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EXPERIMENT 3

ENTHALPY

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.


2. To determine the quantity and direction of the heat transfer in the dilution of a salt.

METHOD
A: Heat of Neutralization of Acid-Base
1. 50.0 mL of 1.0 M HCl was measured using measuring cylinder and its initial
temperature was recorded.
2. 50.0 mLof 1.0 M NaOH standard solution and was poured into a dry Styrofoam
cup and its initial temperature was recorded. The molar concentration of the base
used was recorded exactly.
3. Quickly, acid was added to the base in the Styrofoam cup and covered properly to
prevent any lost of the heat. Carefully, the cup was swirl and the temperature was
recorded for every 10-20 seconds until the temperature constant.
4. A graph was plotted for ∆T (°C) vs t (s) and the maximum temperature was
determined for the neutralization reaction.
5. The experiment was repeated twice for more accurate data.
6. By using the same procedure, the experiment for reaction NaOH and HNO3 was
repeated.
7. The ∆Hn for the reaction was found and our result was compared with the ∆Hn of
neutralization reaction (NaOH + HCl).

B: Heat of Salt Solution


1. 5.0 g (± 0.001g) of NaCl salt was weighed, which is already prepared for us.
2. The mass of a dry Styrofoam cup was measured and recorded.
3. The cup was filled with 20 mL of distilled water and its initial temperature was
recorded.
4. The NaCl salt was added inti Styrofoam cup was closed tightly. The cup was
swirled and the temperature was measured for every 15 seconds. Data was
recorded.
5. The experiment was repeated twice to get more accurate data.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Data Processing
A: Table of Data to Plot Graph

Enthalpy (heat) of neutralization acid-base Enthalpy (heat) of the


saltsolution
HCl – NaOH HNO3 – NaOH
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2
B: Heat of Neutralization

Item HCl + NaOH HNO3 + NaOH


Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2
1. Acid volume (mL)
2. Acid temperature (°C)

3. NaOH volume (mL)

4. NaOH temperature (°C)

5. NaOH concentration (molL-1)

6. Maximum temperature from


graph (°C)

Section C: Calculation of the Heat of Neutralization

HCl + NaOH HNO3 + NaOH


Item Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2
1. Average initial temperature of acid and base(°C)
2. Temperature change, ∆T (°C)
3. Volume of final mixture (mL)
4. Mass of final mixture (g)
5. Specific heat of the mixture 4.18 Jg-1˚C 4.18 Jg-1˚C
6. Yielded heat (J)
7. Amount of OH- reacted (g)
8. Amount of H2O produced (g)
9. Yielded heat per mole H2O (∆Hn)
10. Average ∆Hn (kJmol-1 H2O)
Section D: Heat of Salt Solution (e.g: NaCl, Na2SO4, KOH, Na2S2O3)
Salt:
Item Trial 1 Trial 2

1. Mass of salt (g)

2. Mole of salt (mol)

3. mass of cup and water (g)

4. Mass of Styrofoam cup (g)

5. Mass of water (g)

6. Initial temperature of water


(°C)

7. Initial temperature of water


(°C) from graph
Section E: Calculation for Heat of Salt Solution

Item Trial 1 Trial 2

1. Temperature change, ∆T (°C)

2. Water heat released (J)

3. Salt heat released (J)

4. Total enthalpy change (∆H)

5. Amount of OH- reacted (g)


6. Amount of H2O produced (g)

7. ∆HS (kJ/mol salt), NaCl

8. Average ∆HS (kJ/mol salt)


DISCUSSION
QUESTIONS

1. Show your calculation for Trial 1 (in sec. C)

2. Compare both ∆Hn values and give your opinion.


3. Write down the balance thermochemistry equation for the neutralization.

4. Show your calculation for Trial 1 ( in sec. E)


5. Instead of using specific heat, what other formula can you use to calculate the heat of
reaction? Explain in what condition that formula can be applied.

6. What is the appropriate name should be given to the Styrofoam cup as an apparatus
to measure heat of reaction?