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Future Cities Laboratory

Asian Development Bank

Future Cities Laboratory
Asian Development Bank

Bandung Summary Findings

Smart Systems  The following section offers an overview of

the research findings on the three kampungs in terms
of the three themes. First, are kampung overviews
that focus on physical environment indicators such
as access to electricity and water, evidence of eco-
system services, and some of the primary community
aspirations in relation to those indicators. These over-
views are supplemented by a summary set of com-
Executive Summary parative statistics on water access, earnings, internet
access and length of residence in the kampung
The Bandung Smart Systems project stud- (theme 1). The second section focusses on the par-
ied the potential of smart city technologies and as- ticipatory planning system, Musrenbang, and some
sociated urban data-systems to support the sustain- options for enhancing it (theme 2). While the third
ability and resilience of Bandung. The project did this reports on smart city technologies (themes 3).
by focussing on parts of the city where the majority
of the city’s population live, namely kampungs. The Kampung Overviews
project selected three kampungs as case studies, Kampung Dago Pojok is a mid-density kam-
based on their different socio-economic character- pung harbouring a considerable amount of natural
istics, their distinctive locations in the city, and their space. This space is well utilized for urban farming
participation in the existing government and com- (fruit trees, allotments) or for fishing along the river
munityled kampung improvement initiatives. banks. Small creative businesses such as Sundanese
puppet making, textile screen-printing, mural paint-
Three Kampungs ing and traditional art form the core commercial ac-
1 Kampung Dago Pojok (Muararajeun) tivities in the kampung. All of the residents have ac-
2 Kampung Sablon (Cicukang) cess to the electricity network, while some have
3 Kampung Lokomotif (Jatayu) access to PDAM clean/drinking water pipes. The
inhabitant’s aspirations for their kampung concern
The study contextualised these kampung road development and improved accessibility. People
sites within an analysis of Bandung’s planning sys- also expressed the need to improve the communi-
tem, the existing smart city initiatives being under- cation with the government by establishing a com-
taken in the city, and the broader pattern and drivers munication hub which also educates people and help
of development in Bandung and its hinterland. To this link communities together.
end, the study adopted three overarching themes. Kampung Lokomotif is an urban kampung,
located along the railway in central Bandung. This
Three Themes kampung is economically weak (see figure p.4), char-
1 Physical environment: interrelationships between acterised by limited entrepreneurship, and lack of
the physical environment (water, waste and energy business activity. During periods of even moderate
infrastructure, building fabric, neighbourhood rain, many houses in the kampung flood, due to in-
planning), economic enterprise, and public health sufficient drainage and poor planning. The electricity
2 Planning system: coordination of urban planning network does not extend into the kampung. Kampung
across multiple scales (household, neighbour- Lokomotif is the densest and least vegetated kam-
hood, township, city and region), with a focus on pung. Home-grown plants are rare in this kampung,
participatory planning options and so it does not benefit from associated ecosystem
3 Smart planning technologies: potential of big data, services (ornament, food, or environmental benefits).
smart city technologies, and planning principles The majority of drinking water is supplied in jerry
(strategic and participatory planning and govern- cans by local commercial suppliers. The inhabitant’s
ance) to widening participation in neighbourhood aspirations for their kampung is have better clean
and city planning (kiosks, kampung-specific apps). water infrastructure, improved sewage and waste

Dago Pojok Lokomotif Sablon
Clean Water Source

Private well PDAM Public well Water from official company Purchased water in jerry cans

1–2.85 million 2.85–5 million < 1 million > 5 million Not earning
Internet Access

Internet cellular Not using internet/no internet Modem/Wifi Other

Length of Residence

> 10 years 5–10 years 1–5 years

management, a safer environment more public open encourage residents to participate in the planning
space. Further aspirations include more transparency of their city. However, this report concludes that the
in subsidy distribution and greater effectiveness of e-Musrenbang system only partially addresses the
government aid programmes. problems and aspirations of the kampung’s inhabit-
Kampung Sablon is a high-density urban ants due to following primary shortcomings:
kampung known for the textile screen-printing indus-
try. This kampung has access to electricity, while ac- • Community meetings are held among the select-
cess to PDAM clean/drinking water network is only ed representatives only and do not necessarily
available at outlets the periphery of the kampung. A give voice to the needs of the whole community.
considerable share of water is still supplied from pri- The key aspirations of the community therefore
vate wells. Limited front-yard space in some residenc- often differ from what is communicated to the
es is used for ornamental plants, trees and urban government through the e-Musrenbang process.
farming. Inhabitants involved in the screen-printing For this reason, the general attitude of the kam-
business aspire to expand their markets through pung inhabitants with regard to the efficiency of
e-commerce applications, and to better co-ordinate participatory planning processes addressing their
the manpower, skills and technologies available needs remains rather doubtful
within the kampung through sharing economy • The existing participatory planning platform is not
applications. yet integrated with the existing plans and docu-
ments of the city, e.g. Rencana Detail Tata Ruang
2015 — Master Plan 2015, or datasets such as, for
 lean Water, Earnings, Internet Access
C example, socio-economic data, existing infra-
and Length of Residence structure plans (water, sewage etc.) which would
A considerable share of water is supplied enable planners to verify and prioritise the e-Mus-
from private wells in kampungs. The majority of the renbang project applications
inhabitant’s monthly earnings in the three kampungs • The data foundations for the systems is weak,
are below the minimum wage of 2.85 million Rupiah. posing challenges both in data capture of appro-
The rate of internet use in the kampung is relatively priate granularity and in coordination of the data.
high, however only small percentage of users are
connecting to the internet for work/e-commerce and
business purposes. Most of the inhabitants report Smart Planning Technologies
problems in the kampung to the government through
their RT/RW leader, however there are still many peo- The report summarised a range of smart
ple who has never reported their problem in this way. technologies already in operation in Bandung. Based
About one third of residents receive some type of on this background, we focus on possibilities for in-
governmental subsidies. Majority of the inhabitants tegrating the benefits of the existing technologies to
have relatives living in the kampung and reside in the form a more holistic system. To this end the report
kampung for more than 10 years, labelling kampungs proposes two inter-linked initiatives: an integrated
as mature communities, with strong social networks planning support system, which we call ur-scape;
and ‘place attachment.’ and a refined, grass-roots data collection service,
which we call e-mah warga (Figure 36).
Ur-scape. Ur-scape is an integrated urban
Participatory Planning planning platform in alpha release based on reliable
data collection strategies, consistent foundational
The research on urban planning processes data, and capacities to map initiatives for enhancing
focussed on the e-Musrenbang system. This inno- economic opportunity, standards of health and living
vative system has done much to connect city resi- environment, and to measure (index and calibrate)
dents directly to the municipal planning process, and their effects. This platform proposal extends existing

5 Bandung Smart Systems

research on planning support tools conducted by
the Urban-Rural Systems research group at FCL. This
tool aims to support government and multilateral
agencies, communities and private sector partners
to improve the quality of planning decisions by iden-
tifying ways to improve accuracy of existing data,
source and integrate new (particularly grass-roots)
data, and provide intuitive ways to access them.
E-mah warga. The e-mah warga is a public
information kiosk designed to support vertical links
between opportunistic projects and strategic plan-
ning. This proposal focused on improving techniques
to capture grassroots data in kampung contexts. Data
on kampungs are notoriously patchy and difficult to
secure. Without appropriate data, planners and com-
munity actors cannot fully understand the way kam-
pungs function (their advantages and problems) nor The research was carried out by a team at Future
articulate the aspirations kampung residents have Cities Laboratory (FCL) under the auspices of the
for their own households and neighbourhoods. With- Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) Future Cities
out this knowledge kampungs do not fully benefit Programme. The research was conducted be-
from the formal planning system and associated state tween March and December 2017 under the fol-
welfare systems, and that system, in turn, remains lowing agreement: TA9025 REG: Establishing the
misaligned to the needs of kampungs. This compo- Future Cities Programme in the Asia and Pacific
nent of the research took the form of a concept pro- Region. The research team comprised:
posal for a public-facing data-capture system that
foregrounded the advantages and problems of kam- Future Cities Laboratory, Singapore
pungs and physical systems, and the aspirations of Prof. Dr. ­Stephen Cairns
their inhabitants. Dr. Devisari Tunas
Demonstration project sites. The ur-scape Dr. Zuzana Drillet
platform integrated sufficient data from the Bandung Dr. Heiko Aydt
municipal authority to develop capacity to study rec- Dr. Daniel Richards
ommendations on acupunctural demonstration pilot David Neudecker
projects (integrating water, waste, energy, population Michael Roberto Joos
density, economic and health indicators) within im- Dr. Johannes Müller
proved capacity building and knowledge exchange
protocols. Consultancy Riset Indie, Bandung
This element of the study will be developed Dr. Laksmi Darmoyono
in the second phase of the Bandung Smart Systems Shendi Abdiguna
project (January–July 2018). Seterhen Akbar Suriadinata

This team brought together expertise on urban

design, planning and governance, responsive and
smart city systems, computer science, and eco-
system services. Bandung-based team members
also contributed their extensive local knowledge
and supported the research work on the ground
in Bandung. The team worked closely with the
city representatives in Bandung municipality with
the support of Bandung Cooperation Division and

Glossary for Indonesian Terms 10
Introduction 13

1 Bandung Urban Development Trends 17

1.1 Bandung City Profile 17
1.2 Urbanisation 18
1.3 Strategic and City Planning 18
1.3.1 City Scale 19
1.3.2 National Scale 19
1.4 Bandung Institutional Context 19
1.4.1 City Departments and Agencies 20
1.4.2 Planning Systems 20
1.4.3 Public Participation in Planning 21
 1.5 Existing Smart Cities Initiatives and Planning 22
1.5.1 Bandung Smart City 22
1.5.2 Bandung Command Centre 22
1.5.3 Bandung Spatial Datasets and GIS Capability 22
1.5.4 E-Musrenbang of Bandung 24
1.5.5 Existing Smart City Applications 25

2 Understanding the Urban Poor  29

2.1 The Urban Poor 29
2.1.1 Definition of Poverty in Indonesia 29
2.1.2 Poverty Social Assistance 29
A National Insurance Scheme — BPJS 29
 B Social Protection Card — Kartu Perlindungan Sosial (KPS) 30
2.2 Informal Settlements and Kampungs 30
 2.3 Existing Kampungs and Affordable Housing
Programmes and Policies 33
2.3.1 Kampung Verbetering 33
 2.3.2 Muhamad Husni Thamrin, Kampung Improvement Project 33
2.3.3 P3KT (Integrated Urban Infrastructure Programme) 1984–1999 34
2.3.4 P2BPK (Community Based Housing Development) 1994–1998 34
 2.3.5 1998–2004 One Million House National Programme GNPSR — 
Gerakan Nasional Pembangunan Sejuta Rumah 34
 2.3.6 2015 One Million House Programme — 
Program Sejuta Rumah (under President Joko Widodo) 34
2.4 Kampungs in Bandung 34
 2.5 Other Government Programmes Related
to Kampungs in Bandung 37

3 Field Study Documentation 41

3.1 Case Studies Selection 43
3.1.1 Description of the Kecamatan 43
 3.1.2 Description of the Three Case Study Areas (Kampungs) 43
A Kampung Dago Pojok 43
B Kampung Sablon 43
C Kampung Lokomotif 44

7 Content
3.2 Kampung Mapping Methodology 45
3.2.1 Kampung Field Survey 45
3.2.2 Spatial Mapping 45
3.2.3 Environmental Scan 45
A Mapping of Ecosystem Services 45
 B Mapping of Air Quality in the Kampungs 45
 C Mapping of Water Quality in the Kampungs 48
3.2.4 Kampung Household Surveys 48
A Questionnaires 48
B Domestic Visual Survey 48
3.3 Results 50
3.3.1 Kampung Mapping Results 50
3.3.2 Environmental Scan Results 50
A Green Cover of Bandung 50
 B Survey of Vegetation Use Across All Three Kampungs 50
C Air Quality Monitoring Results 52
D Water Quality Monitoring Results 53
3.3.3 Household Surveys Results  54
A Demographic Profile of Inhabitants 54
 B Education, Income and Location of Work 54
 C Communication with the Government and Government Support 54
D Internet and ICT Use 55
 E Built Environment: Water and Waste Management,
Electricity Access 55
F Kampungs: Resilient Communities 55
G Healthcare and Access to Healthcare 60
 H Aspirations (grouped based on common themes) 60
 3.3.4 Validation: Focus Group Discussions 83
A Kampung Sablon 83
B Kampung Dago Pojok 83
C Kampung Lokomotif 83
3.3.5 Feedback on the Practice of e-Musrenbang in the Kampung 84

4 Principles and Guidelines for Kampung Smart Systems 87

5 Proposed Tools 89
5.1 An Interactive Planning Support Tool for Rapidly
Urbanizing Regions | ur-scape 89
5.1.1 What is ur-scape 89
5.1.2 Aims 89
5.1.3 Approach 90
5.1.4 Data Sources 90
5.1.5 Interactive Formats 90
5.1.6 Outputs 90
5.1.7 Output Formats 90
5.1.8 Platforms 91
5.1.9 Data Implemented within ur-scape for Bandung
and Visualisation Examples 91

5.2 Grass-roots Data Capture System | E-Mah warga 94
5.2.1 What is E-Mah warga 94
5.2.2 Functions 94
5.2.3 Database 94
5.2.4 Placement 94
5.2.5 Users 95
5.2.6 Further Development 95

6 Conclusions 97


I Best Practice Cases of Smart Initiatives in Informal Settlements 101
A Hotspots of Culture Program 101
B Citizen e-Participation 101
C Crowdsourcing Citizen Feedback 102
 D Ideas for Collaborative Platforms in Nairobi 102
E Participatory Mapping and Open Data 102

II Kampung Data Collection Toolkit 103

1 Field Survey 103
2 Spatial Mapping 103
3 Kampung Specific Indicators: Questionnaires 104
4 Environmental Scan 104
Water and Air Quality 104
Ecosystem Services 104
5 Domestic Visual Survey 105

III Questionnaires 106

IV Kampung Use of Ecosystem Services (Plants and Animals) 108
V Water Quality Results 110
VI Air Quality Results 125
VII List of the Interviews with Agencies of Bandung 127

Colophon 128

9 Content
Glossary for Indonesian Terms
Shortcut Indonesian English

Apartemen Rakyat Public Apartment

Bandung Juara Bandung Champion Programme

Bappelitbang  Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan,

Penelitian dan Pengembangan Planning, Development and Research Agency

Bedah Rumah Housing improvement programme

BPJS  Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial National Welfare Programme

BSM  Bantuan Siswa Miskin Financial support for low-income students

BSPS Bantuan Stimulan Perumahan Swadaya Housing Fund

Disos  Dinas Sosial Social Welfare Agency

Distaru  Dinas Penataan Ruang Spatial Planning Department

DP3KP  Dinas Perumahan dan Kawasan Permukiman,

Pertanahan dan Pertamanan Housing and Settlement

E-Musrenbang  Musyawarah Elektronik untuk Digital Democratic Forum for

Perencanaan dan Pengembangan Planning and Development

GNPSR  Gerakan Nasional Pembangunan Sejuta Rumah One Million House National Programme

Kabupaten Regency level administrative unit.

