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Com,wer.s & Swticrurrs Vol. 58. No. 2. pp. 337-350.

Copyright :I 1995 Elsewer Science Ltd
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N. C. Cluleyt and R. Shepherd1

TDepartment of Civil Engineering, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona,
3801 West Temple Ave, Pomona, CA 91768, U.S.A.
iDepartment of Civil Engineering, University of California, Irvine. CA 92717. U.S.A.

(Receiced 30 Jww 1994)

Abstract-The time-dependent effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of prestressing
tendons on stresses and deflections in segmentally erected, cable-stayed, concrete bridges are investigated.
Specifically, these effects should be considered when determining the girder cross-sectional stress
redistribution necessitated by shear lag. A special purpose, three-dimensional finite element code is
developed to analyze these effects. Time-independent effects considered are large displacements in girders
and pylons, sag effects in cable stays and anchorage slip loss.

NOTATION (GJ” ultimate shrinkage strain

thermal dilatation
A cross-sectional area of post-tensioning elements, also :a sum of elastic, shrinkage, and thermal strain
the surface area of shell elements L* storage vector for past stress histories
AC beam cross-sectional area “” ultimate creep coefficient
A IM,. equivalent joint loads P weight per unit volume of cable
a, creep compliance coefficients 0 constant uniaxial stress
B strain displacement matrix for shell elements age of concrete at loading
C stress-strain relationship for shell elements
D joint displacement vector
E modulus of elasticity for cable-stays
E‘ effective modulus of elasticity for concrete at the
beginning of a time interval
AF loss of force in post-tensioned elements due to an-
The objective of the investigation described is to
chorage seating
28 dav strength of concrete determine the effects of creep and
prestr&s at the beginning of a time interval shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of prestressing
yield strength of steel tendons on stresses and deflections in segmentally
change of prestress over a time interval erected, cable-stayed, concrete bridges. The import-
moment of inertia for beams
ance of these time dependent effects, when determin-
end of the previous time interval
end of the current time interval ing the girder cross-sectional stress redistribution
creep compliance function necessitated by shear lag, is well established [I]. Time
time interval prior to i independent effects considered are large displace-
structure stiffness matrix
ments in girders and pylons, sag in cable stays and
element stiffness matrix
horizontal projected length of cable-stays anchorge slip loss. Such effects occur during both the
length of post-tensioning elements construction phase and the service life of the struc-
axial force in beams ture. It is possible that allowable stresses may be
moment in beams exceeded during either or both periods. Consequently
vector of equivalent joint loads
the designer needs to know, as a function of time, the
vector of combined joint loads applied to the maximum stresses and deflections due to construction
structure and service loads.
retardation times which govern the shape of the creep To accomplish such complex analyses a three-di-
mensional finite element code is developed to simu-
product of AC1 209 correction factors used in con-
crete shrinkage calculations late the nonlinear effects together with construction
axial strain in beams due to creep and service loads as a function of time. The theory
step function change in stress and methodology to develop and implement this type
total strain of analysis is presented in this paper along with the
creep strain
instantaneous elastic strain
results of a simplified sample analysis. The nonlinear
shrinkage strain effects considered are defined in the following
shrinkage strain in beams sections.

338 N. C. Cluley and R. Shepherd

Time dependent nonlinear effects MODELING OF CREEP, SHRINKAGE AND RELAXATION

(a) Creep strain, the time-dependent change in The total strain in a uniaxially loaded concrete
strain under sustained load. specimen can be found by the superposition of
(b) Shrinkage, the time-dependent change in strain elastic, creep, shrinkage and thermal strains as fol-
under constant temperature. This study focuses on lows:
drying shrinkage.
(c) Relaxation, the loss of prestress in elements c(f)=tE(f)+ff(f)+CS(f)+~7(t)r (1)
when subjected to constant strain.
(d) Aging-as concrete ages the modulus of elas- where t(t) is the total strain,+(t) is the instantaneous
ticity increases, quickly at first and more slowly as elastic strain, c,(t) is the creep strain, c,(t) is the
curing slows down. shrinkage strain, ET(t) is the thermal dilatation.
The principal of superposition is considered
valid if the following conditions are upheld
Time independent nonlinear effects
(a) Large displacements, due to the inherent (1) The stresses are less than about 45% of the
flexibility of cable-stayed bridges whereby the concrete strength.
stiffness characteristics may change significantly (2) Appreciable reductions in strain magnitude
due to changes in geometry. Such changes may due to unloading do not occur.
be accounted for using an incremental or iterative (3) No significant change in moisture content dis-
finite element solution procedure or a combination tribution during creep occurs.
thereof. (4) No large, sudden, stress increase long after the
(b) Sag effects, in the cable stays, due to their initial loading occurs.
weight. The tensile load resistance will vary with the In practice all of these conditions may be violated
amount of sag. to some extent, but experience has shown that
(c) Anchorage slip loss in post-tensioned mem- conformity with the first and third conditions,
bers due to the seating of wedges in the anchors which are the most important, is generally true
when the jacking force is transferred to the under good design and construction practices. The
anchorage. second and fourth conditions, which are the least
important, suffer more substantial violations but
experience has shown that strain predictions are still
BALANCED CANTILEVER METHOD Traditionally, practical prediction of creep strain
has been confined to the linear-elastic range (i.e.
For purposes of analysis during the construction
stresses less than or equal to 0.45f:) such that the
phase, only the balanced cantilever method of con-
principle of superposition applies as discussed above.
struction is considered. This construction method
Since cable-stayed bridges are designed with the
proceeds as follows. Consider a cable stayed bridge intent that their stresses remain in the linear elastic
which consists of two approach spans and a central
range, the principle of superposition will be utilized
span. First, the piers, towers and abutments are
in this investigation.
constructed. Next, the pier segments are sequentially
Creep strain is dependent on stress and may be
added to each side of each tower by traveling cranes
graphically depicted by creep isochrones which are
and temporarily secured at the tower to ensure lines connecting the value of strain under a sustained
stability during construction. After preliminary post-
stress during a given time interval. The plot of creep
tensioning of segments, cable stays are attached
isochrones in Fig. 1 shows that for stresses up to
and post-tensioned to prevent excessive deflection about 50% of the concrete strength, the creep is
and overstress when additional segments are added.
approximately proportional to stress.
During this process the cranes are repositioned at
the tower. Additional girder segments are then
added using the cranes and a second set of cables
are attached and post-tensioned. Upon completion , , - T(, = I 11,111

of adding and post-tensioning of segments and ‘.. ,:

