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ABSTRACT

Earlier leadership theories focused on The Great Man theory and women were at all excluded

from being seen as a leader due to fact that earlier people considered men and women having

different behavior, different skills and attitudes. However with changing time, status of women

gained importance and now in this dynamic world woman entrepreneurs are an important part of

the corporate sector. This paper studies the increasing role of women leaders in banking industry.

It shows that organizations with women executives at the top levels have increased the

performance and efficiency of the company compared to those which do not have women leaders

at senior positions. The banking Sector in India was male dominating till 1980‟s but in last three

decades the gender equality became fairly poised. Women executives like Chanda Kochhar

(CEO, ICICI Bank), Kalpana Morparia(MD and CEO ICICI Holdings) and Naina Lal Kidwai

(CEO,HSBC) contributed a lot to the company‟s growth. This paper studies the factors which

make women so successful in the Indian Banking Industry and what are the main challenges

among them. This paper also suggests some remedial measures that the companies should adopt

to retain women longer in the workplace and to offer opportunities to women to move into
toppositions.

KEYWORDS: Women Leadership, entrepreneurship, banking industry

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INTRODUCTION

The liberalization process of the Indian economy has penetrated deep into the lives of people

including women. Historically, women are considered as the weaker sex, as a result, for the past

centuries, women are deprived of most of the rights of the opposite sex, particularly the issue

about leadership and management. Earlier the women were confined to household chores. This

is particularly because of the issue of leadership. The early leadership theories focused on the

Great Man theory, thus, all of the theories primarily focus on describing men and male leaders.

As a result, women are all excluded from being seen as a leader, due to the fact that during that

time, literatures and researchers considered men and women having different behaviours, skills
and attitudes, consequently, the said differences between the two sexes are considered as hinder

for women in terms of career advancement (Morrison & Von Glinow 1990).women are the

nucleus of our civilization. She has different roles to play in ever changing social environment.

Women‟s development, thus, is directly related with nation‟s development. With the dawn of

independence, our constitution guaranteed gender equality, and a large number of schemes and

programmes for women‟s development were initiated. But despite of these measures, Indian

women entrepreneurs continues to live and strive in a complex situation of socio-cultural,

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historical, political and economic realities. It took centuries for women‟s role to unfold in

different forms, shape and size to move in a new direction. Still there are localities where women

still listen to code of conduct written on there four walls by male dominating society however in

some localities women‟s are fighting back these problems and are trying to come out there four

walls which are holding them back to show there skills, abilities and interests.

However, with changing times, the potential of women was recognized and gradually status of

women gained importance. Although the Government of India strived to break through such

gender discrimination by introducing various initiatives like emphasis on women‟s education,

abolition of child marriages, women health activities, etc., but the results were not fruitful.

Historically many freedom fighters and leaders took up many movement against women‟s

subjugation to men it means there is no discrimination between men and women in the eye of our

constitution. Then where does this difference lies?

This difference lies no where but in minds of our society and some where in our culture which

never wanted women‟s to step out of there abode. Previously it was always the male member to

step out to earn living for his family then came a time where women started coming out to earn

but only under the condition where male member was absent or was unable to work, and it was
considered as a condition of pity for that women and his family as well. But it took so many ages

for women to come out and earn there interest and feel proud about themselves. It was always a

son who used to take over his father‟s business but with the changing role of women now this

scenario has also changed now there are many examples where a girl is contributing his best with

her parental business. The growing Indian middle class shed apprehensions about educating the

girl child and gave due importance for higher studies. Educating women has changed the role of

women. Gradually, women‟s education was encouraged and due importance given to women‟s

career and professional life

In this dynamic world, women entrepreneurs are an important part of the global quest for

sustained economic development and social progress. In the words of president APJ Abdul

Kalam "empowering women is a prerequisite for creating a good nation, when women are

empowered, society with stability is assured. Empowerment of women is essential as their

thoughts and their value systems lead to the development of a good family, good society and

ultimately a good nation."

WOMEN’S CAREER DEVELOPMENT HINDRANCE IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY

This can be observed in the banking industry – which is the largest financial sector. However,

globally, it can be observed that there is a vital difference between the proportions

of women managers between the industrialized or developed countries with those developing

countries. For instance, in the USA, 37% of the management positions are handled

by women (US Bureau of Labor Statisservtics 2005), this percentage is high compare with only

20% in the entire European Union (European Commission 2005) and only 26% in Germany

(German Institute for Research in Economics 2007.

There are different studies which show the different factors or aspects which affect and result

to challenges and hindrance in career development of women in the banking industry as well as

other industries in the world.

The main or general barriers towards the development and advancement of the careers of

the women in the industry are


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192

Stereotypes

recruiting practices

the lack of access towards the powerful networks and connections

the issue about family

process of balancing the time and effort exerted in work and family

In many countries laws and regulations are designed in order to protect and give special

treatment towards the women, particularly those with family and single parents. This includes

financial benefits, maternity protection and rights for the working parents. While the maternity

protection law include protection from dismissal to those employees expecting to be a mother.

