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3 Conversion Problems

1 FOCUS

Perhaps you have traveled

Objectives Guide for Reading abroad or are planning to do so. If so, you know—or will soon discover—

that different countries have different currencies. As a tourist, exchanging

3.3.1 Construct conversion factors Key Concepts money is essential to the enjoyment of your trip. After

from equivalent measurements. • What happens when a

all, you must pay for your meals, hotel, trans-

measurement is multiplied by a

3.3.2 Apply the technique of dimen- conversion factor? portation, gift purchases, and tickets to

sional analysis to a variety of • Why is dimensional analysis exhibits and events. Because each

useful? country’s currency compares differ-

conversion problems. • What types of problems are

ently with the U.S. dollar, knowing

3.3.3 Solve problems by breaking easily solved by using

dimensional analysis? how to convert currency units cor-

the solution into steps. rectly is very important. Conversion

Vocabulary

3.3.4 Convert complex units, using conversion factor problems are readily solved by a

dimensional analysis. dimensional analysis problem-solving approach called

Reading Strategy dimensional analysis.

Guide for Reading Monitoring Your Understanding

Preview the Key Concepts, the

section heads, and boldfaced Conversion Factors

Build Vocabulary L2 terms. List three things you expect If you think about any number of everyday situations, you will realize that a

to learn. After reading, state what

quantity can usually be expressed in several different ways. For example,

Paraphrase Have students write defi- you learned about each item

consider the monetary amount $1.

listed.

nitions of the vocabulary terms in their

1 dollar 4 quarters 10 dimes 20 nickels 100 pennies

own words. (Acceptable answers include

These are all expressions, or measurements, of the same amount of money.

conversion factor: a ratio of equivalent

The same thing is true of scientific quantities. For example, consider a dis-

measurements used to convert a quan- tance that measures exactly 1 meter.

tity from one unit to another, and

1 meter 10 decimeters 100 centimeters 1000 millimeters

dimensional analysis: a technique of

These are different ways to express the same length.

problem-solving that uses the units that Whenever two measurements are equivalent, a ratio of the two mea-

are part of a measurement to solve the surements will equal 1, or unity. For example, you can divide both sides of

problem.) the equation 1 m 100 cm by 1 m or by 100 cm.

L2 1 m 100 cm 1 1m 100 cm

Reading Strategy 1m 1m or 100 cm 100 cm 1

Sequence As the students read the conversion factors

Analyze and Calculate sections of Sam- A conversion factor is a ratio of equivalent measurements. The ratios

ple Problems 3.5–3.9, have them write 100 cm/1 m and 1 m/100 cm are examples of conversion factors. In a con-

word sequences using the appropriate version factor, the measurement in the numerator (on the top) is equivalent

conversion factors for each problem. to the measurement in the denominator (on the bottom). The conversion

factors above are read “one hundred centimeters per meter” and “one

meter per hundred centimeters.” Figure 3.11 illustrates another way to look

2 INSTRUCT Animation 3 Learn how to at the relationships in a conversion factor. Notice that the smaller number is

select the proper conversion part of the measurement with the larger unit. That is, a meter is physically

factor and how to use it.

larger than a centimeter. The larger number is part of the measurement

with ChemASAP with the smaller unit.

graph that opens the section. Ask if any

of them has ever noticed a chart or

table in a bank or in the newspaper

relating the values of foreign currency Section Resources

to the U.S. dollar. Explain that these are

conversion tables that allow people to Print Technology

relate one currency to another. Ask, • Guided Reading and Study Workbook, • Interactive Textbook with ChemASAP,

How would you decide which Section 3.3 Animation 3, Problem-Solving 3.28, 3.30,

amount of money would be worth • Core Teaching Resources, Section 3.3 3.33, 3.35, 3.37, Assessment 3.3

more—75 euros or 75 British Review

pounds? (Convert these values to a • Transparencies, T31–T37

familiar currency—U.S. dollars.)

