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4

Connecting to Your World

1 FOCUS

Have you ever wondered why Guide for Reading

some objects ﬂoat in water, while others sink? If you think that these lily

Key Concepts

Objectives

pads ﬂoat because they are lightweight, you are only partially correct. The

• What determines the density of 3.4.1 Calculate the density of a

ratio of the mass of an object to its volume can a substance?

be used to determine whether an object • How does a change in

material from experimental

ﬂoats or sinks in water. For pure water temperature affect density? data.

at 4°C, this ratio is 1.000 g/cm3. If an Vocabulary 3.4.2 Describe how density varies

object has a mass-to-volume ratio less density

with temperature.

than 1.000 g/cm3, it will ﬂoat in water. Reading Strategy

If an object has a mass-to-volume Identifying Main Ideas As you

ratio greater than this value, it will read, write the main idea of the Guide for Reading

text that follows each heading.

sink in water.

Build Vocabulary L2

Paraphrase After students have read

Determining Density the key concept on page 90, point out

Perhaps someone has tricked you with this question: “Which is heavier, a that mass, unlike density, is not an

pound of lead or a pound of feathers?” Most people would not give the ques- Simulation 1 Rank intensive property. On the contrary, it

tion much thought and would incorrectly answer “lead.” Of course, a pound materials according to is an extensive property. Have students

of lead has the same mass as a pound of feathers. What concept, instead of their densities.

infer the meaning of the term extensive

mass, are people really thinking of when they answer this question? with ChemASAP

Most people are incorrectly applying a perfectly correct idea: namely,

property. (a property that depends on

that if a piece of lead and a feather of the same volume are weighed, the size)

lead would have a greater mass than the feather. It would take a much

larger volume of feathers to equal the mass of a given volume of lead. Reading Strategy L2

Using Context Clues Have students

read the key concept statement on

page 90. Ask, What is the meaning of

the term intensive property. (a prop-

erty that does not depend on the size of the

sample) What other properties may be

10 g of 10 g of 10 g of

Lithium Water Lead intensive? (Acceptable answers include

temperature and color.)

Density 0.53 g/cm3 1.0 g/cm3 11.4 g/cm3

Figure 3.13 A 10-g sample of pure water has less volume than 10 g Have students study the photograph

of lithium, but more volume than 10 g of lead. The faces of the cubes

are shown actual size. Inferring Which substance has the highest and read the text that opens the sec-

ratio of mass to volume? tion. Ask, Why do lily pads float in

water? (The pads are less dense than

Section 3.4 Density 89

water.) What measurements would

you need to make to determine

whether an object would float in

water? (Measure the object’s volume

Section Resources and mass; then compute its density and

Print Technology compare the result to the density of

• Guided Reading and Study Workbook, • Interactive Textbook with ChemASAP, water.)

Section 3.4 Simulation 1, Problem-Solving 3.47, 3.48,

• Core Teaching Resources, Section 3.4 Assessment 3.4

Review • Go Online, Section 3.4

• Transparencies, T38–T42

• Laboratory Manual, Lab 4

Scientific Measurement 89

Section 3.4 (continued) Table 3.6

Densities of Some Common Materials

Determining Density

Solids and Liquids Gases

Use Visuals L1 Material Density at 20°C (g/cm3) Material Density at 20°C (g/L)

Figure 3.13 Ask, What would be the Gold 19.3 Chlorine 2.95

volume of a 10-g sphere of each of Mercury 13.6 Carbon dioxide 1.83

the substances shown? (Li, 19 cm3; Lead 11.4 Argon 1.66

H2O, 10 cm3; and Pb, 0.88 cm3) Aluminum 2.70 Oxygen 1.33

Table sugar 1.59 Air 1.20

Relate L2 Corn syrup 1.35–1.38 Nitrogen 1.17

If students performed the Mass of a Water (4°C) 1.000 Neon 0.84

Penny activity on page 76, have them Corn oil 0.922 Ammonia 0.718

Ice (0°C) 0.917 Methane 0.665

refer to the explanation of the results.

