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Preparation of DPR For Upgradation to 2-Lane with paved shoulders / 4 Lane Final Report

Configuration in State of Maharastra

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 1


1.1 Material Sources ........................................................................................................................ 1
2.0 ROAD METAL / AGGREGATE / STONE METAL ............................................................................... 2
2.1 Laboratory Test Procedures on Stone Aggregates .............................................................................. 3
2.1.1 Shape Tests............................................................................................................................ 3
2.1.2 Water Absorption & Specific Gravity Test ....................................................................................... 4
2.1.3 Los Angeles Abrasion Test ......................................................................................................... 4
2.1.4 Aggregate Impact Test............................................................................................................... 4
2.1.5 Soundness Test ....................................................................................................................... 5
2.1.6 Aggregate Crushing Strength Test ................................................................................................ 5
3.0 Test Results of Stone Aggregates................................................................................................... 5
3.0 MURRUM / GRAVEL .................................................................................................................. 6
3.1 Laboratory Test Procedures .......................................................................................................... 6
3.1.1 Grain Size Analysis ................................................................................................................... 6
3.1.2 Natural Moisture Content (NMC) .................................................................................................. 7
3.1.3 Specific Gravity ........................................................................................................................ 7
3.1.4 Bulk and Dry Density ................................................................................................................. 7
3.1.5 Atterberg’s Limits...................................................................................................................... 8
3.1.6 Modified Proctor Compaction....................................................................................................... 8
3.1.7 CBR values for Soaked Samples .................................................................................................. 8
3.2 Test Results of Gravel / Murrum Samples ......................................................................................... 9
4.0 SAND AND WATER .................................................................................................................... 9
4.1 Sand ....................................................................................................................................... 9
4.2 Water .................................................................................................................................... 10
5.0 SUB GRADE INVESTIGATIONS .................................................................................................. 10
5.1 General Requirements ............................................................................................................... 10
5.3 Field Test Pitting Programme ...................................................................................................... 12
5.3 Field and Laboratory test procedures............................................................................................. 12
5.3.1 Field Density by Core Cutter Method ........................................................................................... 12
5.3.2 Modified Proctor Compaction..................................................................................................... 13
5.3.3 CBR values for Soaked Samples ................................................................................................ 13
5.4 Test Results of Sub Grade Soil .................................................................................................... 14
6.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................. 16

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Details of Stone Quarries........................................................................................................ 2


Table 3.1: Details of Gravel/ Murrum Quarries ........................................................................................... 6
Table 4.1: Location of River & Sand ....................................................................................................... 10
Table 4.2: Location of Water ................................................................................................................ 10

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LIST OF ANNEXURES
Annexure 1.01 Quarry Map………………………………………………………………………………………………….17
Annexure 2.01 Lab Test Results of Stone Metal/Aggregate……………………………………………………………..18
Annexure 3.01 Lab Test Results of Gravel/Murrum……………………………………………………………………....19
Annexure 4.01 Lab Test Results Sand……………………………………………………………………………………..20
Annexure 4.02 Chemical Test Results of Water…………………………………………………………………………..21
Annexure 5.01 In-situ Test Results………………………………………………………………………………………....22
Annexure 5.02 Laboratory Test Results…………………………………………………………………………………23-24
Annexure 5.03 Compaction Test Curves………………………………………………………………………………..25-46
Annexure 5.04 CBR Test Curves…………………………………………………………………………………………47-68

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ABBREVIATIONS
% Percentage
& and
TP Trial Pit / Test Pit
OMC Optimum Moisture Content
EGL Existing Ground Level
MDD Maximum Dry Density
CBR California Bearing Ratio
LL Liquid Limit
PL Plastic Limit
NP Non Plastic
C Cohesion
φ Angle of Internal Friction
AG 1 Aggregate Quarry
G1 Gravel Quarry
S1 Sand Quarry
B1 Borrow Earth

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Preparation of DPR For Upgradation to 2-Lane with paved shoulders / 4 Lane Final Report
Configuration in State of Maharastra

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation Limited (MSRDC), Ministry of Road Transport & Highways,
Government of India awarded preparation of Detailed Project Report for the selected stretches / corridor of
various road networks in the state of Maharastra. As part of the services, Subgrade investigations have been
carried out for the proposed approach road along the stretch (Mohod-Kurval-Kamathe-Varunnagar-Aamgaon-
Tandulwadi NH9). In reference to Request for Proposal (RFP) Package No. NH/MSRDC/03 dated June 2016.
As part of scope of consultancy services, Subgrade investigations comprises of excavating trial pits at every 5
km ( 0 Km to 106 Km ) intervals have been carried out at along the stretch. Scope of services for the
consultancy services includes material and Subgrade.
This report presents and discusses the field investigations and the in-situ and the laboratory testing programs
for materials sources, the existing road pavement and ground conditions under proposed new road.
The objective of the investigation and testing programme for the materials sources is to ensure that sufficient
reserves of each material type are identified and that haulage is minimized. Samples are to be tested to
confirm whether they conform to standard specifications.
This report presents the details of quarries identified for various construction materials and their suitability for
construction.
1.1 Material Sources

The bulk of materials used in the construction of modern highway pavement are obtained from natural
occurring sources. The choice of materials for various components of highway pavements calls for rigorous
investigation of both quality and quantity of material available for economical use on highway projects. The
appropriate choice of materials has assumed more importance for highways in the recent years in view of
significant increase in the volume of traffic and axle loads, variations in sub-grade condition and the high levels
of service expected by users.