: ,,-r<,=ldav
cables, the spans are closed at the abutments and
closure is achieved at the center with a cast-in-
place closure pour. All cables are then post-tensioned
to comply with design requirements for camber
and initial force and moment distribution. Such
cable adjustments are dependent upon deflections
and the attendant stress redistributions caused by the
nonlinear effects which are the subject of this investi-
gation. Fig. I. Creep isochrones.
Analysis of concrete cable-stayed bridges 339

JO, .‘,,I any stress history o(t), may be obtained regarding the
,,_/ ro =5 days
history as the sum of increments da(r,) applied at
;. r,=50dayr
increments of time, TV. Equation (2) may then be
written as

t(t) = J(t,> 7,,)W7,) +tO(t,). (4)

Equation (4) relates general histories of stress, (T

and strain, t. The integral in this equation, known as
the Stieltjes integral, has the advantage that it is
Fig. 2. Typical creep curves for loading ages TV applicable even for discontinuous stress histories. The
numerical implementation of the integral in eqn (4)
can be accomplished by using a step-by-step time
For constant uniaxial stress, 0, the strain may be integration [4] as follows:
written as

&(i+ ])=+I +J(t;+,,T,)]

where t, is the total uniaxial strain and r~ is a constant

uniaxial stress, J(t,, rO) is the compliance (creep) ’ d”O’)[J(t,+I.7,)--J(t,,
function which represents the strain at time t, due to
a unit constant stress which has been acting since time where At(i + 1) is the total strain increment for time
7,, Due to the proportionality of creep strain to stress interval i to (i + I), (i + 1) is the end of the current
the creep is fully represented by J(t,, TV), a plot of time interval, i is the end of the previous time interval,
which is shown in Fig. 2. It can be seen from this plot j represents time intervals prior to i.
that creep strains can be much larger than initial The first term on the right side of eqn (5) accounts
elastic strains, hence the importance for considering for the instantaneous plus creep strain in the time
the effect of creep strains on deflection and stress interval i to (i + 1). The summation term accounts for
redistribution. the creep increment of strain over the time interval i
Practical prediction of creep strain involves devel- to (i + I) due to all previous increments of stress. To
oping a function which accurately predicts the com- implement eqn (4) using a step-by-step numerical
pliance function J(t,, r,,). technique, it is required to store the entire stress
The American Concrete Institute [3] recommends history for all elements in the analysis and to retrieve
the following expression: all these stresses for each new time interval in which
the strain increment is to be calculated. This would
1 (t, - Top" require an enormous amount of peripheral storage
J",-"i)=J,(r,, '+ (3)
IO + (t, - 70)o.6 ",
I’ and significant retrieval times. Fortunately, the need
for storing and retrieving the complete history of
where rg is the age at loading in days, t, is the current stresses can be eliminated if the integral-type creep
age in days, V, is the ultimate creep coefficient which law [eqn (4)] can be converted to a rate-type creep law
is defined as the ratio of the assumed creep strain at (i.e. a creep law represented by a system of first-order
infinite time to the initial strain at loading. It is a differential equations). This can be done by approxi-
function of environmental humidity, loading age, mating the kernel, (/(t,, TV)), of eqn (4) by the
minimum thickness of structural member, slump, so-called degenerate kernel which takes the following
cement content. percent fine aggregate and air con- form [2, 51:
Since this investigation is concerned with the vari-
“’ a, (5o)[ I-e- (I(-r”j6], (6)
ations in stresses and deflections during both the ,=,
construction phase and the service life of cable-stayed
bridges and stresses and strains are continually where t, is the time in days when the creep strain is
changing during the bridge’s lifetime, due to both desired, to is the time of loading, r, are retardation
structure-modification and creep and shrinkage, the times which goveren the shape of the creep curve,
expressions presented above for creep, which are ai are the creep compliance coefficients.
based on constant stress, must be adapted to situ- The method of evaluating coefficients [6], a,(to), is
ations of varying stress. the same whether the creep strains are measured in a
Since cable-stayed bridges are designed such that laboratory or computed using some formula for their
their stresses are not to exceed the elastic range, estimation such as those of AC1 209 [3].
concrete may be treated as an aging, viscoelastic, Drying shrinkage is the major cause of shrinkage
material [3]. Using superposition, the strain, due to and is largely dependent on the initial moisture
340 N. C. Cluley and R. Shepherd