80 Chapter 3

1 meter 100 centimeters

Conversion Factors

1m = 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Use Visuals L1

Figure 3.11 Have students inspect the

Smaller number 1 m Larger unit

figure. Emphasize that a conversion

factor relates two equivalent measure-

ments. Ask, What two parts does

Larger number

100 cm Smaller unit every measurement have? (a number

and a unit) Point out that if this is so,

every conversion factor must contain

A Conversion Factor

two numbers and two units so that

one number and its unit equal another

Conversion factors are useful in solving problems in which a given Figure 3.11 The two parts of a number and its unit.

measurement must be expressed in some other unit of measure. When conversion factor, the numerator

a measurement is multiplied by a conversion factor, the numerical value is and the denominator, are equal.

Dimensional Analysis

generally changed, but the actual size of the quantity measured remains the

same. For example, even though the numbers in the measurements 1 g and

10 dg (decigrams) differ, both measurements represent the same mass. In

addition, conversion factors within a system of measurement are defined

CLASS Activity

quantities or exact quantities. Therefore, they have an unlimited number of

significant figures, and do not affect the rounding of a calculated answer. Expanding a Recipe L2

Here are some additional examples of pairs of conversion factors writ- Purpose To use dimensional analysis

ten from equivalent measurements. The relationship between grams and

kilograms is 1000 g 1 kg. The conversion factors are:

to convert common units

1000 g 1 kg

Materials copies of a recipe, lists of

and equivalents and conversions among

1 kg 1000 g

The scale of the micrograph in Figure 3.12 is in nanometers. Using the rela- the following measurements: tea-

tionship 109 nm 1 m, you can write the following conversion factors. spoon, tablespoon, 1/4 cup, 1/2 cup, and

109 nm 1m

1 cup (These lists are found in most

and

1m 109 nm cookbooks.)

Common volumetric units used in chemistry include the liter and Procedure Distribute the recipe and

the microliter. The relationship 1 L 106 µL yields the following conversion the conversion list to pairs of students.

factors.

Explain that the students must rewrite

1L 106 mL the recipe so that it can feed six times

and Figure 3.12 In this computer

106 mL 1L

image of atoms, distance is the number of serving sizes suggested

Based on what you know about metric prefixes, you should be able to marked off in nanometers (nm).

Inferring What conversion by the recipe. Point out that it would

easily write conversion factors that relate equivalent metric quantities.

factor would you use to convert be tedious to have to measure out a

Checkpoint How many significant figures does a conversion factor within nanometers to meters? particular ingredient (pick out one) in

a system of measurement have? teaspoons or tablespoons six times, so

students must rewrite the recipe in

Dimensional Analysis appropriately larger units. After stu-

No single method is best for solving every type of problem. Several good dents have rewritten the recipe, have

approaches are available, and generally one of the best is dimensional student pairs exchange and compare

analysis. Dimensional analysis is a way to analyze and solve problems using recipes.

the units, or dimensions, of the measurements. The best way to explain this

problem-solving technique is to use it to solve an everyday situation.

Expected Outcome Students should

use the conversion lists to write simple

Section 3.3 Conversion Problems 81 conversion factors, such as 3 tea-

spoons/1 tablespoon, and then rewrite

the recipe using larger measurements.

Monetary Exchange Rates

The conversion of chemical units is similar to monetary transactions. Each time one type

the exchange of currency. Americans who of money is exchanged for another, the cur-

travel outside the United States must rent exchange rate serves as a conversion

exchange U.S. dollars for foreign currency at factor. International currency traders keep

a given rate of exchange. These exchange track of exchange rates 24 hours a day Answers to...

rates vary from day to day. The daily through a linked computer network.

Figure 3.12 1 m/109 nm

exchange rates affect all international

Checkpoint unlimited

Scientific Measurement 81

Section 3.3 (continued) SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.5

How many seconds are in a workday that lasts exactly eight hours?

