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# EXPERIMENT 1

OBJECTIVES

## 1. Determine the rate law of a reaction.

2. Explain the function of catalyst and inhibitor in reaction kinetic.
3. Determine the reaction rates of graph.

METHOD

1. Concentrated 30% H2O2 (2.5 mL) was diluted with 200 mL of distilled water in a
2. 20 mL of FeCL3 solution was added immediately after 10 minutes.
3. The solution (10 mL) was pipetted into another conical flask that contained 10 mL of
1 M H2SO4.
4. The solution was quickly titrated with standard potassium permanganate solution
(KMnO4) 0.05M and the volume V (L) was recorded at time, t=0 (V0).
5. The procedure was repeated for several conical flasks.
6. 10 mL of sample was pipetted and was titrated with standard solution of 0.05 M
KMnO4 (Vt at time t=t) after each 10 minutes.
7. Graph of log V0/Vt versus t (seconds) was plotted and the k value from the slope was
estimated by using equation 1.2.

RESULTS

## 60 17.4 18.8 1.4 0.51

DISCUSSIONS

In this experiment, a graph of log V0/Vt against time (s) was plotted. The graph
showed a linear line. This showed that the reaction is first order. The slope of the line is twice
the rate constant, k from the rate law.

Integrated rate laws can be used to determine both the rate constant for a reaction and
the form of the rate law. It may seem more complicated to use integrated rate laws rather that
the method of initial rates to determine the rate law, but it really does take much longer to
perform and analyze the several reactions needed for the method of initial rates than it does to
produce the necessary graphs for the integrated rate law method especially with a good
graphing program.

## The difference between a homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst is that in a

heterogeneous catalyst, it is in a different phase from the reactants. However, in a
homogeneous catalyst, it is in the same phase of the reactants.

In the experiment we will ensure that the following safety precautions are taken:
Safety goggles must be worn at all times during the experiment. We will need to be aware of
your surroundings. When handling chemicals such as hydrochloric acid should be handled
with care. We should also rinsed every apparatus that we used because of it may still contain
another solution that will affect our result. This problem came when we forgot to rinsed when
we must repeat steps in procedure for example by using pipette.

QUESTIONS

## 1. What is the k value? ( Calculate it from the graph by using Equation 2)

[𝐻2𝑂2]𝑡
ln = −𝑘𝑡
[𝐻2𝑂2]0

𝑉0
𝑡 = 3000 , log( ) = 0.45
𝑉𝑡
[𝐻2𝑂2] 𝑉
𝑙𝑛 [𝐻2𝑂2] 𝑡 = −𝑘𝑡 = log( 𝑉0 ) = 𝑘𝑡
0 𝑡

𝑉
log( 𝑉0 ) = 𝑘𝑡
𝑡

0.45 = 𝑘(3000)

0.45
𝑘=
3000
𝑘 = 1.5 × 10−4 𝑠 −1

𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑘 = 1.00035 𝑠 −1
2. Determine the reaction rate law (from the graph). Show your calculation if required.

2𝐻2 𝑂2 → 2𝐻2 𝑂2 + 𝑂2

𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 𝑘[𝐻2 𝑂2 ]1

𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 1.00035 𝑠 −1

## 3. What is the meaning of "ferric catalyst is activated by copper ions”?

The corrosive properties of ferric become clear when being look at its chemical
composition. A ferric chloride molecule consists of one atom of iron with three atomsof
chlorine hooked onto it. The bridge between iron and chlorine, which creates thechemical
adhesion of the molecule, is made up of two electrons (negatively charged particles) for
each chlorine atom. Since the iron atom needs eight electrons to be in a stable condition,
but has only six, it wants to react electrochemically with the copper atoms of the etching
plate to gain the missing two electrons.

4. What other methods that have been used to determine the order of reactions by
decomposition?

## a. Initial rate method

This method is used for reactions where more than one reactant species are evolved.
Initial rates of the reactant are determined by varying theconcentration of only one
reactant while keeping the concentrations of other reactants constant. Initial rate of
reaction corresponds to the rate at the start of the reaction. The rate is calculated over
the first smallest possible timeinterval. This calculation is done either graphically or
numerically.

b. Graphic method

First, the data of concentrations versus time is obtained by a suitable method, Then,
the data is plotted as concentration versus time. From the resulting plot, the
instantaneous rates are determined by drawing tangents to curve and then calculating
their slopes. The reaction rate that has obtained is plotted against concentrations
raised to various powers. From the nature of the plots, the order of the reaction can be
judged. For a zero order reaction, the rate will not vary with concentration and the
plot will be aline parallel to the concentration axis. If the reaction displays any other
order, then the plot of rate against concentration raised to the appropriate order will be
linear which obeys the relation, y=mx. The slope m gives the rate constant k of the
reaction.
c. Half- life method

Half- life of a reaction is defined as the time required for reducing the concentration
of a reactant to half its initial value. It is denoted as t 1/2. The t ½ of a zero order
reaction is given as:

## The t ½ of a zero order reaction is given as :

𝐴0
𝑡1 = (𝑧𝑒𝑟𝑜 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟)
2 2𝑘

## While for the first order reaction is given as:

0,693
𝑡1 = (𝑓𝑖𝑟𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟)
2 𝑘1

## In general, for a reaction of order n, ½ is proportional to initial concentration of A

raised to power n-1, that is

1 1
𝑡 ∝ … . . (14)
2 [𝐴]0 𝑛−1

Only for the first order reaction t1/2 is independent of the initial concentration of the
reactant. This relation can be used to determine the order of reaction.

## 5. Discuss the uncertainty that you get in this experiment.

The uncertainty that we got from this experiment is the reaction is the first order reaction.
This is based from the graph that had been plotted which showed a linear graph. The
order of reaction could be determined from the graph. This is by using the graphical
method.

CONCLUSION

1) The rate law of a reaction is the reaction rate or rate of reaction for a reactant or
product in a particular reaction is intuitively defined as how fast a reaction takes
place. For example, the oxidation of iron under the atmosphere is a slow reaction
which can take many years, but the combustion of butane in a fire is a reaction that
takes place in fractions of a second.
2) The function of catalyst is to lower energy of activation. It catalyst is an element or
compound that increase or decrease the rate of a reaction. However, what makes
catalysts special is that they are not consumed during the reaction.

3) In this experiment, a graph of log V0 / Vt against time (s) was plotted. The graph
showed a linear line. This showed that the reaction is first order.

REFERENCES

##  Spark Notes Editors., “Spark Note on Reaction Kinetics: Rate Laws.”

http://www.sparknotes.com/chemistry/kinetics/ratelaws/
 Clark, J., “The Rate Law”
https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Kinetics/Ra
te_Laws/The_Rate_Law
 Ck12 Science., “Determination Of Rate Laws Using Experimental Data.”
https://www.ck12.org/chemistry/determining-the-rate-law-from-experimental-
data/lesson/Determining-the-Rate-Law-from-Experimental-Data-CHEM/