This also includes protection from any harmful and risky tasks and influences in the workplace

which prohibits them to work on Sundays, holidays as well as at night. It is important to consider

that all of the expenses and cost of the programs and benefits stated above will all be solely

handled by the employers. As a result, this gives the employers to hesitate in employing female

managers because, in case of pregnancy and family matters, there are laws and regulations which

give them the rights to excuse from their work, which is very important because managerial

and leadership position in banking industry is considered as vital and complicated. Therefore, it

will be beneficial and feasible for the employers to employ male leaders and managers.

SCENARIO IN INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

Many experts opined that organizations with women executives at top levels have increased the

performance and efficiency of the company compared to the companies which do not have

women leaders at senior positions. Companies with diversity on their boards, productivity is

better. Having more women on the boards of companies does help. Women would moderate risk
and would be more balanced. "If UK banks had more women on their boards, the scenario
postrecession

would have been a lot different."

Indian banks, with better gender equality on board than their western counterparts, scraped

though the economic slowdown unscathed

The banking sector in India did have its male domination till the 1980s, but in the last

three decades the gender equilibrium became 'fairly' poised.

Chanda Kochhar

ICICI Bank, India's second largest bank after State Bank of India, is headed by a woman, Chanda

Kochhar

In mid-1980s the chairman and managing director of ICICI, Suresh S. Nadkarni exhorted Lalita

Gupte, trainee (at that time), to prove her potential in the organisation. He advised:

“If you do not succeed, there will be no other woman in this organisation.”

KalpanaMorparia

Kalpana Morparia played a major role in transforming ICICI Bank from being a financial

institution to a `one-stop shop' providing an array of financial services right from project

financing to retail products. Morparia will be the new MD and CEO of ICICI Holdings, the new

arm for insurance, mutual fund business.

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Naina Lal Kidwai

There are many firsts to Naina Lal Kidwai's credit. Naina Lal, CEO of HSBC, is the first Indian

woman to graduate from the Harvard Business School. Also, she has the distinction of being the

first woman to head the operations of a foreign bank in India.

Women executives – Chanda Kochhar, Shikha Sharma, Lalita Gupte, Madhavi Puri Buch and
Kalpana Morparia head various portfolios of the company bringing up in phenomenal changes

and contributed to the company‟s growth. The company played a significant role and has acted

as a catalyst in facilitating its women to hold senior positions.

According to a study by Standard Chartered Bank about women on corporate boards in India,

the financial sector performs best in terms of gender diversity, nine of the eleven banks listed

on BSE-100 have a woman on their board and two of these banks have a female CEO. In

fact, through the recent recession, Reserve Bank of India had two women deputy governors

on board, Usha Thorat and Shyamala Gopinath.

Many people agree that many banks that were headed by women CEOs performed much

better at time of recession. In this sense, the banking and financial services sector has been

particularly lucky.

For, while only 11% of the companies across sectors in India had women CEOs, 54% of

these CEOs come from the financial services sector, says a recent EMA Partners

International study. In the Fortune 500 list though, financial services just accounted for 7% of

the women CEOs.

WHAT MAKES WOMEN SO SUCCESSFUL IN THE INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRY?

The present data clearly indicates that management in general has become much more

human-oriented, even in the face of some incredible advancement in technology. As a

result, scholars and professionals alike have recognized the need for people with better

'Soft' skills that include communicating, networking, empowering, delegating, and

counseling among others.

Retail banking is more of a relationship thing and women excel at that. In the Indian

context, while women have started venturing out to work in the corporate world, they

have been handling relationships at home too, as a wife or a mother. "This nurturing and

adjusting attitude flows into the workplace as well."

The mid-80s saw a number of smart women graduating from the B-schools just when the

Indian banking sector was starting to grow. ICICI, HDFC, HSBC, Citibank, were all
expanding and were hiring during the mid-80s and the early 90s.

Women have done well in banking because it is a business where you need to keep in

mind what the customer wants. Women have some amount of empathy towards a

customers needs.

Most women bankers agree that one of main advantages they had was the support system

from their family. There may be numerous cases to belie their observation but for the

achievers, family support made all the difference. "There is family, in-laws, friends and

domestic staff that offer support to the household, which makes it easier for the woman to

focus on her career.

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Companies are increasingly recognizing the talent of women and placing them in a

required position. Earlier, women were risk-averse but with changing times they are

becoming risk-takers as men and focusing on long-term interests of the company. In

general, operating and managing businesses by women are significantly different with

that of men. Studies showed that the styles of leadership of both men and women can be

effective depending n the business circumstances but women‟s leadership has more edge.

In today‟s world, leadership is becoming more results-oriented than process-driven.

Moreover, organizations with more women executives are experiencing better results or

improved financial performance than companies with few women leaders. Traits like

patience, commitment, understanding others‟ concerns and so on are in-built in women,

which are very helpful in building strong business relationships.

Women managers tend to have more of a desire to build than a desire to win.

Women tend to be better than men at empowering staff.