Material investigations have been carried out to identify and assess potential sources for bulk procurement of
the following material.
- Road metal for use as base.
- Murrum/gravel for use as sub base.
- River sand
- General fill suitable for construction of high embankments.

Potential sources of construction material were identified and located in such a way as to ensure that:
- Sources could produce material of quality that satisfies construction specifications for each
material type
- Sufficient reserves of each material type were identified, and
- Where possible, sources for any one material type were distributed along the project to
minimize haulage.
Quarry Map showing locations of the various sources is enclosed as Annexure 1.01.
Samples were obtained from each source and subjected to a testing programme. The Program varied
depending on expected use of the material from any particular sources. The particular testing program adopted
is based on the standard constructions specifications used for each material. Each source was then confirmed
or rejected as suitable.

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2.0 ROAD METAL / AGGREGATE / STONE METAL


The following aspects are considered while selecting the quarry for obtaining road metal:
- It should have sufficient crushing strength to with stand stresses due to high volume of traffic.
- It should be sufficiently hard and offer maximum possible resistance to abrasion.
- It should be tough and with stand breaking under hammer.
- Rock structure should be crystalline in nature.
- Texture of rock should be equiangular and inter locking.
- Specific gravity of rock should be moderately high.
- Rock should not be porous.
Identified stone metal quarries are listed in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1: Details of Stone Quarries


Ownership of No. of Crushers
Sl. Material
Name of the Quarry / Address / Location the land and available and
No Available
Area (Acres) output per day
A1 M/s. Amaan Stone Crusher
195/1, A/P, Nandani, Ta: Solapur
Contact Person: Mr. AB Sheik, 20 mm - 6800 m3
4 Acres 20 mm,40 mm
Mobile No. 9881786008 / 9922430886 40 mm - 5100 m3
Situated 7 km on LHS of Ch. 49 Km.
A2 Kedagi Stone Crusher
Doddal road, Akkalkot, Solapur
Contact Person: Mr. Shivasharanappa 20 mm - 2800 m3
14 Acres 20 mm,40 mm
Kedagi, 40 mm - 2800 m3
Mobile No. 9422460711
Situated 14 km on LHS of Ch. 83 Km.
A3 Ramakrishna Stone Crusher
Dhotri, Ta: South Solapur, Solapur
Contact Person: Mr. Vijay Kumar, 20 mm - 4800 m3
9 Acres 20 mm,40 mm
Mobile No. 9921004700 40 mm - 4800 m3
Situated 0.5 km on LHS of Ch. 96 Km
(Nr. Dhotri Village)
A4 Shree Tuljai Stone Crusher
Gate No. 95, Dhotri, Ta: South Solapur,
Solapur
20 mm - 1000 m3
Contact Person: Mr. Laxman Chougule, 4 Acres 20 mm,40 mm
40 mm - 800 m3
Mobile No. 9860004824
Situated 1.0 km on LHS of Ch. 97 Km
(Nr. Dhotri Village)
A5 Nava Crusher
Araballi, Nr Tandulwadi, Solapur
Contact Person: Mr. Nityanandapalli, 20 mm - 1100 m3
Mobile No. 9890980786 7 Acres 20 mm,40 mm
40 mm - 1100 m3
Situated 11.0 km on LHS of Ch. 106
(Nr. Tandulwadi Village)
LHS: Left Hand Side, RHS: Right Hand Side

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Representative samples collected from the quarries were tested for the following properties:
a) Flakiness & Elongation Index
b) Water Absorption
c) Los Angel’s abrasion value.
d) Aggregate impact value
e) Specific Gravity.
f) Soundness
g) Aggregate crushing value.

2.1 Laboratory Test Procedures on Stone Aggregates

2.1.1 Shape Tests


The particle shape of aggregate mass is determined by the percentages of flaky and elongated particles
contained in it. The evaluation of shape of the particles is made in terms of flakiness index and elongation
index.
Flakiness Index
The flakiness index of aggregate is the percentage by weight of aggregate particles whose least
dimension/thickness is less than three fifths or 0.6 of their mean dimension.
The test is applicable to sizes larger than 6.3 mm. Standard thickness gauge is used to gauge the thickness of
the samples.
The sample of aggregates to be tested is sieved through a set of sieves and separated into specified size
ranges. Now to separate the flaky material, the aggregates that pass through the appropriate elongated slot of
the thickness gauge are found. The width of the appropriate slot would be 0.6 of the average of the size range.
If the size range of aggregate in a group is 16-20 mm, the width of the slot to be selected in thickness gauge
would be 18 x 0.6 = 10.8 mm. The flaky material passing the appropriate slot from each size range of test
aggregates are added up and let this weight = w. If the total weight of sample taken from the different size
ranges is = W, the flakiness index is given by 100 w/W percent, or in other words it is the percentage of flaky
materials, the widths of which are less than 0.6 of the mean dimensions.
Elongation Index
The elongation index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension or
length is greater than 1 4/5 or 1.8 times their mean dimension. The elongation test is not applicable for sizes
smaller than 6.3 mm.
The sample of aggregate to be tested is sieved through a set of sieve and separated into specified size ranges.
The aggregates from each of the size range are then individually passed through the appropriate gauge of the
length gauge with the longest side in order to separate the elongated particles. The gauge length would be 1.8
times the mean size of the aggregate. The portion of the elongated aggregate having length greater than the
specified gauge from each size range is weighed and the total weight of the elongated stones, is expressed as
a percentage of the total weight of the sample, to get the elongation index.
Elongated and flaky aggregates are less workable, they are also likely to break under lesser loads than the
aggregate which are spherical or cubical. Flakiness index and elongation index values in excess of 30 percent
are generally considered undesirable.