It consists of several Kecamatans

Kampung Juara Kampung Champion Programme

Kampung Informal Settlement

Kecamatan District level city administrative unit.

It consists of several Kelurahans

Kelurahan Village-level administrative unit under a


KIP  Kartu Indonesia Pintar Education Subsidy

KIS   Kartu Indonesia Sehat Health Service Subsidy

KKS   Kartu Keluarga Sejahtera Family Welfare Subsidy

KPANRB   Kementerian Pendayagunaan Aparatur Ministry of State’s Human Resource

Negara dan Reformasi Birokrasi Management and Bureaucratic Reformation

KPS  Kartu Perlindungan Sosial Social Protection Card

LPM   Lembaga Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Community Empowerment Agency

Musrenbang  Musyawarah Perencanaan Democratic Forum for Planning

dan Pengembangan and Development

P2BPK  Pembangunan Perumahan Bertumpu

Pada Kelompok Community Based Housing Development

P3KT  Program Pembangunan Prasarana

Kota Terpadu Integrated Urban Infrastructure Programme

PDAM   Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum Public water company

PLTSa  Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Sampah Waste-based electricity generation plant

PSKS   Program Simpanan Keluarga Sejahtera Family Welfare Saving

PU  Dinas Pekerjaan Umum Department of Public Works

Raskin   Beras untuk Keluarga Miskin Rice subsidy for low-income households

RDTR  Rencana Detail Tata Ruang Detailed Spatial Planning

Rembug warga Democratic community forum

Rencana Kawasan Permukiman 

 Kumuh Perkotaan Urban Slum Resettlement Plan

RT   Rukun Tetangga dministrative unit under a RW

RTRW  Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Regional Spatial Planning

RW  Rukun Warga Administrative unit under a village (Kelurahan).

It consists of several RTs

SKRTM   Surat Keterangan Rumah Tangga Miskin Certificate of Poor Household

TNP2K   Tim Nasional Percepatan National Team for the Acceleration

Penang­gulangan Kemiskinan of Poverty Alleviation

TPA Tempat Pembuangan Akhir  Final waste depot

Warung Local shop

This document reports on research
concerning smart and responsive city
approaches 1 to the planning of the city of
Bandung, Indonesia. The research was carried
out by a team at Future Cities Laboratory (FCL)
under the auspices of the Asian Development
Bank’s (ADB) Future Cities Programme.
The research was conducted between March
and December 2017 under the following
agreement: TA9025 REG: Establishing the Future
Cities Programme in the Asia and Pacific Region.

1 Smart cities concepts rely heavily on the use of technology to address

urban problems. The responsive cities concept takes a more balanced
approach. It recognises the possibilities that technology can offer while,
at the same time, puts emphasis on the importance of engaging ordinary
citizens in the development of viable solutions. The aspiration of a truly
responsive city is one in which cities respond constructively, timely, and
inclusively to urban challenges. The responsive city does so by deploy-
ing appropriate technologies and enhancing urban governance systems
to facilitate more inclusive and responsive approaches to large and com-
plex urban planning challenges.

on the capacity of smart and responsive systems to
capture, integrate and visualise urban data from mul-
tiple sources, and on how to design such systems to
support kampung development in particular. Kam-
pungs are informally planned urban settlements that
feature in all cities in Indonesia. Kampungs have
many advantages, such as social cohesion, econom-
ic self-reliance, and high-density built fabrics. But
they also struggle to provide adequate water and
waste management systems, public open space, and
appropriate protection from fires and earthquakes.
Rationale Although precise figures are not available, many de-
mographers and planners estimate that kampungs
The rationale for the project concerned the accommodate the majority of the urban population
potentials of rapidly developing smart city technolo- in Indonesia. Despite this, kampungs are under-stud-
gies and emerging responsive approaches to data-in- ied. Very little reliable data can be found on kampungs.
formed planning to support the aims of urban sus- This tends to exclude kampungs from formal planning
tainability and resilience in developing cities such as systems. Recent initiatives in participatory planning
Bandung. In particular, it focused on the capacities and participatory budgeting, led by national, provin-
of such approaches to broaden participation of city cial, and municipal governments, have sought to over-
residents in the planning process, as one of the most come this challenge. By focusing on kampungs, and
viable ways to tackle complex and multi-scaled plan- the existing participatory planning systems, the pro-
ning challenges with limited government resources. ject aimed to emphasise the reality of kampungs in
It was refined in consultation with stakeholders in contemporary Indonesian cities, and enhance the role
Bandung during a scoping visit conducted by the of smart planning technologies and related data sys-
research team in February 2017. During that visit, the tems in shaping viable futures for the communities
team learnt about the pioneering efforts of the Band- that lead their daily lives there.
ung city administration to adopt and implement smart
city principles and technologies, and their positive
effects on public service provision and planning pro- Aims and Methods
cesses in the city. In summary, the rationale hinged
on: At its broadest, the project aimed to lever-
age smart city technologies and associated urban
• Existing initiatives in smart technologies and cit- data systems to support the sustainability and resil-
izen engagement in Bandung, and the potential ience of Bandung. (Cairns et al. 2017). The project
to deepen data integration and responsiveness; team proposed that the most effective way to do this
• Rapid urbanisation in Java, proximity to Jakarta, was to focus on planning for the majority of the city’s
and the emergence of an urbanised landscape population, namely kampung residents. The project
around the city; adopted three general themes:
• Youthfulness of the city population and the immi-
nent so-called ‘demographic dividend’; 1 Physical environment: interrelationships between
• Concentration of tertiary institutions and skilled the physical environment (water, waste and en-
students and graduates in the city; ergy infrastructure, building fabric, neighbour-
• Large number of kampungs, urban poor, and the hood planning), economic enterprise, and public
existence of innovative kampung engagement health
and social improvement programmes in the city. 2 Planning system: coordination of urban plan­ning
across multiple scales (household, neighbour-
These factors, in combination, served as the hood, township, city and region), with a focus on
rationale for this research. Following an initial scoping participatory planning options
visit (March-April 2017), the project focused further

3 Smart planning technologies: potential of big data, with the proposed ur-scape solutions, the partici-
smart city technologies, and planning principles patory planning system (e-Musrenbang), and other
(strategic and participatory planning and govern- city-making practices in Bandung.
ance) to widening participation in neighbourhood
and city planning (kiosks, kampung-specific apps).
The team used translational approaches to
connect advanced research on smart cities in devel- The FCL team consisted of Prof. Dr. Stephen
oping countries with practical city-making strategies, Cairns, Dr. Devisari Tunas, Dr. Heiko Aydt, Dr. Daniel
through acupunctural demonstration projects, plan- Richards, Dr. Zuzana Drillet, David Neudecker, Mi-
ning tools and policy recommendations. This ap- chael Roberto Joos, Dr. Johannes Müller (in Singa-
proach helped identify two practical challenges that pore), and Dr. Laksmi Darmoyono, Shendi Abdiguna
served to orient the broad project aims: the coordi- and Seterhen Akbar Suriadinata from the consultancy
nation of data relevant to planning in the city; and Riset Indie (in Bandung). This team brought together
capturing higher quality data at grassroots levels in expertise on urban planning and governance, respon-
kampungs. sive and smart city systems, computer science, and
These aims were tested through three case ecosystem services. Bandung-based team members
study sites. The three cases selected were: Kampung also contributed their extensive local knowledge
Dago Pojok (Dago), Kampung Sablon (Muararajeun) and supported the research work on the ground in
and Kampung Lokomotif (Jatayu). The selection was Bandung.
based on their different socio-economic character- The team worked closely with the city rep-
istics, their distinctive locations in the city, and their resentatives in Bandung municipality with the support
participation in the existing government and com- of Bandung Cooperation Division and Bappelitbang.
munity led kampung improvement initiatives. A series of interviews and focus group discussions
were conducted in the City Hall to gain better under-
standing of the underlying issues and feedbacks on
Phasing proposals.

The research project was conducted in four

phases. The first analysed Bandung’s urban devel-
opment trends (including socio-economic indicators,
strategic plans, policies, and institutional structures).
Current smart city initiatives initiated by the city or
other stakeholders in Bandung were also scrutinised.
The second involved a series of field studies in three
selected kampung case study areas in Bandung, to
investigate the main priorities and constraints exist-
ing in the kampungs. This phase included site surveys
to map the state of physical conditions, environmental
scans and questionnaires to analyse the problems
and priorities of the kampung communities. The third
phase involved a series of citizen engagement activ-
ities which comprised focus group discussions and
workshops with the inhabitants to test hypotheses
regarding economic opportunity, public health, and
the physical environment in order to provide feedback
on the preceding analysis of the questionnaires. In
the fourth phase the team performed a feasibility anal-
ysis by linking the findings of the kampung surveys

14 Introduction
1 Bandung Urban Development Trends 17
1.1 Bandung City Profile 17
1.2 Urbanisation 18
1.3 Strategic and City Planning 18
1.3.1 City Scale 19
1.3.2 National Scale 19
1.4 Bandung Institutional Context 19
1.4.1 City Departments and Agencies 20
1.4.2 Planning Systems 20
1.4.3 Public Participation in Planning 21
 1.5 Existing Smart Cities Initiatives and Planning 22
1.5.1 Bandung Smart City 22
1.5.2 Bandung Command Centre 22
1.5.3 Bandung Spatial Datasets and GIS Capability 22
1.5.4 E-Musrenbang of Bandung 24
1.5.5 Existing Smart City Applications 25

Bandung Urban in older sectors such as textile and apparel industries,
which still constitute one the largest sectors in Band-

Development ung when measured by GDP, with a total export value

of 400 million USD in 2015 (BPS Bandung 2016).

Trends These industries form the backbone of the city’s man-

ufacturing sector, with a total of 238 industrial units,
employing more than 100,000 workers. Many local
and global well-known brands rely on Bandung-based
firms. The textile industry has led to the mushroom-
ing of “factory outlet” businesses in the city, which
attracts millions of visitors from all over Indonesia.
1.1 Bandung City Profile This sector of the city economy is allied to a booming
hotel-restaurant-cafe (or HORECA, to use the local
Bandung is the capital city of West Java prov- term) industry which contributes to more than 30%
ince and the third most populous city in Indonesia of employment in the city. Alongside these large em-
after Jakarta and Surabaya, with a population of ap- ployers are a host of SMEs operating in IT, apparel,
proximately 2.5 million (BPS DKI Jakarta 2015; BPS design and creative industries. More recently Band-
Surabaya, 2015; BPS Bandung, 2015). The city has a ung has become known for its emerging high-tech
total area of approximately 167 km² and is divided into sector. Well-known firms in this field include Indone-
30 kecamatan and 151 kelurahan (BPS Bandung 2016). sia Aerospace (PT. Dirgantara Indonesia), which de-
It is located in an elevated plateau, some 770 meters signs, develops manufactures aircraft, and PT. Pin-
above sea level in the Bandung Basin, surrounded dad, which manufactures military, cyber-security and
by active volcanoes giving it a natural limit. Bandung heavy construction equipment.
is also only 140 km from Jakarta, the capital city of Bandung has also become a domestic tour-
Indonesia, and the region’s largest mega-city. These ist magnet. The number of tourists coming to Band-
two features have been fundamental to Bandung’s ung increases significantly every year. Data from the
historical appeal as a cool-climate, conveniently-lo- BPS Bandung (2015) showed that in 2014, the total
cated, picturesque city in the tropics (See Figure 1). number of international and domestic tourists in
Bandung is known as a creative city due to the diverse Bandung was 4.4 million, while in 1990 the figure was
range of activities present: culture, education, tech- only 3.1 million (Bandung City in Figure 2010).
nology, and industry. The economy has a strong basis

