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CCMUN 2018

Security Council
Welcome Delegates

Welcome delegates. Finally, after immeasurable hours of work and effort to this
new edition of CCMUN 2018 (Colegio Cambridge Model United Nations), we
are more than glad to introduce you to this year’s committee: Security Council.
During this simulation we will be discussing an international issue that you must
have already heard about, since this may be considered by many a threat to the
whole world. We expect that during this event you will perform as a delegate
representing a country, sharing values and further developing traits such as
leadership, cooperation, and teamwork in order for this simulation to be a
success. In some cases, you'll be able to meet new people and make some
new friends. This event will demonstrate the courageous leader you got inside
and how to handle issues from all around the world. Always remember, you are
representing a country’s position, not yours. Seek for the welfare of your
delegations as much as the world. Remain sharp, focused and enjoy this unique
opportunity. With nothing else left to say, the international security is in your
hands delegate, solve this issue and make the Secretariat proud. Also
remember that we will be at your disposal at any time. Good luck.

I. Committee Background

The Security Council (SC) is one of the six main organs of the United Nations
(UN) and the responsible for maintaining global peace and security. On October
24, 1945 the 5 victorious countries after the WW2: China, the U.S.S.R. (Russia),
France, the United Kingdom, and the United States created the Security
Council. Establishing themselves as its five permanent members with the ability
to veto resolutions, which means that decisions taken by the Security Council
can be completely blocked by any of the five permanent members. Currently,
the Security Council has taken actions in order to defuse international crises,
some of them include the ones in Libya, Iran, Lebanon, Guinea Bissau, Cyprus,
Syria. The Security council has also played an important role by taking actions
in order to try to solve issues such as the Syrian civil war or the threats to
international peace and security caused by terrorist acts.

The five veto Powers (China, Russia, France, U.K, and U.S) have the ability to
overrule any solution they decide it's necessary to. Which means that if all the
committee has voted in favor of a resolution, but a veto power has voted against
it, the solution won’t pass. The veto power has been used in different occasions
by these countries in order to find a solution that doesn't affect their political
interests. Finding a solution that makes every nation agree in a controversial
issue, has always been present since the creation of this committee.
Note: Veto power will be available during this simulation.

Topic: The Security Council as a moderator in the Syrian crisis


● Introduction
Syria has now been at war for seven years, and it is getting worse. All of this
started with peaceful protests that will later began a civil war. Sadly, this civil
war has morphed into something even worse. The peaceful Protestants were
attacked by the government, which made many conflicts.

Since the president Assad was elected he has been only having one objective:
staying in power. He would do pretty much anything to achieve it. Most of the
conflict’s deaths, are thought of being responsible by his forces. The main target
of Assad has been always the groups in Syria he calls terrorists, and others call
them rebels. All rebels groups have one objective in common, overthrow Assad.
Rebels started attacking back in two thousand eleven, after the government’s
brutal crackdown of peaceful protests. Lots of the groups that continue fighting
are now hardline Islamists.

Since the start of the war, more than four hundred sixty five thousand Syrians
have been killed, one million have been injured and twelve million have been
forced to leave their homes. Syrian families often do not have basic necessities,
such as food, shelter and medical care. Children cannot go to school, since the
war is being fought in towns and on the streets. Despite the interest of different
nations, the Security Council has just one goal: Establish peace in Syria.

Countries:
1. Saudi Arabia
2. Australia
3. Brazil
4. Canada
5. China
6. Haiti
7. Syria
8. France
9. Indonesia
10. Germany
11. Italy
12. Cameroon
13. Japan
14. Mexico
15. Democratic Republic of Congo
16. Venezuela
17. Spain
18. Russia
19. Sweden
20. Belgium
21. South Africa
22. Ukraine
23. New Zealand
24. United Kingdom
25. United States of America

● Background History

At the end of 2010, the Arab spring took place in North of Africa and some Arab
nations (Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Algeria, Yemen, and Syria). The Arab world
started to protest against their government and the dictators that oppressed the
people. Some nations as Tunisia were lucky enough to overthrown their
government without the breakout of an armed conflict. Some others called for
freedom by battles and skirmish*, and at the end they accomplished what they
wanted. In other hand, Syria was a country where the attempts to overthrow
their ruler Bashar al-Assad did not have a complete success, giving as a result
a civil war that has lasted for more than 7 years.