Women encourage openness and are more accessible.


Women leaders respond more quickly to calls for assistance.

Women identify problems more quickly and more accurately.

When feeling the sting of rejection, women leaders learn from adversity and carry on

with an "I'll show you" attitude.

Women leaders demonstrate an inclusive, team-building leadership style of problem

solving and decision making.

Women leaders are more likely to ignore rules and take risks

CHALLENGES OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR’S

Women leadership is invisible, that is, women leaders take a back seat to submit to men

leaders since the corporate world is a „man‟s industry‟.

Women leaders are more assertive and persuasive, have a stronger need to get things

done and are more willing to take risks than male leaders

Leadership remains as a domain dominated by men as it is directly associated with

authoritarianism to which the women lacks.

Tokenism prevails in the corporate world that endangers the value of women leaders in

comparison of men leaders.

Women leaders themselves have lower expectations than that of men leaders

thus women leaders are more hindered by the entitlement effect.

Women faces more challenges before becoming leaders compared to that of

the challenges experienced by men.

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REMEDIAL MEASURES

Companies need to recognize that leadership skills are “common at the top” for both
men and women executives –and women do not require any special privileges that

highlight their abilities to multi-task or provide emotional intelligence or empathy.

Women can deliver best in an “environment of respect.” -- With best employer

practices in place, that offer career advancement opportunities to senior women to

move into top-positions. These companies will be able to retain women longer in the

workforce.

HR leaders and CEOs will need to redefine “Best-Employer” organizations, from the

traditional and outdated indexes to ones that include best practices for building a

sustainable organization, with a corporate code for women employees, and diversitydashboard.

There is a clear need to focus on mentoring the Indian corporate mind-set to get past

the “subtle glass ceiling” and resolving inequities in the workplace, for leveraging

best talent and performance among women executives.

There is an important need for Mentoring women in the “successor generation” – so

that they are able to meet the challenges in a male-dominated workplace –while they

are trying to also maintain their work-family commitment in the early stages of their

career.

Women need to market themselves better in the organization – and create visibility in

external networks. This is one of the key invisible barriers to women‟s advancement

There exists a hesitation to appoint women as Directors on company board – both

executive and independent – as they bring in a „novelty-factor” that may upset the

comfort-zone. As companies aspire to become global leaders and bring innovative

thinking in the organization – investors and market consumers will begin to look for

more women on company Boards.

Diversity programs in organizations provide an excellent network for women

executives in the organization.

Appraisal systems need to be more gender-neutral in corporate India, and interview

panels should be more inclusive.


Women need to unambiguously celebrate their success – and there is need for more

success stories to be outreached, more women role-models to learn from, and more

networks for experience-sharing.

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SWOT ANALYSIS

STRENTHSEquality

of opportunity

Equal pay for equal work

Reservation for women in parliament

and state legislative bodies

Right to education

Full voting rights

WEAKNESSESEmotional

behavior

Back seat of women leader to submit to

men leaders

Lack of authoritarianism

Lower expectations than men

Discrimination

Networking

OPPORUNITIESHigher

education

Reservation of different sectors

Social support
THREATSSexual

Harassment

Family commitment

Support from spouse

Traditional mindset of society

Maintain the balance between work and

home

Faces more challenges than men

HR INITIATIVE FOR WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

• On campus day-care centre – (McAfee India)

• Flexi- Timing to accommodate early parenthood

• Extended maternity leaves

• Adoption maternity leave – (IBM)

• A certain amount of payment of the legal expenses incurred while adopting a child –

(HP)

• Cab drops during pregnancy

• Post maternity leaves without pay for 6months to 1yr – IBM, Infosys)

CONCLUSION

Entrepreneurship among women, no doubt improves the wealth of the nation in general and of

the family in particular. Women today are more willing to take up activities that were once

considered the preserve of men, and have proved that they are second to no one with respect to

contribution to the growth of the economy. Women entrepreneurship must be molded properly

with entrepreneurial traits and skills to meet the changes in trends, challenges global markets and

also be competent enough to sustain and strive for excellence in the entrepreneurial arena. A

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woman has proved themselves as successful leaders in politics as well as in various

organizations. Women are now participate in all activities such as education, politics, media, art

and culture, service sectors, science and technology, etc. There are lots of problems which a

women faces during her careers growth.

Women need to be more practical. Women need to become more aware so they can reposition

their behavior to develop a style that feels right and delivers effective leadership

1. Introduction

In Vedic times women occupied the highest place in society.

They were given all opportunities to develop themselves,

socially, intellectually and morally. They were given

thorough education. Similarly there is a positive change in

the present society, which is focusing on women

empowerment. The progress of any country is intimately

linked to its ability to develop and use its human resource

effectively. This is particularly true in a developing country

like India. Women, as a significant part of this human

resource pool, play a vital role in the economic, social and

political development of India. Nationalization of the Indian

Banking Sector in 1969 served as the first major step to

reduce gender discrimination against women in banking

sector and that provided opportunity for women

empowerment. The pattern of Indian women's employment

has changed significantly since the 1970’s. Many major

Indian banks are hiring highly qualified young Indian

women to their administrative levels and they are showing


remarkable growth over the years.

