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Indian Journal of Geology Vol. 62, No. 2, p. 117-141, 1990 MAGMATISM AND TECTONIC SETTING IN THE BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC Sunt DasGupta’, MANoJ MukHopaDHyay® AND D. R. NANDy® 1. Publication Division, Geological Survey of India, 29, J. L. Nehru Road, Caleutta-700 016 2. Department of Geophysics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad-826 004 3. Special Investigation Division, Geological Survey of India, 27, J. L. Nehru Road, Caleutta-700 016 ABSTRACT ‘The Burmese-Andaman magmatic are evolved at the Asian continental margin asa result of eastward subduction of the Indian lithosphere. The Mesozoic subarc crust of the overriding Burma plate shows important variations in the tectonomagmatic setting along the trend of the arc. Volcanism first commenced in the northern segment of the magmatic arc by late Eocene that gradually progressed southwards in the Mio- Pliocene. Proportion of silicic volcanics diminishes from north to south between the various magmatic provinces. Most of the are volcanics are of calc-alkaline series ; their individual associations vary significantly in different provinces. The different intrusive/extrusive phases appear to form part of a single calc-alkaline complex that evolved froma hydrous magma of similar composition. Some of the younger plutonic and dyke rocks, particularly of the Jade Mines and Wuntho provinces in north Burma, intruded the volcanic edifice during intra-arc rifting associated with the Shan-Sagaing fault. Alkali olivine basalt and related alkaline volcanics are intimately associated with the calc-alkaline lavas. Two linear alkaline lava belts along faults are identified from field relations and satellite images ; one in the Lower Chindwin provinces and the other 80-100 km east of the volcanic arc associated with the Shan-Sagaing fault They respectively represent intra-arc and back-arc rift volcanism. Presence of amphi- bole in almost all of these cale-alkaline rocks is indicative of hydrous nature of the parental magma as the source for a cogenetic volcano-plutonic complex Key words : Andaman, INTRODUCTION A popular model to explain the genesis of arc magmatism is offered by the theory of plate tectonics that invokes magma pro- duction above the subducting slab by par- tial melting of the upper mantle peridotites under hydrous conditions (see among others, Wyllie, 1973 ; Ringwood, 1974 ; Johnson, 1976). Peridotite melting presumably Arc magmatism, sub-arc crust, intra-arc and back-arc rift, Burma, occurs in the mantle-wedge above the sub- ducting lithosphere through access of vola- tiles resulting from dehydration in the down- going oceanic crust. Partial fusion of the slab may also produce volatile-rich siliceous melts which may interact with the perido- tite of the mantle-wedge resulting in compo- sitional changes. The history and chemistry of arc yolcanism are therefore largely ns SUJIT DASGUPTA, MANOJ MUKHOPADHYAY AND D. R. NANDY End Jurassic suture Andaman seo Fig. 1. Major tectonic features in northeast corner of the Indian plate showing possible correlation of suture zones and crustal blocks between Burma and Tibet via the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya (redrawn after Mitchell, 1985). dependent on the geodynamics of plate Studies during the last two decades on movement—both past and present ; and the evolution of magmatic ares prove that thickness and composition of the overriding subduction-related magmas show composi- plate through which the magma is surfaced, _ tional variations both in time and space MAGMATISM AND TECTONICS OF BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC raat / GULF OF J sanvagan | RGAING Zaan-s| i 2 OPHIOLITE EASTERN THRUST Ber 7 wacmaric anc} ie 119 (along- and across the arc) within a single arc (Katili, 1975 ; Whitford er al., 1979 ; Foden and Varne, 1980 ; Kay et al., 1982). The Burmese-Andaman magmatic arc tra- verses the Central Burma basin and the Andaman Sea extending over a distance exceeding 1500 km (Fig. 1). Mitchell (1985) suggests that the Burmese-Andaman mag- matic arc is similar in age and relates to the configuration of the Gangdise pluto- nic belt on the southern margin of the Lasha block in Tibet. The present study aims to synthesize the broad magmatic features of the arc and their basement tecto- nic setting for different provinces by drawing evidences from surface geological mapping and satellite images ; and to review the pet- rological and geochemical characteristics of the are volcanics on the basis of available data and new results. REGIONAL TECTONIC SETTING Burma comprises of three major physio- graphic divisions which closely correspond to the geologic divisions: the Paleo-Meso- zoic Shan plateau on the far east ; the Tertiary basin in Central Burma, and a Paleogene accretionary complex forming the 2. A sketch showing the seven magmatic pro- vinces of the Burmese-Andaman volcanic arc, prominent fault and thrust systems, and major ophiolite occurrences. Digits 1 through 7 refer to various magmatic provinces : 1, Jade Mines ; 2, Taungthor- lon and Wuntho ; 3, Lower Chindwin ; 4, Mount Popa ; 5, Pegu-Yoma ; 6, Barren- Narcondam ; and 7, Shan-Sagaing pro- vince. Geologic details for some of the provinces are shown on Fig. 3 through 7. 120 SUJIT DASGUPTA, MANOJ MUKHOPADHYAY AND D. R. NANDY Burmese fold belt. The Shan block is sepa- rated from the Central Burma basin by the Shan-Sagaing fault, active since the post- Triassic, both normal and dextral slip motions are known for the fault. The sediments of the Central Burma basin are thrust over the accretionary complex of the Burmese fold belt ; the thrust zone contains slivers of ophiolite and older metamorphics, The Central Burma basin is divided into western forearc- and eastern backare-tro- ughs by the Tertiary magmatic arc that also includes recently extinct volcanoes. The Nicobar Deep and the Neogene Andaman Sea respectively form the forearc and back- are in offshore areas farther south. The Burmese-Andaman region shows high seis- micity where earthquakes occur upto 200 km depth along an castdipping Benioff zone ; dip of the Benioff zone varies along the arc between Burma and Andaman (Mukhopadhyay, 1984). High seismicity in the region is a consequence of active sub- duction of the Indian plate below the Burma plate (Mukhopadhyay and Dasgupta, 1988), the latter intervens the Indo-China block to the east and the Indian plate on the west. Curray ef al, (1979) have ascribed the origin of the Burma plate to backare opening under the Andaman Sea since 11 Ma ago. The backarc areas are generally characte- rised by an active zone of shallow focii earthquakes. Burmese-Andaman magmatic are developed within the Burma plate. MAGMATIC PROVINCES The magmatic arc in Burma is a dis- continuous chain of basic to acid extrusive and intrusive rocks. The magmatic arc extends over seven geographic provinces ; the Jade Mines in north Burma ; Taung- thorlon and Wuntho, Lower Chindwin, Mt. Popa and Pegu