17 Fig. 1 Bandung in the context of West Java. Source: Google Earth 2017.
Bandung’s skill-based and creative indus- sub-standard kampungs, inadequate waste manage-
tries are supported by a large higher education sec- ment. Several authors have pointed to the “persis-
tor, with around 115 licensed academic institutes (Ko- tence of urban poverty, low standards of public health
pertis Wilayah IV), and close to 250,000 students. and physical fabric of kampungs, allied with income
Highly regarded IT and design schools (at the Institut inequality” as a result of the benefits of economic
Teknologi Bandung, or ITB, for example), and a host growth being concentrated in wealthy pockets of the
of arts and culture institutions, support Bandung’s city (Tadjoeddin 2016).
reputation as one of the most creative and entrepre-
neurial cities in Indonesia. Thousands of new busi-
nesses emerge annually in the city, closely following 1.3 Strategic and City Planning
and often leading, regional and global business trends
(Tan 2015). The city, provincial and national governments
recognize many of the challenges facing Bandung,
and have diagnosed aspects of these challenges at
1.2 Urbanisation different scales, incorporating the most pressing into
relevant master planning strategies.
The historical appeal and contemporary eco- According to the 2011–2031 municipal Band-
nomic vibrancy of Bandung has also become a threat. ung Strategic Plan (RTRW) the urban problems in the
The city’s proximity to Jakarta has seen it increasingly city can be summarised as follow:
integrated into an unplanned extended metropolitan
region (with a population of over 40 million) that • Unbalanced population distribution across the
stretches from the north coast of Java through the city. Redistribution of population is needed along
mountain passes to Bandung. The gradual improve- with the development of the necessary basic in-
ment of transportation infrastructure such as toll frastructures and public services provisions.
roads, an international airport, and rail network have • The desired redistribution of urban activity (to
significantly deepened Bandung’s integration into Gedebage) has not happen as expected, with eco-
the region. nomic activity remaining centralised in Bandung’s
Bandung’s population has grown from downtown area. This strains the current transport
around 300,000 in the early 1900s to the current fig- infrastructure and results in traffic congestions
ure of 2.5 million (BPS Bandung 2016). Nowadays, in central areas of the city.
the city is integrated with the Bandung Metropolitan • The city has not provided appropriate open green
Area (BMA), known as Bandung Raya, an urban ag- space as it has grown (only 12,15% of the city’s
glomeration which comprises Bandung City, Cimahi area is designated open green space, while the
City, Bandung regency, and West Bandung regency. planning standard specifies a minimum of 30%).
The area covers close to 3,500 km² with a total pop- This is caused by widespread zoning violations
ulation of 8.5 million. The built area of Bandung cov- both by formal and informal sectors. This increas-
ers 73.5% of its total land (RTRW 2011–2031). Bandung es the city’s vulnerability to disaster and decreas-
city on its own contributes 10% of the population of es quality of life for inhabitants and visitors.
West Java (RTRW 2011–2031), while the metropolitan • Basic urban infrastructural systems — for public
area contributes more than 20%. transportation, clean water, waste management,
All of these factors — the historical appeal telecommunication — are inadequate and low
of the city fabric, mild climate, creative culture, rep- quality. The lack of public transport leads to in-
utable educational institutions and well-paying creased dependence on private vehicles, namely
jobs — draw migrants, students, investors and tourists cars and motorcycles.
to the city. This influx helps drive the city economy • Poor pedestrian and cycle path network, which
and its growth, as well as severely challenging the in combination with factors outlined above, con-
city’s carrying capacity, straining existing infrastruc- tributes to traffic congestion.
ture and planning systems. Evidence for this can be
seen on a daily basis in the traffic-clogged streets,

1.3.1 City Scale significant effect on the way the city develops in the
The strategic plan of the city specifies two coming decades. If badly planned and mis-coordi-
centres: (1) the Alun-Alun and (2) Gedebage (Band- nated, each could exacerbate rather than solve ex-
ung City Regulation no. 10/2015 on the Bandung Spa- isting problems such as excessive traffic, unbalanced
tial Detail Plan and the Zoning Regulation). The Alun- development, and sprawl. A high-speed railway con-
Alun represents the old historical centre of the city, necting Jakarta and Bandung is in advanced stages
while a new development, the Teknopolis, in the of planning, and when complete it would reduce the
Southeast of Bandung is intended to be the second current 3-hour travel time to around 40 minutes. The
centre. The Teknopolis is planned and designed as expected economic benefits of this project include
a centre of entrepreneurship for Indonesia’s tech in- the creation of new jobs in the manufacturing, ser-
dustries focusing on biotech, digital media, and cre- vice, and tourism sectors, as well potentially estab-
ative industries. Located within an 800-hectare area lishing a powerful economic corridor between Band-
in Gedebage and with planned investments of ung and Jakarta. The construction of new stations
US$800 million, the Mayor Kamil Ridwan envisions along the route and within Bandung will also likely
Teknopolis to be the Silicon Valley of Indonesia. The stimulate real-estate development and investment
project is estimated to create around 400,000 jobs in those areas — some real-estate speculation is al-
and house 80,000 people. The Bandung Teknopolis ready taking place around these sites. Planned new
development also received constructive reviews from developments in the towns of Karawang and Walini,
several parties; one of them is the Indonesian Plan- and Bandung Teknopolis will also capitalise on the
ning Experts Association (Ikatan Ahli Perencana or expected benefits (Abdul 2016). The high-speed rail-
IAP). According to the IAP chair, the development of way will also be integrated with a planned light-rail
Bandung Teknopolis needs to be monitored so as system, the LRT Bandung Raya. The two infrastruc-
not to become a brand to sell properties, offices, and ture projects in combination are expected to help
upscale housing (Alexander 2015). Bandung City Gov- distribute passengers to regional centres such as
ernment therefore should play an active role to en- Soreang, Bandung, and Jatinangor (Mardiana 2016),
courage and accommodate innovations, entrepre- and reduce the number of private car users in Band-
neurs, and business start-ups in this area. Currently, ung, particularly those of weekend tourists originating
the developers who own the land concessions man- from Jakarta (Abdul 2016).
age the area of Gedebage and fix its land price and The planned development of the Kertajati
manage its property (Alexander 2015). To revolutionise international airport is a further infrastructure project
the city governance and planning process, Bandung that is expected to contribute to the urbanisation of
city has launched a long list of smart city initiatives the region. Located in the Majalengka area, 90 km
in various domains. The descriptions and analyses away from Bandung, the airport is planned to be the
of these initiatives are presented in section 1.5. second largest in Indonesia with a total development
With the long list of urban initiatives and de- area of 1,800 hectares, with an additional 3,490 hec-
velopment projects in the pipeline, Bandung’s econ- tares reserved for related development in the so-called
omy and population is likely to keep growing in the ‘aerocity’ (Aditiasari 2017). The new airport will be
coming decades. The local authorities will face the connected to Bandung via a new Cikopo-Palimanan
challenge of accommodating the growing population toll road, and this is planned to ease the traffic prob-
and their demands while improving the quality of ur- lems around the airport that currently serves Bandung,
ban living. Bandung needs to be a smart city but also which is located in a densely populated part of the
a responsive city in its planning process, meaning city.
the city will need to be more inclusive in their plan-
ning process to ensure more nearly equal opportu-
nities and access for all. 1.4 Bandung Institutional Context

1.3.2 National Scale Bandung has just undergone an institutional

At the national scale, major infrastructure municipal change following Government Regulation
projects planned in and around Bandung will have a no. 18/2016 on Regional Government. Previously, it

19 Bandung Urban Development Trends

had seventeen departments and four agencies; now And five agencies:
it has twenty-two departments and five agencies.
1 Planning, Development and Research/Badan
1.4.1 City Departments and Agencies Perencanaan Pembangunan, Penelitian dan
The city administration in Bandung consists Pengembangan (Bappelitbang)
of the following twenty-two departments (SKPD — Sat- 2 Staff and Training/Badan Kepegawaian,
uan Kerja Perangkat Daerah): Pendidikan dan Pelatihan
3 Financial and Assets Management/Badan
1 Education/Dinas Pendidikan Pengelolaan Keuangan dan Aset
2 Health/Dinas Kesehatan 4 Regional Income Management/Badan
3 Public Works/Dinas Pekerjaan Umum Pengelolaan Pendapatan Daerah
4 Spatial Planning/Dinas Penataan Ruang 5 National Unity and Politics/Badan Kesatuan
5 Housing and Settlement/Dinas Perumahan dan Bangsa dan Politik
Kawasan Permukiman, Pertanahan dan
Pertamanan (DP3KP) The task of city planning falls under the au-
6 Social and Poverty Alleviation/ Dinas Sosial thority of Bappelitbang and the Spatial Planning De-
dan Penanggulangan Kemiskinan partment, who collaborate with all the relevant city
7 Labour/Dinas Tenaga Kerja departments, while the Mayor overseeing the pro-
8 Woman and Community Empowerment, cess. As in many cities in Indonesia, the planning pro-
Child Protection/Dinas Pemberdayaan cess is routinely conducted according to disciplinary
Perempuan, Perlindungan Anak dan jurisdictions in a silo-like manner. This has compro-
Pemberdayaan Masyarakat mised the ability of municipal authorities to tackle the
9 Community Monitoring and Birth Control/ complex and dynamic challenges that urbanisation
Dinas Pengendalian Penduduk dan Keluarga is posing in an integrated and efficient way. Much
Berencana effort has been made to change this situation at the
10 Food and Agriculture/Dinas Pangan dan national level, and the development of a one-map/
Pertanian data policy, which will offer substantial support to
11 Environment and Sanitation/Dinas Lingkungan planning and decision-making process across differ-
Hidup dan Kebersihan ent departments and agencies, is one such example.
12 Demography and Civil Registry/Dinas Kepend- That said, challenges remain particularly in integrat-
udukan dan Pencatatan Sipil ing national, region and local data. One of the core
13 Transport/Dinas Perhubungan issues inhibiting integrated approaches to planning
14 Communication and Informatics/Dinas is the lack of high quality data and effective mecha-
Komunikasi dan Informatika nisms for sharing data.
15 SME/Dinas Koperasi Usaha Mikro, kecil dan
menengah 1.4.2 Planning Systems
16 Trade and Industry/Dinas Perdagangan dan The Indonesian planning system consists of:
17 Investment and Integrated services/Dinas RPJP Long Term Development Plan (National, Province
Penanaman Modal dan Pelayanan Terpadu and Regency/City Level)
Satu Pintu RPJM Medium Term Development Plan (National, Prov-
18 Youth and Sport/Dinas Pemuda dan Olahraga ince and Regency/City Level)
19 Culture and Tourism/Dinas Kebudayaan dan RTRW Concept Plan (National, Province and Regency/
Pariwisata City Level)
20 Library and Archive/Dinas Perpustakaan dan RDTR Detailed Spatial Master Plan (Regency and City
Kearsipan Level)
21 Fire Management and Disaster Prevention/ RTR Strategic Spatial Plan
Dinas Kebakaran dan Penanggulangan Bencana (National-Island-Province-Regency-City level)
22 Municipal Police/Satuan Polisi Pamong Praja

20 Bandung Urban Development Trends









The Province-level concept plan is the op- 1.4.3 Public Participation in Planning
erational form of the National-level concept plan. It The formulation of concept plans typically
consists of development strategies which include involves the following stakeholders: relevant city agen-
resource management, synchronised sectoral devel- cies/departments, relevant provincial agencies, the
opment, inter-regencies/-cities coordination, and regional house of people’s representatives, central
their specific roles in the overall provincial planning government agencies, and civic society.
level. The Regency/City-level concept plan is the The public is involved in the formulation of
elaboration and translation of the provincial concept concept plans at several levels:
plan on the regency/city level. It includes develop-
ment strategies, a structure plan and an operational • Preparation process (passive participation through
spatial plan. Bandung city is in charge of the devel- public information via media, exhibitions, online
opment of this plan. information, and public meetings, etc.)
To make a concept plan operational, a mas- • Data gathering (through public hearings, ques-
ter plan is devised based on the given area’s strategic tionnaires, interviews, workshops, focus group
values. It consists of land-use planning and zonal reg- discussions, conferences, etc.)
ulations on the regency, city, or strategic area level. • Concept formulation (through public dialogues
The master plan generally serves as a planning in- in the form of task forces, steering committees,
strument and guide which regulates local building public fora, stakeholder meetings, etc.)
and environmental codes. To be able to devise this • Stakeholder discussion (to gain opinion/approval/
plan, cities like Bandung will need to have the right concerns through media, online, working groups,
planning capacities and supporting data. Being able public hearings, etc.).
to work across the city’s silos is crucial to ensuring
the production of plans that correctly address the The Musrenbang (Musyawarah Perenca-
city’s priorities and development needs. naan dan Pengembangan) system was conceived as

21 Fig. 2 Diagram of Indonesian planning systems.

a platform to enable public participation in the plan- automatically notified if irregular activities are cap-
ning process. It was intended to replace the central- tured on the city’s CCTV systems. A GPS tracking
ised and top-down planning systems that had gov- system is used to assist municipal agencies to mon-
erned city planning in the 1980s and ‘90s (Sutiyo 2017).
itor traffic, or track assets such as public buses, am-
More recently the Musrenbang system was digitized bulances, or fire trucks. To improve public safety, a
(2015 in Jakarta and 2017 in Bandung), and became security app known as Panic Button has been
known as e-Musrenbang. This development has en- launched and made available to citizens, developed
abled more direct public participation through a ded- by local tech start-up X-igent. In the event of an emer-
icated online platform (see Section 1.5.4) that is ac- gency, users can tap on the panic button and receive
cessible by the local community leaders (RT). This immediate assistance from the Bandung Command
can be considered a major innovation in the local Centre. This app will also be able to contact a ‘whitelist’
planning process. of emergency contacts created by the user (Tan 2016).
The Bandung Command Centre could potentially
serve as an excellent platform and infrastructure for
1.5 Existing Smart Cities further urban data analytics. With large amounts of
Initiatives and Planning data being collected currently from various sources
and apps, the possibilities are endless. Greater inte-
1.5.1 Bandung Smart City gration with future planning tools could furthermore
In 2015, for the second time, Bandung host- support the planning collaboration process among
ed the Asia-Africa Conference. (The first time was in relevant stakeholders.
1945). At this event 25 mayors from Asian and African
cities signed the Declaration of the Smart City, seal- 1.5.3 Bandung Spatial Datasets
ing their commitment to the ‘sustainable smart cities and GIS Capability
model’ through a network of knowledge technology Digital spatial data are essential components
and investment among those cities (Tarigan et al. of smart and responsive city planning and sustaina-
2015). The current Mayor, Mr. Ridwan Kamil, articu- ble development. Bandung city is currently working
lated his vision for Bandung municipality to become on the development of several Geographical Infor-
a leading smart city in Indonesia. Bandung has indeed mation System (GIS) datasets. Based on our inter-
already been at the forefront of the smart city move- views with multiple city agencies (Bappelitbang, Dis-
ment in Indonesia. The city boasts hundreds of ap- taru, Housing Agency), the following GIS-based spatial
plications (apps) that were developed by both com- data already exist in Bandung:
mercial and non-commercial entities. The Mayor has
stated on the formal Bandung portal website (Wid- A Current base map: which includes the road net-
ianto 2016) that the city’s management programmes work, residential areas (kampung settlements are
are monitored through 360 app systems. also delineated), public facilities (transport, edu-
In the next two years, the Mayor is foresee- cation, health, and sport facilities), power plants,
ing the development of 1,000 more apps to support civic services, military zones, farmland, recreation
the implementation of city administration and man- areas, and green spaces (forest, parks, uncultivat-
agement (Bashu 2016). ed green areas), etc.