content, the level of environmental humidity, member variation. The first corresponds to a situation in
size and the age of the concrete at which drying which the stiffness of the structure decreases with
commences. increasing deformation. The girder and towers typify
Shrinkage strain is usually about one half of that this response. The other corresponds to a situation in
for creep strain and, hence, can contribute signifi- which the stiffness of the structure increases with
cantly to deflection and stress redistribution. increasing deformation. The cables typify this re-
Practical prediction of shrinkage strain in accord- sponse.
ance with AC1 209 can be accomplished using the Two procedures which are well suited for the above
following equations. situations are the incremental approach and the
For concrete which has been moist cured for seven iterative approach.
Incremental or stepwise approach. In this approach
%h ct) = & (Ch)“. the total load is applied in increments and the
structure is assumed to respond linearly within each
increment. The joint displacements calculated for an
For concrete which has been steam cured for one
increment are used to update the joint coordinates in
to three days:
preparation for analysis using the next load incre-
ment. At the beginning of the next load increment the
c,h ct) = & (Gh)“’ structure stiffness matrix is reformulated using the
updated set of joint coordinates. The general form of
where (c,,), is the ultimate shrinkage strain, which the stiffness equation which must be solved for each
may be taken as 780y,,(10)-h where ysh is the product load increment, i, is
of correction factors as prescribed by AC1 209.
Stress relaxation in prestressed elements is the loss Wl,(AD),= {AW, (10)
of stress under conditions of constant strain. The
magnitude of this loss is dependent on both the where [IQ is the structure stiffness matrix correspond-
duration of the sustained prestressing force and the ing to the deflected shape of the structure at the
ratio of the initial prestress to the yield strength of the beginning of the ith load increment. {AD), are the
steel. joint displacement increments which occur due to the
The following expression [7] is commonly used to application of a load increment. (A W}, is the magni-
calculate relaxation and is adoped for this investi- tude of each joint load increment.
gation: The final displacements and member forces are
found by adding the incremental displacements and
A/R~=~~,[logI2lOlogfi]~-o.55] (9) member forces that correspond to all load incre-

where A& is the change in the prestress over the time Iterative approach. In this approach the total load
interval t, to t,. f,, is the prestress at the beginning of is applied to the structure in a single increment. The
the time interval t,. t, is the beginning time interval initial analysis uses the tangent stiffness matrix of the
in hours. t2 is the end of the time interval in hours. undeformed structure to calculate the joint displace-
&, is the yield strength of steel in psi. For low ments. The joint coordinates are updated and the
relaxation tendons use 45 in place of 10 in the stifiness matrix is reformulated before member end
denominator of eqn (9). For&,/& < 0.55 relaxation loads are calculated. Since this final stiffness, used to
is negligibly small. determine the member end loads. is different from the
initial stiffness used to determine the joint displace-
ments, equilibrium will not be satisfied and unbal-
anced loads will exist at the joints. These unbalanced
joint loads are applied to the structure and the
The time independent nonlinear effects considered resulting displacements are used to update the joint
in this investigation are as follows. cordinates, thereby acting as a correction factor to
minimize diversion from the true solution. The stiff-
Large displacements ness matrix is reformulated once again and the
Large displacements of the towers and girders of member end loads due to the unbalanced loads are
cable-stayed bridges are due to their inherent flexi- calculated. Since the most recent stiffness matrix,
bility. The resulting changes in geometry serve to used to find the member end loads, is different from
alter the stiffness characteristics of the structure. To the stiffness matrix used to find the displacements due
account for this alteration of stiffness a geometric to the unbalanced loads, equilibrium will not be
nonlinear analysis must be performed. satisfied and unbalanced loads will exist at the joints.
There are basically two ways in which the stiffness The above procedure is repeated until the unbalanced
matrix of a nonlinear system may affect displacement loads at the end of any load cycle are less than some
Analysis of concrete cable-stayed bridges 341

previously accepted tolerance. This itertive procedure convenient approach for considering this nonlinearity
is known as the Newton-Raphson method. The final is to consider the length of the sagging cable to be
displacements and member end loads are found by equal to the length of its chord, Lc and to represent
summing those found in each iteration. the nonlinearity through the use of an equivalent
modulus of elasticity which accounts for sag and
Combined incrementul and iterative approach. In elastic strain. A widely used expression [lo] for this
this approach the loads are applied in an incremental equivalent modulus is as follows:
fashion and the Newton-Raphson method is used to
iterate to the true solution for each load increment E
before the succeeding load increment is applied. This Eeqv= (12)
procedure has been shown to be the most accu- I+----
rate [20,21], although computationally time consum-
ing, and is the method used in this investigation. where E is the effective modulus of elasticity, p is the
One of the most important large displacement weight per unit volume of cable. L is the horizontal
effects in cable-stayed bridges is the P-delta effect in projected length of the cable. u is the tensile stress in
the girder and towers. This is due to the coupling of the cable.
large lateral deflections with high compressive axial By using eqn (12) the cable can be modeled as a
forces. This coupling reduces both the axial and linear three-dimensional truss element in which L and
rotational stiffnesses of the members involved. cr are updated after each load increment is processed.
For the bridge towers an efficient approach is to
use the geometric stiffness matrix of each beam- Anchorage slip loss. Anchorage slip loss in post-
column element to modify its elastic stiffness matrix. tensioned elements is due to the seating of anchor
The resulting tangent stiffness matrix [8] of eqn (11) wedges when the jacking force is transferred to the
becomes the element stiffness matrix used in the anchor. The magnitude of this movement usually
analysis. ranges between l/4 and 3/8 in. The magnitude of the
loss of tensile force in the element due to this slip can
VTIE = LGIE-t kilE3 (11) be calculated as follows [7]:

where [kTIE is the element tangent stiffness matrix, AF=+EA. (13)