2. Objectives of the study

1) To identify the problems of women in the Indian banking

sector.

2) To suggest the measures to overcome the problems.

3. Methodology

The present study is based on secondary data and the data

were collected from journals, books, news papers, RBI

annual reports and other websites.

4. Spotlight on Women in Indian Banks

The number of talented women with a finance background

joining into the banking sector is increasing every year.

Women constitute a little over 11% of the workforce in the

banking industry (Khandelwal, 1988).The Indian

government appointed a committee in the year 2009, to look

at human resource issues of public sector banks under the

chairmanship of former Chairman and Managing Director of

Bank of Baroda and Anil Khandelwal. The Khandelwal

Committee made some far-reaching recommendations, some

of which were accepted by banks and the government.

According to the committee's report published in 2010, at

that time women accounted for only 17 per cent of

employees in state-run banks, of which only 2.7 per cent of

women were in executive positions.

“Women started joining banks only in the late 70s and

mostly at clerical levels. With career progression reaching

an apex, the industry is likely to have more women at the top


in the years to come. And when they do come, they are not

just considered women, but as leaders and role models,”

says Subhalakshmi Panse, chairperson-cum-managing

director (CMD) of Allahabad Bank, who took over the reins

in 2012. Not only in the higher levels that we can see had the

involvement of women but also in the clerical levels also

women are more attracted. Secured family life, attractive

salary, favourable working conditions and the stability in

work are some of the reasons that make this sector more

preferable to women.

According to a study by Standard Chartered Bank about

women on corporate boards in India, the financial sector

performs best in terms of gender diversity, nine of the eleven

banks listed on BSE-100 have a woman on their board and

two of these banks have a female CEO. In fact, through the

recent recession, Reserve Bank of India had two women

deputy governors on board, Usha Thorat and Shyamala

Gopinath.

According to the 2013 Catalyst Census: Fortune 500 Women

Executive Officers and Top Earners, women represented

17.6 percent of executives and 17.9 percent of the board of

directors in the finance and insurance sector. In 2012,

women represented 23.1 percent of all senior officers in

Paper ID: NOV161540 1760

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

ISSN (Online): 2319-7064

Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 | Impact Factor (2014): 5.611


Volume 5 Issue 2, February 2016

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Financial Post 500 companies, and in 2013 11.4 percent of

chief financial Officers of Fortune 500.

The banking Sector in India which was male dominated till

1980’s, in last three decades the gender equality became

fairly poised. Women executives like Chanda Kochhar

(CEO, ICICI Bank), and Naina Lal Kidwai (CEO,HSBC),

Arundathi Bhattacharya,(CMD SBI), Shikha Sharma(CEO

and MD, Axis Bank), Usha Ananthasubramanian (CEO, MD

Punjab National Bank), are contributing a lot to the bank’s

growth. The below table presents the class-wise distribution

of all scheduled commercial banks employees and women

representation in it. From the below table we can observe

that the number of female employees in the banking sector is

increasing year after year. 6. Strategies to Overcome from the Problems

The first step in addressing the unconscious biases and

assumptions is to get people recognize and understand these

in their own thoughts and behaviour. Management may

require some training to help them do this. Some firms are

taking measures to improve awareness of gender issues,

using workshops and reverse mentoring,

The second, and perhaps the most important step in

eliminating biases is ensuring that these assumptions about

what it takes to be an effective leader do not influence hiring

decisions, promotions, the allocation of career opportunities


and performance evaluations. To bring this about, senior

management should change their recruitment and promotion

criteria and set targets for attracting and developing a

diverse set of leaders.

Employers who want to help women advance to the top must

do more to make allowances for life outside of work. They

must make sure that even ambitious and talented employees

do not feel that they will have to work hours incompatible

with a family life. Women in banking who require flexible

working conditions need to feel emotionally empowered to

take full advantage of them.

The Women's Wing of the AICOBOO has been taking up

these issues systematically. One outcome of their work has

been the charter of demands they submitted to their union

confederation. These included:

6.1 Infrastructural facilities such as creches and day care

centres.

6.2 Provision of hostels for working women,

accommodation for divorced, separated and widowed

women with children.

6.3 Special leave with a lien on service, for up to say five

years, to meet certain contingencies specific to women,

extending this facility to men also whenever required.

6.4 Provision for a woman with a child less than three years

old to work for fewer hours and receive proportionate pay.

6.5 Family pension and voluntary retirement for men and

women after twenty years of service.


6.6 Provision for flexi-hours and part-time employment in

suitable cases.

6.7 Although maternity leave (12 weeks in all) is regarded as

fairly satisfactory, additional provisions required are medical

benefits, hospitalization, leave for the purpose of child care,

paternity leave for at least ten days, and further leave for

those who have to look after an infant in special

circumstances. The Ministry of Labour is expected to amend

the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, which presently entitles

women to 12 weeks of maternity benefit whereby employers

are liable to pay full wages for the period of leave.

