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Fall 2004, PSU

Lecture Notes 12

Let X : U → R3 be a proper regular patch for a surface M , and set Xi :=

Di X. Then

{X1 , X2 , N }

may be regarded as a moving bases of frame for R3 similar to the Frenet

Serret frames for curves. We should emphasize, however, two important

diﬀerences: (i) there is no canonical choice of a moving bases for a surface

or a piece of surface ({X1 , X2 , N } depends on the choice of the chart X);

(ii) in general it is not possible to choose a patch X so that {X1 , X2 , N } is

orthonormal (unless the Gaussian curvature of M vanishes everywhere).

The following equations, the ﬁrst of which is known as Gauss’s formulas,

may be regarded as the analog of Frenet-Serret formulas for surfaces:

2

2

Xij = Γkij Xk + lij N, and Ni = − lij Xj .

k=1 j=1

The coeﬃcients Γkij are known as the Christoﬀel symbols, and will be deter-

mined below. Recall that lij are just the coeﬃcients of the second fundamen-

tal form. To ﬁnd out what lij are note that

2

2

−lik = −N, Xik = Ni , Xk = − lij Xj , Xk =− lij gjk .

j=1 j=1

Thus (lij ) = (lij )(gij ). So if we let (g ij ) := (gij )−1 , then (lij ) = (lij )(g ij ), which

yields

j

2

li = lik g kj .

k=1

1

Last revised: November 12, 2004

1

Exercise 1. What is det(lij ) equal to?.

Exercise 2. Show that Ni = −dn(Xi ) = S(Xi ).

Next we compute the Christoﬀel symbols. To this end note that

2

2

Xij , Xk = Γlij Xl , Xk = Γlij glk ,

l=1 l=1

1 1

Xij , X1 Γij g11 + Γ2ij g21 g11 g21 Γij

= = .

Xij , X2 2 2

Γij g12 + Γij g22 g12 g22 Γ2ij

So

−1 11 21

Γ1ij g11 g21 Xij , X1 g g Xij , X1

= = ,

Γ2ij g12 g22 Xij , X2 g 12 g 22 Xij , X2

which yields

2

Γkij = Xij , Xl g lk .

l=1

(gjk )i = Xji , Xk + Xj , Xki ,

(gki )j = Xkj , Xi + Xk , Xij .

Thus

1

Xij , Xk = (gki )j + (gjk )i − (gij )k .

2

So we conclude that

2

1

Γkij = (gli )j + (gjl )i − (gij )l g lk .

l=1

2

Note that the last equation shows that Γkij are intrinsic quantities, i.e., they

depend only on gij (and derivatives of gij ), and so are preserved under isome-

tries.

Exercise 3. Compute the Christoﬀel symbols of a surface of revolution.

2

2.7 The Gauss and Codazzi-Mainardi Equations, Rie-

mann Curvature Tensor, and a Second Proof of

Gauss’s Theorema Egregium

Here we shall derive some relations between lij and gij . Our point of depar-

ture is the simple observation that if X : U → R3 is a C 3 regular patch, then,

since partial derivatives commute,

Xijk = Xikj .

Note that

2

Xijk = Γlij Xl + lij N

k

l=1

2

2

= (Γlij )k Xl + Γlij Xlk + (lij )k N + lij Nk

l=1 l=1

2 2

2

2

= (Γlij )k Xl + Γlij Γm

lk Xm + llk N + (lij )k N − lij lkl Xl

l=1 l=1 m=1 l=1

2 2

2

2 2

= (Γlij )k Xl + Γlij Γm

lk Xm + Γlij llk N + (lij )k N − lij lkl Xl

l=1 l=1 m=1 l=1 l=1

2 2

2

= (Γlij )k + Γpij Γlpk − lij lkl Xl + Γlij llk + (lij )k N.

l=1 p=1 l=1

2

2

2

Xikj = (Γlik )j + Γpik Γlpj − lik ljl Xl + Γlik llj + (lik )j N.

l=1 p=1 l=1

Setting the normal and tangential components of the last two equations equal

to each other we obtain

2

2

(Γlij )k + Γpij Γlpk − lij lkl = (Γlik )j + Γpik Γlpj − lik ljl ,

p=1 p=1

2

2

Γlij llk + (lij )k = Γlik llj + (lik )j .

l=1 l=1

3

These equations may be rewritten as

2

(Γlik )j − (Γlij )k + Γpik Γlpj − Γpij Γlpk = lik ljl − lij lkl , (Gauss)

p=1

2

Γlik llj − Γlij llk = (lij )k − (lik )j , (Codazzi-Mainardi)

l=1

and are known as the Gauss’s equations and the Codazzi-Mainardi equations

respectively. If we deﬁne the Riemann curvature tensor as

2

l

Rijk := (Γlik )j − (Γlij )k + Γpik Γlpj − Γpij Γlpk ,

p=1

l

Rijk = lik ljl − lij lkl .

Now note that

2

2

2

l

Rijk glm = lik ljl glm − lij lkl glm = lik ljm − lij lkm .

l=1 l=1 l=1

2

l

R121 gl2 = l11 l22 − l12 l21 = det(lij ) = K det(gij ).

l=1

So it follows that

1 2

R121 g12 + R121 g22

K= ,

det(gij )

which shows that K is intrinsic and gives another proof of Gauss’s Theorema

Egregium.

Exercise 4. Show that if M = R2 , hen Rijk

l

= 0 for all 1 ≤ i, l, j, k ≤ 2

both intrinsically and extrinsically.

l

Exercise 5. Show that (i) Rijk = −Rikj

l l

, hence Rijj l

= 0, and (ii) Rijk +

Rjki + Rkij ≡ 0.

l l

cally and extrinsically.

4

2.8 Fundamental Theorem of Surfaces

In the previous section we showed that if gij and lij are the coeﬃcients of the

ﬁrst and second fundamental form of a patch X : U → M , then they must

satisfy the Gauss and Codazzi-Maindardi equations. These conditions turn

out to be not only necessary but also suﬃcient in the following sense.

open neighborhood of the origin (0, 0), and gij : U → R, lij : U → R be

diﬀerentiable functions for i, j = 1, 2. Suppose that gij = gji , lij = lji ,

g11 > 0, g22 > 0 and det(gij ) > 0. Further suppose that gij and lij satisfy

the Gauss and Codazzi-Mainardi equations. Then there exists and open set

V ⊂ U , with (0, 0) ∈ V and a regular patch X : V → R with gij and lij as

its ﬁrst and second fundamental forms respectively. Further, if Y : V → R3

is another regular patch with ﬁrst and second fundamental forms gij and lij ,

then Y diﬀers from X by a rigid motion.

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