Ethanol 0.789 Helium 0.166

Ask, How can you use density to test

Gasoline 0.66–0.69 Hydrogen 0.084

the hypothesis that the composition

of the penny changed? (Determine the

The important relationship in this case is between the object’s mass

volume and mass of a pre- and post- and its volume. This relationship is called density. Density is the ratio of the

1982 penny. Calculate the density of mass of an object to its volume.

each and compare them. If the densities

changed, the composition of the penny Density mass

volume

must have changed. A 10.0-cm3 piece of lead, for example, has a mass of 114 g. What, then, is the

density of lead? You can calculate it by substituting the mass and volume

into the equation above.

TEACHER Demo

114 g

11.4 g/cm3

10.0 cm3

Density Calculations L2

Note that when mass is measured in grams, and volume in cubic centime-

Purpose To calculate density from a ters, density has units of grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3).

mass-volume graph Figure 3.13 on page 89 compares the density of three substances. Why

does each 10-g sample have a different volume? The volumes vary because

Materials 3 or 4 different-sized cubes

the substances have different densities. Density is an intensive prop-

of a material such as wood, metal, or erty that depends only on the composition of a substance, not on the size

marble; metric ruler; balance of the sample. With a mixture, density can vary because the composition

Procedure Have student volunteers of a mixture can vary.

What do you think will happen if corn oil is poured into a glass contain-

measure the masses of the cubes, mea-

ing corn syrup? Using Table 3.6, you can see that the density of corn oil is

sure the lengths of the cubes and cal- less than the density of corn syrup. For that reason, the oil floats on top of

culate their volumes. On the board or the syrup, as shown in Figure 3.14.

an overhead projector, record the You have probably seen a helium-filled balloon rapidly rise to the ceil-

masses and volumes. Construct a ing when it is released. Whether a gas-filled balloon will sink or rise when

mass-volume graph (mass on the y- released depends on how the density of the gas compares with the density

of air. Helium is less dense than air, so a helium-filled balloon rises. The

axis) and plot the data. Show students densities of various gases are listed in Table 3.6.

how to calculate the slope of the line. Figure 3.14 Because of

Explain that the slope of the line is the differences in density, corn oil Checkpoint What quantities do you need to measure in order to calculate

floats on top of corn syrup. the density of an object?

ratio of mass/volume and has the unit,

g/cm3, which is the unit of density.

Expected Outcome The mass and vol- 90 Chapter 3

ume data should lie along a straight

line. Ask, What is the ratio of mass to

volume of a substance? (density)

Differentiated Instruction

Less Proficient Readers L1

Have students write definitions of density in from Table 3.6. They could label each photo

English and, if appropriate, in a native lan- with the substance’s name in multiple lan-

guage. Make sure they include the expres- guages and the density, whose units are part

sion density = mass/volume. Have them find of a universal language.

photos of objects containing substances

90 Chapter 3

Density and Temperature Discuss L2

Experiments show that the volume of most substances increases as the Show how the density equation can be

temperature increases. Meanwhile, the mass remains the same despite the used to determine the mass or volume

temperature and volume changes. Remember that density is the ratio of an

of an object. For example,

object’s mass to its volume. So if the volume changes with temperature

(while the mass remains constant), then the density must also change with density = mass/volume

temperature. The density of a substance generally decreases as its tem- For: Links on Density

(volume)(density) = (mass/volume) ×

perature increases. As you will learn in Chapter 15, water is an important Visit: www.SciLinks.org volume

exception. Over a certain range of temperatures, the volume of water Web Code: cdn-1034 volume × density = mass

increases as its temperature decreases. Ice, or solid water, ﬂoats because it

is less dense than liquid water.