6.8 The specific demands put forward by the Women's Wing

include a uniform transfer policy in all banks for women

officers, and a cell to deal with women's issues in every

bank's personnel department. They are currently trying to

formulate demands relating to training programmes and time

off for women to do union work.

Similarly the All India Bank Employees Association

(AIBEA) initiated a women's wing of the union to take up

issues specially affecting women. The Reserve Bank of

India has a Women's Forum for the same purpose. The

unions in the LIC have begun to organize women-only

meetings and workshops. The Insurance Employees

Association decided in 1991 to organize women employees

more effectively, as the number of women employees was

increasing day by day, with over 75 per cent of the new

recruits being women. The association has demanded


crèches facilities, special leave and better working

conditions for women, and the removal of hidden

discrimination.

Each PSB has to come out with a HRD plans for

development of women and SC / ST employees. A special

HRD effort has to be put in place for developing these

groups in key skills of banking. Training strategy to focus on

staff working in rural areas and women employees and

priority to be accorded for regular in-house training to rural

staff. Many of the Banks do not have transfer policy which

gives consideration to the special problems which female

officers/employees face vis-a-vis their male counterparts.

Government of India, Ministry of Finance and Department

of Financial Services has issued guidelines to all Public

Sector Banks including IDBI & SBI Associates, so that

transfers of female officers and employees can be considered

with compassion and their hardship can be mitigated to the

extent possible. National Institute of Bank management

(NIBM) is also organising workshops for female clerical

staff, officers and managers.

One way of improving prospects for women could be to

restructure the work, for example with flexible working

hours, part time job assignments, split location positions

performed partly at home and job and job sharing

(Mankidey 1988). Banks should be encouraged to have a

formal mentorship program in which new employees are

assigned mentors who are responsible for helping the new


recruit to fit into the central core of the organization.

Finally, if financial firms are to make progress on increasing

diversity, they cannot treat it as a side-line activity.

Increasing diversity must be a priority for the most senior

management in the firm and not merely for HR.

7. Conclusion

Increasing women literacy, growing economic pressure, and

the burning desire to gain economic and social independence

are pushing womenfolk to take up gainful career. The

phenomenal growth of banks has created massive

employment opportunities for the educated women of our

nation. Feminine traits no doubt help them perform better

than male colleagues in certain aspect of delivery of banking

service Researches have shown that having women on

boards provides genuine value addition to decision-making.

We have a distance to go, especially in the larger society,

Paper ID: NOV161540 1762

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

ISSN (Online): 2319-7064

Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 | Impact Factor (2014): 5.611

Volume 5 Issue 2, February 2016

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Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY

whose attitudes determine how women are viewed and

valued, including in corporate life.

Gender diversity is a term referring to how different genders are represented in a relevant setting.
Primarily this term is
often used to refer to females and males, though is some contexts and research the terms may also
refer to those who fall

into non-binary categories of gender.

India is a country with diverse traditions and customs. In all the religions, women hold a venerable
position.

Unfortunately, since ages, the role of women was confined to household chores and limited to
domestic issues. In the

male-dominated Indian society, women suffered to extreme levels of exploitation. Some factors –
like death of bread

winner, sudden fall in family income or inadequate family income – forced women to seek
employment in informal

sector (small trader, artisan or field laborer on a family farm) but yet, that did not result in women
Diversity.Most of the

women executives in private and public sector banks feel lots of problems as compared to their male
counterpart. The

thought of attending to new born baby, toddlers, children returning from school, etc., distract the
attention of women

executives in their thirties. This has an adverse effect on the productivity of female executives. Some
executives find it

very difficult to manage male subordinates and have a tough time in extracting work from them. The
very submissive

nature of women executives come in the way of dealing with customers. It is also reported that the
higher ups dump the

work on submissive female executives which result in overloading the executives. In other words the
very feminine

nature does not permit them to resist the overload.

Since executives like cashier, teller, accountant, loan officer, portfolio managers, FOREX officer,
assistant branch

manager, etc., cannot leave the bank without tallying the account, the family members of female
executives suffer more

and executive concerned experience more mental stress than the male counterparts which have an
adverse effect on the

psychological health of the women executives. Besides women executives have to bear the verbal
abuse of angry and
irate customers. This upsets psychological wellbeing of women executives. Some times when male
chauvinist happens to

be a performance appraiser in the capacity of higher ups, he shows his bias in the appraisal exercise.
Similarly male

chauvinist happens to be the subordinates; they willfully disobey the instructions of women
executives and deliberately

prolong the work. In the same vein, women executives do not get any cooperation from the peers in
other departments of

the bank thanks to male chauvinist attitude.

Problems and Challenges faced by Working Women in the Workplace

1. Balancing between paid employment and family care.

2. Work related stress problems faced by working women.

3. Victims of physical harassment and unfair treatment in the workplace.

4. Tolerance of abuse, violence, harassment and discrimination.

5. Sexual harassment, mental pressure and safety problems.

6. Prejudiced and stereotyped thinking faced by working women.

II. OBJECTIVES

1. To Find the Problems faced by Working Women in Banking Sector i.e. Govt. and Private.

2. To verify that whether these problems are actually exist for Working Women in Banking Sector i.e.
Govt. and

Private.

