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4. The pulp and paper industry companies comprises of used wood as raw material and
produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products. In integration process, the
extract of stream data of a heat recovery in pulp and paper industry has been represented in
Table 1.

Table 1: Pulp and paper industry of stream data

Stream Ts (C) Tt (C) Heat Capacity flowrate

No Type (MW.K-1)

1 Hot 400 80 1.2

2 Hot 70 20 2.0

3 Hot 300 90 1.5

4 Cold 40 320 0.2

5 Cold 50 100 2.4

By assuming Tmin = 10C

a) Design a problem table analysis (PTA) and grand composite curve (GCC) with data given.
Thus, in pulp and paper industry it is operated at power consumption of 11 MW. The alternative
cogeneration schemes of steam turbine and gas turbine have been used be compared

b) An exhaust saturated steam turbine is been used for process heating at 190C. At same
conditions, superheated steam is generated in boiler house of 45 bars with a temperature
of 325C. With the isentropic efficiency of 87%, a superheated steam is expanded in a
single-stage turbine. Determine the maximum of power of these possible exhaust steams.
c) Measure the power generation if a gas turbine has been applied in this industry with a
flowrate of air of 70 kg.s-1 (Given: Cp air = 1.00 kJ/kg.C). Moreover, the gas turbine has
an efficiency of 50% with an exhaust temperature of 450C. While, the ambient
temperature in this system was 20C.
d) Calculate the most cost effective between steam turbine and gas turbine. Given of
information: Cost of fuel from gas turbine is $6.5 GW -1, cost imported electricity is $17 GW -
, cost exported electricity is $11 GW -1, cost of fuel for steam generation is $4 GW -1, and
overall efficiency of steam turbine is 80%.

5. Cogeneration or combine heat and power concept has been embraced by many process plants
to improve energy efficiency.

a) Define the concept of cogeneration and explain the significance of having such approach
to improve the utility system.

b) State two common types of cogeneration heat engine.

A group of process engineers conducted a study on energy efficiency for a section of the preheat
train in hydroskimmer refinery to achieve minimum operating cost. The problem table cascade for
the process is shown in Table 1. Given that the ∆Tmin of 20C.
Table 1 The Problem Table Cascade

Interval Temperatures, T* (C) Enthalpy (kW)

525 789
515 1080
435 850
415 384
350 550
205 567
185 90
135 0
125 250
115 475
95 460
70 260

a) Construct the grand composite curve (GCC) on a graph paper.

b) Perform an appropriate placement of the utilities against the GCC to achieve minimum
utility cost using the available utilities in Table 2. Clearly indicate the utilities and the duties
on the GCC. Justify your selection by providing the total utility cost.

Table 2 Available utilities for the process

Stream Temperatures, (C) Cost (currency unit/kW)

VHP steam 550 10.5
HP steam 350 6.0
MP Steam 250 3.5
Cooling water 20-25 0.2

c) Comment on the possibility of generating saturated LP steam at 120C (shifted

temperature) from the process. Demonstrate this possibility on the GCC (as drawn in part
(i) with indicate red line) and quantify the amount of steam generated in kg/hr. (Given C p
and heat vaporization of steam at 120C are 5.6012 kJ/kg.C and 2202.1 kJ/kg,