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Government of India

Ministry of Labour & Employment


Directorate General of Mines Safety

DGMS (Tech.) (S&T) Circular No. 02 Dhanbad, Dated 06.07.2010

To

All Owners, Agents and Mangers of Mines

Subject: Design, Control and Monitoring of Pit and Dump Slopes in Opencast Mines

Sir,

1.0 INTRODUCTION:

In India, fast increase in output of various minerals can be largely attributed to rapid
increase in opencast mining activities and intensified mechanization. This has resulted
in the opencast mines going deeper day by day with the maximum stripping ratio being
planned currently looking upto 1:15, at a depth of about 500 m. As a direct
consequence, the amount of waste mining and dumping will also be commensurately
very high thereby increasing the risks of highwall, slope and dump failures
tremendously. With more and more stringent environmental damage control regimes
and non-availability of alternative lands for aforestation purposes, the risks assume very
complex proportions with the deep excavations and growing dumpyards altering the
complex stress concentration levels. Under such situations with most production areas
concentrated close to the excavation floor, there is a constant danger to the men and
machinery deployed thereat with a potential to cause catastrophic loss of life and
property.

An analysis of the accidents in opencast mines revealed that slope failure and dump
failures have started assuming an upwards trend in the recent times. A few of the
recent fatal accidents/dangerous occurrences in opencast mines involving slope and
dump failures were as follows.

a) In Kawadi Opencast coal mine of M/s Western Coalfields Limited on 24/06/2000


in which ten persons including the blasting overman and sirdar were trapped and
killed due to slope failure of 31 m high over burden bench.

b) in Tollem Iron Ore Mine M/s Kunda R. Gharse in Goa on 09/12/2006 in which six
persons were trapped and killed under the debris due to slope failure of 30 to
46m high Dump and benches in the mine.

c) in Jayant Opencast Project of M/s Northern Coalfields Limited on 17/12/2008 in


which a portion of the dragline dump measuring 135m (length) x 70m (height
along the side of the slope) x 6 to 19 m (height across the slope) failed suddenly
and trapped five persons to death and buried a shovel at its bottom.

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d) In Sasti Opencast Coal mine of M/s Western Coalfields Limited on 04/06/2009
wherein a dragline overburden dump of 73m height failed and slided down the
pit resulting in deaths of two persons and burial of two excavators.

e) In Hamsa Minerals and Export Granite mine on 25/2/2010 where a mass of


Granite stone measuring about 30m long X 35-45m height X 10m thickness slid
along a known inclined joint plane and fell from a height varying between 10 to
55m on 18 persons working at the pit floor them burying and inflicting fatal
injuries to 14 persons with serious bodily injuries to another.

f) In a private soapstone mine, a portion of the almost vertical 17 m high bench


side with several undercuts slid suddenly, trapping and fatally injuring 3 persons
working at the bottom. This was immediately followed by a subsequent failure
from the same area measuring about 8m long X 7m high X 1.5m to 2.0 m thick
which trapped another five persons who were engaged in the rescue operations.

g) In another coal mine, a total volume of around 1,30,000 m3 of waste material


slid from a height of 10 m to 12m to the bench floor, without involving any
casualty.

h) A deep seated circular failure of an overburden dump about 62m high, made on
the foundation of 10-15m thick soil, caused severe upheaval to an adjacent
arterial road and damage to a 400 KV overhead line in a coal mine. The road got
totally blocked and power supply got disrupted.

The analysis also converged on one common but a major factor causing the accidents
that of the lack of scientific design and monitoring of the pit and the dump slopes in
mines.

There are several ways to reduce the chances of surface ground control failures as
given below.

(a) Safe geotechnical designs,


(b) Secondary supports or fall catchment arrangements and
(c) Monitoring devices for advance warning of impending failures.

Safe geotechnical design is with a single focused objective that of ensuring adequate
stability against any failure while working, involving the complete study of local geologic
formations/structures, rock mass properties, hydrologic conditions and the rainfall
pattern about the openpit. While a flatter slope always means better stability, it also
involves permanent locking up of huge quantities of mineral reserves. On the contrary,
steeper slope greatly increases the potential of failures. Therefore, a scientific balance
has to be constantly established between the two situations catering to the expected
life of the benches.

While it is very important to have good geotechnical designs of dumps and slopes,
effective monitoring and examination of slopes for failure warning signs is the most
important means of protecting exposed mine workers. Even, very carefully designed

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slopes may experience failure from unknown geologic structures, unexpected weathers
or seismic shock etc. The problem of such failures are getting compounded manifold
due to non-availability of land for dumps leading to increased height of the existing
dumps, poor drainage systems, proximity to inhabited areas, non-separation of top-soil
during excavation, etc.