III. LITERATURE REVIEW

Kumar, Sundararan and Mahendran in their study “Complication Faced by Women Executives in
New Generation

Private Sector Banks in Pondicherry State”, found that there are certain problems faced by women
executives for their

professional duties like heavy workload, physical strain, the pain of dealing with illiterate customers,
difficulties

experienced in getting work done from the male subordinates and lack of time to attend to the
needs of family members,

B
Manisha et al., International Journal of Emerging Research in Management &Technology

ISSN: 2278-9359 (Volume-5, Issue-2)

© 2016, IJERMT All Rights Reserved Page | 42

etc. If these problems are overcome than there is a smooth professional journey of women
executives. Whereas Haq in

their study “Inter sectionality of Gender and other forms of identity: Dilemmas and challenges facing
women in

India”, explore the different challenges that women are facing in India due to the intersectionality of
gender and other

forms of identities impacting on their personal and professional lives. Today in modern era the
women are not only

compromising in education and healthcare but also compromising in their personal and professional
development by

being undervalued, underemployed and under-rewarded. Researcher suggest that some social
implications like

awareness programmes, changing attitudes and corporate social responsibility interventions helps
towards improving the

quality of women in the society. In the study of Kumar and Sundar “Problem Faced by Women
Executives Working

in Public Sector Banks in Puducherry”, studied the factors such as taking care of the family
combining domestic work

and office work leaves no time for making women fit for higher posts and the stress resulting from
this Physical strain

has been identified as a prime factor. The Fear of transfer which disturbs family life and domestic
peace and the

exploitation due to submissive nature of women executives has been discriminated as second
important factor in giving

better performance. It is also interpreted that women executives attach more significance to family
life while they are not

neglecting the professional life. Therefore women executives prefer to accomplish any challenge
without affecting their

role in the family. There is a another study of “Problems faced by working women in Banking sector
of Bhawalpur”
by Abid”, studied the various problems faced by working women in banking sector and its impact on
the balancing

between their professional & personal life of married women in comparison to unmarried women.
They further found

that their parents have supportive attitude towards their daughter which gives strength to them in
comparison of married

women. Whereas sometimes relatives created the problems, so parents of working women should
communicate other

relative and society in order to build the trust regarding the transparency of this sector.

IV. RESEARCH DESIGN

In this exploratory empirical research, data is collected by questionnaire from 71 respondents from
the different Banks of

Sonepat District (Both Private and Public Banks) and try to find out the problem faced by Women
workers in banking

sector. In the questionnaire, we try to cover the problems of both aspect of life, problems in
professional life as well as of

personal life. Further, we try to explore the problem of different marital status respondent to have
complete idea

regarding the problems and their causes.

A. Data Collection:

To meet the objectives of present study, Primary and secondary data are collected for the present
study. Primary data has

been collected through the well-structured questionnaire. The main respondents targeted were
working women of

selected banks. Secondary data have been collected through different records and accounts of the
concerned banks,

various publications and journals of banks.

B. Hypothesis of the study:

1. H0 =There are different number of problems for working women in different banking sector.

H1 = There is no problem faced by the working women in different Banking sector

2. H0 =There are more problems related to family and profession for married than single working
women.
H1 = There are not more problems related to family and profession for married than single working
women.

V. LIMITATIONS

A best effort is put for this study; however some limitations still exists in this study which are as
follows. In this research,

Majority of the respondents are in having the experience of 1 to 10 and ages between 18 to 40 and
mostly graduates.

Executive level responses are not included in this research that should have been the part of the
future researches. Banks

of only sonepat city are taken for collecting responses. Responses from city as well as rural banks
from villages can be

taken in the future researches as the condition of women is worst in rural areas.

VI. DATA ANALYSIS

A. Confirmation Process

Confirmation of Hypothesis is prepared after the data analysis using chi square test as an analysis
tool on the data

collected which makes us able to prepare the recommendations.

B. Relationship between Banking Sector and Problems

Table: 1 Study of Relationship Between Banking Sector and Problems

Problems Total

A lot Few Some

Sector

Government

Count 3 20 9 32

% within Sector 9.4% 62.5% 28.1% 100.0%

% within Problems 60.0% 48.8% 36.0% 45.1%

% of Total 4.2% 28.2% 12.7% 45.1%

Private Count 2 21 16 39

Manisha et al., International Journal of Emerging Research in Management &Technology

ISSN: 2278-9359 (Volume-5, Issue-2)


© 2016, IJERMT All Rights Reserved Page | 43

Today in the modern era banking sector played a vital role. This sector attract the different
jobseeker especially women.

But there are some problems which associated with job and vary with the banking sector like: time
management, work

overload, work schedule control, work hours and their fit with preferences and work-life conflict
among full-time

employees etc. This is studied in the below table.

