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# c


             / /&  
'  '    c
)   #      
or    D where  and are constants
}   }  }  }   ] ! \$
Equations given in @ 15
let    ´
  c } }    }    where != number o trialsD
/ c /  / Sub  ´ and ´ instead o   and   into     \$ =probability o success
where  is a constant equation or  (will obtain same answer as 0 ) }    }
}±
 ) 
  
c  

cc '+c"   %    " 
   #  c  Proo in words (A cannot happen i B  
happens) ] }%
  \$c  ! c 
 @utually exclusive = Not independent where % is the mean
   Equate denominator to  ´     
#     
 % 
 
 zero   }± } or
Then     
G   c  Long division
 }   }
} & 
 !    cc
À    ] & ' 
 ±±  then  and   
  c  intersects and passes
 where & = meanD
  %c c       
through the x-axis when   ' = standard deviationD
 (  
' = varianceD the curve is symmetrical
 #&'( '#&
 "  c touches but does not  ,- Number population 1-N

& 0     1 

pass through the x-axis when  D ( = 0  ±±   then   and   .- Rhoose a numbers rom 1-N at random
!
  c 3 c   & is summed/subtracted
  %c c    
   Variance: Var(2X)= Var(X)D
)&#&
,- Number population 1-N 2Var(X)=2(Var(X))
 c      
  c   121345627869:;
 .- Ralculate ê
8<14:869:
& 0     1
   c       ()*
O- Randomly pick a number  rom 1 to ê Ú such that it ollows a normal
 !" +
         f- Rhoose    ê    = till limit distribution with mean = 0D variance = 1
c  c   

*  reached

!  #" '"  " 
  
}]   = }Ú  ()*
+
Roe  o highest power o x positiveD tail ;
 circular arrangement ͞seats͟ are numberedD  
 \$c  )  2c  % "  
Roe  o highest power o x negativeD tail 
then ollow a linear permutation rule ,- Divide population into non-overlapping +  
 +
   c strata 
irite equations and arrange terms
,- c (when units must be side by side)  .- Ralculate units to take rom each
Use PlySmlt2 rom GR 85>53< 869:
Do not orget to permutate within group  stratumD ,
!
   121345627869:
.- #  (when units must be apart) O-  
 Randomly pick , units the
 ,- @ove all terms to LHSD (+/ -)D do not
Remove units that must be apart irstD stratum
n
(
)D leaving zero on RHS 
permutate
 the restD then multiply by ( Pr \$c  Pick , convenient units or the
.- Rombine such that all have same
where n = possible insertionsD r =number o stratum (not randomly) ,1  ! largeD !\$ ,D !#  \$ ,
denominator
 units)
separated
 
(  " " then - !\$ !\$#  \$
O-   is negativeD multiply by (-1) and
.1  % # then - % %
  
  c
O-   (Listing all possibilities) lip signs 
f-     O1  ! ,D \$  .#D !\$  ,
f- @ultiply by (denominator) 2 \$c %"  c 
(Possible ways = Totalʹ mpossible ways)  "    
Then - }!\$
    c      c0 1  G  !c  
     3" c 
À ?     B  À  B CB  p-value smallerD probability is lowerD Vertical line: Test or real unction
Shi t units in  ##' y-direction is the   
 where more likely to reject |S Horizontal line: Test or one -one (inverse)
 À ?   (aDb) = center o circleD r = radius p-value < signi icance  reject |S  # "
c  
Shi t units in &'#' x-direction  
 ( 3
  
nB  nÀB    À  D/given A á  
 &S
À ? R 

Scale graph by actor o  parallel to y-axis
you ought to rewrite to standard orm using  !
completing the square(move constant ͞ ͟ to RHSD
( or every point(xDy) (xD y) ) used i and only i when sample small <
group x and y termsD do complete the square twice 50 &  is estimated(@ 15)

À ? 
separately) i*  *%  Seen aboveD A K is obtain by inputting x-
 
@ values into y-axis !  c @ake x the
Scale graph by actor o @ or parallel to x-axis Sometimes you are given that |S is

 '0 c 1 rejected/not rejected and asked to ind
!  B ÀB actorize) remember to add  sign and reject
 A (replace ´ by  ´) lip along x-axis  @ min/max values o n or the signi icance
´ EB FB based on restrictions o x( ollows range o A )
´

A (replace  by  ) lip along y-axis where (aDb) = center o ellipseD or 
 T U &S  1 Needs to be one-one unction
 h = ͞max width͟D k = ͞max height͟  @in/@ax value o 
: inversenorm 2 Domain(x-axis) o A K = Range (y-axis) o A
(
   @in/@ax value o nD sD &S D use 3 Range(y-axis) o A K = Domain (x-axis) o A

 VW
    0  GC H1 standard normal Ú D and then Note AA K and AKA both = x but does not
8 7
H À  B F   inversenorm to ind the term 
have same domain (not identical unctions)
    B FÀ    
c  

ind symmetry Equate squared term to 0   
  n2oaddict@rocketmailcom will not be
G  responsible or any loss o marks
 B À B ÀB B resulting rom use o this revision
EB
 FB
@ FB
 EB
 @
sheet  you ind an errorD please send
 (aDb) is the intersection o 2 asymptotes
me an email eel ree to make copies 1) Existence o MA: N!M
 O!P
inding asymptotes: 2) Rule o MA: MA (Ais QQ o M)
and distribute but do acknowledge
 1) Discard ͞1͟ 3) Domain o MA: Domain o A
G'' !(4)(
2) Expand and make ÀB the subject 4) Range o MA: Range o M Dwhose domain
 (#&'5#&#& 
3) Square rootD remember to add   is restricted to range o A


   IE   c 

  c 
    

##         

 !
  , !  # 
To prove i a sequence is AP or GPD DO NOT only prove d is constant or
7
 J7   ,!  #  Does not exist , J7  J7K J  JK ÞD as it does not su ice as prove or entire sequence Given the rule
7
 7   J7 ) to the sequence(like 7 !M ) @anipulate the rule till you express

J7 in terms o m a  J7 and J7K satis ies the common
K>L   J7
J 7 0 7K 0
di erence/ratio equation (meaning that you get d or r = constant)
 7 D0 á # 
J7K
K> #0 Please re er to Example 5 on Page 7 o AP/GP notes or solutions or