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control

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EMT478 Instrumentation

Chapter Outline

• Control system concepts

• Basic control action

• Basic controller configuration

• Electronic controller

• Digital controllers

Control system concepts

System – An interconnection of elements and devices for a

desired purpose.

The interaction is defined in terms of variables.

•system inputs input ouput

Process

•system outputs

•environmental disturbances

Control System – An interconnection of components

forming a system configuration that will provide a desired

response.

Process – The device, plant, or system under

control. The input and output relationship represents

the cause-and-effect relationship of the process.

Importance of control

• Safety: Prevent injury to plant personnel, protect

the environment by preventing emission and

minimizing waste and prevent damage to the

process equipment.

• Maintain product quality (composition, purity,

color, etc.) on a continuous basis..

• Maintain plant production rate at minimum cost.

• Reduce demand on human labor.

Classification of process control

system

1) Open-Loop Control Systems

Utilizes a controller or control

actuator to obtain the desired

response.

2) Closed-Loop Control

Systems

Utilizes feedback to compare

the actual output to the desired

output response.

Used for complex control parameters

and wide range of applications

Basic controller configuration

• Receiving a signal corresponding to the measurement to be

controlled

• Comparing the value with the set point

• Determining the difference / error in the measurement value

• Providing a controlled output

6

Basic controller

Eref

Em Controller Output

Error,e = Em – Eref

Em = measured value

Eref = set point

Error

• Error is most often expressed as an

percentage of full scale variable range. It

is given by the expression:

Ep 100%

Emax E min Emax Emin

Em Eref

100%

Emax Emin

Example 1

Find the percentage error in measurement if the

variable range is 4 – 20 mA and the measured

value is 13 mA with the set point of 10 mA

Solution:

Ep = Em – Eref x 100% = 13 – 10 x 100% = +?

Emax – Emin 20 - 4

Example 2

2. Find the percentage error in measurement if the variable

range is 4 – 20 mA and the measured value is 7 mA with

the set point of 10 mA

Solution

Ep = Em – Eref x 100% = 7 – 10 x 100% = -?

Emax – Emin 20 - 4

Example of control system

• Original system: the antenna with

electric motor drive systems.

• Control objective: to point the

antenna in a desired reference direction.

• Control inputs: drive motor voltages.

• Outputs: the elevation and azimuth of the

antenna.

• Disturbances: wind, rain etc

11

Antenna Control System

Functional Block Diagram

Antenna System

volts torque Angular

Ref. + volts power position

input _ Diff. Power

amp amp Motor Antenna

volts

Angle

sensor

Feedback Path

On-off Controller

Synonyms:

“two-position” or “bang-bang” controllers.

Practical case (dead band)

δ = tolerance

- value of measured variable go beyond the differential gap

- presence of dead band = delay in corrective action of controller

On-off Controller

• Simple

• Cheap

• Used In residential heating and domestic

refrigerators

• Limited use in process control due to continuous

cycling of controlled variable excessive wear

on control valve.

Electronic controllers (EC)

• Provides a very fast control process as

compared to hydraulic and pneumatic

controllers.

• The main components of EC is the very high

gain op-amp (Proportional, Integral and

Differential – PID controller)

16

Advantage/Disadvantage of EC

Advantage Disadvantage

Compact and respond Susceptible to fire risks

faster

Low installation cost

High reliability

Accuracy = +-0.25% as

compared to +-0.5% for

pneumatic controllers

17

PID CONTROLLER

• most widely used control strategy in industry

• Used for various control problem

• Contains 3 different elements (sometimes called

a three term controller):

PID

Proportional Control

• Proportional control is a pure gain adjustment acting on the error

signal to provide the driving input to the process. The P term in the

PID – controller is used to adjust the speed of the system.

Integral Control

• Integral control is implemented through the introduction of an

integrator. Integral control is used to provide the required accuracy

for the control system.

Derivative Control

• Derivative action is normally introduced to increase the damping in

the system. The derivative term also amplifies the existing noise

which can cause problems including instability.

PID Transfer Function

General transfer function of a PID-controller: the three terms can be

recognized as follows:

(1.1)

P I D

more conventional transfer function form:

(1.2)

Ti is the integral time constant

Td is the derivative time constant

This three different adjustments (Kp, Ti, Td) interacts with each

other can be very difficult and time consuming to tune these

three values in order to get the best performance according to the

design specifications of the system.

EXAMPLE

Design specification:

•Zero steady state error

•Settling time within 5 seconds

•Rise time within 2 seconds

•Only some overshoot permitted

The process:

The table below shows the calculated parameters of the

different controllers:

PID PI P - Control

Ti=0.9 Ti=1.5

Td=0.6

of each controller.

RECALL:

transfer function form

SOLUTION:

Given: P-

PID PI Contr

ol

Kp=2 Kp=2.7 Kp=3

Ti=0.9 Ti=1.5

Td=0.6

1) Controller transfer function, Gc (s): P-

PID PI Cont

RECALL: rol

Kp=2 Kp=2.7 Kp=3

Ti=0.9 Ti=1.5

Td=0.6

PID:

PI:

P:

Therefore, open loop transfer functions, Gol(s) of:

PID Control

PI Control

P Control

Close loop transfer function,

Gcl(s)

Gol (s)

Gol Gol

Gcl

1 Gol H s 1 Gol

Close loop transfer function,

Gcl(s):

PID Control

Gol

X

Gol X

Gcl Y Y X Y X

1 Gol 1 X X Y X Y X Y

1

Y Y

10.8s 2 18s 20

Gcl ( s)

10.8s 2 18s 20 0.9s 4 5.4s 3 20.7 s 2 23.4s 20

10.8s 2 18s 20

0.9s 4 5.4s 3 31.5s 2 41.4s 40

PID step response

Proportional control -

By only employing proportional control, a steady state error occurs.

The response becomes more oscillatory and needs longer to settle, the error

disappears.

Now the design specifications are reached.

PID step response

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