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MCC18445 S.L.C.

S. ll
115TH CONGRESS
2D SESSION

To secure the technological edge of the United States in civil and military
aviation.

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES


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Mr. WARNER (for himself and Mr. MORAN) introduced the following bill;
which was read twice and referred to the Committee on
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A BILL
To secure the technological edge of the United States in
civil and military aviation.

1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa-


2 tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
3 SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

4 This Act may be cited as the ‘‘Aeronautics Innovation


5 Act’’.
6 SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

7 Congress finds the following:


8 (1) The United States aircraft manufacturing
9 industry produced $342,682,000,000 in economic ac-
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1 tivity from manufacture of aircraft and parts sales
2 and supported 547,900 direct jobs in 2016.
3 (2) Growth in the civil aircraft market is pro-
4 jected to offer $8,000,000,000,000 to
5 $10,000,000,000,000 in new aircraft sales, parts,
6 and services over the next 17 years. International
7 governments are boosting their research and devel-
8 opment investments to give their domestic industries
9 competitive advantages in the aircraft market.
10 (3) In 2015, the Department of Defense spent
11 $10,600,000,000 on jet fuel and $441,600,000 on
12 jet fuel transportation to support the warfighter.
13 NASA’s research into ultra-efficient air transport is
14 important to the military’s efforts to reduce fuel
15 costs, logistics pressures, and the level of human
16 risk involved with providing worldwide energy solu-
17 tions.
18 (4) NASA’s aeronautics research and collabo-
19 rative ventures yield innovations that can eventually
20 be utilized in the aviation sector, opening up entirely
21 new markets, enabling the United States aviation in-
22 dustry to grow and maintain global competitiveness,
23 providing high-quality engineering and manufac-
24 turing jobs, and benefitting the quality of life for our
25 citizens.
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1 (5) Continued progress in the science and tech-
2 nology of aeronautics is crucial to the United States
3 sustained economic success and the protection of the
4 United States security interests at home and around
5 the world, as acknowledged in the 2006 National
6 Aeronautics Research and Development Policy. To
7 ensure Federal efforts remain on a disciplined path
8 to meet national objectives, the Director of the Of-
9 fice of Science and Technology Policy is responsible
10 for the implementation and biennial review of the
11 aeronautics research and development plan of the
12 United States.
13 (6) All of NASA’s other directorates and capa-
14 bilities, including those in space, depend on research
15 and technology that originated and is maintained in
16 NASA’s Aeronautics Centers.
17 (7) Aeronautics plays a central role in our na-
18 tional security strategy, and our technological advan-
19 tage over potential adversaries must be maintained
20 with sustained and focused research and develop-
21 ment.
22 (8) NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Direc-
23 torate’s 6 strategic thrusts (safe, efficient growth in
24 global operations; innovation in supersonic aircraft;
25 ultra-efficient vehicles; transition to alternative pro-
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1 pulsion and energy; real-time, system-wide safety as-
2 surance; and assured autonomy for aviation trans-
3 formation) are effective and necessary research
4 areas for the development of next generation aero-
5 nautics technology that will preserve the United
6 States lead in the global aviation industry;
7 (9) Aeronautics research is focused on funda-
8 mental capabilities that have the potential to open
9 entirely new industries, including low-cost electric
10 propulsion, advanced composite material manufac-
11 turing, simplified air vehicle operation, and in-
12 creased vertical takeoff and landing, that will allow
13 for safer and more efficient aviation products and
14 support mobility and economic growth.
15 (10) To meet the challenges of the 21st cen-
16 tury, the United States needs to support NASA’s
17 Aeronautics Research Program at funding levels
18 that are commensurate with its past, present, and
19 future contributions to the economic competitiveness
20 and national security of the United States.
21 SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

22 In this Act:
23 (1) ADMINISTRATOR.—The term ‘‘Adminis-
24 trator’’ means the Administrator of NASA.
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1 (2) AERONAUTICS STRATEGIC IMPLEMENTA-