Density and Temperature

Relate L2

SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.10 Have students refer to the Galileo ther-

Calculating Density

mometer shown in Figure 3.8 on page

A copper penny has a mass of 3.1 g and a volume of 0.35 cm3. What is

77. Explain that each partially filled,

the density of copper? sealed glass bubble and its attached

metal tag are weighted so that it will

Analyze List the knowns and the unknown. float at the temperature indicated on

Knowns Unknown the tag. If the air temperature rises, it

• mass ⫽ 3.1 g • density ⫽ ? g/cm3

warms the water in the thermometer

• volume ⫽ 0.35 cm3

and eventually the water reaches the

Use the known values and the following deﬁnition of density.

temperature of the air. As liquid water

Density ⫽ mass warms, it expands and so its density

volume

decreases. Therefore, the glass bubbles

Calculate Solve for the unknown. Math that are calibrated to float at lower

The equation is already set up to solve for the unknown. Substitute the

Handbook

temperature water will remain at the

known values for mass and volume, and calculate the density. For help with algebraic

equations, go to page R69. bottom of the container. Those that are

3.1 g

density ⫽ mass ⫽ ⫽ 8.8571 g/cm3 made to float in water at or above the

volume 0.35 cm3

present water temperature will float.

⫽ 8.9 g/cm3 (rounded to two signiﬁcant ﬁgures)

Thus, the temperature of the water and

Evaluate Does the result make sense? the surrounding air is the lowest value

A piece of copper with a volume of about 0.3 cm3 of copper has a mass of the tag on a floating bubble. Ask, In

of about 3 grams. Thus, about three times that volume of copper, the Galileo thermometer shown in

1 cm3, should have a mass three times larger, about 9 grams. This

Figure 3.8, in what unit is the ther-

estimate agrees with the calculated result.

mometer most likely calibrated?

Practice Problems (degree Fahrenheit)

46. A student ﬁnds a shiny piece 47. A bar of silver has a mass of

of metal that she thinks is alu- 68.0 g and a volume 6.48 cm3. Sample Problem 3.10

minum. In the lab, she deter- What is the density of silver? Problem-Solving 3.47 Solve

mines that the metal has a Problem 47 with the help of an Answers

interactive guided tutorial.

volume of 245 cm3 and a mass 46. density = 2.50 g/cm3; no

with ChemASAP

of 612 g. Calculate the density. 47. 10.5 g/cm3

Is the metal aluminum?

Practice Problems Plus L2

comp note: Go online boxes 3

The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm at

do not have3.4 heads

Densityso91

I took it

Section 20°C. What is the mass of a 0.18-cm3

out (it didn’t fit)

gold ring? (3.5 g)

Math Handbook

For a math refresher and practice,

direct students to algebraic equa-

tions, page R69.

for students to complete, and find

additional support for NSTA SciLinks. Answers to...

Scientific Measurement 91

Section 3.4 (continued) SAMPLE PROBLEM 3.11

TEACHER Demo What is the volume of a pure silver coin that has a mass of 14 g? The

density of silver (Ag) is 10.5 g/cm3.

The Hydrometer L2

Analyze List the knowns and the unknown.

Purpose To show the use of a Knowns Unknown

hydrometer • mass of coin ⫽ 14 g • volume of coin ⫽ ? cm3

Materials hydrometer, 2 graduated • density of silver ⫽ 10.5 g/cm3

cylinders, water, concentrated solution You can solve this problem by using density as a conversion factor. You

of sodium chloride need to convert the mass of the coin into a corresponding volume. The

density gives the following relationship between volume and mass.

Safety Have students wear goggles to

emphasize safety in the laboratory. 1 cm3 Ag ⫽ 10.5 g Ag

Based on this relationship, you can write the following conversion

Procedure Explain to students that a

factor.

hydrometer measures the specific grav- 1 cm3 Ag

ity of a liquid. Point out that the specific 10.5 g Ag

gravity is the ratio of the density of a Notice that the known unit is in the denominator and the unknown

material to that of water. Float the unit is in the numerator.

hydrometer in the water and have stu-

Math Calculate Solve for the unknown.

dents note the submerged height. Read Handbook Multiply the mass of the coin by the conversion factor to yield an

the value of the hydrometer. Now place For help with signiﬁcant answer in cm3.

the hydrometer in the solution and have ﬁgures, go to page R59. 1 cm3 Ag

14 g Ag ⫻ ⫽ 1.3 cm3 Ag

students note the submerged height. 10.5 g Ag

Evaluate Problems

Practice Does the result make sense?