Yoma in central to south Burma ; the Narcondam and Barren islands in north Andaman Sea ; and the Kabwet province located 80-100 km east of the Lower Chindwin province (Fig. 2); their broad structural outlines are illustrated on Fig.3. The map is revised from that given by Nandy (1980) by incorporating structu- ral and magmatic features from satellite imagery interpretation for nearly half the are’s strike-length in central Burma (Fig. 4). Fig. 5 depicts important geologic units of the Jade Mines-Taungthorlon area. Fig. 6 is the simplified geologic map of the Lower Chindwin province with salient stratigra- phic, structural and magmatic features. Note that the location of the arc farther south of Mt. Popa (Fig. 2) is, in part, ob- scured by the Central basin sediments. South of it in the north Andaman Sea, position of the arc between the Burmese coast and the Barren-Narcondam seamounts Fig. 3. Outline for the structural and magmatic features of the Burmese orogen and voleanic are (structural outlines modified after Nandy, 1980): 1, magmatic rocks, mostly Tertiary ; 2, ophiolite and olistostrome ; 3, Meso-Cenozoic granites and metamorphics of the Shan-Sagaing province. Geologic ages: A, Archean; PE, Precambrian ; Pt, Protero- zoic; PZ, Paleozoic; D, Devonian ; J. Jurassic; MZ, Mesozoic ; Pg, Paleogene ; N, Neogen are Neogene subdivisions. P, Permian; C, Carboniferous; T, Triassic ; nd Q, Quaternary. Ny, Ny MAGMATISM AND TECTONICS OF BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC 121 Pe-Ma KALAW 8 pe-Ma 122 SUJIT DASGUPTA, MANOJ MUKHOPADHYAY AND D. R. NANDY Fig. 4. Satellite mosaic for north and central parts of the Burmese arc where magmatism was most extensive. The plate covers nearly 500 km out of a total 1100 km length of the volcanic arc. Maximum relief of the volcanic arc/craters in respect of the adjacent Chindwin- basin is for the Taungthorlon (T)— Wuntho (W) province in north Burma. Other identified pro- vinces/features are: Y, Yama Chu: SL, Salingyi ; S, Shinma- daung; P, Northern tip of Mt, Popa ; EBT, Eastern Boundary Thrust of the Burmese orogen against the Chindwin basin; SSF, Shan-Sagaing fault. MAGMATISM AND TECTONICS OF BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC was initially mapped by two seismic profiles in the gulf of Martaban (cf. Peter et al., 1966 ; Weeks er al., 1967) where basic tuff, agglomerate and other volcanics have been drilled from two exploratory oil wells (Bender, 1983). The Kabwet volcanics and dyke rocks locate outside and to the east of the magmatic arc, and are closely asso- ciated with the Shan-Sagaing fault (Fig. 7) ina backare setting. The following is a generalized account onthe nature of basement rocks and arc volcanics, as well as their space-time vari- ability for various extrusive-intrusive edi- fices for different provinces of the Burmese- Andaman are, Jade Mines Province This is the northernmost magmatic pro- vince in Burma (Fig. 3) where igneous rocks of various types and ages occur in several localities viz. Mt. Loimya (70 km NNE of the Indawgyi lake), Namyong, Sankha and Mabaw villages (also refer Fig. 2). The igneous rocks of the Jade Mines and surroun- ding areas in the Indawgyi - Hukawng Valley (Fig. 5) include both Tertiary arc magmatics and the Mesozoic igneous suites (Chhiber, 1934 ; Pascoe, 1973). The latter includes different magmatic suites of ultrabasic to acid rocks forming the basement for the Tertiary-arc edifice. The ultrabasics of the Jade Mines- Indawgyi valley (Fig. 5) form a clearly de- fined pre-Albian magmatic suite. Another such extensive complex of ultrabasic rocks occurs along a 100 km long tract from the Jade Mines to the east of Taungthorlon volcano ; farther south along the strike of the Shan-Sagaing fault are the Tagaung 123 Fig. 5. Generalized geology for north part of the Taungthorion magmatic province and the Jade Mines area in north Burma (redrawn after Bender, 1983): 1, Precambrian and Paleozoic basement ; 2, Tertiary volcanics ; 3, Granite and related rocks; 4, Gabbro ; 5, Ophiolite ; and 6, Tertiary and Recent sediments. Also refer Fig. 3. ultrabasics between Shwebo and Katha. Rock types include dunite, serpentinite, Therzolite, webrlite, pyroxenite and amphi- bolite (Chhibber, 1934; Bender, 1983) and are mostly overlain by Albian-Cenomanian sediments. In some sections they are-asso- ciated with late Cretaceous/Eocene sedi- ments. Tectonomagmatic set up of the region indicates that rifting and diffuse spreading occurred along the Shan-Sagaing fault during the Mesozoic to open the linear 124 SUJIT DASGUPTA, MANOJ MUKHOPADHYAY AND D. R. NANDY Jade Mines-Indawgyi rift with ultrabasics representing the ophiolitic crust. ‘The older metamorphics and crystallines of the Shan plateau were involved in the rifting episode, and diffuse spreading drifted some slivers of rocks to the west like those occurring along the 96°E longitude separating the north Chindwin and Hukawng basins (Fig. 5). We have demonstrated elsewhere (Dasgupta and Nandy, 1990) that such ophiolitic crust occurs in several other parts of the Central Burma basin. The pre-Tertiary granite occupies a wide expanse in the Jade Mines. Chhibber (1934) reported a granite complex occurring 20 km NNE of the Indawgyi lake (Fig. 5): rock types include hornblende granite (with diorite xenolith), two-mica granite, micro and graphic granite, granophyre, peg- matite, aplite and certain basic types like quartz-augite monzonite. Typical calc-alka- line plutonic rocks (I-type granitoid suite) thus occur in close association with the peraluminous granitoid (two-mica granite). Presumably the two types formed through partial melting of the older crystallines/ metasediments during the rifting and spread- ing episodes reported from the Jade Mines ; the granitic rocks are equivalent in age to the ultrabasics (Chhibber, 1934 ; Bender, 1983). Similar granitoids also occur farther south in the Wuntho and Lower Chindwin provinces (see below), The Paleozoic and older crystallines/ metamorphics along with the Jurassic-Cre- taceous ophiolite/granitoid presumably cons- titute the basement through which sub- duction-related Tertiary arc volcanics erup- ted. The Mt. Loimya (rising upto 1562m) in the Jade Mines area is the most promi- nent physiographic feature where the oldest volcanics are basaltic tuff interbedded and folded with Eo-Oligocene lacustrine sedi- ments (Chhibber, 1934) ; summit of the hill is occupied by andesitic agglomerate, lapilli, breccia and tuff. Underlying the volcanic debri there are flows of basalt and augite andesite. At Mabaw, siliceous agglo- merate with rhyolite breccia is interbedded with late Tertiary sediments. Near the village Namyong, hornblende andesite/ trachyandesite and olivine basalt are seen to outcrop within Mio-Pliocene sandstone (Pascoe, 1973). At Janmai Bum occurs the largest outcrop of hornblende andesite. Gabbro-diorite-granodiorite and related dyke rocks occur as intrusives within the Cenozoic are volcanics, sediments and ultra- basics. At Mt. Loimya, gabbro intrudes the Paleogene