[k& is the element elastic stiffness matrix, [kFIE is the
element geometric stiffness matrix.
The bridge girder is modeled using a highly efficient where AF is the loss of force in the post-tensioned
triangular plate/shell element. It has been shown [9] element due to anchorage seating. A, is the magni-
that for a geometric nonlinear analysis by the com- tude of anchorage slip at transfer of load from
bined incremental-iterative approach, the tangent jacking equipment to anchor wedges. E is the modu-
stiffness matrix for such plate/shell elements can be lus of elasticity of the post-tensioned elements. I is the
represented acceptably by the conventional elastic length of the post-tensioned element. A is the cross-
stiffness matrix. This is especially true for prestressed sectional area of the post-tensioning element.
box girders which are quite stiff. For these types of
girder cross sections the contribution of local plate
P-delta effects to the P-delta action of the full span of
the girder are negligible. In the interest of compu- The general theoretical foundation of this investi-
tational efficiency, the conventional elastic stiffness gation is implemented in a special purpose finite
matrix is used in this investigation with the girder element computer program, CSTAY [I 11. It is
P-delta effects being accounted for through the com- capable of performing a three-dimensional, geometri-
bined incremental iterative analysis approach. cally nonlinear, time domain analysis of a prestressed,
post-tensioned, box girder cable-stayed bridge. The
Sag eJk~/s in cable-.staJx. The sag in cable-stays is structure may be modeled with a combination of
caused by their deadweight. beam, cable, prestressing and shell elements. The
The relative axial movement of the ends of the towers may be modeled using a combination of beam
cable-stay is the result of the following distinct ac- and prestressing elements. The box girder is modeled
tions: using a combination of prestressing and shell el-
( I) The elastic strain in the material which is linear ements and is supported by cables connected to the
and governed by the modulus of elasticity, E. tower. Each element has constant cross sectional
(2) The change in sag of the cable which is a properties over its length or surface. Nonprismatic
function of its geometry and tensile load. This change portions of the structure may be modeled using a
varies in a nonlinear fashion with the tensile load. series of short prismatic elements with varying cross
Since the variation of sag with the axial force in the sectional properties.
cable is nonlinear, the axial stiffness of the cable will The analysis is divided into two phases, the con-
also vary in a nonlinear fashion. An effective and struction phase and the service life phase. During the
342 N. C. Cluley and R. Shepherd

construction phase, successive segments of the box temperature gradient and automatic generation of
girder together with post-tensioning members and deadweight loads. In addition, the numerical im-
cables, are added to the existing bridge structure plementation of creep strain in beams is accomplished
using the balanced cantilever construction with the application of the following general
method [12], as outlined at the beginning of this equations [2] during each time step:
paper. Each of these successive additions to the
bridge takes place during a specified time step. The
Ait(t,- t, ,)= f c,*(t,_,)[l -_em”,-‘r 1’.“1]
analysis during the service life of the bridge takes
/= I
place over a series of time steps. Time steps for both (154
phases of the analysis are fully controlled by the
analyst. c:(t,)=f,T(t, ,)e (‘,-‘, “‘.,+n,(t,~,)6a(t,~,)
At the beginning of each time step of the construc-
tion phase, any element, concentrated joint force or (15b)
moment, prestressing loads, temperature changes and
beam element concentrated and/or distributed loads cf(to)=O, (15c)
may be added to the structure. Dead loads may also
be automatically generated and combined with the where t, is the time in days at the end of the current
above loads at the beginning of each time step. A full, time interval. 1, , is the time in days at the end of the
geometric nonlinear, finite element analysis is per- previous time interval. At (t, - t,~ ,) is the creep strain
formed, appropriate to these loads and the resulting increment over the current time interval. t:(t,_ ,) is
joint deflections are used to update the bridge geome- the “hidden” material value which stores the past
try. At this point analysis for creep, shrinkage and stress history. r, is the “retardation time” which
aging commences over the specified time step. Creep serves to adjust the creep curve so as to fit the AC1
and shrinkage are implemented using initial strain committee 209 data or experimental values if avail-
loads in a similar manner to that used for temperture able. u,(t,_ ,) is the pseudo-elastic modulus which is
loads. Aging is accounted for by modifying the analogous to Young’s modulus. h(t, ,) is a step
modulus of elasticity as a function of time. This function change in stress at time t, ,
procedure is also a full geometric, nonlinear analysis The specialization of eqn (15a-c) for beam axial
followed by an update of the bridge geometry based loads takes the following form [14]:
on the resulting joint deflections. When the bridge
construction phase is completed analysis for the
service life phase commences. During this phase all of
the above loads together with creep. shrinkage and (16a)
aging may be implemented in the same fashion as
during the construction phase. At the end of each
time step during both the construction and service life
phases the analyst has the option of adjusting the
bridge’s camber by modifying cable and/or post-ten-
sioning member axial loads. If this option is exercised
a full geometric, nonlinear analysis is again per-
6: (to) = 0, (16~)
formed followed by an update of the bridges geome-
try. This modification of bridge camber can be
where AC,, is the axial strain due to creep. AN is
performed as many times as the analyst wishes at the
the increment in axial load at the beginning of the
end of each time step so as to fine tune the bridge
current time interval. A, is the beam cross sectional
profile before proceeding to analysis during the next
time step.
Equivalent joint loads due to the axial creep strain
The beam element used is the classical
in eqn (l6a) are found as follows [l4]:
Bernoulli-Euler, three-dimensional, linear elastic for-
mulation [13] with the stiffness matrix modified by the
geometric stiffness matrix to account for the P-delta AN’(c) = Acdt, - t, ,)A,E,(~, ,), (17)
effect as shown in the following equation:
where AN’ is the equivalent axial joint force. E, is the
WTIR= PEIH+ [kl, (14) effective concrete modulus of elasticity at the begin-
ning of the current time interval.
where [kTIS is the tangent stiffness matrix in local The specialization of eqn (I 5a-c) for beam moment
coordinates, [k& is the elastic stiffness in local loads takes the following form [14]:
coordinates and [liolR is the geometric stiffness in
local coordinates.
This beam element may be subjected to concen-
h#~~,(t,-t[,_,)= 1 +z,(t, ,)[I -ee-“r ‘r I)‘,]
trated or uniformly distributed member loads, a (18a)
Analysis of concrete cable-stayed bridges 343