1.5.2 Bandung Command Centre The Spatial Planning Agency (Distaru) in

Launched in 2015 and built at a cost of IDR Bandung has compiled a basic map of Bandung (in
27 billion (US$2 million), the Bandung Command Cen- ArcGIS) that will be used as a basis for the city’s spa-
tre is a state-of-the-art facility to monitor and manage tial planning. The map has been verified by the Ge-
city operations, consisting of 26 monitors, a control ospatial Information Agency and has been named
room, an operator room, and a meeting room. The the “Best basic map in Indonesia” (Miftah 2017).
Command Centre provides visibility on various as- The accuracy of the base map is 1:1000. The
pects of the city, collecting and analysing data from map was made by using aerial photographs. Accord-
CCTV networks installed across the streets of Band- ing to the Geospatial Information Agency, the mak-
ung. Through video analytics, security personnel are ing of the base map is in line with the mandate of

22 Bandung Urban Development Trends

Fig 3 Current base map of Bandung. Source: Distaru 2017.
Fig. 4 RDTR of Bandung. Source: Bappelitbang and Distaru 2017.
23 Fig. 5 RTRW of Bandung. Source: Bappelitbang and Distaru 2017.
Presidential Regulation No. 9 of 2016 on Accelerating 3 Development of local culture,
the Implementation of One Map Policy. The one map/ 4 Increasing local revenue and non-conventional
one data policy is a strategic plan for collecting and financing,
integrating maps of Bandung so that every city-relat- 5 Infrastructure and environment improvement,
ed policy is based on a single, comprehensive dataset 6 Information Technology in public services,
that is consistent among many city agencies. 7 Creative Economy and UMKM,
The Detailed Spatial Plan (RDTR) is made 8 Job opportunity and purchasing power
to support the implementation of the city’s general of the community,
spatial plan (RTRW, see below, which is prepared in 9 Political stability and security.
ArcGIS and AutoCAD). The RDTR was prepared in
ArcGIS and AutoCAD. It contains information on zon- The project approval process takes approx-
ing regulations for each district. Zoning regulations imately one year, from submission to project execu-
form the requirements for space utilisation and mon- tion. The e-Musrenbang system updates the project
itoring, drawn for each of the designated zones. information to the internal database after the proposal
Note on GIS capacity in Bappelitbang (based is approved. Bappelitbang has the responsibility of
on the FCL questionnaire to Bappelitbang): The Bap- managing the e-Musrenbang proposal applications
pelitbang core team currently consists of 64 team and represents the database centre. The represent-
members and 20 support staff members (in total there atives of RT/RW can check the progress of the pro-
are 5 staff working with GIS software). Bappelitbang posal on the e-Musrenbang website. The information
is currently using a PostgreSQL database. The soft- includes location, dimension, and budget approval.
ware used in Bappelitbang also includes QGIS, ArcGIS The evaluation stages of the participatory
and AutoCAD. e-Musrenbang process are (See Figure 6 and 7):

1.5.4 E-Musrenbang of Bandung • The “Rembug Warga” is conducted at the com-

From February 2017, Bandung implemented munity level (RW level) to achieve consensus in
the national participatory planning system called the community regarding the development plan.
Musrenbang (Musyawarah Perencanaan Pemban- The outputs from Rembug Warga are four or fewer
gunan) with on-line data and exchange components proposals, which the head of RW submits through
(e-Musrenbang). This planning system brought more e-Musrenbang and sends them to Kelurahan
transparency and efficiency in city planning and is level.
also more cost-effective, as the city uses a standard • The Kelurahan has the responsibility to check all
price system for calculating the project costs, so proposals using three indicators: urgency/priority,
called ‘e-budgeting’ (the system utilizes a database location, and volume. After the process of check-
of component and work price standards, and it pre- ing, the proposal is sent to Kecamatan level,
vents mark-ups of construction prices). The new through the e-Musrenbang application.
e-Musrenbang, allows more direct inputs from local • The Kecamatan has the responsibility to check
community leaders; however, at the moment only the all proposals, whether for Renja or PIPPK using
RT/RW leaders can propose community projects to three indicators: urgency/priority, location, and
e-Musrenbang, so currently the system is missing volume. After the process of checking, the Renja
the grassroots approach. Further, the e-Musrenbang proposals will be sent to the Forum of Local Agen-
is yet to be integrated with the city’s spatial data (in- cies level through e-Musrenbang, while the Ke-
cluding data on population, infrastructure, RDTR, etc.) camatan makes decisions on PIPPK proposals
The e-Musrenbang system opens for pro- (the total amount of PIPPK budget distributed to
posal applications once a year (in January) through each RW is Rp 100 million/year).
pre-selected themes. The projects submitted through • The Forum of Local Agencies has the responsi-
e-Musrenbang must be linked to the topics in the bility to check all proposals of Renja using five
scroll down menu consisting of nine themes: indicators: urgency/priority, location, volume, land
ownership, and budget constraint. Each of the
1 Education and health, government agencies selects and eliminates pro-
2 Poverty reduction, posals based on the five indicators above. The

24 Bandung Urban Development Trends

Proposals Proposals Main proposals Proposals assessment
submitted by negotiation by RW, evaluation by relevant government CITY MAYOR
RT leaders RT and community which may include agencies which may Final approval
leaders site assessment include site assessment



MUSRENBANG • Policy directions and priorities EXECUTION
CITY 4th • Financial priorities WORK PLANS
LAYER • Policy recommendations

MECHANISM (WITH EXISTING • Agency representatives


• Priorities
DOCS AND PLANS) KECAMATAN 2nd • Agency representatives

• Priorities
KELURAHAN 1st • Community representatives

• Priorities
• Community representatives


list of approved proposals is sent to the City Mus- of public services, crowding, faults with public utili-
renbang for general discussion and approval of ties, and sharing economy opportunities. The data
projects for the development plan. gathered are a great resource that is currently un-
der-utilised, and more could be done to coordinate
For cases where RT or RW leaders lack the and analyse them for the purpose of city planning.
initiative to submit a proposal, local government has There is a lack of clarity regarding the ownership of
initiated the Institute for Community Empowerment the data and how it is stored and managed. Further-
(Lembaga Pemberdayaan Masyarakat — LPM) to give more, they often do not adequately represent the
support to RW leaders. To monitor the progress of kampung-dwelling urban poor. The following are ex-
the e-Musrenbang there is a Musrenbang Tracker amples of some of the best-known apps in use in
for public. The public can track the proposal from the Bandung.
RW in the e-Musrenbang website. However, not every
city has a working/active Musrenbang Tracker. LAPOR! App
Lapor! is a nation-wide citizen reporting
1.5.5 Existing Smart City Applications system. Bandung has already used Lapor! since 2013.
As previously mentioned, Bandung has a It aims to serve as a monitoring system for the qual-
long list of smart city applications (apps) that were ity of public services and their performance in man-
developed by both the public and private sectors. aging various developmental issues. The system
These apps have generated substantial data on a range works through various media such as SMS, website,
of issues relevant to city planning, such as availability social media, and mobile apps, as well as written

Fig. 6 The evaluation stages of the participatory e-Musrenbang process.

25 Fig. 7 Flowchart of e-Musrenbang process.
statements. Lapor! is managed by the Presidential
office, National Ombudsman, and the Ministry of
State’s Human Resource Management and Bureau-
cratic Reformation (Kementerian Pendayagunaan
Aparatur Negara dan Reformasi Birokrasi). Citizen’s
reports and aspirations that are gathered from the
system are channelled to the relevant Ministry/Insti-
tution and/or regional government authorities.
The Lapor! system is claimed to be connect-
ed with 88 Ministries, 135 Regional Government of-
fices, 128 academic institutions, 131 Indonesian con-
sulates/representatives abroad, and 116 state-owned
companies. Users are able to follow up their reports
through this app and see the responses from respec-
tive government departments. Through March 2017,
Lapor! had been used by more than 560 thousand
people, and it receives up to 800 reports per day
(Lapor Blog 2017).

SOCA is an image-based reporting system
and citizen journalism tool which is similar to Insta-
gram. Through this application users can report spe-
cific cases or simply share images in the city which
they wish to share for different purposes. SOCA is
integrated to Lapor!, thus the captured data is chan-
nelled to the same institutions. Both Lapor! and SOCA
have been rather helpful in addressing general city
and urban issues, such as fixing street potholes or
clogged sewers.
Both are rather ad-hoc apps whose data are
difficult to aggregate and put to use in integrated plan-
ning challenges.

Gampil Apps
Gampil has revolutionised public adminis-
tration, in terms of online applications for business
licensing or other types of permissions. It is said to
have greatly shortened the bureaucratic process and
made it more efficient.

Fig. 8 A screen grab of the Lapor! app.

Fig. 9 A screen grab of the SOCA app
26 Fig. 10 A screen grab of the Gampil app.
2 Understanding the Urban Poor  29
2.1 The Urban Poor 29
2.1.1 Definition of Poverty in Indonesia 29
2.1.2 Poverty Social Assistance 29
A National Insurance Scheme — BPJS 29
 B Social Protection Card — Kartu Perlindungan Sosial (KPS) 30
2.2 Informal Settlements and Kampungs 30
 2.3 Existing Kampungs and Affordable Housing
Programmes and Policies 33
2.3.1 Kampung Verbetering 33
 2.3.2 Muhamad Husni Thamrin, Kampung Improvement Project 33
2.3.3 P3KT (Integrated Urban Infrastructure Programme) 1984–1999 34
2.3.4 P2BPK (Community Based Housing Development) 1994–1998 34
 2.3.5 1998–2004 One Million House National Programme GNPSR — 
Gerakan Nasional Pembangunan Sejuta Rumah 34
 2.3.6 2015 One Million House Programme — 
Program Sejuta Rumah (under President Joko Widodo) 34
2.4 Kampungs in Bandung 34
 2.5 Other Government Programmes Related
to Kampungs in Bandung 37

Understanding The Ministry of Social Welfare also intro-
duced the Integrated Database of Poverty. The Inte-

the Urban Poor — 

grated Database for the Social Protection Program
is administered by the National Team for the Accel-

eration of Poverty Alleviation (Tim Nasional Perce-
patan Penanggulangan Kemiskinan/TNP2K). The