interbedded basalt/tuff/sedi- ments (Pascoe, 1973). Major types include varieties of gabbro (massive-, prophyritic-, two pyroxene— and micrographic gabbro), hornblende diorite, granodiorite, quartz dio- rite and granite. Granodiorite shows all gradation from quartz diorite to true granite and in Saingmaw-Mawkalon area these rocks are intrusive both into ultrabasics and Tertiary sediments/volcanics. Among the various dyke rocks, soda quartz porphyry approaching keratophyre intrudes the Terti- ary sediments and syenite porphyry cut across the ultrabasics. The gabbro-diorite-granodiorite cale- alkaline suite in the Jade Mines province represents younger intrusive phase that intruded the Oligocene and younger arc volcanics, associated sediments and older ultrabasics. More than one phase of intru sion is reported. Some of these relate to MAGMATISM AND TECTONICS OF BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC. 125 9sr00" 950! nara . ea * LEGEND ALLUVIUM, sRRAMAODY Rove 7] Pesu oRour PREDOMINANTLY WoLcawe ROCKS: ‘WITH CRATER 21°30) . Geological map for the Lower Chindwin voleanic province between Natyin Taung and Shinmadaung in central Burma (refer Fig. 3) (adopted from Pinfold et al., 1927 and Barber, 1936). Sampling localities (refer text) are shown. phases of active intra-arc rifting within the arc edifice (cf. Beard and Day, 1987, for a similar situation in the Jurassic Smartville Complex, U.S.A.). Taungthorlon and Wuntho massif This forms the largest igneous province in Burma for both Tertiary and pre-Tertiary igneous suites (Fig. 2). Along the western part of the Wuntho, the oldest rock is well- stratified tuff and andesite breccia, including andesite stocks, flows, pillow lava and vol- canoclastic sediments of subaqueous origin which unconformably overlie late Triassic sediments (Clegg, 1941; Bender, 1983 ), Large areas of the Wuntho massif are covered by late Cretaceous intrusives and dyke rocks including hornblende / quartz diorite, biotite-granodiorite of Cenomanian age (K/Ar date 93-97 m.y., Bender, 1983), younger pegmatite, aplite, andesite and dacite dykes and garnetiferous two-mica granite. The Maingthon hill located some 30 km north of Wuntho is composed of granodiorite, dacite and quartz porphyry where the country rock is made up of dark volcanic breccia, conglomerate and ash, with tuff and basaltic flows. These volcanics are probably the initial outbrusts of the Tertiary ‘arc magmatism. Majority of the are volea- nics however occurs near the Taungthorlon which is the highest volcano in Burma (1708 m) (Fig. 2). Huge thickness of basal- tic and andesitic Java flows, tuff, ash and conglomerate all, of Tertiary age is known from this area. A few of the volcanoes in the province are now represented by conical hills, dome or pile of lava with craters. For example, the Minletaung is a crescentic hill with remains of a crater but the Shin-ma- Tung is a breccia dome. Younger intrusives within the arc volcanics occur in different stratigraphic levels. Southeast of the Wun- tho massif, early Oligocene granodiorite, 126 SUJIT DASGUPTA, MANOJ MUKHOPADHYAY AND D. R. NANDY tonalite porphyry, andesite dykes and tra- chyte are intrusive within the arc volcanics and associated sediments. Near Pinlebu, Miocene basaltic dykes cut across the Pegu sand/mudstone. The Shan-Sagaing fault separates the Taungthorlon-Wuntho massif from the Shan plateau in north Burma. The larger pre- Tertiary intrusives dominate the Wuntho massif. Here the late Cretaceous horn- blende granodiorite/granite (I - type @rani- toid suite) occur in intimate association with rocks of different lineage like the garneti- ferous two-mica granite. These intrusives as well as the post-Triassic basalt/andesite extrusives or dyke rocks do not relate to the Oligo-Miocene subduction-related arc- volcanism ; rather they constitute part of the east Burma continental margin (an older are) separated from the mainland by rifting and diffuse spreading during the early Ter- tiary along the Shan-Sagaing fault. It is possible that subduction-related volcanism in this province commenced by early Oligo- cene with younger episodes of plutonic and dyke intrusion within the voleanic edifice, Lower Chindwin Province The arc volcanics in this province are associated with either the Oligo-Miocene Pegu Group or Mio-Pliocene Irrawaddy Group of sediments ; the province extends for about 100km in central Burma from Natyin Taung on the north to Shinmadaung to the south (Figs. 2 and 6). Geological mapping for the Monywa volcanic centre revealed that here the Tertiary magmatism commenced by Oligocene with andesite lava flows which overlie the Cretaceous basement (meta-igneous rocks, hornblende diorite and granophyre dykes) (cf. Bender, 1983). Mit- chell (1986) also reported Albian granodio- rite (K-Ar: age 100 + 5 Ma) as basement complex in this province. The Lower Chind- win province, like the Wuntho and Jade Mines provinces, also demonstrates that the pre-Tertiary crystalline rocks constitute the basement for the Cenozoic arc volcanics. Farther evidence on the nature of basement rocks come from the ejecta in the various explosive craters. In the Twin Taung crater (within the Lower Chindwin province) the explosive ejecta includes such varied rock types viz. quartz diorite, augite peridotite, biotite-hornblende peridotite, perknite, pyro- xenite, biotite gneiss and hornblende schist. Farther south in the Shinmadaung area, rocks like the albite-garnet gneiss and quartz sericite schist commonly occur within the interbedded pyroclastics (Pinfold et al., 1927). A section of Cretaceous pillow lavas, overlain by Tertiary volcanics, is also reported from the Monywa volcanic centre (Gossens, 1978). The earliest are volcanism in this pro- vince is possibly of late Eocene age as is known from western Shwebo hills (Fig. 3). Satellite image (Fig. 4) suggests that some explosive craters—e.g. the Yama Chu, look quite young; they are probably of Pleisto- cene or sub-Recent age (Chhibber, 1934; Pascoe, 1973). Volcanics are distributed along both banks of the Chindwin, where, they are often associated with faults. Two such faults appear on Fig. 6. At least eight explosive craters are distributed along both banks of the Chindwin within a distance of 20km between the villages Leshe and Ywatha, north of 22°15'N. The Natyin Taung is an isolated occurrence of basaltic MAGMATISM AND TECTONICS OF BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC 127 andesite (sample 1 location; refer Table 1 and Fig. 6), farther north locate the western Shwebo hill volcanics (refer above) having numerous basalt flows. The Ywatha crater consists of lava blocks and ash. The Twin Taung crater is mostly comprised of volca- nic ash, lapilli, olivine basalt, hornblende andesite and basaltic andesite (sample 2 in Table |; Bender, 1984). The Taung Byauk crater is comprising of olivine basalt with flow structures where upto 15 meters thick ash bed is spread over the [rrawaddian sediments. Almost similar situation persists for the compound crater at Lesha. The