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SOCAR AMMONIA & UREA COMPLEX PROJECT 1121-A-500 Rev.

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Prior to proceeding further in the User Manual it is essential that personnel are familiar
with the safety, warnings and procedures for this installation.
Therefore proceed to view the safety, warnings and procedures
before undertaking any task.

I have read and understood the Safety Measures and Procedures and wish to proceed.
SOCAR AMMONIA & UREA COMPLEX PROJECT 1121-A-500 Rev. 0

5.1 BOILER
TITAN M s are watertube, natural circulation steam generators designed for
continuous operation.
The boiler is bottom supported type with drum and water wall saddles.
It has been designed with full use of structural strength of the tubing to transmit boiler load to the
foundations via water drum and water wall saddles.
The boiler is fired under positive pressure and the products of the combustion travel the full
length of the furnace before entering into the evaporator bank tubes.
The boiler mainly consists of the following parts:
Steam drum with internals
Water drum with saddles
Furnace with membrane waterwalls
Evaporator bank tubes (hereinafter called boiler bank)
Feeders and risers tubes
Superheater split in two stages (primary and final)
Economizer
Insulation with lagging and refractories

5.1.1 Steam Drum
The boiler has one steam drum (W-H-401A-V-01) located outside the flue gas path and suitable
to provide adequate steam storage capacity and minimize water level fluctuations.
The steam drum is supported by the water drum (W-H-401A-V-02) through membraned walls
and boiler bank tubes. It is free to expand in upward direction without any restriction.
The drum is provided with a manhole on each end.
The drum is also provided with proper internals, having two essential functions: the first is the
separation of steam from water in order that the downcomers system will be provided with
desteamed water for proper circulation.
The other is the final separation of moisture from steam, in order to provide high steam
quality/purity.

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The supplied drum internals are designed to effectively provide both functions and consist of:
Deflecting and separating plates
Cyclones
Steam driers
The drum is also fitted with the following internals pipes:
Perforated BFW pipe
Continuous blow down pipe
Provision for future installation of phosphate injection pipe
The internals are suitably supported by lugs attached to the drum shell.
Steam drum is also equipped with the connections for:
Saturated steam
Level transmitters
Level gauges
Pressure safety valves
Continuous blowdown
BFW inlet
Instruments

5.1.2 Water Drum
The water drum (W-H-401A-V-02) is directly connected with boiler bank tubes, furnace tubes
and the boiler bank walls. It is also connected with front and rear walls of the furnace through
feeders tubes.
The water drum provides to feed of saturated water all evaporating circuits in the boiler
shaped tubes of furnace, boiler bank and corresponding lateral water walls, furnace front and
rear walls).
Water drum is provided with nozzle for intermittent blowdown. It is supported by saddles placed
on concrete foundations. The drum is provided with a manhole on each end.

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5.1.3 Furnace
The furnace is the combustion chamber designed to provide a suitable volume and retention
time to ensure a complete combustion of the fuel before flue gases enter the convective section.
The combustion chamber is enclosed by membraned walls (waterwalls).
Waterwalls are realized by sealing the spaces between the tubes with continuously welded steel
fins. The waterwalls are heated by the combustion flames, while being cooled by the steam-
water mixture that flows internally.
This type of construction is completely gas-tight and reduces to the minimum the use of the
refractory required for small specific areas (e.g.: boiler enclosures, housing of the burners,
peepholes and the furnace floor).
Front and rear walls are connected to the lower and upper headers by welding.
D shaped tubes and boiler bank division wall are connected to the steam and water
drums by expanding.
Peepholes and access doors are provided.
The furnace is composed by the following sections:
Front wall furnace housing the burners
Upper and lower front wall headers
Furnace rear wall forming the rear side of the furnace
Upper and lower rear wall headers
D-tubes forming the floor, lateral and roof furnace walls
Boiler bank division wall

5.1.4 Downcomers, risers and feeders tubes
The cold rows of boiler bank act like downcomers. Moreover the boiler is equipped with feeders
and risers. Feeders tubes provide to feed the lower headers of furnace front and rear walls. The
risers tubes provide to channel the water-steam mixture form upper headers of furnace front and
rear walls to the steam drum. These tubes are since they are located outside of
the flue gas path.

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5.1.5 Boiler bank
The boiler bank is of single gas pass, cross flow design and is mainly composed by:
External wall
Evaporator bundle
The boiler bank external wall tubes originate from water drum and ultimate in the steam drum.
The external wall is manufactured with longitudinal finned tubes (waterwall).
The evaporator bundle is composed by vertical bare tubes whose ends are expanded in water
and steam drums.