Settlements and
database lists the names and the addresses of po-
tential beneficiaries, both households/families and

individuals, based on specific socio-economic indi-
cators. The Integrated Database of Poverty is used
to identify the decile groups, or 10 household sub-cat-
2.1 The Urban Poor egories. The decile household categories are defined
as follows:
2.1.1 Definition of Poverty in Indonesia
The definition and classification of urban • Decile 1: lowest 10% welfare level
poverty in Indonesia is formally found in the Regula- • Decile 2: 10–20%
tion of the Ministry of Social Welfare no. 146/HUK/ • Decile 3: 20–30% (etc.)
2013. The Social Welfare Agency (Dinas Sosial) in • Decile 10: highest 10% welfare level.
Bandung City also refers to this regulation that intro-
duced eleven indicators. These indicators are devel- According to the Integrated Database, the
oped to identify different levels of poverty, needed households classified as ‘poor’ in Indonesia are those
for the implementation of the poverty alleviation pro- found in the four lowest groups, deciles 1–4, which
gram. A person is deemed to be poor if they are: comprise the 40% of households with the lowest lev-
els welfare in Indonesia.
• Jobless or having a job but is unable to meet their In Bandung, the Social Welfare Agency (Di-
basic needs nas Sosial) also implements this system, and accord-
• Spends most of his/her expenditure for food ing to data from the Coordination Team of Poverty
• Cannot afford or has some difficulties getting Alleviation of Bandung City in 2015, the distribution
medical support, except for puskesmas (local of poverty in the City of Bandung is as follows:
public clinic) or other health facilities which are
government-subsidised • Decile 1: 26,437 households; 123,070 individuals
• Cannot afford to buy clothes once a year for every • Decile 2: 43,295 households; 153,741 individuals
member of his/her household • Decile 3: 29,611 households; 89,485 individuals
• Has limited ability to pay for education for his/her • Decile 4: 17,891 households; 56,669 individuals.
children (with the maximum level of education
being junior high school) 2.1.2 Poverty Social Assistance
• Living in a residence where the walls are made of A. National Insurance Scheme — BPJS
bamboo/wood/cement having poor condition/low It is mandatory for all Indonesians to register
quality, such as being mouldy or not plastered for BPJS or National Insurance. BPJS comprises work
• Living in a residence where the floor is made of and health insurance schemes. While BPJS enables
earth or wood/cement/ceramic having poor con- non-formal workers to pay a lower premium rate, one
dition/low quality has to have a bank account to be able to apply for it.
• Living in a residence where the roof is made of This is problematic for low-income households who
fibres/rumbia or tile/metal roof (zinc)/asbestos do not have one. To apply for a bank account, one
with poor condition/low quality needs to have a fixed address, which many kampung
• Living in a residence with no electricity or non-me- inhabitants do not have. This situation has excluded
tered (illegal) electricity connection this group from the national welfare programme.
• Living in a residence with less than 8m²/person Issues related to the urban poor are gener-
• Unable to access drinking water other than from ally managed by the city’s Social Department (Dinas
wells or unprotected springs/river/rainwater. Sosial or Disos). The remit of Disos includes planning

and managing of preventive and rehabilitative efforts According to the Committee for the Accel-
pertaining to general urban social welfare, low-in- eration of Poverty Alleviation — or Tim Nasional Per-
come households, disadvantaged urban groups, ju- cepatan Penanggulangan Kemiskinan (TNP2K) — the
veniles/street children, disabled groups, residents status of ‘low-income household’ is determined by
of orphanages and elderly homes, drug addicts, three criteria: the level of education of the head of
ex-convicts, the homeless, and sex workers. Thus, household; his/her economic assets; and the num-
their remit is very wide-ranging, but they have to op- ber of economic dependents in the household. To
erate on a rather small budget. be eligible for the many low-income household sub-
As kampungs are often the homes of the sidy/support programmes, the households need to
urban poor, some of the (social) problems in the in- have a KPS or “Certificate of Poor Household” — Surat
formal settlements fall under the responsibility of the Keterangan Rumah Tangga Miskin (SKRTM). Both
Social Department. Many of the participants of the KPS and SKRTM are registered/surveyed with the
social programmes live in the informal settlements, assistance of the local sub-district leaders (kelurahan
and the Social Department carries out many solid leader). Until now, according to the registry of the
programmes, including training and counselling. Social Ministry, there are 15 millions households in
However, although many of the problems in the in- Indonesia which are entitled to KPS. However, ac-
formal settlements are social, some of the approach- cording to the Statistics Bureau there are 20 million
es (i.e. to improve the living quality) are technical and poor households who are in need. This indicates that
spatial, which means that the Social Department has there may be 5 million poor households not regis-
to work together with different departments, such as tered by the Social Ministry (Redaksi Geotimes 2015).
the Department of Public Work and Housing and the The holders of KPS and/or SKRTM who are
Department of Health. To be able to properly target verified by TNP2K are entitled to apply among others
and plan such programmes, the other departments for the Energy Rate Subsidy (900VA) for low-income
need proper field work documentation of the informal households (Ministry of Energy, Permen ESDM
settlements, which they do not have. As a result, ef- 29/2016). The criteria include: assets, place of resi-
forts to tackle problems at the kampungs are seldom dence, employment status, education level and health
holistic and instead tend to be a patchwork. status. Holders are also entitled to Raskin (Beras un-
In brief, there are a number of subsidy pro- tuk Keluarga Miskin) a form of food subsidy (15kg
grammes that commonly target the inhabitants of rice/month) (TNP2K 2017). This is a programme from
the informal settlements such as Kartu Bandung Se- the Indonesian central government in collaboration
hat 2016 (Health Card or KBS). KBS is allocated for with the regional government.
low-income households. To be able obtain the card, The accessibility of governmental subsidies
one has to register as a “low-income” citizen. The and insurance for the urban poor remains problem-
holders of this card are entitled to free health clinic atic, however, due to a number of reasons stated
care and insurance. KBS is managed by the city health above, the double registry system, and non-transpar-
department (Departemen Kesehatan). ent subsidy allocation processes. Our project pro-
poses a system of kampung-specific data capture
 . Social Protection Card — 
B for subsidy registration (See Chapter 5).
Kartu Perlindungan Sosial (KPS)
On the national level, there are also support
programmes applicable in Bandung, such as Kartu 2.2 Informal Settlements and Kampungs
Perlindungan Sosial (KPS). KPS is designated as so-
cial support for ‘low income’ households. KPS holders In Indonesia, human settlements have var-
are entitled to obtain an education subsidy for poor ious typologies and definitions. Our study identifies
students, or Bantuan Siswa Miskin (BSM), and Family four common terms that are used to define settle-
Welfare Saving, or Program Simpanan Keluarga Se- ment typologies in urban areas in Indonesia, namely:
jahtera (PSKS). KPS basically comprises three regis- formal settlement, informal settlement, slum area,
trations for Education Subsidy — Kartu Indonesia Pin- and kampung. In order to clarify the typologies and
tar, Health Service Subsidy — Kartu Indonesia Sehat, achieve an understanding of their characteristics, the
and Family Welfare — Kartu Keluarga Sejahtera. study included a literature review of existing policies/

regulations and academic journals. The study first of the term ‘informal settlement’ which are inherently
discusses those terms from the perspective of poli- different from kampung.
cies and regulations, as follows.
The Act no. 11/2011 on Housing and Settle- • An informal settlement is a grey zone where most
ment defined the (housing) settlement as a “part of a of the inhabitants have unclear legal claims and
residential area that consists of several housing units rights over the land or housing; it is lacking of
with basic infrastructure and public facilities, which basic services, has poor living condition, and is
support the other activities in urban or rural areas”. dense (ADB 2014).
The Act defined the slum area as a “unit of settlement • An informal settlement is an unplanned settle-
that has low living standard or is uninhabitable due to ment on land occupied illegally, that does not fol-
the irregular building layout, high density, low building low the planning and building regulations from
quality, and lack of infrastructure”. This definition was the government (United Nations Statistics Divi-
used as the basis of the latest Government Regulation sion 1997).
no. 14/2016 on Implementation of Housing and Set- • An informal settlement is a residential area where
tlement. For comparison, UN Habitat (2003) defined the inhabitants have no security of tenure due to
slums as a “settlement with lack of proper housing, squatting and to renting informal housing, due to
lack of safe water and sanitation, limited living space, lack of infrastructure and basic services, and which
and low-income”. This definition may have been used development does not follow the planning and
as the basis of the Indonesian definition. building regulations (UN-Habitat 2015).
The Act and regulations do not define, how-
ever, the terms ‘kampung’ and ‘informal settlement’. Based on the definitions above, our study
Therefore, our study seeks a definition of kampung defines those terms as follows:
and informal settlement from other literature. Follow-
ing are some definitions of kampung: 1 Formal settlement (planned settlement): a resi-
dential area that is planned by the government
• A kampung is a settlement, that was mostly orig- or private sector (e.g. real estate developer) that
inated from a native village that gradually trans- has basic infrastructures (road, water, drainage,
formed to an urban settlement. Unfortunately, the electricity, sewerage, etc.) and public facilities
rapid transformation most of the time is not fol- (open green space, school, religious building,
lowed by the provision of infrastructure and social etc.). The planned settlement could be located in
services. The inhabitants of the kampungs are an urban or peri-urban area.
mostly low to middle-income families (Taylor 1982). 2 Slum: an unplanned and high-density settlement
• A kampung is a semi-urban village that was built with low living standards, such as a lack of proper
on former rice fields or swamps in an unplanned housing, lack of clean water and sanitation, lim-
manner and which lacks infrastructures and ser- ited living space, and is occupied by low-income
vices (United Nation 1989). inhabitants.
• A kampung is a residential area of low-income 3 Kampung: originally a village that transformed
people with poor physical condition, infrastruc- organically into a high-density settlement in an
tures and public services (Budiharjo 1992). urban area with poor infrastructures, sanitation,
• A kampung is a village which is located on pock- and basic facilities. It is mostly occupied by low-
ets of rural land or the urban area, is very dense, to middle-income people. However, it is necessary
and has a low standard of sanitation and poverty to note some of the kampungs might have legit-
(Patton and Subanu 1988). imate tenure; therefore, they could not be classi-
fied as squatters or illegal.
To better understand the term ‘kampung’ in 4 Informal settlement: an unplanned settlement of
the context of Indonesia, one would have to make a high-density which lacks infrastructures and basic
distinction between kampungs, informal settlements services, and which is located on lands that are
and slum areas. Kampung residents should not be not designated for residential use. It does not ad-
classified as squatters, either, since many of them here to the formal planning and building regula-
have legitimate tenure. These are some definitions tions from the government.

31 Understanding the Urban Poor

1. Master plan KAMPUNGS
2. Basic infrastructures 1. Originated from a native village
3. Public facilities 2. May have a legitimate tenure
4. Legitimate tenure

st or w d
sa ruct infra llo an n
ni ur - t fo ng tio
ta es o no anni gula
tio D y pl g re
n an Unplanned
d an ildin
High-density bu
Lack of
basic services
1. Unhabitable houses SETTLEMENTS
Do not follow
2. Lack of clean water any planning Illegal housing
3. Lack of sanitation and
4. Limited living space building

Since most of the kampungs in urban areas improvement of public housing. It also includes the
are of high-density, unplanned and not following plan- processes of land acquisition and funding. The man-
ning and building regulations, they are often associ- agement of informal settlement is thus included in
ated with the informal settlements, although not all the remit.
kampungs are informal. Some have gained legal rec- Informal settlements are further defined as
ognition and land tenureship through times, while having housing with no planning (unplanned or in-
others were evicted. formal), high density, low physical quality, insufficient
In Indonesia, the informal settlement is also infrastructure and basic facility provisions. The cat-
formally labelled as ‘permukiman kumuh’, which is a egories of informal houses are:
dense or very dense settlement with very minimum
infrastructure facilities such as clean water, sanita- • Unpaved housings (dirt or low-quality timber floor)
tion, open space, etc. The Government of Indonesia • Wall made of bamboo, rattan and low-quality
is aware of the problem of informal settlement and timber
has taken serious actions to make some improve- • No natural ventilation and lighting
ments. At the national level, the government intro- • Natural roof or low quality clay roof tiles
duced the Act no. 1/2011 on Housing and Settlement • Moderately or heavily damaged structure
that is expected to be the basis of development and • Floor area less than 36m²
improvement. According to the Infrastructure Statis-
tic Report 2015 by the Ministry of Public Work, the The approach for uninhabitable housing is
remit of housing regulation no.1 (2011) includes the mostly based on “prevention” and “quality improve-
provision, management, maintenance and quality ment”. Prevention is done through monitoring of

32 Fig. 11 Characteristics of different types of settlements.

land-use and zoning and community empowerment. 2.3.1 Kampung Verbetering
Quality improvement includes revitalisation and re- The existence of informal settlements had
location of housing located in high-risk or disaster been recorded by cartographers and in statistical re-
prone areas. According to the Housing and Public ports since colonial times. During that time, there
Work Ministry, there are close to 40 thousand hec- was a strong spatial separation among many ethnic
tares of informal settlement nationwide (but most groups, most notably between the Europeans and
are located on Java island). This number represents the native Indonesians. Most natives inhabited un-
a housing backlog of approximately 7.6 million units desirable vacant lands between built areas in the cit-
(Novalius 2017). The national government is aiming ies, living relatively rural lifestyles on small-scale ag-
to eradicate informal settlements by 2019. As of 2015, ricultural plots. As the cities grew, these settlements
there were 56 regencies on the priority list, and Band- also densified. The quality of the living environment
ung is one of them. To achieve this goal, the govern- quickly deteriorated, as often there were no proper
ment has set up a Housing Fund (BSPS — Bantuan infrastructures, such as a sanitation system and clean
Stimulan Perumahan Swadaya) which targets infor- water provision. The situation got so serious that to
mal settlements that are located on lands with legal prevent a city-wide epidemic of diseases, the colonial
property rights, uncompleted housing, housing sub- city administration launched a kampungs improve-
ject to land consolidation and/or relocations, housing ment programme or Kampung Verbetering in the
located on high-risk or disaster-prone areas. The fund 1930s to improve overall public health in the city (At-
has been distributed to close to 300,000 households kinson et al. 2008). The programme mostly focused
during 2010–2013, most of whom are located in West on sewerage systems, clean water provision, and foot-
Java province. paths. This programme was carried out in a number
Bandung is on the national priority list of 30 of Indonesian cities including Semarang, Jakarta and
cities that need to improve the quality of their human Surabaya.
settlements. The exact number of people and house-
holds living in informal settlements in Bandung (and  .3.2 Muhamad Husni Thamrin, Kampung
in Indonesia at large) is not known. Reports cited Improvement Project
numbers ranging from 40% to 70%. In reality, it is very Soon after Independence, many Indonesian
difficult to estimate the numbers, as they are not well cities experienced massive population explosions.
documented. This situation adds to the complexity City authorities were far from ready to host the extra
of efforts to tackle the issue of informal settlement. population. As a result, migrants were crowding the
Apart from this, the Bandung city government is pri- informal settlements. The situations of most of these
oritising development of drainage and sewage net- settlements were rather dire without basic infrastruc-
works in the informal settlements according to RTRW tures and public services. Without financial capacity
2011–2031. Our interviews with city agencies revealed to build a public housing scheme, the authority chose
that apart from the aforementioned Creative Kam- to implement in-situ improvement programmes. The
pung programmes, currently there are no specific Kampung Improvement Programme was launched
programmes (neither short- nor long-term) that deal and piloted in Jakarta through the Muhamad Husni
with the physical improvement of informal settlements Thamrin Project in 1969, and it was replicated all over
in Bandung. Indonesia until 1974.
The programme consisted of four phases
which were mostly focused on infrastructure improve-
2.3 Existing Kampungs and Affordable ment. Only in the last phase, between 1989-1999, were
Housing Programmes and Policies economic and social empowerment programmes in-
tegrated. The project, partly financed by the World
The direction of the government’s approach Bank, was considered a success story globally, and
toward informal settlements has been continuously it was adopted by many cities around the world. How-
shifting during the past decades. It ranges from in-si- ever, the project was said to lead to land speculation
tu improvements, ‘site and services’ to relocations. practices, as many kampung dwellers sold their hous-
The following is a brief overview of the previous and es after the improvements. They were left homeless
existing programmes. and assetless soon after. The programme was also