pillow basalt, rhyolite and silicic pyroclastics are the major rock types at the Letpadaung hill, where, they are interbedded with marine to brackish, Miocene sandstone/mudstone (Bender, 1983). Explosive volcanism in this area occurred mainly during the Mio-Pleisto- cene. Holocene olivine basalt is also repor- ted from this area (Bender, 1983). Oligo- Miocene interbedded andesite lava/tuff and andesite-rhyolite rocks occur in Ingyintaung, and Powin Taung respectively. The western side of Salingyi upland is covered by Kera- tophyre (trachyte) (Barber, 1936). Sample 3 is from a small basaltic outcrop from Linzayet and sample 4 is from a late Oligo- cene olivine basalt from the Shinmadaung- Thayetpingan area (Table 1 and Fig. 6) where andesite, rhyolite and interbedded acid pyroclastic rocks are also found (Pin- fold et al., 1927), East of the Chindwin river occur isola- ted volcanics along a north-south fault, interbedded with, and also partly overlying, the Mio-Pliocene sediments. Highly basic and alkaline picrite basalt, olivine basalt and nepheline tachylite occur in the hills of the Taunggya, Thazi, Inde and Okpoletpan (Fig. 6). These alkaline volcanic suites are different from those described above, and, being fault-controlled, indicate late Neogene extensional episode within the Lower Chind- win province. Other plutonic rocks in this province are the coarse-grained gabbro in the Salingyi upland ; towards the core the rock is amphibole gabbro while olivine gabbro occupies the SE margin of the outcrop. Both types contain inclusions of quartzo-feldspathic rocks ( Barber, 1936 ). Gabbroic mass shows intrusive contact both with keratophyre and the Pegu sandstone. The entire calc-alkaline series intrusive phase is represented here from gabbro to granite through quortz-diorite and granodiorite (Pinfold et al., 1927; Bender, 1983). A small outcrop of micro-hornblende gabbro is also recorded from west of Powintaung. Coarse grained granite and hornblende gra- nite porphyry occur as intrusives within the volcanics in the Silaung-Minma area west of Taungbyauk (Fig. 6). Hornblende-biotite porphyry, quartz porphyry and rhyolite dykes intrude the silicic volcanics of Letpa- daung hill, west of Monyma (Bender, 1983). These intrusives are mostly of late Mio- Pliocene age. A hornblende-biotite porphyry intrusive into the rhyolite twff from the Sabetaung area gave a K/Ar age of 5.8 m.y. (Bender, 1983), Mafic dykes are few in the Lower Chindwin province except the reported occurrence of a dolerite dyke intruding andesite at Shinmadaung and an altered dolerite dyke within the highly de- composed granitic rocks from Minma, south of the explosive craters. Mount Popa Province The most conspicuous landmark in 128 SUJIT DASGUPTA, MANOJ MUKHOPADHYAY AND D. R. NANDY central Burma is Mt. Popa that rests on a plateau about 300m above the surrounding plains ; the plateau itself consists of black andesitic tuff and ash inter-bedded with the Irrawaddian sediments (Fig. 2). The enor- mous mass of Mt. Popa is mostly a lava and tuff cone rising to 900m above the plateau. This is believed to have all the features of arecently extinct volcano (Pascoe, 1973) ; its pre-Tertiary basement is mostly covered by volcanic debri and sediments. Ejected blocks from the Popa crater are mainly amphibole gabbro, diorite and granitoid aggregate. Chhibber (1927a) described these rocks as the plutonic equivalent of the extrusives which occur within the volca- nic edifice or, as in the three northern magmatic provinces, they represent younger intrusives within the extrusives, The oldest arc volcanics are andesite, rhyolite and sili- cified tuff (exposed in the hills of Kyauk- padaung and Taungnauk) and are inter- bedded with late Mic+Pliocene Irrawaddian sediments. Younger andesite lavas (Pleisto- cene-Recent) occur north of Mt. Popa ; they include texturally and mineralogically differ- ent rock types of the basalt-andesite suite (samples 5-7, Table 1). Pegu Yoma Province This is the southernmost magmatic pro- vince in Burma where intrusive hypabyssal rocks are seen in rather widely spaced loca- lities, including the occurrences at Myene- taung in the Prome district and at Kyaukpyu in the Tharrawaddy district (Fig. 2). In the former area serpentinised olivine dolerite occurs as sills/dykes in the Miocene sedi- ments (Chhibber, 1927b). The easternmost locality in Myenetaung is a conical hill whose basal part is composed of the Pegu clay and sandstone and its upper portion is greyish black olivine dolerite, In the west- ern locality the Pegu sediments are backed and hardened by the intrusive dolerite ; while ina third area olivine dolerite dykes (sample 8 in Table 1; Chhibber, 1934) intrude the Pegu sandstone. In the Kyauk- pyu area there are at least five separate occurrences of mainly dolerite (sample 9 in Table 1; Chhibber, 1934) intrusive into the Pegu sandstone/shale (Chhibber, 1927b). The mafic dyke intrusion in a linear belt within the volcanic are possibly suggests intrusion during an extensional episode. Narcondam and Barren Islands in Andaman Sea Geophysical surveys have shown that these volcanic islands have sea-bed extent exceeding 150 km in north-south direction (Rodolfo, 1969; Curray et al., 1979) (Fig, 2). The Narcondam rises to about 700m above sea-level ; it has a conical shape but no relics of a crater. Its agglomerate is only lava fragments with little or no volea- nic ash ; the lavas belong to the andesite- dacite suite (samples 10-11 in Table 1) (Washington, 1924). Barren is the only active volcano of the Burmese-Andaman arc; it last erupted in 1832. This circular island is about 3 km in diameter, rising to 300m above sea-level. The sides of the volcano are composed entirely of scoriae, ash and loose ejected material ; floor of the volcano crater is covered with loose lava blocks and ash (Hobday and Mallet, 1885). Lavas of this island belong to the basalt- andesite suite (samples 12-15, Table 1) and are mostly vesicular. Both volcanic islands are dissected bya prominent fault (called the West Andaman fault) along their west- MAGMATISM AND TECTONICS OF BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC 129 ern margin against the Nicobar Deep (Curray et al., 1979). Here the arc volca- nism commenced by the Miocene with the opening of the Andaman Sea ; the present volcanic cone of the Narcondam and Barren Islands is of Pleistocene-sub Recent age. Magmatic province of the Shan-Sagaing fault The post-Triassic Shan-Sagaing fault has had a vital role in the tectonic and magmatic evolution of eastern Burma. In the Jade Mines province the fault follows the Neo- gene arc volcanic line ; southward it defines the eastern boundary of the arc in the Taungthorlon-Wuntho province (Figs. 3 and 5). Still farther south the fault traces backarc position with respect to the Lower Chindwin and Mt. Popa magmatic (Fig. 2). In central to south Burma, the fault outlines the west margin of the Shan-Tenasserim highland against the Burma Tertiary basin. In the Indawgyi basin, the fault traverses the various