Expected Outcome Students should Because a mass of 10.5 g of silver has a volume of 1 cm3, it makes sense

predict that the second solution is that 14.0 g of silver should have a volume slightly larger than 1 cm3.

denser because the hydrometer floated The answer has two signiﬁcant ﬁgures because the given mass has two

higher in the liquid. Confirm the answer signiﬁcant ﬁgures.

by reading the value of the hydrometer. Practice Problems

Practice Problems

48. Use dimensional analysis and 49. Rework the preceding

Sample Problem 3.11

the given densities to make problems by applying the

Answers Problem-Solving 3.48 Solve the following conversions. following equation.

a. 14.8 g of boron to cm3 of

48. a. 6.32 cm3 b. 0.342 cm3

Problem 48 with the help of an Density ⫽ mass

interactive guided tutorial. boron. The density of volume

49. See answers for problem 48. with ChemASAP boron is 2.34 g/cm3.

b. 4.62 g of mercury to cm3

Practice Problems Plus L2

of mercury. The density of

Make the following conversions. mercury is 13.5 g/cm3.

a. 2.53 cm3 of gold to grams (density

of gold = 19.3 g/cm3) (48.8 g)

b. 1.6 g of oxygen to liters (density of

Mercury

oxygen = 1.33 g/L) (1.2 L)

c. 25.0 g of ice to cubic centimeters

(density of ice = 0.917 g/cm3)

(27.3 cm3) 92 Chapter 3

Math Handbook

For a math refresher and practice,

direct students to scientific notation,

Facts and Figures

page R56. Specific Gravity

Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a

substance to the density of a reference sub-

stance, usually at the same temperature. Have students research chemistry-

W ater at 4 °C is often the reference substance. related careers on the Internet.

P hysicians use the measured specific gravity Students can then construct a

of a patient’s urine to help diagnose certain table that describes the nature of

diseases, such as diabetes. Auto mechanics the job, educational requirements,

measure the specific gravity of antifreez e in and other necessary information.

radiators during tune-ups.

92 Chapter 3

Analytical Chemist

Analytical chemists ask the important

Analytical Chemist question “How much?” They must make

analytical techniques to work suc- including industrial manufactur- very careful measurements because

cessfully on a wide variety of tasks. ers, also employ analytical chem- they deal with small quantities of mate-

As an analytical chemist, you ists. The educational background rial. Analytical chemists are employed in

would spend your time making you need to enter this field is

measurements and calculations quite extensive. You would need

a wide range of industrial and research

to solve laboratory and math- advanced chemical training, occupations. Encourage students to

based research problems. You including organic chemistry and connect to the Internet address shown

could, for example, be involved in quantitative chemistry, as well as on this page to find out more about

analyzing the composition of bio- some training in molecular biol- careers in analytical chemistry.

molecules. Pharmaceutical com- ogy and computer operation. A

panies need people to analyze the master’s degree in chemistry may

composition of medicines and be required, and certain positions 3 ASSESS

research new combinations of require a Ph.D.

compounds to use as drugs. As an Evaluate Understanding L2

analytical chemist, you must be

able to think creatively and Ask, What are the most common

develop new means for finding units for expressing the density of a

solutions. substance? (g/cm3) How can density

Many exciting new fields, such be used to determine whether a

For: Careers in Chemistry

Analytical chemists focus on mak- as biomedicine and biochemistry,

Visit: PHSchool.com metal washer is aluminum or zinc?

ing quantitative measurements. are now hiring analytical chem- Web Code: cdb-1034

They must be familiar with many ists. More traditional areas,

(Measure and compare the density of the

washer to the accepted density values of

aluminum and zinc.)