Explain that measurements are often

made using one unit and then con- Analyze List the knowns and the unknown.

verted into a related unit before being Knowns

used in calculations. For example, stu- • time worked ⫽ 8 h

dents might measure volume in liters • 1 hour ⫽ 60 min

or milliliters in the laboratory, but • 1 minute ⫽ 60 s

Unknown

express it as cubic centimeters in a cal- • seconds worked ⫽ ? s

culation. Explain to the students that

The ﬁrst conversion factor must be written with the unit hours in the

conversions are done using conversion denominator. The second conversion factor must be written with the

factors. Emphasize that these conver- unit minutes in the denominator. This will provide the desired unit

sion factors are ratios of equivalent (seconds) in the answer.

physical quantities, such as 1 mL/1 cm3. Calculate Solve for the unknown.

Start with the known, 8 hours. Use the ﬁrst relationship (1 hour ⫽

Sample Problem 3.5 60 minutes) to write a conversion factor that expresses 8 hours as

minutes. The unit hours must be in the denominator so that the

Answers known unit will cancel. Then use the second conversion factor to

change the unit minutes into the unit seconds. This conversion factor

28. 1.0080 × 104 min must have the unit minutes in the denominator. The two conversion

29. 1.44000 × 105 s Math factors can be used together in a simple overall calculation.

Handbook

Practice Problems Plus L2 8 h ⫻ 60 min ⫻ 60 s ⫽ 28,800 s

For help with dimensional 1h 1 min

At Earth’s farthest point from the sun, analysis, go to page R66.

⫽ 2.8800 ⫻ 104 s

sunlight takes 8.5 minutes to reach Practice Problems

Earth. How many weeks is this? Evaluate Does the result make sense?

The answer has the desired unit (seconds). Since the second is a small

(8.4 × 10–4 weeks) unit of time, you should expect a large number of seconds in 8 hours.

Before you do the actual arithmetic, it is a good idea to make sure that

the units cancel and that the numerator and denominator of each

Math Handbook conversion factor are equal to each other. The answer is exact since the

given measurement and each of the conversion factors is exact.

For a math refresher and practice,

direct students to dimensional Practice Problems

analysis, page R66. Problem-Solving 3.28 Solve

Problem 28 with the help of an 28. How many minutes are there 29. How many seconds are in

interactive guided tutorial. in exactly one week? exactly a 40-hour work week?

with ChemASAP

There is usually more than one way to solve a problem. When you first

read Sample Problem 3.5, you may have thought about different and

equally correct ways to approach and solve the problem. Some problems

are easily worked with simple algebra. Dimensional analysis provides

you with an alternative approach to problem solving. In either case, you

should choose the problem-solving method that works best.

82 Chapter 3

82 Chapter 3

SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.6 Sample Problem 3.6

Answers

The directions for an experiment ask each student to measure 1.84 g of A conversion factor is a ratio 30. 67 students

copper (Cu) wire. The only copper wire available is a spool with a mass of two quantities that are 31. 86.4°F

of 50.0 g. How many students can do the experiment before the copper equal to one another. When

runs out? doing conversions, write the Practice Problems Plus L2

conversion factors so that the

Analyze List the knowns and the unknown. Chapter 3 Assessment problem 84 is

unit of a given measurement

cancels, leaving the correct related to Sample Problem 3.6.

Knowns

unit for your answer. Note

• mass of copper available ⫽ 50.0 g Cu

that the equalities needed to

1.84 g Cu write a particular conversion

• each student needs 1.84 grams of copper, or .

student may be given in the problem.

Unknown In other cases, you will need

• number of students ⫽ ? to know or look up the neces- Conversion Problems

sary equalities.