5.1.6 Superheater
The superheater is divided in two stages: primary superheater (W-H-401A-E-02) and final
superheater (W-H-401A-E-03). One intermediate spray water desuperheater is provided.
The superheater is installed at the end of the furnace before the boiler bank.
The superheater is drainable and consists of:
Bent bare tubes
Tube supports and spacers
Inlet/outlet headers with welded nozzles
Interconnecting piping between steam drum and primary superheater bank inlet header
Interconnecting piping between primary superheater outlet header and final superheater
bank inlet header
Piping from final superheater bank outlet header up to battery limit

5.1.7 Refractory and insulation
Since the type of construction of the boiler is completely gas-tight, this reduces to a minimum the
use of the refractory. Refractory (castings and bricks/tiles) is utilized only for:
Burner box.
Inspection doors box.
Peepholes box.
Boiler general enclosures.
Furnace floor (refractory tiles only).
Furthermore, the boiler is externally insulated with mineral wool and light removable lagging for
heat conservation and personnel protection purpose.

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5.2 ECONOMIZER
The economizer (W-H-401A-E-01) is located at boiler flue gas path outlet. It is drainable type
and made of horizontal carbon steel finned tubes.
The economizer scope is to recover heat from the flue gases flowing out of the boiler to heat-up
the feedwater in order to achieve the optimal efficiency.
The economizer is externally insulated for heat conservation and personnel protection purpose.

5.3 DESUPERHEATER
One spray water desuperheater (W-H-401A-DS-01) is provided. It is installed between primary
and final superheater stages in order to keep the superheated steam temperature steady within
the specified control range. The desuperheating medium is BFW supplied by a line branched
from main BFW line to economizer.
The desuperheating water flow rate is controlled by the steam temperature control loop which
acts on the control valve FV-4503.
To control the steam temperature on FD fan steam turbine exhaust line, one desuperheater
(W-H-401A-DS-02) is provided. The desuperheating medium is BFW supplied by a line
branched from main BFW line to economizer and the water flow rate is controlled by the steam
temperature control loop which acts on the control valve TV-4520.

5.4 FIRING EQUIPMENT
The firing equipment of the boiler includes No. 2 Ultra Low NOx frontal burners (W-H-401A-X-01
and W-H-401A-X-02) designed to burn fuel gas on the assumption that it is fed at proper
conditions (pressure, temperature, composition, etc.) to ensure the required combustion
performances.
The burners are fitted on the boiler front, arranged on two elevations in a common windbox.
The burners compartment is covered by a not walkable canopy in galvanized steel sheet
properly supported with structural steel.
The burners are designed in order to obtain low NOx emissions. The main component of the
burner, that allows to reduce the NOx, is the air ejector. The ejector is coaxial with the burner
and represents the final part of the burner itself since it is completely inside the furnace.

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The ejector has a particular shape with six lobes. The combustion air passing through the lobes
is accelerated in order to create eight low pressure zones.
These zones promote the recirculation of a great amount of flue gas using the combustion air a
driving media.
The burner design allows also the steam injection into the air side in order to improve the NOx
reduction.

Burner typical operating principles

Each burner mainly consists of:
Front plate that forms the structural attachment basis of the assembly. The front plate has
provision for the mounting of flame monitors, sight glass;
No.1 air register with integral on-off air door sleeve.
No. 8 fuel gas guns.
No. 1 fuel gas central flame stabilizer.
No. 8 gas pre-mix nozzles
No. 1 air swirler.
No. 1 burner igniter (spark type, fed by fuel gas).

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No. 2 UV type flame scanners.
No. 1 fuel gas manifold.
No. 1 double effect pneumatic actuator for air register operation.
No. 2 limit switches for air register open/close position indication.
The firing equipment is suitable to be connected to a BMS and an automatic combustion control
system (supplied by Others). One local panel is provided.