3.4 Section Assessment L1

Reteach

50. Key Concept What determines the density 56. What is the mass, in kilograms, of 14.0 L of gaso- Remind students that the density

of an object? line? (Assume that the density of gasoline is equation can be rewritten as mass =

51. Key Concept How does density vary with 0.680 g/cm3.) density × volume, or volume = mass/

temperature? density. Have students examine the

52. A weather balloon is inﬂated to a volume of Handbook application of these alternate equa-

2.2 103 L with 37.4 g of helium. What is the Density Look up the densities of the elements in tions by providing students with alu-

density of helium in grams per liter? Group 1A on page R6. Which Group 1A elements are

less dense than pure water at 4°C?

minum squares and asking them to

53. A 68-g bar of gold is cut into 3 equal pieces. How

does the density of each piece compare to the

measure the area and mass of each.

density of the original gold bar? Have students use the density of alu-

54. A plastic ball with a volume of 19.7 cm3 has a minum in Table 3.6 to calculate the

mass of 15.8 g. Would this ball sink or ﬂoat in a thickness of the foil.

container of gasoline?

55. What is the volume, in cubic centimeters, of a Assessment 3.4 Test yourself

on the concepts in Section 3.4.

Elements Handbook

sample of cough syrup that has a mass of 50.0 g?

The density of cough syrup is 0.950 g/cm3. with ChemASAP Li, Na, and K are less dense than

water.

If your class subscribes to the

50. Density is an intensive property that 53. All the densities are equal.

Interactive Textbook, use it to

depends only on the composition of a 54. It would sink because the density of the

review key concepts in Section 3.4.

substance, not on the size of the sample. ball, 0.802 g/cm3, is greater than the den-

density = mass/volume sity of gasoline. with ChemASAP

51. Density generally decreases when tem- 55. 52.6 cm3

perature increases. 56. 9.52 kg

52. 1.7 × 10–2 g/L

Scientific Measurement 93

Small-Scale

LAB

Small-Scale

LAB Now What Do I Do?

Now What Do I Do? L2 Purpose

To solve problems by making accurate measurements and

Objective After completing this activ- applying mathematics.

ity, students will be able to

• solve problems in divergent ways. Materials

• pencil • calculator

evaluating, designing experiments

• paper • small-scale pipet

• meter stick • water

Prep Time 1 hour • balance • a pre- and post-1982 penny

Materials Calculators, small-scale

• pair of dice • 8-well strip

pipets, meter sticks, water, mass bal-

• aluminum can • plastic cup You’re the Chemist

The following small-scale activities allow you to develop

Procedure

ances, pre- and post-1982 pennies, 1. Determine the mass, in grams, of one drop of water.

your own procedures and analyze the results.

dice, 8-well strips, aluminum cans, plas- To do this, measure the mass of an empty cup. Add 50 1. Design It! Design an experiment to determine if

the size of drops varies with the angle at which they

tic cups drops of water from a small-scale pipet to the cup

and measure its mass again. Subtract the mass of the are delivered from the pipet. Try vertical (90°), horizon-

Advance Prep A day before doing the empty cup from the mass of the cup with water in it. tal (0°), and halfway between (45°). Repeat until your

lab, obtain soda cans from the cafete- To determine the average mass in grams of a single results are consistent.

ria. Wash and let air-dry overnight. drop, divide the mass of the water by the number of 2. Analyze It! What is the best angle to hold a pipet for

drops (50). Repeat this experiment until your results ease of use and consistency of measurement? Explain.

Class Time 40 minutes Why is it important to expel the air bubbles before you

are consistent.