From the known mass of copper, calculate the number of students that Remind students that they often

can do the experiment by using the appropriate conversion factor. The Math Handbook convert from one unit to another,

desired conversion is mass of copper ¡ number of students. both inside and outside of chemis-

For help with conversion

Calculate Solve for the unknown. problems, go to page R66. try class. They convert money from

Because students is the desired unit for the answer, the conversion cents to dollars and time from

factor should be written with students in the numerator. Multiply the minutes to hours. Start out by giv-

mass of copper by the conversion factor. ing them practice with everyday

50.0 g Cu ⫻ 1 student ⫽ 27.174 students ⫽ 27 students

examples. Ask, A chicken needs

1.84 g Cu

to be cooked 20 minutes for

Note that because students cannot be fractional, the result is shown each pound it weighs. How long

rounded down to a whole number.

should the chicken be cooked if

Practice

Evaluate Problems

Does the result make sense? it weighs 4.5 pounds? (4.5 lb × 20

The unit of the answer (students) is the one desired. The number of min/lb = 90 min; 90 min × 1 h/60

students (27) seems to be a reasonable answer. You can make an min = 1.5 h. Most students will auto-

approximate calculation using the following conversion factor.

matically relate 90 minutes to 1.5

1 student

2 g Cu hours. This may help them become

Multiplying the above conversion factor by 50 g Cu gives the approxi- comfortable with the process.) If

mate answer of 25 students, which is close to the calculated answer. students are having difficulty with

conversion factors, you may wish

Practice Problems to have them list several conver-

30. An experiment requires that

sion factors on the chalkboard.

31. A 1.00-degree increase on the

each student use an 8.5-cm Celsius scale is equivalent to a Divide the class in half and have

length of magnesium ribbon. 1.80-degree increase on the each group challenge the other to

How many students can do Fahrenheit scale. If a tempera- Problem-Solving 3.30 Solve write the conversion factor given

Problem 30 with the help of an

the experiment if there is a ture increases by 48.0°C, what two related units. Remind them

interactive guided tutorial.

570-cm length of magnesium is the corresponding tempera-

with ChemASAP

that each conversion factor can

ribbon available? ture increase on the Fahren-

heit scale?

appear in two forms depending on

which value they put in the

numerator.

For a math refresher and prac-

tice, direct students to conver-

sion problems, page R66.

Differentiated Instruction

Less Proficient Readers L1

Provide as much class time as possible for picture of the problem to be solved when-

students to work on problem assignments in ever possible. Some students may want to

cooperative learning groups. Have students read the problem aloud or have a partner

explore their own problem-solving styles. read it to them. Some may want to work with

Encourage students to draw a diagram or symbols and equations.

Scientific Measurement 83

Converting Between Converting Between Units

Units In chemistry, as in many other subjects, you often need to express a mea-

surement in a unit different from the one given or measured initially.

Problems in which a measurement with one unit is converted to an

CLASS Activity equivalent measurement with another unit are easily solved using dimen-

sional analysis.

Suppose that a laboratory experiment requires 7.5 dg of magnesium

Sports Stats L2 metal, and 100 students will do the experiment. How many grams of mag-

Purpose To use dimensional analysis nesium should your teacher have on hand? Multiplying 100 students by

to convert between English and metric 7.5 dg/student gives you 750 dg. But then you must convert dg to grams.

Sample Problem 3.7 shows you how to do the conversion.

units

Materials copies of media guides

containing vital statistics, such as

SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.7

heights and weights, of players on a

sports team (These guides are avail- Converting Between Metric Units

able from local sports franchises.) Express 750 dg in grams.

Procedure Group students. Distribute Analyze List the knowns and the unknown.

the media guides and assign each

Knowns Unknown

group a set of players. Ask the group to • mass ⫽ 750 dg • mass ⫽ ? g

convert heights and weights into • 1 g ⫽ 10 dg

heights and masses expressed in meters The desired conversion is decigrams ¡ grams. Using the expres-

and kilograms, respectively. Have stu- sion relating the units, 10 dg ⫽ 1 g, multiply the given mass by the

dents document their approach, includ- proper conversion factor.

ing dimensional analysis expressions,

Calculate Solve for the unknown.

conversion factors, and calculations. The correct conversion factor is shown below.