2 TION PLAN.—The term ‘‘Aeronautics Strategic Im-


3 plementation Plan’’ means the Aeronautics Strategic
4 Implementation Plan issued by the NASA Aero-
5 nautics Research Mission Directorate.
6 (3) AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.—the

7 term ‘‘air traffic management system’’ means the


8 procedures, technology, and human resources to
9 guide aircraft through the sky and on the ground
10 and to manage low- and high-altitude airspace use.
11 (4) NASA.—The term ‘‘NASA’’ means the Na-
12 tional Aeronautics and Space Administration.
13 (5) UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM; UNMANNED

14 AIRCRAFT.—The terms ‘‘unmanned aircraft system’’


15 and ‘‘unmanned aircraft’’ have the meanings given
16 those terms in section 331 of the FAA Moderniza-
17 tion and Reform Act of 2012 (49 U.S.C. 40101
18 note).
19 (6) X-PLANE.—The term ‘‘X-Plane’’ means an
20 experimental aircraft.
21 SEC. 4. EXPERIMENTAL PLANE PROJECTS.

22 (a) SENSE OF CONGRESS.—It is the sense of Con-


23 gress that—
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1 (1) developing high-risk, precompetitive aero-
2 space technologies for which there is not yet a profit
3 rationale is a fundamental NASA role;
4 (2) near-full-scale to full-scale vehicle flight test
5 experimentation and validation are necessary for—
6 (A) transitioning new technologies and ma-
7 terials, as well as their associated manufac-
8 turing processes, for general aviation, commer-
9 cial, and military aeronautics use; and
10 (B) capturing the full breadth of benefits
11 from the Aeronautics Research Mission Direc-
12 torate’s investments in priority programs called
13 for in—
14 (i) the National Aeronautics Research
15 and Development Plan issued by the Na-
16 tional Science and Technology Council in
17 February 2010;
18 (ii) the NASA 2014 Strategic Plan;
19 (iii) the Aeronautics Strategic Imple-
20 mentation Plan; and
21 (iv) any updates to the programs
22 called for in the plans described in clause
23 (i) through (iii); and
24 (3) a level of funding that adequately supports
25 full-scale experimentation and related infrastructure
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1 must be assured over a sustained period of time to
2 restore NASA’s capacity to see legacy priority pro-
3 grams through to completion and achieve national
4 economic and security objectives.
5 (b) NATIONAL POLICY.—It is the policy of the United
6 States to maintain world leadership in military and civil-
7 ian aeronautical science and technology, global air power
8 projection, and industrial leadership. To this end, one of
9 the fundamental objectives of NASA aeronautics research
10 is the steady progression and expansion of high-speed
11 flight research and capabilities, including the science and
12 technology of critical underlying disciplines and com-
13 petencies, chief among which are computational-based an-
14 alytical and predictive tools and methodologies, aero-
15 thermodynamics, high-speed flight propulsion, advanced
16 materials and manufacturing processes, high-temperature
17 structures and materials, and flight controls.
18 (c) ESTABLISHMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL PLANE
19 PROJECTS.—The Administrator shall establish the fol-
20 lowing projects:
21 (1) A low-boom supersonic aircraft project that
22 will—
23 (A) demonstrate supersonic aircraft de-
24 signs and technologies that reduce sonic boom
25 noise to levels that encourage the repeal of do-
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1 mestic and international bans on supersonic
2 flight overland; and
3 (B) gather the data needed to support in-
4 formed decisions of the Federal Aviation Ad-
5 ministration regarding overland supersonic
6 flight.
7 (2) A series of large-scale X-Plane demonstra-
8 tors developed sequentially or in parallel, each based
9 on a set of new configuration concepts or tech-
10 nologies determined by the Administrator—
11 (A) to demonstrate aircraft vehicle and
12 propulsion concepts and technologies and re-
13 lated advances in alternative propulsion and en-
14 ergy;
15 (B) to enable significant increases in en-
16 ergy efficiency and lower life cycle emissions in
17 the aviation system while achieving a step
18 change in noise emissions; and
19 (C) to demonstrate high-speed flight pro-
20 pulsion concepts and technologies.
21 (d) PROJECT ELEMENTS.—For each of the projects
22 established under subsection (c), the Administrator
23 shall—
24 (1) include development of X-Planes and all
25 necessary supporting flight assets;
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1 (2) pursue a robust technology maturation and
2 flight validation effort;
3 (3) improve necessary facilities, flight testing
4 capabilities, and computational tools to support the
5 program;
6 (4) award primary contracts for design, pro-
7 curement, and manufacture to United States compa-
8 nies, consistent with international obligations and
9 commitments;
10 (5) coordinate research and flight demonstra-
11 tion activities with other Federal agencies, as appro-
12 priate, and the United States aviation community;
13 and
14 (6) ensure that the program remains aligned
15 with the Aeronautics Strategic Implementation Plan,
16 and any updates to the Aeronautics Strategic Imple-
17 mentation Plan.
18 (e) ESTABLISHMENT OF ADVANCED MATERIALS AND