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2.1.2 Water Absorption & Specific Gravity Test


The specific gravity of an aggregate is considered to be a measure of the quality or strength of the material.
Stones having low specific gravity values are generally weaker than those having higher values. The specific
gravity test also helps identifying the stone specimen. Stones having higher water absorption value are porous
and thus weak. They are generally unsuitable.
About 2 kg of dry aggregate sample is placed in wire basket and immersed in water for 24 hours. The sample
is weighed in water and the buoyant weight is found. The aggregates are then taken out and weighed after
drying the surface. Then the aggregates are dried in an oven for 24 hours at a temperature 100-110°C, and
then the dry weight is determined. The specific gravity is calculated by dividing the dry weight of aggregate by
weight of equal volume of water. The water absorption is expressed as the percent water absorbed in terms of
oven dried weight of the aggregates.
The specific gravity of rocks generally varies from 2.6 to 3.0. Rock specimens having more than 0.6 percent
water absorption are considered unsatisfactory unless found acceptable based on strength tests.
2.1.3 Los Angeles Abrasion Test
The principle of Los Angeles abrasion test is to find the percentage wear due to the relative rubbing action
between the aggregate and steel balls used as abrasive charge. Pounding action of these balls also exists
during the test and hence the resistance to wear and impact is evaluated by this test.
The Los Angeles machine consists of a hollow cylinder closed at both ends, having inside diameter 70 cm and
length 50 cm and mounted so as to rotate about its horizontal axis. The abrasive charge consists of cast iron
spheres of approximate diameter 4.8 cm and each of weight 390 to 445 g.
The number of spheres to be used as abrasive charge and their total weight have been specified based on
grading of the aggregate sample.

The specified weight of aggregate specimen, (5 to 10 kg. depending on gradation) is placed in the machine
along with the abrasive charge. The machine is rotated at a speed of 30 to 33 rpm for the specified number of
revolutions. The abraded aggregate is then sieved on 1.7 mm IS sieve, and the weight of powdered aggregate
passing this sieve is found. The result of the abrasion test is expressed as the percentage wear or the
percentage passing 1.7 mm sieve expressed in terms of the original weight of the sample. The Los Angeles
abrasion value of good aggregates acceptable for use is 40% maximum.
2.1.4 Aggregate Impact Test
A test designed to evaluate the toughness of stones or the resistance of the aggregates to fracture under
repeated impacts is called impact test. The aggregate impact test is commonly carried out to evaluate the
resistance to impact of aggregates.
The aggregate impact value indicates a relative measure of resistance of aggregate to impact, which has a
different effect than the resistance to gradually increasing compressive stress.
The aggregate impact-testing machine consists of a metal base and a cylindrical steel cup of internal diameter
10.2 cm and depth 5-cm in which the aggregate specimen is placed. A metal hammer of weight of 13.5-14.0 kg
having a free fall from a height 38-cm is arranged to drop through vertical guides.
Aggregate specimen passing 12.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm IS sieve is filled in the cylindrical
measure in 3 layers by tamping each layer by 25 blows. The sample is transferred from the measure to the cup
of the aggregate impact testing machine and compacted by tamping 25 times. The hammer is raised to a
height of 38 cm above the upper surface of the aggregate in the cup and is allowed to fall freely on the
specimen. After subjecting the test specimen to 15 blows, the crushed aggregate is sieved on 2.36 mm IS

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sieve. The aggregate impact value is expressed as the percentage of the fines formed in terms of the total
weight of the sample. The aggregate impact value should not normally exceed 30 percent.
2.1.5 Soundness Test
Soundness test is intended to study the resistance of aggregates to weathering action, by conducting
accelerated weathering test cycles. In order to quicken the effects of weathering due to alternate wet-dry
cycles in the laboratory, the resistance to disintegration of aggregate is determined by using saturated solution
of sodium sulphate. Clean, dry aggregate specimen of specified size range is weighed and counted. It is
immersed in the saturated solution of sodium sulphate for 16 to 18 hours.
Then the specimen is dried in an oven at 105-110oC to a constant weight, thus making one cycle of immersion
and drying. The number of such cycles is decided by prior agreement and then the specimens are tested. After
completing the final cycle, the sample is dried and each fraction of the aggregate is examined visually to see if
there is any evidence of excessive splitting, crumbling or disintegration of the grains.
Sieve analysis is carried out to note the variation in gradation from the original. The coarse aggregate fractions
of each size range are sieved on specified sieve sizes. The average loss in weight of aggregates to be used in
pavement construction after 5 cycles should not exceed 12 percent when tested with sodium sulphate.
2.1.6 Aggregate Crushing Strength Test
The strength of coarse aggregate can be assessed by aggregate crushing test. The aggregate crushing value
provides a relative measure of resistance to crushing under gradually applied compressive load. To achieve a
high quality of pavement aggregates possessing high resistance to crushing or low aggregate crushing value
are preferred.