Expected Outcome Students 1g

should use conversion factors, such 10 dg

as 2.54 cm/1 inch and 454 g/1 lb to Note that the known unit is in the denominator and the unknown unit

convert their measurements. is in the numerator.

1g

750 dg ⫻ ⫽ 75 g

10 dg

Sample Problem 3.7

Evaluate Does the result make sense?

Answers Because the unit gram represents a larger mass than the unit

32. a. 44 m b. 4.6 x 10–3 g decigram, it makes sense that the number of grams is less than the

c. 10.7 cg given number of decigrams. The unit of the known (dg) cancels, and

33. a. 1.5 × 10–2 L b. 7.38 × 10–3 kg the answer has the correct unit (g). The answer also has the correct

number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures.

c. 6.7 × 103 ms d. 9.45 × 107 µg Practice Problems

Make the following conversions. 32. Using tables from this chap- 33. Convert the following.

a. 0.045 L to cubic centimeters ter, convert the following. a. 15 cm3 to liters

(4.5 × 101 cm3) Problem-Solving 3.33 Solve

Problem 33 with the help of an

a. 0.044 km to meters b. 7.38 g to kilograms

b. 4.6 mg to grams c. 6.7 s to milliseconds

b. 14.3 mg to grams (1.43 × 10–2 g) interactive guided tutorial.

c. 0.107 g to centigrams d. 94.5 g to micrograms

c. 0.0056 m to micrometers with ChemASAP

(5.6 × 103 µm)

d. 0.035 cm to millimeters 84 Chapter 3

(3.5 × 10–1 mm)

84 Chapter 3

Multistep Problems Many complex tasks in your everyday life are best Discuss L2

handled by breaking them down into manageable parts. For example, if

you were cleaning a car, you might ﬁrst vacuum the inside, then wash the

Explain that dimensional analysis is an

Scientiﬁc Notation extremely powerful problem-solving

exterior, then dry the exterior, and ﬁnally put on a fresh coat of wax. Simi-

larly, many complex word problems are more easily solved by breaking the A It is often convenient to tool. Learning this method requires

express very large or very

solution down into steps. extra effort on the part of students.

small numbers in scientiﬁc

When converting between units, it is often necessary to use more than notation. The distance They must often use multiple conver-

one conversion factor. Sample Problem 3.8 illustrates the use of multiple between the sun and Earth is

conversion factors.

sion factors. The extra effort can be jus-

150,000,000 km, which can

be written as 1.5 ⫻ 108 km. tified because the proper manipulation

Checkpoint What problem-solving methods can help you solve complex The diameter of a gold atom of the units assures accurate manipula-

word problems? is 0.000 000 000 274 m, or tion of the numbers.

2.74 ⫻ 10⫺10 m.

When multiplying numbers Emphasize that students should use

written in scientiﬁc notation, dimensional analysis as a tool for solv-

SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.8 add the exponents. When

dividing numbers written in ing all of the problems they encounter

Converting Between Metric Units scientiﬁc notation, subtract in chemistry. Their first question about

What is 0.073 cm in micrometers? the exponent in the denomi- any quantity should be “What are the

nator from the exponent in

the numerator. units of this quantity?” By comparing

Analyze List the knowns and the unknown.

the units of various quantities in a

Knowns Unknown Math Handbook problem, students can discover

• length ⫽ 0.073 cm ⫽ 7.3 ⫻ 10⫺2 cm • length ⫽ ? µm

• 102 cm ⫽ 1 m For help with scientiﬁc whether they need to perform any unit

• 1 m ⫽ 106 µm notation, go to page R56. conversions before proceeding.