When reading the above tables we are interested in the results of the "Pearson Chi-Square" row. We
can see in Table 1

that χ (1) = 1.509, p = .470 >.05.By this result we reject are null hypothesis and conclude that there is
no problem faced

by working women in different banking sector. The cross tabulation table shows that in both the
government and private

sector banks working women have few problems.

C. Relationship between Marital Status and Problems

There are some problems associated with the job in banking sector and vary with the marital status
of a women like a

married women need to work both at home and office so she feels more stress as compared to
single women. Along with

that a married women carries more responsibilities like taking care of spouse and children, giving
them education and

similar other things. In this way she did not get time for herself and face problems at workplace
which is also depicted in

the below table.

Table: 2 Study of Relationship Between Marital Status and Problems

Problems Total

A lot Few Some

Marital

Status

Married
Count 4 25 19 48

% within Marital Status 8.3% 52.1% 39.6% 100.0%

% within Problems 80.0% 61.0% 76.0% 67.6%

% of Total 5.6% 35.2% 26.8% 67.6%

Single

Count 1 16 6 23

% within Marital Status 4.3% 69.6% 26.1% 100.0%

% within Problems 20.0% 39.0% 24.0% 32.4%

% of Total 1.4% 22.5% 8.5% 32.4%

Total

Count 5 41 25 71

% within Marital Status 7.0% 57.7% 35.2% 100.0%

% within Problems 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

% of Total 7.0% 57.7% 35.2% 100.0%

Chi-Square Tests

Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-

sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 1.978a

2 .372

Likelihood Ratio 2.028 2 .363

N of Valid Cases 71

When looking into the Table 2 we can see that χ (1) = 1.978, p = .372 >.05. This also tells us that
there is no statistically

significant association between marital status and problems faced; that is, both married and
unmarried have same

problems. The cross tabulation table also shows that both married and unmarried working women
have few problems in

their job.

% within Sector 5.1% 53.8% 41.0% 100.0%


% within Problems 40.0% 51.2% 64.0% 54.9%

% of Total 2.8% 29.6% 22.5% 54.9%

Total

Count 5 41 25 71

% within Sector 7.0% 57.7% 35.2% 100.0%

% within Problems 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

% of Total 7.0% 57.7% 35.2% 100.0%

Chi-Square Tests

Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 1.509a

2 .470

Likelihood Ratio 1.521 2 .467

N of Valid Cases 71

Manisha et al., International Journal of Emerging Research in Management &Technology

ISSN: 2278-9359 (Volume-5, Issue-2)

© 2016, IJERMT All Rights Reserved Page | 44

D. Relationship between Working Women’s Age and Problems

When we look at the problems faced by working women we see that age also plays an important
factor as we can see that

youngsters are more energetic now a days so they don’t think some problems as problems as
compared to aged peoples.

Like aged people require more quiet and comfortable environment while the new generation do not
get bothered from

such issues. In the below table we checked the same but results shows that age doesn’t matter
problems are same for all

age group.

Table: 3 Study of Relationship Between Working Women’s Age and Problems

Problems Total

A lot Few Some


Age

18-25 Years

Count 1 17 6 24

% within Age 4.2% 70.8% 25.0% 100.0%

% within Problems 20.0% 41.5% 24.0% 33.8%

% of Total 1.4% 23.9% 8.5% 33.8%

26-40 Years

Count 2 18 12 32

% within Age 6.2% 56.2% 37.5% 100.0%

% within Problems 40.0% 43.9% 48.0% 45.1%

% of Total 2.8% 25.4% 16.9% 45.1%

Above 40 Years

Count 2 6 7 15

% within Age 13.3% 40.0% 46.7% 100.0%

% within Problems 40.0% 14.6% 28.0% 21.1%

% of Total 2.8% 8.5% 9.9% 21.1%

Total

Count 5 41 25 71

% within Age 7.0% 57.7% 35.2% 100.0%

% within Problems 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

% of Total 7.0% 57.7% 35.2% 100.0%

Chi-Square Tests

Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-

sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 4.013a

4 .404

Likelihood Ratio 3.965 4 .411


N of Valid Cases 71

When looking into the Table 3 we can see that χ (1) = 4.013, p = .404 >.05. This also tells us that
there is no statistically

significant association between age and problems faced; that is, working women of all age have
same and equal problems

thus rejecting our null hypothesis. When we see the cross tabulation we found working women of all
the ages are having

few problems.

E. Relationship between Marital Status and Problems Related to Family and Profession

A married working face more problems related to family and work profession. Long-term exposure
of women to

excessive work hours and high levels of work-to-family interference elevates the risk of mental and
physical health

problems between working women. Moreover, it is also understand that women faced several
challenges to balances

work and family and the same is depicted in the below table.