The apparatus for the standard test consists of a Steel cylinder 15.2 cm diameter with a base plate and a
plunger, Compression testing machine, cylindrical measure of diameter 11.5 cm and height 18 cm, tamping rod
and sieves.

Dry aggregate passing 12.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm sieve is filled in the cylindrical measure in
three equal layers, each layer being tamped 25 times by the tamper.

The test sample is weighed (equal to W1 g) and placed in the test steel cylinder in three equal layers, tamping
each layer 25 times.

The plunger is placed on the top of specimen and a load of 40 tonnes is applied at a rate of 4 tonnes per
minute by the compression machine. The crushed aggregate is removed and sieved on 2.36 mm IS sieve.
The crushed material that passes this sieve is weighed equal to W2 g. The aggregate crushing value is the
percentage of the crushed material passing 2.36 mm sieve in terms of original weight of the specimen.

Aggregate crushing value = 100 (%)


W2
W1
Strong aggregates give low aggregate crushing value. The aggregate crushing value for good quality
aggregate to be used in base course shall not exceed 45 percent and the value for surface course shall be less
than 30 percent.
3.0 Test Results of Stone Aggregates
The laboratory test results of stone metal / aggregate samples are furnished as Annexure 2.01
♦ Aggregate crushing value of stone metal / aggregate varies 24.44 to 28.11 % which satisfies the
requirements as per MORT&H.

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♦ The combined flakiness index and elongation index varies 24.33 to 29.61 % satisfying requirements
as per MORT&H.
♦ Water absorption of representative stone metal / aggregate samples varies 0.08 to 0.24 % which
satisfies the requirements as per MORT&H.
♦ Los Angeles Abrasion value generally varies 24.52 to 28.52 % satisfying requirements as per
MORT&H.
♦ The aggregate impact value of representative stone metal / aggregate samples generally varies 21.73
to 26.73 % which satisfies the requirements as per MORT&H.
♦ Soundness value generally varies 5.54 to 8.11 satisfying requirements as per MORT&H.
3.0 MURRUM / GRAVEL
Gravel/Murrum quarries have been identified along the project stretch. 03 numbers of gravel / murrum samples
were collected from these locations for testing purposes for their suitability. The following tests will be
conducted on representative samples
• Grading - Sieve and Hydrometer Analysis.
• NMC and Density
• Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index
• Modified proctor compaction
• CBR Values for un-soaked and soaked samples
Details of Murrum /Gravel sample quarries are listed in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1: Details of Gravel/ Murrum Quarries


SL
Sample No. Chainage (km) Location Remarks
No
Situated at app. 0.5 km on
1 Gravel 1 0.5/500 Nr. Mohal Village
LHS of Ch. 2.0 Km
Situated at app. 0.5 km on
2 Gravel 2 21/500 Nr. KamtiBudrukh Village
RHS of Ch. 21.0 Km
Situated at app. 0.5 km on
3 Gravel 3 99/500 Nr. Musti Village
LHS of Ch. 99.0 Km
Note: RHS: Right Hand Side, LHS: Left Hand Side
The following tests are conducted on representative samples
• Grading - Sieve Analysis.
• NMC and Density
• Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index
• Modified proctor compaction
• CBR Values for un-soaked and soaked samples
3.1 Laboratory Test Procedures
3.1.1 Grain Size Analysis
Test procedure generally conforms to IS: 2720 (Part IV).Both sieve analysis and hydrometer analysis has been
carried out.

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Sieve Analysis

Sieve analysis was done by wet sieving method. Sieving was done using sieve shaker by passing through the
following IS sieves:4.75 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.70mm, 1.40 mm, 1.00mm, 600 , 425 , 100 , and 75

Hydrometer Analysis

50g of soil passing 75 IS sieve was mixed with 3.3g sodium hexa-meta-phosphate and 0.7g sodium
carbonate, transferred to 1000 ml measuring cylinder and made up to exactly 1000 ml with distilled water and
then agitated thoroughly. Hydrometer was immersed to a depth slightly below its floating position and then
allowed to float freely. Hydrometer readings are taken at 10, 20, 30 and 45 sec and then at 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and
30 min and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours intervals. The diameter of the particle in suspension at any sampling time‘t’
is calculated using “Stokes” formula and the percentage finer is calculated. Semi log graph was then plotted
with grain size (mm) in ‘x’ axis and percentage finer in ‘y’ axis. The graph represents respective percentage of
various particle sizes (clay, silt, sand, gravel (wherever encountered) etc.
3.1.2 Natural Moisture Content (NMC)
Test procedure conforms to IS: 2720 (Part II). A moisture cup is loosely filled with soil sample and weighed with
lid. It is then kept over oven with lid removed and maintained at temperature of oven at 110°C for 24 hours.
The lid of the container is then replaced and the dry weight found out. The percentage of water content has
been calculated using the formula.
w2 − w3
w= X 100
w3 − w1
Where, w2 = weight of container with wet soil, in g.
W3 = weight of container with dry soil, in g.
W1 = weight of container with lid, in g.
w = moisture content (%)
3.1.3 Specific Gravity
Test procedure has been followed as per IS: 2720 (Part III / Section 1) for fine-grained soils. Specific gravity of
soil solids is defined as the weight of given volume of soil solids to the weight of equal volume of distilled water.
Specific gravity is found out using standard specific gravity bottle of 50 ml capacity by weighing empty bottle
(w1), bottle + dry soil (w2), bottle + dry soil + water (w3), bottle + water (w4).