33 Understanding the Urban Poor

rather top-down — not involving the local community, • 25,000 flat units (Rusunami)
which can nurture the sense of ownership and self-re- • 3,600,000 housing improvement micro-loans
sponsibility — and it was thus not effective and effi-
cient. This has provided a valuable lesson to the au- The programme was hindered by a number
thorities to devise preventive measures in their next of factors, such as: a high interest rate which rendered
programmes. the houses unaffordable to those who were targeted;
policy mismatch among the housing authorities at
2.3.3 P3KT (Integrated Urban different levels; policy mismatch among related gov-
Infrastructure Programme) 1984–1999 ernment agencies; and non-existence of effective
While previous programmes tended to be financial instruments.
planned in isolation from the general city planning,
in this period the city authority started to integrate 2.3.6 2015 One Million House Pro-
infrastructure planning with spatial and economic gramme — Program Sejuta Rumah (under
urban strategies in this phase. Works mostly include President Joko Widodo)
the development of basic infrastructures, clean wa- This programme was targeted for low-in-
ter, sewage, waste management, and urban manage- come households across Indonesia who cannot af-
ment. This programme was funded through foreign ford the regular housing mortgage loans (with 10%
financial loans and the national budget down-payment). It was funded by the CSR through
Financial Liquidity Funds. It offers a minimal down-pay-
2.3.4 P2BPK (Community Based Housing ment (1%) and fixed interest rate.
Development) 1994–1998
This programme emphasised the commu-
nities’ own efforts through self-help housing devel- 2.4 Kampungs in Bandung
opment. The concept of participatory planning start-
ed to take centre stage in this period. It was also Based on data from the Spatial Planning and
based on active public fund-raising. This programme Public Work Agency (Distarcip) in 2014, there are 193
also accommodated possibilities for the community out of 1556 RW classified as slums. From this number
to obtain land tenure. 29 RW are categorised as ‘heavy’ slums, and 88 RW
are categorised as ‘intermediate’ and ‘light’ slums
2.3.5 1998–2004 One Million House (Manalu, 2016).
National Programme GNPSR — Gerakan The definition of slum location is stipulated
Nasional Pembangunan Sejuta Rumah in the Mayor’s Certificate Number: 648/ Kep.455-dis-
The programme was first initiated by Pres- tarcip/2010 on Housing and Slum Neighbourhood
ident Megawati Sukarnoputri and aimed to build one Location. Based on this decree, the classification of
million houses for the low-income households across serious slum settlements is found in five sub-districts,
Indonesia (Menteri Negara Perencanaan and Pem- namely: Astana Anyar District, Bojongloa Kidul
bangunan Nasional 2005). The goal was to build: Sub-district, Bandung Wetan Sub-district, Kiaracon-
dong Sub-district and Sumur Bandung Sub-district.
• 200,000 low-cost housing units; According to the Bandung municipality,
• 600,000 slum house improvements; and there were approximately 28,000 low-income people
• 200,000 self-help housing and/or rental flat units who needed public housing in 2015 (Mola 2015). To
(Rusunawa) address this problem, Bandung municipality intro-
duced several slum improvement programmes which
During the period 2004–2009 President include efforts to:
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono continued the GNPSR
programme with the following targets: • Improve facilities and infrastructure
in the settlement;
• 1,350,000 low-cost housing units • Improve the condition of existing buildings
• 925,000 modest housing units and the environment;
• 60,000 rental flat units (Rusunawa) • Improve sanitation and waste management;

• Improve the quality of neighbourhoods; and (City Without Slums) programme that is based on a
• Provide assistance for the improvement of unin- community self-help programme, which intends to
habitable houses. build an integrated system for slum improvement.
The objective of this program is to increase access
In 2013, the Mayor of Bandung introduced to basic infrastructures and services in slum areas,
the Instructions of Mayor Bandung No. 2/2013 on and to create viable, productive, and sustainable ur-
Action Plan Towards Bandung Champion (Bandung ban settlements. In this programme, the government
Juara) that aim to achieve “Bandung Champion” goals. collaborates with stakeholders in the process of plan-
Some of the action plans that are pertinent to slum ning and implementation. The Kotaku program will
improvement are: community capacity building and be realised in 121 kelurahan in 2019. The programme
revitalisation of the built environment through the- has three stages; in 2017 the program focuses on 33
matic community empowerment programmes (for kelurahan with a budget (Infrastructure Fund Assis-
each kampung); sanitation improvement (communal tance) of IDR 15 billion for infrastructure provisions
toilets and reservoir provisions); and others, which such as roads, drainage, water, waste management,
are part of the “Kampung Juara” programme (Manalu fire safety, and public open space (Bagian Humas
2016). Other relevant projects to slum improvement Setda Kota Bandung, 2017). Specifically for the im-
include the “Bedah Rumah”, a home improvement provement of unhabitable houses, the government
programme, and the Braga kampung revitalisation. allocates a budget of IDR 15 million maximum for each
In 2015, the municipality introduced the Ur- house (head of Bandung housing division 2017).
ban Slum Resettlement Plan (Rencana Kawasan Per- According to interview #8 (2017), all of the
mukiman — Kumuh Perkotaan) that was initiated by programmes above should follow the framework that
the Ministry of Public Works and Housing (Perdana is divided into three stages: short-, medium-, and long-
2015). The Ministry of Public Works and Housing al- term programmes. The details of those stages are:
located a budget of approximately IDR 70 billion for 1 Short-term: Environmental improvements (drain-
Bandung city. The municipality of Bandung developed age and roads improvement, freshwater provision,
a strategy that focused on improving the slums with- sewage management, etc.) and unhabitable-house
out displacing the residents (ibid). To do this, the gov- improvements;
ernment develops transit apartments to house resi- 2 Medium-term: High-density area improvement  — 
dents during the slum improvement works which take including PSU areas and infrastructure
approximately a year. This plan focuses on building improvements;
a 4-storey apartment building, which would provide 3 Long-term: Revitalisation without displacement,
extra open space—green open space and standard through the development of vertical housing and
infrastructures and public facilities. green open space provision.
Another programme pertinent to slums in
Bandung is “Apartment Rakyat” or Public Apartment. As shown in the Table 1, the total slum area
The municipality plans to build 13 towers for low-in- in Bandung city in 2012 was approximately 733 ha,
come people group (MBR) (Mola 2015). In order to with the largest slum concentration located in Te-
implement the plan, the municipality works with the galega covering 201 ha (27.44%). The smallest slum
Ministry of Public Works and Housing, the Directo- area is in the development area of Ujung Berung,
rate General of Human Settlement (ibid). According around 74 ha (10.06%). Based on the sub-district (ke-
to our interview #8 (2017), the program applies the camatan), Margacinta sub-district has the largest
scheme of Public-Private project. slum area, 102 ha (13.96%), while Cibeunying Kidul
The city is to provide the land, and the pri- District has the smallest of 0.9 ha (0.13%).
vate sector builds the apartment towers under two
schemes — a commercial one and a subsidized one
for low-income residents. Under the second scheme,
the low-income residents can rent an apartment unit
for up to two terms of 30 years. Although the idea is
promising, to date the municipality has yet to attract
any investors. The City also rolled out the “Kotaku”

35 Understanding the Urban Poor

No Kecamatan Area (Ha) Percentage (%)

Development Area of Bojonegara 88.4 12.06

1 Andir 12.9 1.76
2 Cicendo 29.9 4.08
3 Sukajadi 45.69 6.22

Development Area of Cibeunying 111.5 15.21
4 Bandung Wetan 10.75 1.76
5 Cibeunying Kaler 32.76 4.47
6 Cibeunying Kidul 17.47 2.38
7 Cidadap 20.95 2.38
8 Coblong 26.79 3.65
9 Sumur Bandung 2.73 0.37

Development Area of Gedebage 159.36 21.74

10 Bandung Kidul 13.59 1.85
11 Margacinta 102.30 13.96
12 Rancasari 44.95 6.13

Development Area of Karees 98.88 13.49

13 Batunuggal 27.67 3.77
14 Kiara Condong 33.62 4.59
15 Lengkong 3.92 0.54
16 Regol 33.66 4.59

Development Area of Tegalega 201.13 27.44
17 Astana Anyar 1.97 0.27
18 Babakan Ciparay 78.31 10.68
19 Bandung Kulon 42.13 5.75
20 Bojongloa Kaler 37.49 5.11
21 Bojongloa Kidul 39.75 5.42

Development Area of Ujung Berung 73.71 10.06
22 Arcamanik 14.03 5.42
2 3 Cibeunying Kidul 0.93 0.13
24 Cibiru 8.40 1.15
25 Cicadas 35.65 4.86

Total 732.94 100

Tab. 1 Slum Areas in Bandung in 2012, Sumber: Distarcip, 2015 (in Manalu 2016)
Tab. 2 (right page) The Coverage of Slum Upgrading Programmes in Bandung
36 City 2014–2015, Source: Distarcip 2015 (in Manalu 2016)
No Kelurahan Kecamatan Area (Ha)

1 Ciroyom 1 Andir 1.35

2 Ciroyom 8 Andir 3.60
3 Babakan Ciparay 6 Babakan Ciparay 2.61
4 Taman Sari 6 Bandung Wetan 1.72
5 Taman Sari 11 Bandung Wetan 3.39
6 Cikutra 6 Cibeuying Kidul 3.37
7 Kebon Jayanti 2 Kiara Condong 1.33
8 Babakan 4 Babakan Ciparay 3.59
9 Babakan Surabaya 5 Kiara Condong 3.22
10 Babakan Surabaya 6 Kiara Condong 3.48

Jumlah 27.67

 .5 Other Government Programmes

2 the members of the Asian Creative City Network in
Related to Kampungs in Bandung Yokohama in 2007. The programme oversees the de-
velopment of a creative economy in 30 kampungs in
The city government of Bandung is very Bandung. It includes the development of local po-
aware that the burgeoning informal settlements are tentialities and assets, and business incubation in
one of their major urban challenges. A review of the the area of art and culture. Bandung Creative City
existing spatial strategic plans showed indications Forum (BCCF) a local NGO was tasked to assist the
of plans to tackle the problems through revitalisation, implementation of the project on the ground together
relocation, and in-situ infrastructure improvements with the local community.
(i.e. sewage and waste management). However, with To date there are a number of Creative Kam-
no accurate mapping or other documentation of the pung projects developed in Bandung (Redaksi Band-
locations of the informal settlements and their inhab- ung Juara 2013):
itants, detailed programmes for specific areas cannot
be planned and implemented. The registry of people 1 Kampung Dago Pojok
who live in informal settlements is another complex- (handicrafts and performance art)
ity. Interviews revealed that there is a discrepancy 2 Kampung Cicadas (performance art)
between the data held by the statistics department 3 Kampung Pasundan
and the social department. The social department is (art and culture, performance art)
in charge of the provision of social welfare programme 4 Kampung Belekok (natural conservation area of
to those who are in need of support; however, they Araeola Speciosa birds)
have limited manpower to do a proper survey. 5 Kampung Leuwi Anyar (mural painting project)
According to the local regulations, each 6 Kampung Cicukang (art and culture, performance
community leader (RT/RW leaders) should have a art)
complete registry of their community members. How- 7 Kampung Bambu Cipaku
ever, as was often complained of during our survey, (bamboo musical instruments)
many newcomers from other kampungs or the rural 8 Kampung Cigowendah (garment industry)
areas largely go unregistered. This situation also con- 9 Kampung Cibuntu
tributes to the local social tension in the kampungs. (soy-based food industry), and many more.
There is, however, a programme that envi-
sions the economic improvement of the kampungs The outcomes of the projects are varied:
in Bandung. At the end of 2013, Bandung’s city gov- some are quite successful while others fell flat. An
ernment rolled out a 5-year Creative Kampung pro- interview with local champion Mr. Rahmat Jabaril from
gramme as part of its mission to develop Bandung Kampung Dago Pojok reveals a number of influential
as a creative city. Bandung was selected as one of factors, such as the nature of the initiatives (whether

37 Understanding the Urban Poor

it is top-down or bottom-up) and buy-in from the local
community leaders. Many of the projects above were
inspired by the success of Kampung Dago Pojok.
When Mr. Jabaril was commissioned to assist the de-
velopment of the programme in other kampungs, the
nature of the projects became no longer bottom-up,
it was more like an assigned project coming from the
top (government). The community enthusiasm there-
fore was not as strong, and over time it fizzled out.
Different social contexts in each kampung, such as
the degree of social cohesiveness, sense of (tenure)
security, economic status, and political orientation
also influence greatly the implementation process.
During our field surveys in three kampungs
in Bandung, we observed a high degree of entrepre-
neurship through the many small home businesses
we documented in the kampungs. There appear to
be aspirations for the kampungs to be part of the main-
stream urban economy  —  such as through the es-
tablishment of silk-screen businesses  —  rather than
only a kampung-based economy. High degrees of
internet usage in kampungs indicate that the inhab-
itants are relatively attuned to the general economic
and social trend. We feel that the kampungs need to
be supported with more programmes that can facil-
itate their becoming an active part of the urban econ-
omy. While it is important to maintain and develop
the local arts and culture (through handicraft pro-
duction, traditional performance art training, and sim-
ilar activities), the kampung inhabitants need more
importantly to be supported in becoming better
equipped to compete in the city job market at large.
The focus could be put on skills improvement, support
for business development, and network building.
Our interviews with city agencies revealed
that apart from the aforementioned Creative Kam-
pung programmes, currently there are no specific
programmes (neither short- nor long-term) that deal
with the physical improvement of informal settlements
in Bandung.