lithotectonic units/Cretaceous ophiolite and granitoid rocks (Fig. 5). From the Sittang estuary in the south to the Kabwet in the north, the Cretaceous intrusive/extru- sive rocks follow the Shan-Sagaing fault along the west margin of the Shan plateau. A large granitoid complex (including soda and potash granite with aplite, hornblende granophyre and dolerite dykes) of late Cre- taceous-early Eocene age extends from Pegu to Pyinmana in association with older rhyo- lite volcanics (Bender, 1983). Similarly between Kalaw and Kyaukse a late Creta- ceous-early Paleogene granodiorite-granite batholith is seen (Fig. 3). Andesite tuff, dacite-rhyolite suite rock, and plugs/sill/ dykes of dacite-rhyodacite-rhyolite porphyry of early-mid Cretaceow age are also found in this area. The Cretaceous granitoid rocks occurring close to the Shan-Sagaing fault Ppossibily act as basement for the arc volea- nics inthe Lower Chindwin, Wuntho, or the Jade Mines provinces. The granitoids of batholithic dimension together with older andesite-rhyolite volcanics occur both to the east and west of the fault-zone ; the fault- zone developed at the rifted Mesozoic con- tinental margin of Asia. Alternately, the granitoid batholiths may represent pre-Ter- tiary Andean-type arc intrusives. The Shan- Sagaing fault assumes additional importance in the Kabwet area where late Tertiary- Pleistocene amygdaloidal pillow _ basalts (mugearite and olivine tachylite) are intru- ded by olivine dolerite and teschenite (Stamp and Chhibber, 1927) (Figs. 2 and 3). The Kabwet volcanics are fissure eruptions located backare with respect to the Lower Chindwin arc volcanics (Fig. 7). The older lavas are interbedded and locally folded with the Irrawaddian sediments. South- ward, the Singu lava plateau extends for nearly 100 km at a height of 40-50m above the Irrawaddy gorge ; the lava is ropy in places. These alkaline suites related to the Shan-Sagaing fault are evidently of backare origin formed in an extensional environment. MAJOR PETROLOGIC SUITE Several authors (Washington, 1924; Chhibber, 1927 a, b, 1934 ; Pinfold et al., 1927; Stamp and Chhibber, 1927; Barber, 1936) previously reported petrological results on magmatic rocks from the Burmese-Anda- man arc, Here we summarize these results by supplementing them with new results for some magmatic rocks from the Lower Chindwin, Mt. Popa, and Kabwet volcanics 130 SUNIT DASGUPTA, MANOJ MUKHOPADHYAY AND D. R. NANDY 4 LETKOKBIN -© THINBAUNG LEGEND NeweR Lava OLERITE S]TERTIARY SAND WITH”. INTERBEDDED LAVA 10GOK GROUP Geological map for the Burmese back-arc in central Burma showing the details of the Kabwet volcanics (refer Fig. 3), and the Mogok metamorphics across the Shan- Sagaing fault. Sampling localities (refer text) are also indicated. in order to evaluate the petrogenetic aspects of the Burmese-Andaman arc as a whole. The following is an account of the magmatic suites (Oligocene-Pleistocene) evaluated for different magmatic provinces within the overriding Burma plate. Hornblende bearing Basalt-Andesite-Dacite- Rhyolite suite Such rocks are widely developed along the entire length of the Burmese-Andaman magmatic are within which the individual members of this association display signifi- cant variations. Andesite/basaltic andesite is however most dominant member of this magmatic suite, which occurs in the Jade Mines, Lower Chindwin, Popa and Narcon- dam but less documented from the Wuntho- Taungthorlon province. Hornblende bea- ring dacite is reported only from the Narcondam island, while, rhyolite and silicic tuff are known from Mt. Loimye, Jade Mines province. In the Letpadaung hill, Monywa volcanic centre (Lower Chindwin province), hornblende-biotite porphyry and related pyroclastics are the major rock types. Basalt with phenocrysts of hornblende is reported only from Mt. Popa. Cale-alkaline plutonic and dyke rocks, intrusive within the volcanics, are common. Hornblende gabbro- diorite-granodiorite-granite are known from the Jade Mines, Wuntho as well as the Lower Chindwin province. Porphyritic basaltic andesite and ande- site with phenocrysts of plagioclase, horn- blende, clinopyroxene + biotite vary in groundmass mineralogy and texture. The isolated mass of Natyintaung in northern Lower Chindwin is a coarse porphyritic andesite (sample 1, chemical analysis in MAGMATISM AND TECTONICS OF BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC 131 Table 1 ) with phenocrysts of zoned-plagio- clase (andesine-labradorite), altered horn- blende, rare diopsidic augite and secondary chlorite in a fine groundmass of plagioclase, opaques and glass with flow structure. Similar andesite occurs in Ingyintaung, containing about 25% zoned plagioclase (, hornblende, rare clinopyroxene, biotite, palagonite, opal and haematite in a pilotaxitic groundmass with cryptocrystalline silica. The older lava of Mt. Popa are typically hornblende and biotite andesite but with orthopyroxene asa major phenocryst mineral ; groundmass glassy trachytic with plagioclase, augite, magnetite and glass. Within the younger (late Pleistocene-Recent) lavas of Popa, the Taunggala-type is a coarse andesite ; phenocrysts of hornblende, large augite, orthoclase, zoned plagioclase (andesine-labradorite) set in a holocrystalline grounmass of plagioclase laths, granules of augite and magnetite. Glomeroporphyritic hornblende-biotite andesites are also present Lavas of the Narcondam island are highly vesicular andesite and/or dacite with pheno- crysts of feldsper (labradorite and ortho- clase), hornblende, biotite, augite, in a groundmass of augite, plagioclase (andesine), hornblende, biotite and magnetite ; quartz and glass are also present in small amounts (samples 10 and 11, chemical analyses in Table 1). Porphyritic basaltic andesite of Twintaung crater contains coarse pheno- crysts of pyroxene and hornblende with or without plagioclase in a groundmass of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and magnetite (sample 2, Table 1) (Bender, 1983); certain * types show fine vesicular groundmass with plagioclase, opaques and glass. The NW outer flow of Mt. Popa is a porphyritic basalt (sample 7, Table I) with phenocrysts of zoned plagioclase (labradorite), coarse hornblende, diopsidic augite in a ground- mass of plagioclase, opaque and minor glass. In the Lower Chindwin province (west of Powintaung), occurs micro-gabbro with plagioclase (Am), hornblende and ortho- pyroxene ; while the Salingi gabbro is a coarse grained hypidiomorphie granular rock with 60% plagioclase (Ang-z) and matics including hornblende, diopside, chlo- rite and opaques. Coarse grained granite and hornblende granite porphyry occur at Silung-Minma area. Olivine bearing Basalt-Basaltic Andesite and related Rocks Both alkaline and subalkaline suites are represented in this group : alkali basalt occurs in the east Monywa hills between Okpoletpan and Taunggya (Fig. 6) and in the Kabwet area (Fig. 7), the latter locates ina backarc setting. In some areas cale- alkaline andesite (plagioclase, hornblende, augite + orthopyroxene, biotite) are inti- mately associated with the alkali olivine basalt, Intrusive equivalent such as alkali olivine gabbro and dolerite are less common than their typical calc-alkaline counterpart. The basalt of the Natyintaung area contains phenocrysts of olivine and augite in a hypocrystalline groundmass of plagio- clase and glass ; while large phenocrysts of augite and smaller olivine and plagioclase Jaths occur as phenocrysts in the Twintaung crater lava, Groundmass contains plagio- clase. residual glass and magnetite; the hornblende andesite occurs in association with the olivine basalt in the Twintaung 132 SUJIT DASGUPTA, MANOJ MUKHOPADHYAY AND D. R. NANDY Table 1 Major oxides, trace elements and CIPW norm of volcanic Sample No. Major 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Oxide (Percent) SiO, 55.46 51.93 49.67 4719 63.40 56.01 4715 50.87 ALO, ‘18.57 17.98 16.23 13.66 16.17 19.10 17.29 19.82 Fe,0, 1.65 2.30 0.43 1.64 1.60 1.62 2.55 1.91 Feo 6.85 488 6.2 9.87 3.05 7.25 3.63 3.7 MgO 2.82 5.27 10,30 10.73 230 247 3.87 8.80 CaO 8.17 10.34 10.23 12.07 6.73 6.70 12.57 9.32 Na,O 4.23 3.42 2.68 237 3.42 3.40 2.82 212 K,O 1.26 2.58 1,26 1,34 2.60 2.59 1.88 0.76 TiO; 0.74 0.78 1.90 0.84 O41 0.60 0.94 0.32 P.O, 0.17 0.40 0.43 0.19 0.25 0.19 021 0.10 MnO 0.08 0.12 os 0.10 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.21 H,O* 2.40 = 142 2.10 2.00 215 3.00 3.70 ‘Trace Element (pm) Ba 100 1517 - 700 >1000 1000 >1000 - Se 300 1567 a 350 600 400 500 = Pb 20 30 = 10 10 10 Is = Vv 60 217 = 30 60 150 200 a cr 400 ol = 500 30 0 150 = Ni 30 32 = 40 10 20 25 oe cu 15 235 - 25 30 20 70 - CIPW norm (percent) Q 1.80 = = = 16.40 3.32 =a cs Or 7.50 15.23 135 787 416 15.16 11.10 4.50 Ab 35122 Vigs20 23.33 2.50 ° 30.62 28.43 12471792 An 28.56 26.05 27.80 22.55 20.85 28.50 (28.90 42.26 Ne - 2.02 - 8.48 - 6.10 - Wo 4.40 9.46 8.10 15.44 432 136 13.20 1.40 Di En 1,72 6.04 5.53 18.43 2.32 0.42 6.92 0.93 Fs 2.65 2.80 1.82 5.54 1.80 0.94 5.68 0.37 En 5.23 2.30 a 3.34 3B = 19.76 By Fs 8.32 - 0.80 - 2.50 12.21 a 119 ol Fo = 4.98 12.36 6.10 - - $.23 0.98 Fa - 247 6.71 8.70 _ - 4.77 0.43 Mt 2.35 3.34 0.63 2.35 2.32 2.34 3.65 2.76 Hm = - - = - — - - u 1,35 1.47 3.56 1.59 0.78 Lig 1.68 0.61 Ap 0.40 0.94 1.00 0.45 0.59 045 0.50 0.24 Samples 1-4 : Lower Chindwin province ; 5- ‘Mt Popa province 9: Western edge of Pegu Yoma; MAGMATISM AND TECTONICS OF BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC 133 and dyke rocks from Burmese-Andaman arc 9 10 u 12 13 14 15 16 7 61.10 61.18 48.93 53.96 $3.77 53.64 50.40 50.41 16.82 16.76 17.19 16.34 18.16 19.42 17.07 17.07 3.10 3.15 3.34 1.81 2.66 3.19 1.65 1.63 219 2.10 5.98 7.59 4.96 4.25 9.36 9.23 3.07 3.06 8.32 3.92 331 2.92 6.62 6.66 6.60 6.84 11,43 8.67 9.80 10.81 8.71 8.90 3.23 3.21 215 4.00 341 2.92 367 3.68 241 1.84 0.65 0.64 0.91 0.51 134 1.24 1.60 1.66 1.85 272 2.74 1.96 0.82 ost 0.13 0.14 0.08 0.22 019 027 0.26 0.28 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.12 0.08 ot 0.10 0.09 O11 0.26 0.07 0.93 0.44 1.00 3.20 3.35 - - = - - — — >1000 800 = - - = - - 350 30 = = = = - 100 250 = - - - - - 80 50 - - - _ - 150 250 - - - - - - = 50 50 = - - - = — - 25 20 = 17.36 17.98 4.33 1.32 9.92 = SS 8.18 12.45 10.90 3.84 378 3.39 3.00 8.12 7.36 26.46 27.30 27.14 18.18, 33.30 28.82 24.68 28.17 28.46 28.19 25.13 25.83 35.28 24.71 31.50 38.31 25.37 25.79 3.90 - — = = - 1.50 1.40 7.54 2.83 3.39 8.37 7.06 6.66 5.67 6.47 6.75 5.07 2.44 2.92 6.06 37 4.65 4.00 329 3.42 ; 1,89 = - 1.52 3.3 144 1.16 3.00 3.5 - 5.24 4.73 13.36 6.17 3.62 3.30 = E = - - 3.35 5.03 1.09 0.96 = 10.10 - - 0.96 - - - 9.53 9.43 4.26 - _ 0.40 - - - 10.01 9.69 2.88 2.69 2.21 4.85 2.62 385 4.61 2.39 2.36 - 1.25 1.58 - - - - _ 0.87 3.04 3.14 3.51 $7 5.20 3.72 1.55 1.53 0.67 0.30 0.33 0.20 0.54 0.44 0.64 0.60 0.66 10-11; Narcondam island ; 12-15; Barren island ; 16-17; Kabwet province. 134 SUJIT DASGUPTA, MANOJ MUKHOPADHYAY AND D. R. NANDY crater, Similar olivine basalt with flow structure is reported from the Taungbyauk crater, Basalt from Linzagyet is a fine grained rock with phenocrysts of olivine and diopside together forming about 30% of the rock in a microlitic groundmass of plagio- clase (Angp_70), Olivine, pyroxene and mag- netite (sample 3 in Table 1 ; Barber, 1936) with flow structure. Similar rocks with olivine both in phenocrysts and groundmass occur farther south in the flat-topped hill of Sonetaung where olivine is mostly altered to iddingsite, serpentine and palagonite, The rock is holocrystalline and prophyritic basalt with phenocrysts of olivine and diopside/ augite in a microlitic groundmass of plagio- clase (Ang.75), interstitial olivine, pyroxene and magnetite. Olivine basalt reported from Thayetpingan are very coarse grained, and rare titanoaugite is set in a medium to fine grained groundmass of plagioclase, oli- vine, pyroxene, opaque and minor glass (sample 4; Table 1). Unlike the Lower Chindwin province, olivine basalt occupies a limited volume within the younger lavas of Mt. Popa. The Taungbaw flow is fine vesicular basaltic andesite with phenocrysts of clinopyroxene (augite or bronzite), labra- dorite, olivine ; groundmass hemi- to holo- crystalline with plagioclase, augite and mag- netite. Olivine basalt of western and eastern flows is similar in mineralogy and texture with the Twintaung crater lava of the Lower Chindwin. The older lava of the Barren island is vesicular olivine basalt with plagio- clase, augite, magnetite and apatite set in a microcrystalline groundmass. Younger lava flows of the crater are olivine basalt and porphyritic olivine andesite. The pheno- crysts in the samples consists of plagioclase, augite and olivine in a groundmass of ande- sine, angite and magnetite (samples 13, 14 and 15 in Table 1; Washington, 1924), The olivine basalt and nepheline tachylite also occur at Okpoletpan in the east Monywa hills ; basaltic rocks at Inde consist of augite, plagioclase and a few olivine, while those at Thazi is a basic olivine basalt. More basic lava occurs north of Taunggya ; phenocrysts consist of iron-rich olivine with either augite or enstatite (but no feldspar) within a groundmass of augite, feldspar, residual glass, magnetite and feldspathoid (probably nepheline and analcite). Apart from Pegu Yoma province where only basic dyke rocks are exposed, olivine- bearing intrusive rocks (younger than the associated volcanics) are known from the Salingi upland of the Lower Chindwin pro- vince, where coarse grained gabbro consists of 75%. plagioclase (Ango-ss) and rest mafics including olivine (chrysolite), hypersthene, diopside, hornblende, chlorite and iron ore. Olivine dolerite and basaltic dykes are also reported from the Wuntho and Lower Chindwin provinces ; they are younger than the intrusive rocks. In Pegu Yoma province (at Myenettaung), dolerite is highly altered and consists of olivine, augite, labradorite, palagonite and magnetite ; olivine is altered to serpentine, zeolite, and chalcedony are also present, The dyke rock is holocrys- talline, with ophitic/subophitic to glomero- porphyritic texture (sample 8 in Table 