where [kT] is the element tangent stiffness matrix in

element coordinates. [kE] is the element elastic stiff-
ness matrix in element coordinates. [kG] is the element
+ai(L,) geometric stiffness matrix in element coordinates.
This element may be loaded with axial preload and
4: (&I)= 0, (184 automatic generation of deadweight load. In addition
a uniform temperature increase and anchorage slip
where A4M is the beam curvature due to creep. AM loss may be accounted for.
is the increment of moment at the beginning of the The shell element is developed by superimposing a
current time interval. I, is the moment of inertia of the constant strain triangle [ 161 with the DKT [17-l 91
beam. plate bending element. As such the membrane and
Equivalent joint loads due to the axial creep strain bending stiffnesses are not coupled. The rotational
in eqn (18a) are found as follows [14]: stiffness about the normal to the surface of the
element at each node is estimated as being equal to
1O-4 times the smallest bending stiffness at each
respective node. This results in six degrees of freedom
at each node and eliminates the possibility of singu-
where AM’ is the equivalent beam joint moment.
larities in the global stiffness matrix. Such singular-
The equivalent axial joint loads for shrinkage in
ities could occur in the event that all elements
beams can be found in the same manner as those for
meeting at a node are coplanar, with the degree of
temperature gradients. For adaptation to incremental
freedom normal to their surfaces being parallel to
time analysis, this requires a modification of eqns (7)
one of the global coordinate axes. The element is
and (8) as follows.
explicitly integrated (i.e. numerical integration is not
For concrete which has been moist cured for seven
used) which gives exact results and, hence, is compu-
tationally efficient. Due to the element’s relative
simplicity and proven accuracy, it serves as an excel-
A+,(t,) = & - -!!-%- (E,,,)~. (20) lent element for use in microcomputer finite element
, 35+t,_, analyses. Loading options available for the element
are dead weight and uniform temperature change. In
For concrete which has been steam cured for one
addition, creep and shrinkage may be accounted for
to three days:
as follows.
The numerical implementation of creep strain in
(21) shell elements is accomplished by adapting equation
55+t, 55+t,_, (15ax) to the three-dimensional case of shell mem-
brane stresses as follows:
The resulting equivalent axial joint loads are:

A ML,.,= EA (k,,(fr)) (22)

A ML7.c= - EA(Ac,,(t,)). (23)

Equivalent joint loads at all remaining degrees of

freedom are equal to zero.
The cable and prestressing elements used are based
on the three-dimensional tangent stiffness formu-
lation for the truss element. The response, under load, +Q,(& - 1)[Cl Va(t, - , )I3x , Wb)
of a cable-stayed bridge is such that cable stiffness is
affected by its sag, whereas prestressing elements do [~:(kJ3 x I = 101,XI1 (25~)
not experience sag. The basic tangent stifiness formu-
lation, used for all three elements, is thus modified for where t, is the time in days at the end of the current
cables to account for the effect of sag on cable time interval. t,_ , is the time in days at the end of the
stiffness by using the equivalent modulus of elas- previous time interval. [Ac(t, - t,_ ,)I .is the matrix of
ticity [lo] in the stiffness matrix. creep strain increments over the current time interval.
The tangent stiffness matrix is based on the elastic [c:(t,- ,)I is the matrix of “hidden” material values
stiffness matrix for a three-dimensional truss el- which stores the past stress history. r, is the “retar-
ement [13] as modified by its geometric stiffness dation” time which serves to adjust the creep curve
matrix [ 151to account for the effect of large displace- SO as to fit the AC1 committee 209 creep data of
ments as shown in eqn (24): experimental creep data if available. a,(t,_ ,) is the
pseudo-elastic modulus which is analogous to
[kTl = IkEI + [&Ir (24) Young’s modulus. [C] is the matrix shown below

CAS 58,2--H
344 N. C. Cluley and R. Shepherd

commonly used in the strain-stress relationship of It does not require the use of numerical integration
two-dimensional elements. to formulate its stiffness matrix which results in
significant savings of CPU time. Also, since a fine
mesh is required, the additional modifications of the
(26) element stiffness matrix which would normally be
required to account for the P-delta effect, are not
necessary. In essence, the P-delta effect is adequately
6a(r,_ ,) is the vector of normal stress increments in accounted for by the combination of an incremental,
the element local coordinate x and J’ directions and iterative, geometrically nonlinear analysis and a fine
the shear stress in the x-y plane. mesh.
Equivalent nodal loads [16] due to membrane creep The general modeling approach is to use beam
strains in eqn (25a) are found from the following elements to represent the towers, cable elements to
equation: represent the cable-stays, shell elements to represent
the box girders and prestressing elements as needed

x I =
[Bl~,,[El,.,[At(t,-t,. ,)l~.,dK
in both the towers and the girder. The entire
structure, including all geometry,
rties, loads and necessary control
material prope-
fully modeled before analysis is initiated. Each joint,

where [p,,] is the vector of equivalent joint loads. [B] joint restraint, element and load is associated with
is the strain displacement matrix. [E] is the matrix a time at which it becomes active and remains active
relating stress and strain. for the rest of the analysis. These “activation times”
For the constant strain triangle the terms in [B] are correspond to times when new segments are added
all constant. For concrete, values for the variable v, to the structure during the construction phase and
which occurs in [E] vary between 0.15 and 0.25 and when load changes are added during the service
may be taken as 0.18 with negligible error. Also, the life phase. Once analysis commences the program
values for [AC] are constant. Consequently it is not automatically begins constructing the bridge as a
necessary to integrate to find the equivalent joint balanced cantilever. Girder segments, along with
loads and eqn (27) may be written as shown in eqn the necessary cables and prestressing elements,
(28): are included or excluded dependidng on their desig-
nated time of activation. The analyst has the
l&16xI = [Bl~,z[El,.,[A~(~,--t,~,)l).,At, (28) option of interactively adjusting the cable-stays
and post-tensioning elements at the end of each
where A is the surface area of the element. t is the time so as to maintain a proper bridge profile
element thickness. (i.e. camber). The time-dependent effects of creep
The equivalent nodal loads for shrinkage in shell and shrinkage in the towers and girders and relax-
elements can be found in the same manner as those ation in the prestressing elements may be optionally
for temperature changes. included.