Specific gravity of soil =


w2 − w1
(w2 − w1 ) − (w3 − w4 )
3.1.4 Bulk and Dry Density
The weight of undisturbed soil (waxed on both sides) + UDS tube was noted as w1. Weight of UDS tube alone
was noted as w2. Then the bulk density (γb) of the soil was calculated as under.
(w2 − w1 )
γb = in g/cc or t/m3
V
Where, V= Volume of soil
The soil was then oven dried and weighed and dry density computed using formula as under
γb
γd =
(1 + w)
Where γb = bulk density in g/cc or t/m3

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w = natural moisture content in %


3.1.5 Atterberg’s Limits

Liquid Limit (LL)

Testing was done as per IS 2720 (Part V) using the more reliable cone penetrometer method where errors of
groove cutting involved in Casagrande’s device are minimized and the apparatus is adaptable to Silty and non-
plastic soils, where liquid limit determination using the device is difficult.
In cone Penetrometer tests about 200g of soil passing through 425µ sieve was taken, mixed with requisite
water, placed in cup and compacted lightly in 3 layers.
The tip of Penetrometer was adjusted such that it just touches soil surface. The needle was allowed to plunge
slowly under its own weight for 5 seconds and penetration in mm recorded. The water content was adjusted
such that penetration was between 20-30mm. A portion of the sample was then taken out for water content
determination and the water content determined using the relationship listed below.

LL = W X + 0.01[25 − X ][W X + 15]


Where Wx = water content at recorded penetration (%)
LL = Liquid Limit (%)
X = Recorded penetration in mm
Plastic Limit (PL)

About 15 g of oven-dried soil passing through 425 µ sieve was mixed with sufficient quantity of water to
become plastic enough to be easily shaped into a ball. A portion of this ball was rolled on a glass plate with
fingers with just sufficient pressure to roll the mass into a thread of uniform diameter of 3mm, and then the soil
was re-moulded again into a ball. This process of rolling and remoulding was repeated until the thread starts
just crumbling at a diameter of 3mm. The water content of such threads represents the plastic limit.

Plasticity Index (PI)

It is difference between liquid limit & plastic limit (i.e.) PI = LL-PL.


3.1.6 Modified Proctor Compaction
About 6 kg of sample was taken for light compaction. The compaction mould of 1000 cm3 capacity with base
plate attached is weighed to the nearest 1gm (w1). One part of the wet soil compacted in three equal layers
using the rammer of mass 2.6kg and free fall 310mm with 25 evenly distributed blows in each layer for 100mm
diameter mould (56 blows for 150mm diameter mould). The second and third layers are similarly compacted.
The loose soil from the outside and base of the mould was cleaned. The mould with the soil is finally weighed
nearest to 1gm (w2). The procedure was repeated for six to seven times using a fresh soil specimen after
adding higher water content then the proceeding one till there is either a decrease or no change in the mass of
the wet compacted soil in the mould. Densities obtained in a series of compactive efforts are plotted against
moisture contents. The Position of maximum point on this curve has been determined. The dry density have
been reported to nearest 0.01% and moisture content to the nearest 0.2 for values below 5% & 0.5 for values
of 5 to 10%.
3.1.7 CBR values for Soaked Samples
The mould containing the test specimen is placed on the lower plate of the testing machine with the base plate
in position and the top surface exposed. Surcharge masses, sufficient to produce an intensity of loading equal
to the weight of the base material (in field) and pavement is placed on the specimen (if the soaking had been
done earlier, the surcharge then shall be equal to that used during the soaking).

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To prevent “heave” of soil into the hole of the surcharge weights, a 2.5 kg annular mass is placed on the soil
surface prior to seating the penetration plunger after which the remainder of surcharge weights shall be
placed.

The plunger shall be kept under a load of about 4 kg so that full contact is ensured between the surface of the
specimen and the plunger. The stress and strain dial gauges are set to initial zero reading. The initial load
applied to the plunger is termed as zero load while determining the load-penetration relation. Load is applied to
the penetration plunger at the rate of penetration equal to 1.25 mm per minute. The load is recorded at
penetration of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mm. The maximum load and penetration
is recorded for a maximum penetration of 12.5 mm.

The plunger, after the completion of test is raised and the mould is detached from the loading equipment.
About 50-100 g of soil is taken immediately below the plunger for water content determination. The
undisturbed test specimen should be examined carefully after the test is completed, for specimen the
presence of any oversize particles as it could affect the test results. Hence CBR should not be considered
meaningful for application to purely cohesion less soil like sands.

If penetration test is to be performed on both ends of specimen, remove the base plate from the lower end of
the mould and fix it on the upper end. Invert the mould and conduct the test on other end of specimen. In that
case, sample from both the ends is taken for water content determination. The load penetration curve is
drawn.

This curve is generally convex upwards, although the initial portion of the curve may be concave upwards due
to surface irregularities. A correction shall then be applied by drawing a tangent to the upper curve at the point
of contraflexure.

The corrected curve shall be taken to be this tangent plus the convex portion of the original curve with the
origin of strains shifted to the point where the tangent cuts the horizontal strain axis.