19 MANUFACTURING PROGRAM.—The Administrator shall


20 establish an advanced materials and manufacturing tech-
21 nology program consisting of new material developments,
22 from base material formulation through full-scale struc-
23 tural validation and manufacture, that will—
24 (1) draw from and continue the work carried
25 out by, the Advanced Composites Project of NASA;
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1 (2) be conducted in partnership with academic
2 and private sector partners, including members of
3 the Advanced Composites Consortium;
4 (3) develop materials and processes that reduce
5 the cost of manufacturing scale-up and certification
6 for use in general aviation, commercial, and military
7 aeronautics;
8 (4) shorten the time necessary to design, indus-
9 trialize, and certify advanced materials and manu-
10 facturing processes, including manufacturing;
11 (5) provide a structure for managing intellec-
12 tual property generated by the program similar to
13 the structure of the Advanced Composites Consor-
14 tium;
15 (6) address global cost competitiveness for
16 United States aeronautical industries and techno-
17 logical leadership in advanced materials and struc-
18 tures;
19 (7) coordinate with advanced manufacturing
20 and composites initiatives in other NASA mission di-
21 rectorates, as the Administrator considers to be ap-
22 propriate; and
23 (8) comply with existing Federal Aviation Ad-
24 ministration regulations for use within programs in
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1 general aviation, commercial, and military aero-
2 nautics.
3 (f) ON-DEMAND AVIATION.—Congress finds the fol-
4 lowing:
5 (1) Fuller utilization of high-speed air transpor-
6 tation, small airports, helipads, vertical flight infra-
7 structure, and other infrastructure can alleviate
8 transportation congestion and support economic
9 growth within cities.
10 (2) NASA should continue to develop and test
11 air vehicles, different propulsion systems, network
12 systems, unmanned aircraft system traffic manage-
13 ment systems, and technology that can be utilized in
14 on-demand air transportation.
15 (3) NASA should actively support the research
16 around the use of airspace for on-demand aviation.
17 (4) This work should leverage NASA’s ongoing
18 efforts in developing advanced technologies for large,
19 high volume commercial aircraft applications and
20 airspace operations. The Administrator should as-
21 sess which air traffic concepts perform most effi-
22 ciently, taking into consideration factors such as ex-
23 isting city infrastructure, small airports, and current
24 airspace operations.
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1 SEC. 5. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS.