Chi-Square Tests

Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 6.985a

2 .030

Likelihood Ratio 6.764 2 .034

N of Valid Cases 71

Table: 4 Study of Relationship Between Marital Status and Problems Related to Family and
Profession

Problems Related to family and Professional Total

Cat’t say No Yes

Marital

Status Married

Count 1 27 20 48

% within Marital Status 2.1% 56.2% 41.7% 100.0%


Manisha et al., International Journal of Emerging Research in Management &Technology

ISSN: 2278-9359 (Volume-5, Issue-2)

© 2016, IJERMT All Rights Reserved Page | 45

% within Problems Related to

family and Professional

20.0% 65.9% 80.0% 67.6%

% of Total 1.4% 38.0% 28.2% 67.6%

Single

Count 4 14 5 23

% within Marital Status 17.4% 60.9% 21.7% 100.0%

% within Problems Related to

family and Professional

80.0% 34.1% 20.0% 32.4%

% of Total 5.6% 19.7% 7.0% 32.4%

Total

Count 5 41 25 71

% within Marital Status 7.0% 57.7% 35.2% 100.0%

% within Problems Related to

family and Professional

100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

% of Total 7.0% 57.7% 35.2% 100.0%

When looking into the Table 4 we can see that χ (1) = 6.985, p = .030 <.05. This tells us that there is
statistically

significant association between marital status and problems related to family and profession; that is,
problems related to

family and profession depends on the marital status thus accepting our null hypothesis. From cross
tabulation table we

found that most of the married women said that there are no such problems but a similar number of
women also accepted
that yes there are such problems. In case of single working women the table shows that they are not
having such

problems as compared to married women.

F. Relationship between Sector and Problems Related to family and Professional

Problems related to family and work life also depends on the banking sector. When we look at the
women working in the

government sector they used to have fewer hours of workings and the work load is also not that
much as compared to

private sector. Private sector sometimes require late working hour and also work pressure is more
so women in private

sector feel problems in managing proper work and family life balances. This is described in the below
table.

Chi-Square Tests

Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 4.740a

2 .093

Likelihood Ratio 6.625 2 .036

N of Valid Cases 71

When looking into the Table 5 we can see that χ (1) = 4.740, p = .093 >.05. This tells us that there is
no statistically

significant association between banking sector and problems related to family and profession; that
is, in both the sectors

problems related to family and professions are of same level and does not depend on the type of
banking sector thus

rejecting our null hypothesis and from cross tabulation table we found that the working women of
both type of banks said

that there are not much problems related to family and profession.

Table: 5 Study of Relationship Between Sector and Problems Related to family and Professional

Problems Related to family and

Professional

Total
Can't say No Yes

Sector

Government

Count 0 21 11 32

% within Sector 0.0% 65.6% 34.4% 100.0%

% within Problems Related

to family and Professional

0.0% 51.2% 44.0% 45.1%

% of Total 0.0% 29.6% 15.5% 45.1%

Private

Count 5 20 14 39

% within Sector 12.8% 51.3% 35.9% 100.0%

% within Problems Related

to family and Professional

100.0% 48.8% 56.0% 54.9%

% of Total 7.0% 28.2% 19.7% 54.9%

Total

Count 5 41 25 71

% within Sector 7.0% 57.7% 35.2% 100.0%

% within Problems Related

to family and Professional

100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

% of Total 7.0% 57.7% 35.2% 100.0%

Manisha et al., International Journal of Emerging Research in Management &Technology

ISSN: 2278-9359 (Volume-5, Issue-2)

© 2016, IJERMT All Rights Reserved Page | 46

G. Most Important Problem


So after looking at the various associations between the problems and their impact on working
women under various

factors we can now find which problems impacts working women more in terms of workplace and
work family life

balancing. When asked from the working women about the problems they are facing they specified
different type of

problems which is given in the below table. From here we can say which problem impacts working
women more and

which create a barrier in giving a good performance at work and living a healthy work and family life
equally.

Table: 6 Most Important Problem

Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative

Percent

Valid

Depression 24 33.8 33.8 33.8

Gender

Discrimination

1 1.4 1.4 35.2

Mental Pressure 30 42.3 42.3 77.5

Others 16 22.5 22.5 100.0

Total 71 100.0 100.0

The above graph is showing that working women in the banks are facing two main problems i.e.
mental pressure and

depression as they need to manage work of both office and home. So due to more work pressure
they are facing the

problem of mental pressure and depression.

VII. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATION

This research revolves around the topic “Problem faced by working women in Banking Sector”. After
analyzing the data
carefully, the following conclusions are drawn. Majority of the respondents lies between the age-
group of 26 –40years

and belong to the private banking sector. Mostly are graduate having less than 3 years of
professional experience. From

the data analysis it is observed that there is more married female staff in comparison of unmarried
female staff and

majority of the married female staff faced more problems than unmarried like:- time management,
work overload, work

schedule control, work hours etc. It is also observed that there is a cooperative attitude of bosses
towards their female

staff that will decrease the mental pressure and depression. As well as family of working women
should also show

cooperative attitude so that she can also find time for herself and can enjoy both his family life and
work life. The second

problem that we found is that number of working women was more in private sector banks as
compared to government

sector bank so Government should encourage the women by giving them more opportunity to work
in government banks.