Thus the penetration of plunger shall be read from this shifted zero point instead of original zero. Accordingly
the corrected load shall be read corresponding to this penetration value.
3.2 Test Results of Gravel / Murrum Samples
The laboratory test results of gravel / murrum samples are furnished as Annexure 3.01
The summary test results are as under:
♦ Maximum Dry Density generally varies 1.98 to 2.09 g/cc
♦ Optimum Moisture Content varies 9.46 to 11.12%
♦ 4 day soaked CBR generally varies 9.20 to 11.29 %
4.0 SAND AND WATER

4.1 Sand

Detailed reconnaissance of the area was conducted. River sand from the near by river may not be suitable for
construction directly. Sand can be procured from suppliers of building materials. Sand suppliers are available
around the river locations.
Locations and sources of sand furnished in Table 4.1.

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Table 4.1: Location of River & Sand


Sl. No Name of the River/Location Location
Situated at app. 15.0 km on LHS of Ch. 49.0
S1 Bhima River
Km
LHS: Left Hand Side.
01 No. samples have been collected from the suppliers. The collected sand samples from Supplier will be
tested for the following:
Grain size analysis to find out the distribution of
- Fine Gravel in % (20mm to 4.75mm).
- Coarse sand in % (4.75 to 2.0mm)
- Medium sand in % (2.0mm to 0.425mm)
- Fine Sand in % (0.425mm to 0.075mm)
- Silt and clay in % (0.075mm to 0.0001mm)
- Fineness modulus of sand
The laboratory test results of representative sand samples are furnished as Annexure 4.01.
4.2 Water

Suitable water sources shall be identified in the project stretch during the construction stage of project. Water
sources can be used for construction purposes only after confirming its suitability for construction purpose.
Locations of water Sample furnished in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2: Location of Water


Sl. No River/Canal/ Bore well Location

Water 1 Canal Situated at app. 0.5 km on LHS of Ch. 0.0 Km

Water 2 River Situated at app. 0.5 km on RHS of Ch. 56.0 Km

Water 3 River Situated at app. 0.5 km on RHS of Ch. 71.0 Km

Water 4 Bore well Situated at app. 0.5 km on RHS of Ch. 105.0 Km

Water 5 River Situated at app. 11.0 km on LHS of Ch. 106.0 Km


LHS: Left Hand Side, Right Hand Side.
The laboratory test results of representative water samples are furnished as Annexure 4.02.
5.0 SUB GRADE INVESTIGATIONS

5.1 General Requirements

An understanding of sub-grade or basement soil is very important in the design of pavement structures for
Highways. Sub-grade is normally defined as the supporting structure on which the pavement surface and its
special under courses rest. In cut sections, it is original soil below sub-base material and in fills, sub-grade
consists of imported materials from nearby borrow pits. Increased vehicles speed and vehicles load has now
resulted in the necessity of thorough investigation of sub-grade soil to achieve satisfactory performance under
various service conditions.

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Generally, soil is used as sub-grade material and hence the characteristics of soil found in different regions
have to be carefully studied and analysed. Such soil generally consists of mineral matter formed by
disintegration of rocks due to action of water, wind, pressure, temperature etc. All soils generally contain water
in varying amount and in free or absorbed form. In most cases, soils are blends of particles of many sizes,
shapes and parent material.
Certain characteristics such as grain size are useful in classifying soils and predicting the behaviour. Grain
size classification as per IS 1498 which is generally followed is described below:
Soils are generally divided into three divisions namely, coarse grained, fine grained and highly organic soils
and other miscellaneous soil materials.
Coarse Grained Soils
The coarse grained soils shall be divided into two sub-divisions, namely:
a) Gravels
In these soils, more than half the coarse fraction (+ 75 micron) is larger than 4.75 mm IS Sieve size. This
subdivision includes gravels and gravelly soils.
b) Sand
In these soils, more than half the coarse fraction (+ 75 micron) is smaller than 4.75 mm IS Sieve size. This
subdivision includes sand and sandy soils.
Fine Grained Soils
The fine grained soils shall be further divided into three sub divisions on the basis of the following arbitrarily
selected values of liquid limit:
a. Silts and Clays of low compressibility – having a liquid limit less than 35 (represented by Symbol L).
b. Silts and Clays of medium compressibility – having liquid limit greater than 35 and less than 50
(represented by Symbol I).
c. Silts and Clays of high compressibility – having a liquid limit greater than 50 (represented by Symbol
H).
Definition of basic soil components and groups are as under:
Boulders – Average diameter of particles greater than 300 mm
Cobble – Average diameter of particles between 75 mm to 300 mm
Coarse Gravel – Average diameter of particles between 75 mm to 20 mm
Fine Gravel – Average diameter of particles between 20 mm to 4.75 mm
Coarse Sand – Average diameter of particles between 4.75 mm to 2.0 mm
Medium Sand – Average diameter of particles between 2.0 mm to 425µ
Fine Sand – Average diameter of particles between 425µ to 75µ.
Silt – Average diameter of particles between 0.075 mm to 0.002 mm
Clay – Average diameter of particles less than 0.002 mm

Since soils generally consist of one or more constituents, they are generally divided into various groups as fine
and coarse grained soils (generally 9 groups for each category).
Various other classifications such as Unified soil classification system and AASHTO classifications are also
useful. Soil classification for sub-grade investigation is generally made by pit sampling and visual
classification.