1; Chhibber, 1934). Farther south in Kyaukpyu area dolerite dyke (sample 9in Table 1 ; Chhibber, 1934) rock consists of plagioclase, augite and olivine. Biotite-olivine dolerite is reported from one of the intrusives. In general, rock is highly altered with the for- MAGMATISM AND TECTONICS OF BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC 135 mation of minerals like chalcedony, chloro- phaeite, palagonite and laussatite, olivine and pyroxene altered to serpentine, Xeno- liths of sandstone/shale is common in dyke rocks. Alkaline rocks of Kabwet area—These rocks are significant in view of their dis- tinct petro-tectonic setting, Their petro- logic association and structural disposition indicate that volcanism in the Kabwet area is of back-arc origin. Major rock types are olivine basalt (mugearite) with pheno- cryst of olivine, plagioclase (oligoclase-ande- sine) and purplish augite in a hemicrystalline groundmass with minute laths of feldspar, granules of olivine and magnetite. In cer- tain samples both ortho- and clinopyroxene are present; residual glass and zeolite are common in groundmass. Phenocrysts of feldspar contain inclusions of olivine, augite and ilmenite. Olivine tachylite is the other rock type with olivine and sodic feldspar set in a brown glassy base with microlites of augite. Thick mafic dykes have intruded the lava and associated late Tertiary sedi- ments north of Kabwet (Fig. 7). The main mass of Nattaung is a typical teschenite ; the margins of the intrusive body is olivine dolerite (Stamp and Chhibber, 1927). The rock is coarse grained, porphyritic with large olivine and plagioclase and sometimes augite ; interstitial material consists of felds- par laths, augite, glass and analcite. A coarse grained gabbroic dolerite (sample 16 in Table 1) consists of plagioclase (Ang), olivine and titanaugite ; olivine altered to serpentine in most cases. Olivine dolerite, fine grained than sample 16 is recorded from Thinbaung (sample 17 in Table 1) and Letkokbin area. Dykes of Kyaukmyaung and Singu are olivine and analcite dolerite. Other Acid and Basic Volcanic Rocks The Twintaung crater in Lower Chindwin province contains certain lavas which consist of plagioclase and augite, altered to chlorite. The amygdaloidal andesite of Powintaung consists of plagioclase (Anges), and diop- side within a groundmass of plagioclase, pyroxene and opaque glass. Such rocks are also common in the Popa province as reported both from its older and younger lavas. One sample consists of plagioclase ( oligoclase-andesine ) and altered clino- pyroxene in groundmass showing spherulitic structure developed around magnetite or feldspar. In another type augite, hypersthe- ne/enstatite and labradorite phenocrysts are set in a glassy trachytic groundmass with granules of avgite and magnetite. The Popa peak flow of the younger lavas is zoned with plagioclase, hypersthene and augite ina very fine groundmass (sample 5 and 6in Table 1). The plantation flow in Popa is exclusively an enstatite basalt. Labradorite-augite basalt is also recorded from the Barren island (sample 12 in Table 1, Washington, 1924). Trachyte and related rocks—These rocks do not form major petrologic suite in the Burmese-Andaman arc, except for some minor occurrences in the Wuntho massif and within the younger flows of Mt. Popa. The only major outcrop of trachyte is from the Salingi upland in the Lower Chindwin province where the rock is describ- ed as akeratophyre (Barber, 1936). Rock types include: (i) a porphyritic rock with phenocrysts of albite in a subtrachytic groundmass of feldspar, interstitial quartz, 136 SUJIT DASGUPTA, MANOJ MUKHOPADHYAY AND D, R. NANDY epidote, leucoxene, opaque and accicular aggregates of chlorite ; (ii) a glomeropor- phyritic rock with phenocrysts of quartz, feldspar (albite-oligoclase), chlorite and epidote set in a microcrystalline groundmass. Rhyolite and related silicic volcanics— Rhyolite flow, tuff, agglomerate, and silicic volcanic breccia constitute a signifi- cant proportion of the volcanic edifice, in the Jade Mines, Taungthorlon, Lower Chindwin of Popa provinces, In the first two areas, rhyolitic rocks are younger than most of the basic volcanics, but, in Popa they are distinctly older. Rhyolitic rocks ‘of the Lower Chindwin province contain volcanogenic copper deposits. Letpadaung rhyolite is a holocrystalline porphyritic rock with phenocrysts of quartz and pseudomorph of kaoline and clorite set in a_ microgranitic groundmass ; other variety is a fine grained felsitic rock with quartz, mica and highly devitrified glass. Glassy vesicular rhyolite with vitroclastic texture is reported from Shinmadaung area. Silicified tuff interbed- ded with rhyolite lava occur in Popa province. Lava is pumiceous consisting of feldspar, quartz and sometimes with granite fragments ina fine, holocrystalline quartzo- feldspathic groundmass, Bedded rhyolite with flow structure is common. GEOCHEMICAL AFFINITY The geochemical study is based on 17 whole rock analyses on the volcanics and dyke rocks of the Burmese-Andaman arc, of which, 10 are from published data and 7 new (Fig. 6for sampling localities), The latter samples are for Burma which were obtained from the collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta ; they were analysed for major oxides and trace elements at the Cent- ral Chemical Laboratory, Geological Survey of India, Calcutta. The 17 analyses include 4 from Lower Chindwin province (samples 1-4), 3 from Mt. Popa (samples 5-7), 2 from western edge of Pegu Yoma (samples 8 and 9), 2from Narcondam island (samples 10 and 11) and 4 from Barren island (samples 12-15) in the Andaman Sea ; and 2 from the Kabwet backare province (samples 16 and 17). The Tertiary volcanics of the Burmese- Andaman are are practically unmetamor- phosed, but considering weathering effects, Fe,0,/FeO was adjusted for all the analyses following Irvine and Baragar (1971). The whole rock analysis was then recalculated to 100% excluding the volatiles. Major oxides, afew trace elements and CIPW norm (cf. Kelsey, 1965) for the samples are presented in Table 1. The present data set displays a gap in the SiO, range 56% - 61% (Fig. 8) ; nine samples are basalt (SiO,<53%), five basaltic andesite (SiO, 53% - 57%) and rest three are andesite/dacite. Harker variation diagram (Fig. 8) does not however indicate any along-the-arc variation. In the Lower Chindwin province, SiO, decreases towards south along-the - are with increase in MgO and CaO, and decrease of Na,O, while in Mt. Popa FeO* enrichment is observed with diminishing SiO. Composite variation pattern indicates that FeO*, MgO and CaO decrease with increasing silica, while NagO increases with silica. Variations of K,O and TiO, with silica are not appreciable ; alumina increases with silica upto 56% and then decreases. Five out of eight samples studied for trace elements indicate relatively high concentration of Cr (150-500 ppm) and MAGMATISM AND TECTONICS OF BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC 137 lz 03% 30 38 6 Fig. 8. The Harker diagram for different oxides (FeO*, MgO, CaO, Al,0,, Na,O, K,O and TiO,) with SiO, variation for 17 rock samples from five magmatic provinces of the Burmese-Andaman volcanic arc low Ni (10-50 ppm) for basaltic rocks with SiO.