2.0 Monitoring of Side and Slopes in Opencast Workings:

Conventional monitoring methods depend on regular surveying of the sides and slopes
of the benches and dumps using the most modern survey instruments and associated
software. Additional instruments can be used as part of a comprehensive system to
register subsurface rock mass displacement, groundwater parameters, and blast
vibration levels. Aside from visual inspection, these methods provide displacement
information only for a single site, or at best, at discrete number of sites. If the
monitored sites are too widely separated or if displacement occurs between sites, early
indications of an impending slope failure might go unnoticed. In addition, these
monitoring tools are difficult to install at many quarries and surface coal mines where
steep highwalls and lack of benches limit access to areas above the working floor which
is very common in dragline dumping in coal mining. With the constantly shifting mining
front and the need for regular monitoring increasing steadily, relocating monitoring
devices is not only costly and time consuming, but can also be dangerous on unstable
slopes. Point-by-point monitoring of every potential failure block in a mine or dump
slope is not practical. In some countries, scanning laser rangefinders have been used
wherein ground displacements were detected by comparing successive scans but
processing requirements and scan rates have so far made repeat pass intervals too
great for effective and timely slope monitoring. In addition, the range and accuracy of
these systems are impaired by differences in the reflectivity of the rock, the angle of the
rock face, weather, and other factors.

However, radar technology - used widely in a variety of fields for several decades, has
found its utility of recent in monitoring ground movements in mining applications. This
technology sports distinct advantages over conventional methods in its ability to cover
large areas on the surface for true two-dimensional monitoring day and night in almost
any weather, and atmospheric dust and/or haze have little effect. Radar’s active
transmit/receive mode of operation also provides an advantage over passive optical
methods that depend on solar or other illumination/reflection etc. The present day
advanced computing techniques have provided the low-cost processing power needed
for complex ground movement computations. Further, the widespread adoption of
modern wireless communication devices has resulted in practical integrated circuits for
microwave frequencies that can be used in task-specific radar applications.

Slope Stability Radar (SSR), developed on the above radar technology, is now being
widely used in several countries to provide real time monitoring and advance warning
signals before any slope or dump failure in opencast mines. The SSR system can detect
and alert movements of a wall with sub-millimeter precision, with continuity and broad
area coverage. This monitoring occurs without the need for mounted reflectors or
equipment on the wall or slope and the radar waves adequately penetrate through rain,
dust and smoke, 24 hours a day. The SSR system produces data for interpretation

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usually within minutes. The radar is moved around the mine in a repeatable manner to
compare movements at each site over an extended time, and determine problematic
areas. Cyclic monitoring off the focus area in this manner is often used to identify new
places where impending signs of developing failure patches are observed. The latest
instruments have the radar technology suitably integrated with a real time visual
imaging system for continuously scanning the problem area to identify the potential
areas of failure and visualize any impending ground movement/failure, by comparing
the repeated measurements against the first scan. Such systems can also have suitable
audio-visual warning systems incorporated for activation at any pre-set value being
breached due to ground movements. Alternatively, Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR), a
type of ground-mapping radar that was originally designed to be used from aircraft and
satellites, may be used to generate high quality digital elevation maps and to detect
disturbances of earth’s surface.

All these point to the fact that, strong, reliable and person independent monitoring
systems need to be introduced at Indian opencast mines on an urgent basis.

3.0 Application of Slope Stability Radar in Monitoring of Slope & Dumps in


Opencast Mines:

The SSR have been successfully used in some countries with highly variable
geotechnical conditions including massive hard rock, intensely fractured, foliated rocks,
weathered rock, coal strata and waste dumps of variable characteristics. Several case
studies of the SSR providing improved operational risk management by characterising
the slope instability, and providing sufficient warning time prior to failure, have been
reported all over the world during last five to eight years.

3.1 Experiences in Coal Mines

(i) The Mount Owen Coal Mine of M/s. XSTRATA Coal in Hunter Valley, Australia is one
of the deepest opencast coal mines in Australia with depths in excess of 270 m and has
extreme and unusual geological conditions. SSR installed in the mine indicated warning
of huge failure (20 million m3) four hours before its occurrence in January 2005 and
saved valuable life and properties.

(ii) In Drayton and Leigh Creek Mine in Australia where SSRs were deployed, the
advance warnings of impending failure of the slope were given 3 hours prior to the
occurrences and resulted into safety of persons and the machinery.

3.2 Experiences in Metalliferous Mines

(i) Mount Polley Copper Mine of M/s Imperial Metals Corporation in British Columbia,
Kimberly Diamond mine of M/s De Beers and Sandsloot Open Pit Platinum Mine of Mis.
Anglo Platinum in South Africa and many other mines have reported successful
deployment of SSR and its timely detection and warning system that has saved many
precious lives and property.

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(ii) Rampura and Aghucha Zinc Mine of M/s Hindustan Zinc Limited in Rajasthan, India
is the only mine in India where SSR is being used to monitor its opencast workings to
give pre-warn against any such slope failures.

4.0 Conclusion and Recommendation:

In view of the scenario explained above, it is essential to take following steps


immediately:

(i) Design mine and the pit as well as dump slope scientifically taking into consideration
of geotechnical parameters of rock and the dumps including hydro geologic and
weather conditions to ensure stable Pit and Dump slope profile not only during mining
but also thereafter; and

(ii) Deploy Slope Stability Radar (SSR) with integrated visual imaging system or any
similar such technology giving a real time monitoring of displacements of strata or
dumps well in advance of any failure and providing mine management sufficient time to
safely withdraw men and machinery from such prone areas. Such systems would not
only increase safety but also the productivity and efficiency of opencast operations.

In view of the seriousness of the implications of ground movements in openpit


excavations, all mining companies having openpit excavations are urged to immediately
initiate a time bound concrete action plan on the above matters.

(S. J. Sibal)
Director General of Mines Safety