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Moisture plays a very important role on the behaviour of soils. Soils that have adequate strength and
supporting power under one set of moisture conditions prove to be unsatisfactory due to moisture changes.
Sub-grade soils are influenced by moisture changes and wherever possible, the design should ensure
satisfactory performance of sub-grade under varying moisture conditions with suitable methods.

Properties of soils composed largely of coarse materials are primarily controlled by the characteristics of
particles while for soils composed largely of clays and colloids, the properties are primarily controlled by
surface charges and cations.

Density of soil affects its behaviour. In coarse grained soils, increased density and decreased moisture due to
compaction increases the strength of the pavement. On the other hand, over compaction of clays that has high
affinity for water is not desirable. A compaction characteristic for sub-grade soil is estimated by conducting
Modified proctor compaction test.

All the factors discussed above have been considered while formulating and executing sub-grade investigation
for this project.
5.3 Field Test Pitting Programme

Sub grade soil characteristics and strength has been undertaken by representative trial pitting along
the entire length of the stretch. The trial pitting programme included the following:
a. Investigation of sub grade soil at every 5 Km interval along the project stretch
b. Collection of bulk samples at every 5 km interval along the project stretch
c. Conducting following laboratory tests on the representative samples:
♦ Modified proctor compaction test
♦ Preparation of samples at 97% MDD for conducting 4 days soaked CBR test
d. Conducting in-situ moisture content, bulk density by core cutter method at every 5 km interval
e. Insitu CBR test by handled DCP
5.3 Field and Laboratory test procedures

5.3.1 Field Density by Core Cutter Method

This test shall be conducted as per IS-2720 (Part 29) 1975. Approximately 30 cm square soil layer to be tested
shall be exposed and leveled. A cylindrical core-cutter 130 mm long and 100 mm internal diameter with wall
thickness of 3 mm, leveled at one end shall be placed on the leveled surface. The steel dolley of 2.5 cm high
and 10 cm internal diameter with a wall thickness of 7.5 mm with a lip to enable it to fit on the top of the core-
cutter shall be placed on top of the cutter. This set up shall be rammed down vertically into the soil by a steel
rammer with solid mild steel foot 140mm diameter and 75 mm height with a concentrically screwed 25 mm
diameter solid mild steel staff. The overall length of the rammer including the foot as well as the staff should be
approximately 900 mm. The rammer (foot and staff together) weigh approximately 9 kg. This set up shall be
rammed until only 15 mm of the dolley protrudes above the surface, care being taken not to rock the cutter.
The cutter shall then be dug out of the surrounding soil, care being taken to allow some soil to project from the
lower end of the cutter. The ends of the soil care shall be trimmed flat to the ends of the cutter by means of the
straight edge.

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The cutter containing the soil core shall be weighed to the nearest gram. Representative sample shall be
collected to determine the field moisture content. The bulk density of the soil shall be calculated from the
formula.

=
Ws − Wc
γb
Vc
Where,
γb = Bulk density of soil in g/cc
Ws = weight of soil and core cutter in g
Wc = weight of core cutter in g, and
Vc = volume of core cutter in cc
The dry density (γd) shall be calculated from the formula

γb
γd =
1+ w
Where,
γd = Dry density of soil in g/cc
γb = Bulk density of soil in g/cc
W = moisture content in numerical
The in-situ moisture content, bulk & dry densities from core cutter method and in-situ CBR from handled DCP
are furnished in Annexure 5.01
5.3.2 Modified Proctor Compaction

About 6 kg of sample was taken for light compaction. The compaction mould of 1000 cm3 capacity with base
plate attached is weighed to the nearest 1gm (w1). One part of the wet soil compacted in three equal layers
using the rammer of mass 2.6kg and free fall 310mm with 25 evenly distributed blows in each layer for 100mm
diameter mould (56 blows for 150mm diameter mould). The second and third layers are similarly compacted.
The loose soil from the outside and base of the mould was cleaned. The mould with the soil is finally weighed
nearest to 1gm (w2). The procedure was repeated for six to seven times using a fresh soil specimen after
adding higher water content then the proceeding one till there is either a decrease or no change in the mass of
the wet compacted soil in the mould. Densities obtained in a series of compactive efforts are plotted against
moisture contents. The Position of maximum point on this curve has been determined. The dry density have
been reported to nearest 0.01% and moisture contest to the nearest 0.2 for values below 5% & 0.5 for values
of 5 to 10%.
5.3.3 CBR values for Soaked Samples

The mould containing the test specimen is placed on the lower plate of the testing machine with the base plate
in position and the top surface exposed. Surcharge masses, sufficient to produce an intensity of loading equal
to the weight of the base material (in field) and pavement is placed on the specimen (if the soaking had been
done earlier, the surcharge then shall be equal to that used during the soaking).
To prevent “heave” of soil into the hole of the surcharge weights, a 2.5 kg annular mass is placed on the soil
surface prior to seating the penetration plunger after which the remainder of surcharge weights shall be
placed.

The plunger shall be kept under a load of about 4 kg so that full contact is ensured between the surface of the
specimen and the plunger. The stress and strain dial gauges are set to initial zero reading. The initial load
applied to the plunger is termed as zero load while determining the load-penetration relation. Load is applied to
the penetration plunger at the rate of penetration equal to 1.25 mm per minute. The load is recorded at

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penetration of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mm. The maximum load and penetration
is recorded for a maximum penetration of 12.5 mm.