~50%. Such low Ni and higher Cr perhaps indicate that fractionation was largely controlled by olivine. Six out of 17 samples are of alkaline affinity, the rest being subalkaline. The discrimination is based on total alkali-silica variation diagram and normative Ne’ -OL’ -Q’ triangular plot (Figs. 9a and 9b) (cf. Irvine and Baragar, 1971). Subalkaline rocks were studied for cale-alkaline vs tholeiitic trend by the FeO*/ MgO- SiO, diagram (cf. Miyashiro, 1975) Basic data are listed in Table 1 (Fig. 9c). The six samples plotted in the alkaline field (Fig. 9a) are undersaturated with normative nepheline and _ olivine. However sample 2 (Twintaung basalt) and sample 7 (Taunggala hill, Popa basalt) could be classified as high K calc-alkaline basalt for their relatively higher KyO content at lower silica level. Samples 4 (Lower Chind- win), 9 (Pegu Yoma) and 16-17 (Kabwet) belong to the alkali olivine basalt group with normative e and nepheline. Two samples from Narcondam, one each from 138 SUJIT DASGUPTA, MANOJ MUKOPADHYAY AND D. R. NANDY. r = (4041090) % 23 (OL +0.750px) ou (Q+0-4A0+0:25 0px) (d) 6-45 “IS Fe Fig. 9. Plots for geochemical analyses for 17 rock samples; basic data are given in Table 1. Figure (a) : Total alk: ilica diagram ; (b); Ne’ -OL’ -Q’ triangular plot ; (c): FeO" MgO ratio versus silica content ; and (d): Plot of discriminant functions F, versus Fy showing that the basalt samples plot in and around the calcalkaline basalt (CAB) field. Pegu Yoma and Popa, and two from Lower Chindwin province belong to the cale-alka- line series. Of these, three are oversaturated with normative hypersthene and quartz, and two undersaturated with normative hypers- thene and olivine. All four samples from the Barren island represent the tholeiitic suite (Fig. 9c) ; sample 6 from Popa also plots in this field. The Barren island sam- ples are low-K are tholeiites but the Popa rock is a high-alumina basaltic andesite. Plot of discriminant function F, vs Fy (cf- Pearce, 1976) shows that by and large the samples plot in the CAB (Calc-alkaline basalt) field (Fig. 9d). DISCUSSION The Burmese-Andaman arc developed MAGMATISM AND TECTONICS OF BURMESE-ANDAMAN ARC 139 in response toeastward subduction of the Indian plate below the Burma plate at the SE Asia continental margin. Here the arc volcanism commenced in the late Eocene over the Mesozoic crust of variable compo- sition and thickness. The Shan-Sagaing fault played an important role during the post-Triassic period in the evolution of the Mesozoic crust. Rifting and diffuse spreading at the Asian continental margin apparently created a narrow and. linear basin with ophiolitic crust of pre-Albian age. In the Jade Mines province such ultramafics formed the basement for the younger arc volcanics. Creataceous and older granitoid complexes also constitute the basement for the Tertiary arc edifice in the Jade Mines, Wuntho and Lower Chindwin provinces. The granitoid rocks of comparable age and composition are also reported from the western edge of the Shan plateau in the proximity of the Shan-Sagaing fault zone, Such pre-Tertiary granitoid suites either represent older arc intrusives or they might have originated through partial mel- ting of the older igneous and metamorphic rocks during the active rifting and spreading episodes. Thickness and composition of the sub- ‘arc crust apparently varied along the trend of the arc. A marked change is observed in the relative proportion of the silicic volcanics and inthe age of the oldest arc volcanics between the Lower Chindwin and Mt. Popa provinces, The volume of Tertiary arc magmatism as seen in the Lower Chind- win province is, in fact, much reduced in Mt. Popa province or areas farther south. The arc volcanism commenced by late Eocene or early Oligocene in north part of the arc, while the earliest arc volcanism in the southern segment between Mt. Popa and Barren island was initiated only in the Mio-Pliocene. This suggests that the subarc crust is much thicker and is of semi-conti- nental character in north segment of the are but this gradually transists to semiocea- nic to oceanic crust below coastal Burma and north Andaman Sea. Younging volca- nism reported from the southern’ provinces indicates that subduction of the Indian plate below the Burma plate was initiated in the north part of the arc, and, this progressed with time southwards. In the Jade Mines, Taungthorlon- Wuntho and Lower Chindwin provinces, volcanism commenced by early Oligocene and continued through Pleistocene-sub Recent, Volcanism is represented by basalt- andesite-dacite-rhyolite suite of calc-alkaline series. Alkali olivine basalt, though lesser developed, occurs in close association with the calc-alkaline lavas. The alkali lavas of Okpoletpan-Taunggyi area are fault-associated, and possibly represent intra-are rift-related voleanism (Fig. 6). Calc-alkaline intrusives (both plutonic and dyke rocks of gabbro-diorite-granodiorite- granite clan) invade the arc volcanic edifice in the Jade Mines, Wuntho and Lower Chindwin provinces. Spatial-temporal-com- positional relation among the intrusive- extrusive phases suggest that they are broadly coeval, and, form part of a single voleano-plutonic complex. Some of the younger plutonic and dyke rocks possibly have deep-seated roots intruding the arc volcanic edifice during periods of incipient intra-arc rifting. In Mt. Popa, the oldest exposed are volcanics are of late Mio-Plio- 140 SUNT DASGUPTA, MANOS MUKHOPADHYAY AND D. R, NANDY cene age, but the subarc basement remains unexposed here. The volcanics are mostly similar to those occurring in the Lower Chindwin, Farther south in the Pegu Yoma. the calc-alkaline to alkaline dolerite dykes are intrusive within the Pegu sandstones. The Narcondam and Barren volcanic Islands were constructed over the Miocene oceanic crust underlying the Andaman Sea, Typical cale-alkaline lavas occurs in the Narcondam island but low-K tholeiites characterise the Barren volcanics. Presence of amphibole in almost all the cale-alkaline suites suggests for the hydrous nature of the parental mag- ma. Also, the presence of high Cr and low Ni in are voleanics possibly indicate that fractionation was largely controlled by oli- vine. Late Neogene-Pleistocene alkaline lavas and dykes of the Kabwet province relate to the activity along the Shan-Sagaing fault in a backare setting. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Prof. K. R. Chakraborty, University of Malaya for several suggestions on an earlier version of the manuscript. Dr.S.K. Acharya gave useful comments. We also thank S/Shri D. P. Dhoundial and K. K. Basu, Geological Survey of India, for permission to study rock samples from the collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Shri N. 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