
gain op-amp (Proportional, Integral and
Differential – PID controller)

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Compact and respond Susceptible to fire risks
faster
Low installation cost
High reliability
Accuracy = +-0.25% as
compared to +-0.5% for
pneumatic controllers

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PID CONTROLLER
• most widely used control strategy in industry
• Used for various control problem
• Contains 3 different elements (sometimes called
a three term controller):
PID
Proportional Control
• Proportional control is a pure gain adjustment acting on the error
signal to provide the driving input to the process. The P term in the
PID – controller is used to adjust the speed of the system.

Integral Control
• Integral control is implemented through the introduction of an
integrator. Integral control is used to provide the required accuracy
for the control system.

Derivative Control
• Derivative action is normally introduced to increase the damping in
the system. The derivative term also amplifies the existing noise
which can cause problems including instability.
PID Transfer Function
General transfer function of a PID-controller: the three terms can be
recognized as follows:

(1.1)

P I D
more conventional transfer function form:

(1.2)

## Kp is the proportional gain

Ti is the integral time constant
Td is the derivative time constant
This three different adjustments (Kp, Ti, Td) interacts with each
other can be very difficult and time consuming to tune these
three values in order to get the best performance according to the
design specifications of the system.
EXAMPLE

Design specification:
•Zero steady state error
•Settling time within 5 seconds
•Rise time within 2 seconds
•Only some overshoot permitted

The process:

## The feedback path:

The table below shows the calculated parameters of the
different controllers:

PID PI P - Control

Ti=0.9 Ti=1.5

Td=0.6

## Formulate the closed loop transfer function

of each controller.

RECALL:
transfer function form
SOLUTION:

Given: P-
PID PI Contr
ol
Kp=2 Kp=2.7 Kp=3
Ti=0.9 Ti=1.5
Td=0.6
1) Controller transfer function, Gc (s): P-
PID PI Cont
RECALL: rol
Kp=2 Kp=2.7 Kp=3
Ti=0.9 Ti=1.5
Td=0.6

PID:

PI:

P:
Therefore, open loop transfer functions, Gol(s) of:

## OPEN LOOP: Gc(s) x Gp(s)

PID Control

PI Control

P Control
Close loop transfer function,
Gcl(s)

Gol (s)

Gol Gol
Gcl  
1  Gol H s 1  Gol
Close loop transfer function,
Gcl(s):
PID Control
Gol 
X
Gol X
Gcl   Y Y X Y  X
1  Gol 1  X X Y X Y X Y
1
Y Y

10.8s 2  18s  20
Gcl ( s)
10.8s 2  18s  20  0.9s 4  5.4s 3  20.7 s 2  23.4s  20
10.8s 2  18s  20

0.9s 4  5.4s 3  31.5s 2  41.4s  40
PID step response

Proportional control -
By only employing proportional control, a steady state error occurs.

## Proportional and integral control -

The response becomes more oscillatory and needs longer to settle, the error
disappears.

## Proportional, integral and derivative control -

Now the design specifications are reached.
PID step response