The desired conversion is from centimeters to micrometers. The prob-

lem can be solved in a two-step conversion. Sample Problem 3.8

Calculate Solve for the unknown. Answers

First change centimeters to meters; then change meter to microme-

ters: centimeters ¡ meters ¡ micrometers. Each conversion Problem-Solving 3.35 Solve 34. 2.27 × 10–8 cm

factor is written so that the unit in the denominator cancels the unit in

Problem 35 with the help of an

interactive guided tutorial.

35. 1.3 × 108 dm

the numerator of the previous factor.

with ChemASAP Practice Problems Plus L2

1 m ⫻ 10 mm ⫽ 7.3 ⫻ 102 mm

6

7.3 ⫻ 10 -2 cm ⫻ 1m Chapter 3 Assessment problem

102 cm

70 is similar to Sample Problem 3.8.

Evaluate Does the result make sense?

Because a micrometer is a much smaller unit than a centimeter, the

answer should be numerically larger than the given measurement. The

units have canceled correctly, and the answer has the correct number

of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Remind students that writing a

number in scientific notation does

Practice Problems

not change the actual size of the

34. The radius of a potassium 35. The diameter of Earth is number. In Sample Problem 3.8,

atom is 0.227 nm. Express this 1.3 ⫻ 104 km. What is the the given measurement 0.073 cm

radius in the unit centimeters. diameter expressed in can be written as 7.3 × 10–2 cm.

decimeters?

Math Handbook

For a math refresher and prac-

tice, direct students to scientific

Section 3.3 Conversion Problems 85 notation, page R56.

Differentiated Instruction

Less Proficient Readers L1

Students may benefit from a reminder that

certain key words and phrases in each word

problem indicate the unknown quantity and

its units. Some of these phrases are: Answers to...

• How much

• What is

Checkpoint Break the solu-

• How long

• Determine tion down into steps. Use more than

• Find one conversion factor if necessary.

Scientific Measurement 85

Sample Problem 3.9 Converting Complex Units Many common measurements are expressed

as a ratio of two units. For example, the results of international car races

Answers often give average lap speeds in kilometers per hour. You measure the den-

sities of solids and liquids in grams per cubic centimeter. You measure the

36. 1.93 × 104 kg /m3

gas mileage in a car in miles per gallon of gasoline. If you use dimensional

37. 7.0 × 1012 RBC/L analysis, converting these complex units is just as easy as converting single

Practice Problems Plus L2 units. It will just take multiple steps to arrive at an answer.

neon atoms. How many neon atoms SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.9

are in 1.00 mm3 of neon gas under Converting Ratios of Units

the same conditions? (2.69 × 1016 The mass per unit volume of a substance is a property called density.

atoms) The density of manganese, a metallic element, is 7.21 g/cm3. What is the

density of manganese expressed in units kg/m3?

Handbook

Knowns

For a math refresher and practice, • density of manganese ⫽ 7.21 g/cm3

direct students to dimensional anal- • 103 g ⫽ 1 kg

ysis, page R66. • 106 cm3 ⫽ 1 m3

Unknown

• density manganese ⫽ ? kg/m3

The desired conversion is g/cm3 ¡ kg/m3. The mass unit in the

Quick LAB numerator must be changed from grams to kilograms: g ¡ kg.

In the denominator, the volume unit must be changed from cubic

centimeters to cubic meters: cm3 ¡ m3. Note that the relationship

between cm3 and m3 was determined from the relationship

Dimensional Analysis L2

between cm and m. Cubing the relationship 102 cm ⫽ 1 m yields

Objective After completing this activ- (102 cm)3 ⫽ (1 m)3, or 106 cm3 ⫽ 1 m3.

ity, students will be able to

Calculate Solve for the unknown.

• develop conversion factors using Math Handbook

7.21 g 1 kg 106 cm3

dimensional analysis. ⫻ 3 ⫻ ⫽ 7.21 ⫻ 103 kg/m3

For help with dimensional 1 cm3 10 g 1 m3

analysis, go to page R66.