Expected Outcome 2. Determine the mass of a pre-1982 penny and a begin the experiment?

post-1982 penny. 3. Design It! Make the necessary measurements to

Students should find that the mass of determine the volume of aluminum used to make an

the pre-1982 penny is 3.11 g and the Analysis aluminum soda can. Hint: Look up the density of alumi-

mass of the post-1982 penny is 2.50 g. Using your experimental data, record the answers to the num in your textbook.

following questions. 4. Design It! Design and carry out some experiments to

Analyze 1. What is the average mass of a single drop of water in determine the volume of liquid that an aluminum soda

1. 19 mg milligrams? (1 g ⫽ 1000 mg) can will hold.

2. 0.019 cm3; 0.019 mL; 19 µL 2. The density of water is 1.00 g/cm3. Calculate the vol- 5. Design It! Measure a room and calculate the volume

ume of a single drop in cm3 and mL. (1 mL ⫽ 1 cm3)

3. 1000 mg/cm3; 1000 mg/mL of air it contains. Estimate the percent error associated

What is the volume of a drop in microliters (µL)? with not taking into account the furniture in the room.

4. 2.95 g Cu; 0.16 g Zn (1000 µL ⫽ 1 mL) 6. Design It! Make the necessary measurements and do

5. 0.060 g Cu; 2.44 g Zn 3. What is the density of water in units of mg/cm3 and the necessary calculations to determine the volume of

6. The new penny is mostly zinc, which mg/mL? (1 g ⫽ 1000 mg) a pair of dice. First, ignore the volume of the dots on

has a lower density than copper. 4. Pennies made before 1982 consist of 95.0% copper and each face, and then account for the volume of the dots.

5.0% zinc. Calculate the mass of copper and the mass of What is your error and percent error when you ignore

You’re the Chemist zinc in the pre-1982 penny. the holes?

1. at 90°, mass of 1 drop: 0.019 g 5. Pennies made after 1982 are made of zinc with a thin 7. Design It! Design an experiment to determine the

at 45°, mass of 1 drop: 0.0218 g copper coating. They are 97.6% zinc and 2.4% copper. volume of your body. Write down what measurements

Calculate the mass of copper and the mass of zinc in you would need to make and what calculations

at 0°, mass of 1 drop: 0.0242 g

the newer penny. you would do. What additional information might

Pipets give different results. be helpful?

6. Why does one penny have less mass than the other?

2. The pipet is easiest to control at 90°.

Expel the air bubble so that the first

drop will be the same size as the rest.

3. Find mass of can and divide by den-

sity of aluminum. Sample answer: 94 Chapter 3

mass of one can: 14.77 g; dAl:

2.70 g/cm3; V = 5.47 cm3

4. (1) Measure the mass before and

after you fill the can with water. Use

the mass and density of water to find Assume 30 people with an average weight of A die has 21 holes that are hemispheres with

the volume. 130 lb (1 kg = 2.2 lb) and a density of about a radius of 0.20 cm.

(2) Measure the height and radius and 1.0 kg/L. V of hemisphere = 2/3πr3 = 0.017 cm3

calculate volume. V = πr2h (Can is not a Volume of 30 people = 30 × 130 lb × V of 21 hemispheres = 0.36 cm3

perfect cylinder.) 1 kg/2.2 lb × 1 L/1.0 kg = 1800 L V of die = 3.72 cm3 – 0.36 cm3 = 3.36 cm3

(3) Read label: 12 oz = 355 mL The volume of 30 chairs, 15 tables, and 2 Error = 0.36 cm3

5. Sample answer: desks is about that of 30 people or 1800 L. % error = (0.36 cm3/3.36 cm3)(100%) = 11%

V = 16.5 m × 3.0 m × 12.8 m The volume of people and furniture is 3600 L. 7. Find weight in pounds and convert to kg.

= 630 m3 × 1000 L/m3 = 630,000 L % error = (3600 L/630,000 L)(100%) = 0.57%. Assume density = 1.00 kg/L.

6. If die measures 1.55 cm on a side: V = weight × 1 kg/2.2 lb × 1L/1.00 kg

V = (1.55 cm)3 = 3.72 cm3

94 Chapter 3

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