38 Understanding the Urban Poor

39 Understanding the Urban Poor
3 Field Study Documentation 41
3.1 Case Studies Selection 43
3.1.1 Description of the Kecamatan 43
 3.1.2 Description of the Three Case Study Areas (Kampungs) 43
A Kampung Dago Pojok 43
B Kampung Sablon 43
C Kampung Lokomotif 44
3.2 Kampung Mapping Methodology 45
3.2.1 Kampung Field Survey 45
3.2.2 Spatial Mapping 45
3.2.3 Environmental Scan 45
A Mapping of Ecosystem Services 45
 B Mapping of Air Quality in the Kampungs 45
 C Mapping of Water Quality in the Kampungs 48
3.2.4 Kampung Household Surveys 48
A Questionnaires 48
B Domestic Visual Survey 48
3.3 Results 50
3.3.1 Kampung Mapping Results 50
3.3.2 Environmental Scan Results 50
A Green Cover of Bandung 50
 B Survey of Vegetation Use Across All Three Kampungs 50
C Air Quality Monitoring Results 52
D Water Quality Monitoring Results 53
3.3.3 Household Surveys Results  54
A Demographic Profile of Inhabitants 54
 B Education, Income and Location of Work 54
 C Communication with the Government and Government Support 54
D Internet and ICT Use 55
 E Built Environment: Water and Waste Management,
Electricity Access 55
F Kampungs: Resilient Communities 55
G Healthcare and Access to Healthcare 60
 H Aspirations (grouped based on common themes) 60
 3.3.4 Validation: Focus Group Discussions 83
A Kampung Sablon 83
B Kampung Dago Pojok 83
C Kampung Lokomotif 83
3.3.5 Feedback on the Practice of e-Musrenbang in the Kampung 84

Field Study
basic socio-economic, spatial, and environmental
data which can give some preliminary insights to cur-

Documentation rent problems and priorities, it still needs to be sup-

plemented with further in-depth study should we want
to research further on specific topics such as public
health or particular economic issues.
The Kampung Data Collection Kit is designed
to help planners and decision makers better under-
stand the main priorities and pressing problems of
the neighbourhood. The Kit is recommended for adop-
tion by the city of Bandung to build a comprehensive
To design inclusive, responsive city systems kampung database. The Kit includes five steps: (1)
which consider the participations and the aspirations Field Survey to document spatial function, land use,
of those who are living in the kampungs, better un- infrastructure and public facilities provisions, (2) Spa-
derstanding of the problems and the priorities of these tial Mapping of the study area to capture the result
areas is needed. Kampungs, however, are very com- of the field survey and combine it with the existing
plex phenomena, in terms of their history, political, spatial data from different datasets, including the open
social and economic settings, as well as cultural man- source platforms, (3) Questionnaire for the inhabit-
ifestations. To gain a better understanding of the kam- ants to capture in-depth information relating to de-
pungs, Future Cities Laboratory designed a “Kampung mographic, social and economic background, (4) En-
Data Collection Kit” (See Appendix 2 for the kit) which vironmental Scan to capture the environmental quality
includes several steps of methodical site observa- including Ecosystem Services, water and air, and (5)
tions. It is by no mean the most comprehensive meth- Domestic Visual Survey to obtain more in-depth in-
odology; however, it is meant to serve its purpose as formation about the inhabitants’ life style, which can
a basic methodology to better understand the kam- be used to verify the results of the survey and the
pungs through site observations, mapping and com- questionnaires. See further description of the Tool
munity engagement. While it is sufficient to capture Kit in the Appendix 2.

Bandung City Kampong Lokomotif

Kelurahan Husein Sastranegara
Kecamatan Cicendo

Kampong Dago Pojok

Kelurahan Dago
Kecamatan Coblong

Kampong Sablon
Kelurahan Cihaur Geulis
Kecamatan Cibeunying Kaler

Fig. 12. Map of the location of three kelurahan (village) units: Kelurahan Husein
Sastranegara (Kampung Lokomotif), Kelurahan Dago (Kampung Dago ­Pojok)
41 and Kelurahan Cihaur Geulis (Kampung Sablon).
No Items Kecamatan

Coblong Cicendo Cibeunying Kaler

Area (KM2) 7.43 6.86 5.25

Height (ASL) 792 700 706

Kelurahan 6 6 6

RW 75 56 87

RT 462 413 562

6 Population
2010 (sensus) 127,588 96,491 104,575
2014 131,435 99,486 107,727
2015 132,002 99,898 108,193

7 Growth rate/year
2010–2015 0.69 0.71 0.69
2014–2015 0.43 0.43 0.43

8 Density
% of total population 5.32 4.03 4.36
Population density/km² 17,959 14,562 20,608

9 Household
Total household 47,273 24,811 28,249
population density by
household 2.78 4.01 3.81

10 Male 69,030 50,092 54,592
Female 62,972 49,806 53,601

11 Doctor 10 3 5
Dentist 4 2 3

12 Pharmacy/Pharmacist
1 1 1
Midwife 23 8 22

13 Nurse 12 5 5
Dental Nurse 2 0 3

14 Number of births 2,180 1,811 1,943

Malnutrition 0 2 25
Low birth weight 64 44 9

Tab. 3 Statistical figures of the three kecamatans. Source: Statistics of Bandung

42 City (2016).
3.1 Case Studies Selection so-called “valley of Dago”. Dago Pojok belongs to the
administrative zone RW 03 of Kelurahan Dago and
This project takes three kampungs in Band- Kecamatan Coblong. The kampung has an area of
ung namely: Kampung Dago Pojok (Dago), Kampung approx. 30 ha. Kampung Dago is classified as a
Sablon (Muararajeun) and Kampung Lokomotif (Jatayu) mid-density settlement/kampung and is the largest
as case studies to illustrate how to use the Kit. The of the studied kampungs. The kampung is located
kampungs were selected based on their relevance on the foothills of the volcanic mountains of Band-
and their inclusion in the existing government pro- ung, between the commercial district of Dago street
grammes. Through these case studies, we confirmed and the nature tourism site of Taman Hutan Raya
our initial conjectures regarding the underlying prob- Djuanda. The kampung location is well suited for
lems and validated our proposed solutions. tourism development offering beautiful views of the
city and fresher air. Currently, the first tourist accom-
3.1.1 Description of the Kecamatan modation is being constructed in the kampung. The
The city of Bandung is divided into 30 keca- Dago area has a long history as an important trans-
matan (district) and 151 kelurahan (village) and 1584 port route in northern Bandung--Jalan Dago. During
RW (neighbourhood) units. Kampung Lokomotif is the colonial times Dago was a significant commercial
administratively part of RW 07, Kelurahan Husein Sas- and residential area. Today the kampung still includes
tranegara, Kecamatan Cicendo; Kampung Dago Pojok houses in the traditional Sundanese style, built by
part of RW 03, Kelurahan Dago and Kecamatan Cob- Sudanese village settlers. Small creative businesses
long; and Kampung Sablon part of RW 05, Kelurahan such as Sundanese puppet making, textile
Cihaur Geulis and Kecamatan Cibeunying Kaler. screen-printing, mural painting and traditional art are
Kecamatan Coblong (Dago Pojok) is the larg- the core commercial activities of the kampung. Kam-
est kecamatan (district) area, located in the north-west- pung Dago Pojok still harbours a considerable amount
ern part of Bandung at the altitude of 792 m.a.s.l. Based of natural space. This space is well utilized for urban
on the population census Statistics of Bandung City farming (fruit trees, allotments) or for fishing along
(2016) (Table 3), the district has the largest population the river banks. This kampung has its own hydropow-
(132,002) and number of households (47,273) among er station. Based on the RDTR 2015-2035 Municipality
the three studied district areas. In this district, the of Bandung (Table 4) the majority of the residents
statistics show a greater number of “low birth weight” have access to electricity, some areas are connected
records (64). to the clean/drinking water network (PDAM), and
Kecamatan Cicendo (Lokomotif) is located almost every house has a septic tank for waste
in western part of Bandung at the altitude of 700 collection.
m.a.s.l. From 2010 to 2015 Kecamatan Cicendo expe-
rienced the sharpest increase in the population growth B. Kampung Sablon
rate (0.71) among the three districts. This district has Kampung Sablon belongs to the adminis-
trative zone RW 05 of Kelurahan Cihaur Geulis and
also the highest recorded population density by house-
hold (4.01). Kecamatan Cibeunying Kaler. This is classified as a
high-density urban kampung. Its location is rather
Kecamatan Cibeunying Kaler (Sablon) is lo-
central, next to the busy commercial street of K.H.
cated in the central part of Bandung at the altitude
Mustofa (Jl. Suci). Kampung Sablon is known for the
of 706 m.a.s.l. This kecamatan has the greatest pop-
ulation density per (20,608). In this district,
textile screen-printing industry. Inside the kampung,
there is a higher number of reported cases of mal-
one finds multiple screen-printing workshops, clothes
nutrition (25) compared with the other two districts.
steaming workshops, tailor workshops and carpenter
Table 3. Statistical figures of the three kecamatans.
workshops. Limited front-yard space is used through-
Source: Statistics of Bandung City (2016). out the kampung for ornamental plants, fruit trees
and vertical farming. The temporary waste depot is
3.1.2 Description of the located inside the kampung, in the vicinity of the reg-
Three Case Study Areas (Kampungs) ulated river stream. Based on the RDTR 2015-2035
A. Kampung Dago Pojok of Bandung the kampung has access to electricity,
Kampung Dago Pojok is located in the no access to PDAM clean/drinking water network

43 Field Study Documentation

(only on the periphery), and there are only open sew- railroad tracks is used as the open space for pigeon
ers to collect the waste. games and kite games, imposing great risk for play-
ing children. During periods of excessive rain, the
C. Kampung Lokomotif kampung’s houses are often flooded due to insuffi-
Kampung Lokomotif belongs to the admin- cient drains and the elevated terrain of the pedestrian
istrative zone RW 07 of Kelurahan Husein Sastrane- tracks, leaning toward the houses. Based on the RDTR
gara and Kecamatan Cicendo. Kampung Lokomotif of Bandung 2015-2035 there are no drainage chan-
is an urban kampung, located along the existing rail- nels inside of the kampung, only an open sewage
way in central Bandung. This kampung is economi- system at the RW 07 periphery. In the RDTR plan, the
cally weak, characterised by limited entrepreneur- electricity network is limited to the kampung’s bor-
ship, insecurity, and lack of business activity (only der; however, the kampung has access to electricity
small food stores/kiosks). The kampung is missing (See Table 4).
any kind of public open space. The space on the

Kampung Dago Pojok Kampung Sablon Kampung Lokomotif

Population Density Mid-density settlement High-density settlement High-density settlement

Electrical Network The master plan shows The master plan shows The master plan shows
an electrical network. an electrical network. the network only at the
kampung periphery.

Water The master plan shows The master plan does The master plan does
some locations in the not show the location not show the location
kampung have access of clean/drinking water of clean/drinking water
to clean/drinking water pipes in the kampung, pipes in the kampung.
pipes (PDAM). only on the periphery.

Drainage System The master plan The master plan No information about
shows the locations shows the locations the location of drainage
primary and tertiary primary and tertiary channels in the
drainage channels. drainage channels. kampung.

Waste Water The master plan does The master plan does The master plan does
not show the location of not show the location of not show the location of
communal septic tank communal septic tank communal septic tank
and waste water network. and waste water network. and waste water network.

Waste Disposal Site The location of tempo- The location of tempo- The location of tempo-
rary waste disposal site rary waste disposal site rary waste disposal site
in the master plan is not in the master plan is not in the master plan is not
far from the kampung. far from the kampung. far from the kampung.

Telecommunication and The master plan does The master plan does The master plan does
Cyber Optic Network not project a cyber optic not project a cyber optic not project a cyber optic
network around the network around the network around the
kampung. kampung. kampung.