A finite element computer code, CSTAY [l I], is

The following sample analysis illustrates the
developed in ANSI FORTRAN 77 which will run on
effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete and relax-
an IBM PC or 100% compatible with an 80386 or
ation of prestressing members on cross sectional
higher CPU. CSTAY consists of a main program and
stresses and deflections in a simplified representation
54 subprograms and is capable of performing three-
of a segmentally erected, cable-stayed, concrete box
dimensional, time-dependent, geometrically nonlin-
girder bridge. In particular, the effects examined
ear analyses of prestressed, box girder, cable-stayed
are girder deflections, forces in prestressing mem-
bers and in-plane stresses in shell elements of the
The finite element model may be constructed using
a combination of beam, cable, prestressing and shell
elements. The beam, cable and prestressing elements
are geometrically nonlinear in that large displacement GENERAL BRIDGE INFORMATION
effects are accounted for. The shell is a flat facet
triangular element which is derived by combining a The model is supported by six cables on each side
plate bending and membrane element. The membrane which are attached to a centrally located tower as
portion of the element is based on a constant strain shown in Fig. 3a<
formulation which requires a finer element mesh The model is symmetric about both the longitudinal
than would be required if a higher order element centerline (plane X-J in Fig. 3c) and the transverse
were used. This formulation was chosen in the centerline (plane y-2 in Fig. 3a). This symmetry
interest of efficient microcomputer implementation. makes it possible to significantly reduce the size of the
Analysis of concrete cable-stayed bridges 345

finite element modei by using a quarter model superstructure and the second load case consists of
bounded by the x-y longitudinal plane and the y-z dead load due to the superstructure plus creep and
transverse plane. Symmetry boundary conditions are shrinkage of the concrete and relaxation of the
used at the node points located in these planes. Since prestressing elements. Once the service life phase has
the deflection of the tower has a negligible effect on commenced, dead load due to asphalt and guard rails
the stress distribution due to shear lag in the girder and the sustained portion of the live load are added
cross section, the model was further simplified by to the above loads. Analysis continues from com-
eliminating the tower and attaching all cables at the mencement of the service life phase at 91 days and
top of the tower to a fixed point. Cables, prestressing accounts for all loads and nonlinear and time depen-
and girder elements are modeled using the cable, dent effects for a total construction and service life
prestressing and shell elements previously described. phase of 1825 days (i.e. five years) at time periods of
Loads on each model consist of deadweight due to 105, 119, 133, 500 and 1825 days. These time steps
cable-stays, prestressing elements, the box girder su- were chosen so as to accurately step through the creep
perstructure, asphalt paving and guard rails. The live and shrinkage curves for concrete as shown in Fig. 4.
loads used are traffic lane loads. It is assumed that The model is configured for two traffic lanes and
one third of this live load is applied as a sustained has the dimensions shown in Fig. 3a and b.
load over the life of the structure for purposes of Post-tensioning elements are used at four points,
creep analysis of the concrete and relaxation of the A, B, C and D in Fig. 3b, where the webs intersect
prestressing elements. As mentioned above, this is a the flanges. In addition, prestressing elements are
simplified analysis. The intent is not to analyze a full used in the top and bottom flanges, in both the
scale cable-stayed bridge, rather, it is to examine the transverse and longitudinal directions, so as to
effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete and relax- provide a uniform compressive stress of 6895 kPd.
ation of prestressing elements on the girder cross-sec- This is about 55% of the maximum allowable stress
tional compressive stresses and deflections. of 12411 kPa which gives enough margin to prevent
The following load cases are analyzed and com- overstressing and, hence, violation of the 1241 ! kPa
pared so as to assess the effects of creep. shrinkage, allowable stress and also enough margin to prevent
and relaxation on the above mentioned stresses and reduction of the compressive stress to the point where
deflections: the concrete would experience tensile loads and,
hence, cracking.
(I) DL + SLL: Review of the output data for all time sequences
for each load case reveals that the most extensive
effects of creep, shrinkage and relaxation exist upon
(2) DL+SLL+C+S+R;
completion of the last time step. The following sub-
sections evaluate and compare the results from this
where DL is dead load, SLL is the sustained live load last time step for longitudinal and transverse girder
(l/3 of total live load), C is creepage, S is shrinkage stresses, the forces in the longitudinal and transverse
and R is the relaxation of prestressing and post-ten- prestressing elements and the vertical deflections
sioning elements. along the length of the bridge. Please note that in the
The analysis progresses through the construction following discussions with respect to stress distri-
phase, which is based on the balanced cantilever bution, comparisons between the analyses which do
method, and the service life phase. The construction not consider the effects of creep. shrinkage and
phase consists of progressively adding five equal relaxation with those that do are made with respect
length box girder segments to each side of the tower to their variation from the design prestress value of
alternately so as to maintain balance. The first seg- 6895 kPa.
ment is placed 35 days after fabrication, which is one
week after its 28 day curing-period has been reached. In -plane girder stresses in the longitudinal direction
The addition of each segment is completed 14 days In-plane longitudinal girder stresses are evaluated
after the preceding segment has been positioned and at locations where their values are both maximum
all necessary cables and post-tensioning elements and minimum, so as to provide an envelope of the
have been adjusted. It is assumed that the fabrication stress levels in the bridge based on both load cases.
of each segment is completed 14 days after the The largest in-plane normal stresses were found to be
fabrication of the segment preceding it and is com- in the top flange of the cross section at a distance of
pletely in place seven days after its 28 day curing- 23.47 m from the tower. The variation of stresses
period has been reached. The time sequence for from the tip of the flange overhang (i.e. at origin of
constructing the entire bridge is then 35, 49, 63, 77 the “bridge half width” axis) to the centerline of the
and 91 days. The bridge is fully analyzed after the bridge at 4.57 m is shown in Fig. 5. The intersection
addition of each segment. The analysis accounts for of the web and flange is located at 1.2 m in this figure.
all nonlinear and time-dependent effects of the load The maximum compressive longitudinal stresses
case being considered. During the construction phase are due to a combination of design prestress and
the first load case consists of dead load due to the positive bending of the girder which induces ad-
346 N. C. Cluley and R. Shepherd