In March 2011, protest arise and the government was afraid they could be
overthrown. Soldiers from the Syrian Army shot to death as many protesters as
they could. Months later, the people were disappointed and willing to sacrifice
everything they had for a better future for Syria. Revolutionary groups started
to emerge and creating riots on the streets of Daraa. ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq
and the Levant) seize control of important cities in 2014, thus drawing
international attention from the U.S, NATO and Israel. Bombers and support
against this terrorist group just make this problem worst for the Syrian people.
With support of the U.S, the Syrian opposition could seize north and south
territories, they were trying to reach the capital Damascus. Russia as an ally of
al-Assad, started an airstrike against both ISIL and the opposition. President
Barack Obama announced that they will continue supporting now that Russia
has join the conflict.

*Military disputes between small groups that are fighting in a larger war. Tactics
of rapid movements, flank in open area are commonly used to confuse the
enemy and defeat it.
On February 2016, the UNSC announced the resolution 2268 in which
established a ceasefire between both groups, allowing the use of force against
terrorists. However, major parties continued with both hostilities, escalating the
problem even worse. The Syrian Democratic forces is another group make up
of Syrian rebels and Kurds (Ethnic group at the north of Syria and south of
Turkey). With the international aid of the western nations, they gain the control
of northern cities of Syria, which Turkey saw it as a threat to its sovereignty. At
the end of this year, the president of Russia Vladimir Putin announced that a
new ceasefire was being reach. However on 14 of February 2017 this ceasefire
broke due to violations to it. Clashes and rumbles started spreading as well as
the blood of the innocents.

● Current Issue

On April 2017, President Donald Trump authorized the launch of chemical


weapons against the government and it was without the authorization of the U.S
congress nor the UNSC. Intense ground fights continued all over the north,
without a clear winner of the battles. By the end of this year, China had
announced that they would aid Syrian president in defeating the opposition and
the ISIL. On April the 7th there was a chemical attack on the city of Douma, the
Syrian government denied any use of chemical weapons. However the U.S, UK,
and France deployed missiles strikes as a response to this issue. At the end,
the control of the city according by a research made in march 2018, was the
following.
This problem is leading to a humanitarian crisis not just in the Middle East but
the world. This is the least of the concerns of the Security Council, since this
issue could lead to a diplomatic crisis that can create a world war. Superpowers
such as China, U.S, Russia and U.K have entered this conflict, other nations
are also supporting different sides of this conflicts, such as Iran, Saudi Arabia,
Turkey or Israel. The Syrian civil war is at the scope of the world.

Russia: Since January 2018, Russia has deployed forces in Syria, reinforcing
their ground forces as well as their jetfighters. Russia has supported Bashar al-
Assad in different occasions and has made it clear that it will defend it if U.S or
any western nation intervenes again.

United States: The U.S has supported the opposition group in Syria as well as
the Democratic forces to overthrow al-Assad forces. The use of chemicals
missiles and airstrikes has been a controversial tactic used by the U.S in order
they could regain their freedom by defeating the terrorist of ISIL and the
government.

China: China and Russia has used their veto power more than once in order to
ban the solutions that affects Bashar al-Assad proposed by the U.S. They had
support the negotiations in a peace agreement and supporting the government
in political issues rather than military aid.

Western Nations: NATO (North Atlantic Trade Organization) has supported the
decisions of the U.S in intervene in this conflict. U.K, France and Turkey had
deployed air and ground support in order to aid the opposition to defeat al-
Assad government. They also encouraged the launch of chemical airstrikes
over the cities of Syria.

In the last meetings of the Security Council, the topic of the Syrian civil war crisis
was an issue to be discussed. The United States, France and United Kingdom
condemned the actions made by the president al-Assad, making a United
Nations resolution to affect the nation. After Russia decided to use its veto
power to cancel the resolution, The United States and allies sent a chemical
airstrike as a way of damaging the government. This event unleash a diplomatic
crisis between the most powerful nations in the world.

Overall, this problem is one of the main concerns of the Security Council since
is creating a worldwide crisis. People are dying and suffering due to this conflict.
Delegate, you must find a way to solve this issue taking in consideration the two
main sides that are fighting for the control of Syria as well as the ethnic group
located at the north of the country and the terrorist groups of ISIL. The solutions
must be reachable and at the disposal of the nations that have veto power, since
they had different points of view.

● Focus questions:

1. Has your delegation made something to solve this issue? What?

2. Who, or which side is your delegation supporting?

3. How much is your delegation willing to support or offer in order to solve


this problem?

4. Has your delegation suffered from any kind of civil wars?


5. How would your delegation solve a civil war?

● Helpful links

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JFpanWNgfQY
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CoL0L_DbuQQ
https://syriancivilwarmap.com/
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2018/04/12/syria-
explained/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.5f713ae89a19
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Civil_War#Timeline
https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/04/11/world/middleeast/syria-
military-us-russia-iran.html
https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/944214/World-war-3-Russia-USA-
Syria-donald-trump-assad-chemical-attack