The plunger, after the completion of test is raised and the mould is detached from the loading equipment.
About 50-100 g of soil is taken immediately below the plunger for water content determination. The
undisturbed test specimen should be examined carefully after the test is completed, for specimen the
presence of any oversize particles as it could affect the test results. Hence CBR should not be considered
meaningful for application to purely cohesion less soil like sands.

If penetration test is to be performed on both ends of specimen, remove the base plate from the lower end of
the mould and fix it on the upper end. Invert the mould and conduct the test on other end of specimen. In that
case, sample from both the ends is taken for water content determination. The load penetration curve is
drawn. This curve is generally convex upwards, although the initial portion of the curve may be concave
upwards due to surface irregularities. A correction shall then be applied by drawing a tangent to the upper
curve at the point of contra flexure.

The corrected curve shall be taken to be this tangent plus the convex portion of the original curve with the
origin of strains shifted to the point where the tangent cuts the horizontal strain axis.
Thus the penetration of plunger shall be read from this shifted zero point instead of original zero. Accordingly
the corrected load shall be read corresponding to this penetration value.
5.4 Test Results of Sub Grade Soil

22 no. of samples were collected along the stretch for conducting Modified Proctor Compaction Test
and California Bearing Ratio test. All samples were tested.
In-situ test results & laboratory test results of sub grade soil are furnished as Annexure 5.01 & Annexure 5.02.
Table 5.1: Test Results of Subgrade Soil

CBR (Unsoaked) CBR (Soaked)


Chainage Modified Proctor Compaction Test
TP No. % %
(Km)
MDD (g/cc) OMC (%) 2.5 mm 5.0 mm 2.5 mm 5.0 mm

TP 01 0/000 1.77 9.64 17.65 15.46 7.80 7.20

TP 02 5/000 1.81 15.50 18.65 17.42 8.20 8.00

TP 03 10/000 1.85 11.03 15.48 13.58 7.20 6.93

TP 04 15/000 1.78 12.59 14.65 12.46 6.20 6.13

TP 05 20/000 1.87 12.72 18.69 16.42 8.30 8.00

TP 06 25/000 1.88 12.40 15.46 13.24 7.00 6.66

TP 07 30/000 1.78 13.04 20.46 18.95 9.00 8.66

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CBR (Unsoaked) CBR (Soaked)


Chainage Modified Proctor Compaction Test
TP No. % %
(Km)
MDD (g/cc) OMC (%) 2.5 mm 5.0 mm 2.5 mm 5.0 mm

TP 08 35/000 1.69 17.50 17.85 16.45 7.00 6.66

TP 09 40/000 1.96 13.20 20.65 18.79 10.00 9.20

TP 10 45/000 1.75 14.64 21.65 19.75 10.20 9.86

TP 11 50/000 1.75 14.36 17.85 16.45 6.00 5.33

TP 12 55/000 1.79 10.97 20.46 18.76 10.00 9.73

TP 13 60/000 1.72 15.94 16.48 15.45 6.80 6.40

TP 14 65/000 1.76 17.50 18.65 17.46 7.40 6.66

TP 15 70/000 1.72 13.70 14.46 12.35 6.40 5.86

TP 16 75/000 1.84 14.60 16.82 14.65 6.60 6.26

TP 17 80/000 1.75 15.14 19.46 18.85 6.80 6.50

TP 18 85/000 1.77 11.33 14.65 12.36 7.00 6.66

TP 19 90/000 1.74 14.34 15.46 13.25 6.40 6.10

TP 20 95/000 1.69 12.64 19.65 18.24 9.60 9.30

TP 21 100/000 1.72 11.61 16.78 15.42 7.40 6.80

TP 22 105/000 1.74 19.40 14.65 13.78 6.60 6.13

4 days soaked CBR value varies 6.00% to10.20%. Average 4 days soaked CBR value is 7.63 % for design
purposes
The compaction test curves are furnished as Annexure 5.03 and the Soaked CBR test curves are furnished as
Annexure 5.04.

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6.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


An index map / Quarry Map has been prepared and enclosed as Annexure 1.01 showing the identified
locations of various materials.
Stone Metal / Aggregates
Stone Metal / Aggregate quarries were found at five locations along the project stretch. The details of quarries
and their suitability are discussed in respective sections.
Murrum / Gravel for general filling including high embankments
Gravel / Murrum quarries are available on either sides of the project stretch and identified murrum / gravel
quarries are suitable for engineering construction purposes.
Sand
Bhima River is the main source of river sand in this project stretch. The details of sand quarry and its suitability
are discussed in respective sections
Ground Water for Construction
Suitable water sources shall be identified in the project stretch during the construction stage of project. Water
sources can be used for construction purposes only after confirming its suitability for construction purpose.
Sub-grade Soil Characteristics & Strength
Sub-grade soil corresponds to Sandy Silt / Sandy Silt with Clay / Sandy Silt with gravel / Silty Sand / Silty Sand
with Clay / Silty Sand with gravel occur along the project stretch.
Soaked CBR value of Gravel / Murrum
4 day soaked CBR values of Murrum / Gravel soil samples at 97% MDD condition is generally varies between
6.00% and 10.20% . Based on the test results, the 4 days soaked CBR value of 7.63% is recommended for
design purposes.
However, before undertaking the actual construction, it may be necessary to conduct confirmatory material
Investigation from the various sources of materials finally identified by the construction agencies and obtain
prior approval from the concerned authorities.

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