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Photoreceptors are specialised cells found in the retina at the back of the eye.

They allow us to
see contrast and shade and the definition of objects, and also to see what colour those objects

Photoreceptors are specialised cells found in the retina at the back of the eye. They are
responsible for vision, both in terms of the way we see contrast and shade and the definition
of objects, and also for our ability to see in colour. The two types of photoreceptor in the
human retina are called rods and cones. We have far many more rods than cones; the average
retina has 120 million rods compared to only 7 million cones.

Photoreceptors come in two kinds: rods and cones. They’re special nerve endings that convert
the light in your eyes into electrochemical signals.

An excimer laser, sometimes more correctly called an exciplex laser, is a form of ultraviolet
laser which is commonly used in the production of microelectronic devices, semiconductor
based integrated circuits or "chips", eye surgery, and micromachining.

An excimer laser is an ultraviolet (UV) laser that uses a compound of noble gases, halogen, etc.
as its laser medium, typical examples being ArF excimer lasers (wavelength of 193 nm), KrF
excimer lasers (wavelength of 248 nm), XeCl excimer lasers (wavelength of 308 nm), and XeF
excimer lasers (wavelength of 351 nm).

Excimer lasers have the characteristics of being able to oscillate at an exceptionally high
efficiency for lasers in the ultraviolet range and enabling comparatively compact hardware,
and are applied in a variety of fields such as industry and medicine (vision correction surgery
such as LASIK).

Excimer laser: A laser that emits very concentrated light in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the

Excimer lasers are used, for example, in:

Ophthalmology -- to vaporize part of the surface layer of the cornea and thus reshape the
cornea to correct refractive errors from myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness),
and astigmatism.
The transparent thin-walled dome that forms the front of the eyeball. The cornea is joined at
its circumference to the sclera (white of the eye); the black pupil and the coloured iris are
visible beneath it. The main functions of the cornea are to help focus light-rays on to the retina
at the back of the eye and to protect the front of the eye. It is kept moist by tears produced by
the lacrimal gland and the mucus- and fluid-secreting cells in the eyelids and conjunctiva.

ophthalmic spectrum

a mass of tissue for grafting, usually including skin, only partially removed from one part of the
body so that it retains its own blood supply during transfer to another site.

Eye Speculums

The eye speculum is an ophthalmic instrument used to keep the eyelids apart during surgical
intervention such as glaucoma surgery, corneal transplant, laser eye surgery or a general
ocular examination. The main parts of an eye speculum include two blades, a locking
mechanism and an adjustable screw.The surgeon inserts the speculum prior to operating and
rests it on the concave surface against the eye ball where the speculum touches the eye.