2 (a) SENSE OF CONGRESS.—It is the sense of Con-


3 gress that—
4 (1) to ensure United States competitiveness on
5 the global stage, the Federal Government must work
6 with the private sector to safely integrate the in-
7 creasing number of commercial applications for un-
8 manned aircraft systems; and
9 (2) the sustained, efficient growth of the United
10 States transportation system will require harnessing
11 the safety and efficiency benefits of automated sys-
12 tems to relieve pressure on infrastructure and traffic
13 management.
14 (b) POLICY.—It is the policy of the United States
15 Government to be an active partner with the private sector
16 in the development of technologies, capabilities, and oper-
17 ating procedures for the safe, efficient integration of un-
18 manned aircraft systems into the national airspace, while
19 ensuring current and future air traffic management sys-
20 tems are able to manage unmanned aircraft systems.
21 (c) UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS OPERATION
22 PROGRAM.—To advance the national policy described in
23 subsection (b), the Administrator shall—
24 (1) research, develop, and test capabilities and
25 concepts, including unmanned aircraft systems com-
26 munications and spectrum-related resources, for in-
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1 tegrating unmanned aircraft systems into the na-
2 tional airspace system;
3 (2) leverage NASA’s partnership with industry
4 focused on the advancement of technologies for fu-
5 ture air traffic management systems for unmanned
6 aircraft for low- and high-altitude operations;
7 (3) leverage industry’s advancement of tech-
8 nologies for unmanned aircraft to inform regulatory
9 and standards requirements for various sizes of civil
10 unmanned aircraft systems;
11 (4) consider the needs of United States indus-
12 try, especially as operations transition to more auto-
13 mated systems; and
14 (5) continue to align its research and testing
15 portfolio to inform unmanned aircraft system inte-
16 gration consistent with public safety and national se-
17 curity objectives.
18 (d) COORDINATION WITH THE FEDERAL AVIATION
19 ADMINISTRATION.—It is the sense of Congress that—
20 (1) NASA should continue to coordinate with
21 the Federal Aviation Administration on research on
22 air traffic management systems for unmanned air-
23 craft systems and assist in the establishment of the
24 pilot program required under section 2208 of the
25 FAA Extension, Safety, and Security Act of 2016
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1 (49 U.S.C. 40101 note) and the subsequent imple-
2 mentation of unmanned aircraft system traffic man-
3 agement systems; and
4 (2) unmanned aircraft system integration and
5 unmanned traffic management research should con-
6 tinue to leverage the resources available through the
7 unmanned aircraft system test ranges designated by
8 the Federal Aviation Administration under section
9 332 of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of
10 2012 (Public Law 112–95; 49 U.S.C. 40101 note).
11 SEC. 6. 21ST CENTURY AERONAUTICS RESEARCH CAPABILI-

12 TIES INITIATIVE.

13 (a) ESTABLISHMENT.—The Administrator shall es-


14 tablish a 21st Century Aeronautics Capabilities Initiative,
15 within the Construction and Environmental Compliance
16 and Restoration Account, to ensure that NASA possesses
17 the infrastructure capabilities and computational tools
18 necessary to conduct proposed flight demonstration
19 projects across the range of NASA aeronautics interests.
20 As part of such Initiative, the Administrator shall carry
21 out the following activities:
22 (1) Any investments necessary to upgrade and
23 create facilities for civil and national security aero-
24 nautics research to support advancements in long-
25 term foundational science and technology, advanced
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1 aircraft systems, air traffic management systems,
2 fuel efficiency and electric propulsion technologies,
3 system-wide safety assurance, autonomous aviation,
4 and supersonic and hypersonic aircraft design and
5 development.
6 (2) Any measures supporting flight testing ac-
7 tivities, to include continuous refinement and devel-
8 opment of free-flight test techniques and methodolo-
9 gies, upgrades and improvements to real-time track-
10 ing and data acquisition, and any other measures re-
11 lated to aeronautics research support and mod-
12 ernization as the Administrator may consider appro-
13 priate to carry out the scientific study of the prob-
14 lems of flight, with a view to their practical solution.
15 (b) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.—For the
16 purpose of carrying out this section, there are authorized
17 to be appropriated to NASA $100,000,000 for each of fis-
18 cal years 2019 through 2023, to be derived from amounts
19 otherwise authorized to be appropriated to NASA.
20 (c) REPORT.—
21 (1) REPORT REQUIRED.—Not later than 120
22 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Ad-
23 ministrator shall transmit to Congress a report con-
24 taining a 5-year plan for the implementation of the
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1 21st Century Aeronautics Research Capabilities Ini-
2 tiative.
3 (2) ELEMENTS.—The report required by this
4 subsection shall include—
5 (A) a description of proposed projects;
6 (B) a description of how the projects align
7 with the Aeronautics Strategic Implementation
8 Plan or the roadmap developed by the joint
9 technology office on hypersonics under section
10 218(d) of the John Warner National Defense
11 Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007, and
12 any updates to such Aeronautics Strategic Im-
13 plementation Plan or roadmap; and
14 (C) a timetable for carrying out activities
15 and initiatives authorized under this section.
16 SEC. 7. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