Evaluate Does the result make sense?

Because the physical size of the volume unit m3 is so much larger than

Practice Problems

cm3 (106 times), the calculated value of the density should be larger

than the given value even though the mass unit is also larger (103

Students may think that because a times). The units cancel, the conversion factors are correct, and the

conversion factor equals unity, it answer has the correct ratio of units.

doesn’t matter whether the conversion

Practice Problems

factor or its reciprocal is used in a cal-

culation. Remind students that a given 36. Gold has a density of 37. There are 7.0 ⫻ 106 red blood

pair of equivalent measurements Problem-Solving 3.37 Solve 19.3 g/cm3. What is the cells (RBC) in 1.0 mm3 of

Problem 37 with the help of an density in kilograms per blood. How many red blood

yields two different conversion factors, interactive guided tutorial.

cubic meter? cells are in 1.0 L of blood?

only one of which can be used to with ChemASAP

obtain the correct conversion.

Skills Focus Calculating

Materials 3 inch × 5 inch index cards

(or paper cut to approximately the

same size)

Class Time 15 minutes Analyze and Conclude For Enrichment L3

Expected Outcome Students should 1. If a measurement of a quantity is being con- Have students express the ratio in scientific nota-

derive appropriate conversion factors verted, the unit changes. If the equivalence of tion between the largest and smallest units

among metric units using standard a quantity is being found, the conversion fac- listed in each table. (Table 3.3: 1 × 1012,

metric quantities and prefixes. tor changes the quantity itself. Table 3.4: 1 × 106; Table 3.5: 1 × 109 )

2. a. 0.785 m b. 56 cm3 c. 7.7 × 107 mg

d. 9.8 × 10–10 dm e. 9.6 × 103 µm

f. 6.7 × 103 nm

86 Chapter 3

Quick LAB

3 ASSESS

Dimensional Analysis Evaluate Understanding L2

Purpose Procedure To determine students’ grasp of con-

To apply the problem- A conversion factor is a ratio of equivalent version factors, ask, What is the rela-

solving technique of measurements. For any relationship, you tionship between the numerator

dimensional analysis to can write two ratios. On a conversion fac-

conversion problems. tor card you can write one ratio on each

and the denominator of any mea-

side of the card. surement conversion factor? (They

Materials are equivalent so that the ratio of numer-

1. Make a conversion factor card for each

• 3 inch 5 inch index metric relationship shown in Tables 3.3, ator to denominator equals 1.)

cards or paper cut to

approximately the same 3.4, and 3.5. Show the inverse of the Analyze and Conclude

size conversion factor on the back of 1. What is the effect of multiplying a Reteach L1

each card. given measurement by one or more

• pen

2. Use the appropriate conversion factor conversion factors?

Model the conversion of 2 L to

cards to set up solutions to Sample

2000 mL. Suggest that students check

2. Use your conversion factor cards to set

Problems 3.7 and 3.8. Notice that in up solutions to these problems. the answer by explaining that when

each solution, the unit in the denomi- a. 78.5 cm ? m using a conversion factor, such as

nator of the conversion factor cancels b. 0.056 L ? cm3 1 L = 1000 mL, the measurement

the unit in the numerator of the previ- c. 77 kg ? mg

expressed with the smaller unit (mL)

ous conversion factor. d. 0.098 nm ? dm

e. 0.96 cm ? µm should have a larger number associ-

f. 0.0067 mm ? nm ated with it (2000) than the measure-

ment expressed with the larger unit (L).

Connecting Concepts

3.3 Section Assessment

Acceptable answers include

38. Key Concept What happens to the numerical 44. Convert the following. Express your answers in (a) analyze the known and

value of a measurement that is multiplied by a scientiﬁc notation. unknowns, devise a set of conver-

conversion factor? What happens to the actual a. 7.5 104 J to kilojoules sions steps that yields the desired

size of the quantity? b. 3.9 105 mg to decigrams

final units, and write a conversion

39. Key Concept Why is dimensional analysis c. 2.21 104 dL to microliters

factor for each step; (b) calculate by

useful? 45. Light travels at a speed of 3.00 1010 cm/sec.