5.5 FORCED DRAFT FAN AND DRIVER
The boiler is equipped with one centrifugal fan (W-H-401A-K-01) single suction type to supply
the combustion air to the burners. The FD Fan is driven by an electric motor and steam turbine.
The fan is provided with water cooled sleeve type bearings provided with constant level oiler and
is designed to provide the required combustion air at 100% MCR.
The steam turbine (W-H-401A-TK-01) is considered as main driver, while the electric motor is
used as stand-by driver to put in service when steam turbine is not available. An automatic
change-over sequence from steam turbine to electric motor is foreseen in case of loss of steam
turbine during normal operation of FD Fan.
The fan is mainly equipped with:
No. 1 inlet duct equipped with:
No. 1 rain hood.
No. 1 de-icing heat tracing.
No. 1 silencer.
No. 1 control damper (FV-4504) on FD Fan suction with pneumatic actuator.
No. 1 clutch installed between FDF and steam turbine (W-H-401A-X-09).
No. 1 clutch installed between FDF and electric motor (W-H-401A-X-10).
No. 1 electric motor (W-H-401A-MK-01).
No. 1 steam turbine (W-H-401A-TK-01) complete of oil circulating cooling system.

5.6 AUXILIARY FANS
The air for burners flame scanners cooling is supplied by two auxiliary fans (one in operation and
one in stand-by) W-H-401A-K-02A and W-H-401A-K-02B driven by electric motor. These fans
are skid mounted and they are complete of all necessary interconnecting piping, instrument and
valves.

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5.7 NOISE CONTROL DEVICE
For noise reduction due to steam discharge during boiler start-up and in case of safety valve
opening, four silencers are provided:
One silencer (W-H-401A-SIL-02) in common with both steam drum safety valves installed
on their discharge lines to atmosphere. The silencer is provided with perforated plates
around the steam inlet area for noise reduction due to steam discharge.
One silencer (W-H-401A-SIL-01) in common with superheater safety valves and start-up
vent discharge lines to atmosphere. The silencer is provided with perforated plates around
the steam inlet area for noise reduction due to steam discharge.

5.8 SAMPLING SYSTEM
A skid mounted sampling system for the analysis of boiler feedwater, boiler water, saturated
steam/superheated steam is provided.
The system consists of the following three sections:
Cooling section: provides to collect the samples from the different sample lines and reduces
their temperature by means of water coolers.
Depressurization section: collects all the samples already refrigerated from the previous
section and reduces the samples pressure by means of capillary pressure reducers.
Analysis section: receives the conditioned samples and provides automatically the value of
the required analysis through the individual analysis indicators. After the depressurization
section it is also possible to take manually the individual samples for a laboratory analysis.
The analysis section includes the following analyzers:
No. 1 boiler feedwater conductivity analyzer (AT-4502)
No. 1 boiler feedwater pH analyzer (AT-4503)
No. 1 boiler water conductivity analyzer (AT-4504)
No. 1 boiler water pH analyzer (AT-4505)
No. 1 saturated/superheated steam conductivity analyzer (AT-4506)
The sampling skid is completed with one set of safety valves, manual valves temperature
and pressure gauges. Cationic column for saturated steam and boiler water is provided.

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5.9 PIPING, VALVES & ANCILLARIES
Macchi supply mainly includes piping, valves and ancillaries within the supply limits depicted in
the P&IDs attached to this manual.
For the protection of the boiler pressure parts the following spring type safety valves are
provided:
No. 2 safety valves on steam drum (PSV-4501, PSV-4502).
No. 1 safety valve downstream the superheater (PSV-4503).
In order to protect the superheater during start-up, the boiler is provided with a start-up valve
(HV-4511).
The piping is manufactured with steel tubes of suitable material and thickness complete with
relevant supports.
The hot piping and valves are externally insulated with mineral wool and light removable lagging.

5.10 AIR & FLUE GAS DUCTS
Air and flue gas ducts are manufactured with steel plates of suitable material and thickness,
complete with supporting structural steel.
Expansion joints, inspection doors, gaskets and bolts are also supplied.
The boiler is equipped with the following ducts:
Air ducts between FD fan delivery and burners windbox.
Gas duct between boiler outlet and economizer inlet. This duct is externally insulated with
mineral wool and light removable lagging.
Gas duct between economizer outlet and stack inlet. This duct is externally insulated with
mineral wool and light removable lagging.

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5.11 FLUE GAS STACK
The boiler is equipped with a stack (W-H-401A-X-03) 30 m high self-supporting type. External
insulation is provided. It is equipped with:
No. 5 ports for flue gas sample connections (CEMS provided by others).
Platforms stairways and ladders.
Flue gas inlet.
Flanged base plate.
No. 1 drain nozzle at stack base.

5.12 PLATFORMS, STAIRWAYS AND LADDERS
Platforms, stairways and ladders are installed for proper operation and maintenance of the boiler
according to the requirements of project specifications and codes.

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