17.37 m

5@6.1 m=30.5m 5@6.1m=30.5m

(cl Y

(b) /’
.. cables

460 mm

Fig. 3. (a) Overall bridge dimensions; (b) girder cross sectional dimensions; (c) bridge cross section.

ditional compressive load in the flange. These maxi- The minimum in-plane normal stresses were found
mum stresses, as shown in Fig. 5, indicate that for to be in the top flange of the cross section at a
both load cases shear lag alters the stress distribution distance of 13.1 m from the tower. The variations of
over the girder cross section. Shear lag is due to the stresses from the tip of the flange overhang to the
variation of cross sectional stiffness between the tip of centerline of the bridge are shown for both load cases
the overhanging flange and the bridge centerline. For in Fig. 6.
the load case which does not account for creep and The minimum compressive longitudinal stresses are
shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of prestressing due to a combination of design prestress and negative
elements (Fig. S), the stress at the tip of the flange bending of the girder, which tends to induce a tensile
overhang is reduced by 20%, at the intersection of the load in the top flange. These minimum stresses, as
web and flange the stress is increased by 9% and at shown in Fig. 6, indicate that for both load cases
the centerline of the bridge the stress is reduced by
6%. For the load case which includes creep, shrink-
age and relaxation (Fig. 5), there is a significant
overall stress reduction of 45% at the tip of the
overhanging flange, 7% at the intersection of the web
and flange and 21% at the centerline of the bridge.
Comparison of these two load cases shows that creep, -

shrinkage and relaxation has an overall positive effect
by reducing maximum longitudinal girder stresses
relative to the load case which does not consider
r >
creep, shrinkage and relaxation by an additional
80 160 240 320 400 480 560 ."' 1825
25%, 16% and 17% at the tip of the overhanging
flange, intersection of web and flange and bridge
centerline, respectively. Fig. 4. Standard creep and shrinkage vs time curves.
Analysis of concrete cable-stayed bridges 34-l


- - - Without creep,
shrinkage & reiasation
- - With creep, shrinkage &

04 I
0 1219 2337 3454 4572

Bridge Half Width (mm)

Fig. 5. Maximum longitudinal compressive stresses.

shear lag alters the stress distribution over the girder bridge. Comparison of these two load cases shows
cross section. that creep, shrinkage and relaxation has a very small
For the load case which does not account for creep overall effect by increasing maximum longitudinal
and shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of prestress- girder stresses relative to the load case which does not
ing elements (Fig. 6), the stress at the tip of the flange consider creep, shrinkage and relaxation by an ad-
overhang is reduced by 20%, at the intersection of the ditional 5, 2 and 4% at the tip of the overhanging
web and flange the stress is reduced by 40% and at flange, intersection of web and flange, and bridge
the centerline of the bridge the stress is reduced by centerline, respectively.
25%. For the load case which includes creep, shrink-
In-plane girder stresses in the transverse direction
age and relaxation (Fig. 6), the overall stress re-
duction is not much different from that for the case Transverse stress variations tended to be very
without creep, shrinkage and relaxation. Figure 6 similar over the length of each segment supported by
shows a stress reduction of 15% at the tip of the cable-stays. The stresses in segment no. 1, beginning
overhanging flange, 38% at the intersection of the at the tower and extending out 6.1 m, were typical of
web and flange and 21% at the centerline of the the stresses in the remaining segments and are shown

- -_-
77” -. - - ” .- _y. =

- - - Without creep,

- - With creep,

0 1219 2337 3154 4572

Bridge Half Width (mm)

Fig. 6. Minimum longitudinal compressive stresses.
348 N. C. Cluley and R. Shepherd


c *.
c a
. -* _ Y.‘\
. .“,“.._---**
_ . - -
c - -
0 \‘y
r, \
. . .._----
-Design prestress

I I - Without creep,
shrinkage &
- - With creep,
shrinkage &

0 I
0 1016 2032 30-18 -106-I 5080 6096

Length of Segment No. 1 along bridge centerline (mm)

Fig. 7. Maximum transverse compressive stresses.

in Fig, 7. These stresses are in-plane stresses in the cross section where the cable is attached and then
top flange along the horizontal centerline of the drops to a decrease of 8% at the end of the segment.
bridge. Comparison of these two load cases shows that creep,
As was done for the longitudinal stresses, the shrinkage and relaxation has an overall positive effect
transverse stresses for both load cases are evaluated by reducing maximum transverse girder stresses rela-
using the design prestress of 6895 kPa as a basis. For tive to the load case which does not consider creep,
the load case which does not account for creep, shrinkage and relaxation by 19, 11 and 12% at the
shrinkage and relaxation (Fig. 7) the stress varies by beginning, near the cable attachment and at the end
an increase of 2% at the beginning of the segment to of the segment, respectively.
a maximum increase of 30% near the cross section
Vertical dq4ections along the longitudinal centerline
where the cable is attached and then drops to an
increase of 4% at the end of the segment. The 30% The vertical deflections along the longitudinal cen-
jump in stress is due to the fact that the cable load terline for both load cases are shown in Fig. 8. Note
is inducing a large transverse bending stress at this that cable-stays are attached at 0,6.1, 12.2 and 18.3 m
point. For the load case which accounts for creep, along the outer edge of the top flange.
shrinkage and relaxation (Fig. 7), the stress varies A comparison of the vertical deflections between
from a decrease of 17% at the beginning of the the load case which does not account for creep,
segment to a maximum increase of 19% near the shrinkage and relaxation and the load case which

0 4064 8128 17192 16256 20370 24384 28448


i _,:

-51 I

Bridge Length Along Centerline (mm)

Fig. 8. Vertical deflections along centerline.