What is the speed of light in kilometers/hour?

multiplying (making sure that the

40. Key Concept What types of problems can be

solved using dimensional analysis?

appropriate units cancel); and (c)

41. What conversion factor would you use to convert

evaluate the magnitude and units of

between these pairs of units? the calculated answer.

a. minutes to hours Problem-Solving Skills Reread the passage on

b. grams to milligrams

solving numeric problems in Section 1.4. Explain

how the three-step process might apply to conver-

c. cubic decimeters to milliliters

sion problems that involve dimensional analysis.

42. Make the following conversions. Express your

answers in standard exponential form.

a. 14.8 g to micrograms

If your class subscribes to the

b. 3.72 103 kg to grams

c. 66.3 L to cubic centimeters

Interactive Textbook, use it to

Assessment 3.3 Test yourself

43. An atom of gold has a mass of 3.271 1022 g. How on the concepts in Section 3.3. review key concepts in Section 3.3.

many atoms of gold are in 5.00 g of gold? with ChemASAP

with ChemASAP

38. The numerical value (and the unit) 42. a. 1.48 × 107 µg b. 3.72 g

changes; the actual size does not change. c. 6.63 × 104 cm3

39. Dimensional analysis provides an alterna- 43. 1.53 × 1022 atoms of gold

tive approach to problem solving. 44. a. 7.5 × 101 kJ b. 3.9 × 103 dg

40. conversion problems c. 2.21 × 101 µL

41. a. 1 hour / 60 min b. 103 mg / 1 g 45. 1.08 × 109 km/hr

c. 103 mL / 1 dm3

Scientific Measurement 87

Scale Models

A scale factor is a ratio that equals the Scale Models

ratio of the model’s dimensions to the

structure’s dimension. Ask, What is the A scale model is a physical or conceptual representation of an

height of a building if it is repre- object that is proportional in size to the object it represents.

sented by a 1.30 m model using a Examples include model trains, model airplanes, and dollhouses.

scale factor of 1:48? (62.4 m) Most model trains are built to a scale of 1:87. This ratio means that

1

Computerized design (CAD) programs the model is 87 the size of an actual train. On the model, 1 cm

have replaced many tedious aspects of represents 87 cm on the train.

technical design. A CAD program usu- Scale models aren’t just for hobbyists—scientists and engineers

ally permits a designer to begin with a use them, too. A simple scientiﬁc model in the classroom is a globe,

few important elements and measure- which is a small-scale model of Earth. (A globe with a diameter of

ments of the object being designed. As 30 cm has a scale of 1:42,500,000. ) Applying Concepts How do

the design progresses, the program you use the scale of a model as a conversion factor?

computes the dimensions of the

added elements and produces draw-

ings of the object from any perspec-

tive. The introduction of CAD programs

has reduced the time needed to design

complex items as well as the number

of errors that plague such projects.

88 Chapter 3

Answers to...

Applying Concepts The scale of

a model can be used as a conversion

factor by expressing it as a fraction Differentiated Instruction

of equivalent measurements. For

Gifted and Talented L3

example, if a globe has a scale of

1:42,500,000, you can write the con- Have students prepare a display on current

version factor 42,500,000 cm CAD applications. Local colleges or technical

(actual)/1 cm (model). If the globe schools that teach CAD are good sources of

has a 30-cm diameter, you can cal- information. Other possibilities include

culate the actual diameter of Earth library research or articles in magazines or

as follows: newspapers.

3.0 × 101 cm × 42,500,000 cm = 1.3 × 10 9cm

1 cm

Figure 3.13 lead

88 Chapter 3

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