17 (a) FISCAL YEAR 2019.—There are authorized to be


18 appropriated to NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Di-
19 rectorate for fiscal year 2019, $790,000,000, as follows:
20 (1) For Airspace Operations and Safety Pro-
21 gram, $159,000,000.
22 (2) For Advanced Air Vehicles Program,
23 $280,000,000.
24 (3) For Integrated Aviation Systems Program,
25 $251,000,000.
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1 (4) For Transformative Aero Concepts Pro-
2 gram, $100,000,000.
3 (b) FISCAL YEAR 2020.—There are authorized to be
4 appropriated to NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Di-
5 rectorate for fiscal year 2020, $930,000,000, as follows:
6 (1) For Airspace Operations and Safety Pro-
7 gram, $165,000,000.
8 (2) For Advanced Air Vehicles Program,
9 $303,000,000.
10 (3) For Integrated Aviation Systems Program,
11 $300,000,000.
12 (4) For Transformative Aero Concepts Pro-
13 gram, $112,000,000.
14 (5) For Advanced Materials and Manufacturing
15 Program, $50,000,000.
16 (c) FISCAL YEAR 2021.—There are authorized to be
17 appropriated to NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Di-
18 rectorate for fiscal year 2021, $974,000,000, as follows:
19 (1) For Airspace Operations and Safety Pro-
20 gram, $170,000,000.
21 (2) For Advanced Air Vehicles Program,
22 $290,000,000.
23 (3) For Integrated Aviation Systems Program,
24 $350,000,000.
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1 (4) For Transformative Aero Concepts Pro-
2 gram, $114,000,000.
3 (5) For Advanced Materials and Manufacturing
4 Program, $50,000,000.
5 (d) FISCAL YEAR 2022.—There are authorized to be
6 appropriated to NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Di-
7 rectorate for fiscal year 2022, $996,000,000, as follows:
8 (1) For Airspace Operations and Safety Pro-
9 gram, $175,000,000.
10 (2) For Advanced Air Vehicles Program,
11 $295,000,000.
12 (3) For Integrated Aviation Systems Program,
13 $360,000,000.
14 (4) For Transformative Aero Concepts Pro-
15 gram, $116,000,000.
16 (5) For Advanced Materials and Manufacturing
17 Program, $50,000,000.
18 (e) FISCAL YEAR 2023.—There are authorized to be
19 appropriated to NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Di-
20 rectorate for fiscal year 2023, $1,030,000,000, as follows:
21 (1) For Airspace Operations and Safety Pro-
22 gram, $180,000,000.
23 (2) For Advanced Air Vehicles Program,
24 $300,000,000.
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1 (3) For Integrated Aviation Systems Program,
2 $382,000,000.
3 (4) For Transformative Aero Concepts Pro-
4 gram, $118,000,000.
5 (5) For Advanced Materials and Manufacturing
6 Program, $50,000,000.