Analysis of concrete cable-stayed bridges 349

does (Fig. 8) indicates that deflections for creep, being increased due to creep, shrinkage and relax-
shrinkage and relaxation considered are significantly ation.
larger with a maximum increase of about 66% at the It should be noted here that the viability of the
bridge tower. analysis presented in this paper is dependent on a
multitude of assumptions made both by the authors
Forces in the longitudinal pretensioning elements of this paper and the developers of the various
theoretical principles incorporated in the computer
Forces in the longitudinal pretensioning elements
program, CSTAY. One area of improvement in the
were applied so as to induce a uniform compressive
program would be the use of true catenary elements
stress in the concrete cross section of 6895 kPa.
to represent the cables instead of truss elements with
Comparisons between the two load cases shows that
an equivalent modulus of elasticity. Another area of
for the load case which does not account for creep,
improvement lies in the development of more accu-
shrinkage and relaxation the loss of pretension varies
rate creep models.
between 4 and I I % of the design pretension. For the
load case which accounts for creep, shrinkage and
relaxation the loss of pretension varies between 15
and 29% of the design pretension. The largest percent
loss in pretension for both load cases was at the tip 1. V. Kristek and Z. P. Bazant, Shear lag effect and
of the overhanging flange and the centerline of the uncertainty in concrete box girder creep. J. struct. Eng
ASCE 113, 557-574 (1987).
bridge, whereas the smallest percent loss was in the
2. Z. P. Bazant (Ed.), Maihemai~caf Modefling of Creep
vicinity of the web to flange intersection. The pattern and Shrinkage of Concrere. Wiley, New York (1988).
of reduction in pretension is consistent with the 3. Prediction of creep, shrinkage and temperature effects
maximum longitudinal compressive stress distri- in concrete struciures. Amirican Concrete Institute,
AC1 Committee 209, Reoort no. AC1 209R-82
bution which is smallest at the tip of the flange and
centerline of the bridge cross section and largest at 4. M. K. Tadros, A. Ghali and W. H. Dilger, Time
the intersection of the web to flange intersection. deoendent analvses of comoosite frames. J. sfrucl. Di&
AiCE 103(ST4), 871-884 il977).
5. Z. P. Bazant and S. T. Wu, Dirichlet series creep
Forces in transverse pretensioning elements
function for aging concrete. J. Engng Mech. Div. ASCE
Forces in the transverse pretensioning elements 99(EM2), 367 -387 (1973).
were calculated so as to induce a uniform compressive 6. M. A. Ketchum and A. C. Scordelis, Redistribution of
stresses in segmentally erected prestressed concrete
stress in the concrete cross section of 6895 kPa. bridges. Report no. UCB/SESM-86/07, University of
Comparisons between the two load cases show that California, Berkeley, CA (1986).
for the load case which does not account for creep, 7. E. G. Nawy, Presstressed Concrete, a Fundamenial
shrinkage and relaxation the loss of pretension varies Aooroach. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1989).
8. C‘.‘Oran. Tangent stiffness L space frames. J. ‘struck.
between 4 and I I % of the design pretension. For the
Die. AXE 99(ST6), 987~1001 (1973).
load case which accounts for creep, shrinkage and 9. D. W. Murray and E. L. Wilson, Finite-element large
relaxation the loss of pretension varies between I7 deflection analysis of plates. J. Engng Mech. Die. ASCE
and 38% of the design pretension. The largest percent 95(EMI), 143-165 (1969).
loss in pretension for both load cases was at the cross IO. M. S. Troitskv. Cable-Staved Bridpes. 2nd Edn. Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New ?ork (1988).
section where the cable-stays are attached whereas II. N. C. Cluley, The effect of time-dependent phenomena
the smallest percent losses were at locations between on force redistribution in segmentally erected, cable-
cable-stays. The cable-stays induce a large transverse stayed, concrete bridges. Ph.D. dissertation (unpub-
compressive force in the top flange of the girder lished). University of California, Irvine, CA (1993).
12. F. Harris, Modem Canstrucrion Equipment and
which increases elastic and creep deflections in this
Method.?. Longman Scientific, and Technical, Harlow
region resulting in a larger loss of pretension than at (Copublished in the U.S. with Wiley, New York
locations of the cross section away from the cable- (1989).
stays. 13. W. Weaver and J. M. Gere, Marrh Analysis af Framed
Examination of the above mentioned figures shows Strucrures, 2nd Edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New
York (1980).
that creep, shrinkage and relaxation tend to shift
14. Young-Jin Kang and A. C. Scordelis, Nonlinear analy-
stresses back to the initial prestress levels which is sis of prestressed concrete frames. J. Struct. Dir. ASCE
desirable from a design perspective in that it gives a 106(ST2), 445462 (1980).
designer more control over the design process. It can 15. K. J. Bathe, Finife Elemenr Procedures in Engineering
Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1982).
also be concluded that flange thickness may be
16. W. Weaver and P. R. Johnston, Finite Elements for
reduced in regions where bending is such that ad- Structural Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
ditional compressive stress is induced in the flange (1984).
resulting in maximum stresses being reduced due to 17. J. L. Batoz, K. I. Bathe and L. W. Ho, A study of
creep, shrinkage and relaxation. By the same token. three-node triangular plate bending elements. In/. J.
mtmer. Me&. En&g I& 1771-1812<1980).
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18. K. J. Bathe and L. W. Ho, A simple and effective
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reduced in the flange, resulting in minimum stresses Struct. 13, 673-681 (1981).
350 N. C. Cluley and R. Shepherd

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triangular plate-bending element. Int. J. numer. Meth. Struct. 9, 223-236 (1978).
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