Tab. 4 Profile of the three case study areas, Source: The Master Plan of Infrastruc-
44 ture Network RDTR Bandung City 2015–2035
3.2 Kampung Mapping Methodology environment to make it more liveable. Ecosystem ser-
vices depend on the provision of urban habitats, in-
3.2.1 Kampung Field Survey cluding street trees and even potted plants. Before
The first step of the kampung mapping pro- we can quantify the benefits of urban habitats, we
cess was a field survey. The field survey was con- first need to know which types of vegetation are pres-
ducted to document the existing land-uses, basic ent in each kampung, how much of the area is cov-
services, and infrastructures, which gave some indi- ered in vegetation, and how vegetation is spatially
cations of the quality of living and socio-economic distributed across each study site. To quantify these
progress in the kampungs. The survey documented parameters, we combined field surveys with aerial
land-uses — i.e. dwellings, economic activities, basic images and drone photography, to map the locations
services (waste collection points, health clinics, and types of vegetation. Field surveys were conduct-
schools, open spaces, religious facilities, etc.), and ed by a team of four surveyors in August 2017. The
supporting infrastructure networks (road network team of surveyors walked the area of each kampung,
etc.) These components were thoroughly surveyed taking notes on the locations of the vegetation. Point
and documented both manually and using GPS de- locations were recorded at each vegetation patch,
vices, and were subsequently presented in a series from the size of a single pot to entire trees, using a
of maps of land-use, basic services and infrastructure Garmin E-Trex global positioning system (GPS). As
networks (see Figure 15). To ensure the accuracy of much as possible, the plants were identified to spe-
the surveys, the surveyed data were overlaid and pre- cies level. Where it was not possible to identify the
sented on spatial maps described in Section 3.2.2. species, a more general classification was used; trees
and pots were differentiated. The point locations were
3.2.2 Spatial Mapping then cross-referenced with the drone images and
Spatial mapping provides a representation aerial photographs (in the case of Lokomotif) to digit-
of real-world surfaces and helps to understand the ise the area of each vegetation object as a polygon.
structure and spatial setting of the studied area. In To gain some insights into the potential ag-
order to gather data on the spatial setting of the case ricultural benefits of the urban vegetation, the spe-
study areas, drone mapping integrated with the avail- cies that were identified were categorised according
able geospatial data and the Open Street Map (OSM) to whether or not they are commonly used as food
was applied. The objective was to map different as- plants in Indonesia. It is assumed that all urban veg-
pects of the physical environment — i.e. built environ- etation also has some aesthetic benefit, although it
ment (inventory of dwellings), natural environment, was not possible to evaluate the relative aesthetic
and their spatial relationships. Figure 13 shows that benefit of different species.Additional information on
the majority of kampung houses were not indicated ecosystem services was gained by asking residents
on the Open Street Map (A). To complement the miss- during interviews about the plants they grow, the an-
ing information, drone mapping was integrated with imals they keep, and their satisfaction with the gen-
geospatial data (e.g. OSM) and field research to add eral environmental quality.
information (B). Due to the airspace restrictions im-
posed by the airport in one of the case study kam- B. Mapping of Air Quality
pung (Kampung Lokomotif), drone mapping could in the Kampungs
not be applied for this area. Instead, the aerial pho- Air quality is an important indicator of en-
tographs (C) and a city map in AutoCAD from the mu- vironmental pollution, particularly pollution from
nicipality (D) combined with field research were used combustion, including vehicular traffic, heavy indus-
for mapping. try, and fuel use for cooking. NO₂ and SO₂ are two
indicators of air quality that particularly relate to com-
3.2.3 Environmental Scan bustion pollution (WHO, 2005). To quantify the con-
A. Mapping of Ecosystem Services centration of NO₂ and SO₂ in the case study kam-
Ecosystem services are the benefits that na- pungs, we used Gradko diffusion tubes to absorb
ture provides to people. These benefits include pro- the pollutants over a 2–4-week period (See Appendix
viding food, regulating rainfall to reduce flood risk, 6 for details). Paired tubes for NO₂ and SO₂ were
cooling, and improving the aesthetic quality of the placed at 15 locations within each kampung: six inside

45 Field Study Documentation

Fig. 13a Example of an Open Street Map image.
Fig. 13b Example of a drone mapping integrated with geospatial data.
Fig. 13c Example of an aerial photograph: Kampung Lokomotif.
46 Fig. 13d Example of an AutoCAD drawing: Kampung Lokomotif.
47 Field Study Documentation
residences and nine in the open air. Locations were • Basic information of the respondents
selected to spatially cover the area of each kampung, (i.e. age, gender, education attainment, occupa-
but the precise locations were opportunistically cho- tion, income, place of origin);
sen based on the availability of suitable and safe • Lifestyles (i.e. source of drinking water, methods
places. of cooking, waste disposal);
• Access to basic provisions (i.e. electricity, water,
 . Mapping of Water Quality
C health services, financial services, government
in the Kampungs subsidies);
The quality of drinking water is very impor- • Community life (i.e. mode of communication, trust
tant for maintaining residents’ health. Locations for towards neighbours, social linkages);
water quality sampling were selected to spatially cov- • Perception of environmental conditions (i.e. qual-
er the area of each kampung, but the precise loca- ity of water and air);
tions were opportunistically chosen based on the • Perception of governance
people’s willingness to test the water quality. Alto- (i.e. opinions about government services); and
gether five water samples were tested for clean water • IT capability and access (i.e. IT capability, internet
quality in each kampung. access and internet usage pattern).

3.2.4 Kampung Household Surveys B. Domestic Visual Survey

A. Questionnaires The Domestic Visual Survey is a detailed
In order to gain in-depth information regard- documentation of the interior and exterior of a dwell-
ing the problems, priorities and IT capabilities in the ing unit using a 360-degree photo method.
kampungs, one-to-one interviews were conducted The purpose of this survey is to verify the
with 40 randomly selected inhabitants of the kam- result of the questionnaire in relation to the inhabit-
pungs. The complete list of the 59 questions for the antʼs lifestyle, socio-economic conditions and the
interviews is given in Appendix 3. The interviews were quality of his/her living quarter.
conducted by the surveyors and recorded with the
help of a mobile device with Quick Tap Survey soft-
ware. Areas of questions included:

Fig. 14 Photo-documentation of the air quality testing (left) and water quality sam-
48 pling (right) conducted in each kampung .
Kampung Sablon

Kampung Dago Pojok

Kampung Lokomotif

Fig.15 Map of Kampung Sablon. The mapping reveals a high concentration of

screenprinting related functions and businesses in the area (indicated as
light green colour).
Fig. 16 Map of Kampung Dago Pojok. The mapping shows a wide-ranging type of
functions with a high number of art- and culture-related functions in the
kampung which is consistent with its thematic programme. Source: Riset
Indie 2017. Source: Riset Indie 2017.
Fig. 17 Map of Kampung Lokomotif. The mapping shows a high density in the
kampung exceeding those of Kampung Sablon and Dago Pojok. Compared
to the other two kampungs , there is a lack of open space and culture-re-
49 lated activities. Source: Riset Indie 2017.
3.3 Results in Kampung Sablon, including fruits, herbs, and veg-
etables (See Figure 19 and Appendix 4).
3.3.1 Kampung Mapping Results
The results of the mapping activities in the B. Survey of Vegetation Use
three kampungs that were done following the meth- Across All Three Kampungs
odology described in section 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 are pre- A total of 37 plant species were mentioned
sented in the subsequent maps (Figure 15, 16, 17). by name during the household survey, with the high-
The mapping was carried out by Riset Indie team. est number (27) mentioned in Dago Pojok, the green-
est and most agricultural kampung. The range of
3.3.2 Environmental Scan Results plants grown in the kampungs included ornamental
A. Green Cover of Bandung plants such as orchids and flower of triumph plants,
Based on the areal value of green cover for medicinal plants such as aloe vera and delicious night,
the whole of Bandung, the percentage share of green herbs such as ginger and chilli, vegetables such as
cover represents 26% (calculated by FCL). The Arti- pak choi and spinach, and fruits such as mango and
cle 29 of Spatial Planning Regulation (2007) states guava. The most common pot plants grown were chilli,
that the proportion of green space in urban areas in and the most commonly growing fruit trees were man-
Indonesia is to be at least 30 percent of the city area, go, guava, orange, and starfruit (See Appendix 4).
whereas the proportion of public green open space Overall, almost 50% of respondents report-
in urban areas should be at least 20 percent of the ed growing ornamental plants, particularly in Sablon
area. Even though 30 percent greenery is regarded and Dago Pojok, but to also in Lokomotif where over
as a minimum number to balance the available eco- a quarter of people grew ornamental plants at home.
system services in the city (provision of water, cooler Ornamental plants can greatly help to improve the
climate, biodiversity), Bandung city lacks finances aesthetic quality of a neighbourhood, which in turn
for provision of more green space. In the future it is can increase individual well-being, increase outdoor
important to assure that the city provision of green recreation, and enhance the sense of place attach-
space does not continue to drop significantly. The ment to a neighbourhood. Improving the aesthetic
main motivations for maintaining the green cover of quality of outdoor environments may be particularly
at least 30 percent for Bandung are to sustain the important in kampung neighbourhoods where indoor
groundwater provision level, minimize the occurrenc- space for recreation is scarce.
es of floods through better water retention, and mit- Over 40% of all respondents reported grow-
igate air pollution. ing food plants at home, with 65% of respondents
Standards of green space provision are well from Dago Pojok and over half of respondents from
defined in many world cities. Cities are increasingly Sablon doing so. However, growing food plants at
aiming for accessible green space within 10-minute home was rare in Lokomotif, the most dense and least
walk (or within 400 m radius). Planning support tool vegetated kampung. The relatively high frequency of
ur-scape can be very important for the assessment food production does not necessarily suggest that
of areas of Bandung which lack the necessary green residents are dependent on kampung-produced food
space provision and accessibility. for their daily caloric requirement, as many of the ed-
ible plants that are commonly grown are used to add
Example of the vegetation mapping flavour or as a side dish. However, growing food at
in Kampung Sablon home can help to broaden diets, increase consump-
Kampung Sablon covers 2.5 hectares, of tion of foods that would normally be considered a
which vegetation makes up 5% of the total area luxury, and provide opportunities for education and
(0.14  ha). Despite the low green cover, the kampung social bonding.
supports a high plant diversity, comprising fruit trees A substantial number of respondents (25%)
such as mango and guava, ornamental plants such collected food from plants in their kampung that they
as roses, and herbs such as pandan. Through com- did not grow themselves (See Appendix 4). However,
bining field observations with the household inter- very few respondents did so in Lokomotif, probably
views, a total of 20 edible plant species were observed due to the lack of available public green space or

50 Field Study Documentation

Fig. 18 Remote sensing land cover map of Bandung
Fig. 19 Mapping of vegetation, including confirmed food plant species,
51 within K
­ ampung Sablon.
significant large street trees with fruit. The food col- was relatively common (11% of households surveyed
lected was generally fruit, including mango, guava, overall).
banana, and papaya. However, vegetables and herbs
were also collected. This finding suggests that green C. Air Quality Monitoring Results
infrastructure such as street trees can also provide NO₂ and SO₂ are pollutants that generally
opportunities for communities to come together to relate to combustion, such as the use of fuels for cook-
collect food, as many of the larger street trees pres- ing, and use of vehicles with internal combustion en-
ent in the kampungs include mango and guava. Sim- gines. According to the World Health Organisation,
ilarly, areas of unused communal ground can quickly these pollutants can have negative impacts on lung
become used to grow rapidly-growing fruit plants function and have been associated with increased
such as papaya and banana. In future urban planning, prevalence of respiratory diseases. The outdoor air
it may be useful to take advantage of such opportu- concentrations of SO₂ and NO₂ varied substantially
nities to use public spaces for increasing green cover between the kampungs (Figure 20). SO₂ was highest
and simultaneously growing food. in Lokomotif, and lowest in the northern parts of Dago
The proportion of residents keeping animals Pojok. Outdoor air concentrations of NO₂ were high-
was similar between kampungs, varying from 35% est in Sablon, and lowest in Dago Pojok. Within each
in Dago Pojok to 38% in Sablon. The majority of an- kampung there were particular spatial patterns in
imals were kept for ornamental or recreational pur- the pollutant concentrations (Figure 20). In Sablon,
poses, such as cats and caged birds. The diversity pollutant concentrations were highest adjacent to
of animals kept was highest in Dago Pojok, the most the main road running along the northern boundary
rural kampung, where dog, squirrel, and duck keep- of the site and were lower further from the road. This
ing was recorded. Despite the primary use of animals pattern was observed for both pollutants, but par-
for ornamental purposes, domestication of chickens ticularly for SO₂. Concentrations of both pollutants

Fig. 20  patial distribution of air quality relating to concentrations of sulphur di-

oxide (SO₂) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) across the three kampungs. Air
quality was measured using diffusion tubes for approximately two weeks
52 in September 2017.
No Parameter Unit Health Standard

1 Odour – –
2 Total dissolved solids (TDS) mg/L 1500
3 Turbidity NTU 25
4 Conductivity uS/cm –

1 Iron (Fe) mg/L 1,0
2 Florid (F) mg/L 1,5
3 CaCO₃ mg/L 500
4 Chloride (Cl-) mg/L 600
5 Manganese (Mn) mg/L 0,5
6 Nitrate (NO₃) mg/L 10
7 Nitrite (NO₂) mg/L 1,0
8 pH 6,5–9,0
9 Sulfate (SO₄) mg/L 400
10 Surfactants (detergents)
MBAS — Methylene blue active substances mg/L 0,5
11 Organic substance (KMnO₄) mg/L 10
12 Chlorine residue mg/L 0,2–0,5

at Lokomotif were slightly higher in the southern sec- are stated in Table 5 together with the Indonesian
tion of the kampung. Concentrations of both pollut- health standards for clean water quality (in English).
ants at Dago Pojok were highest in the southern part Complete documentation of water quality test results
of the kampung, and lower in the less urbanized and is given in Appendix 5 (in Indonesian).
topographically lower northern part (Figure 20). Five samples were found to have higher con-
It is complex to evaluate thresholds in SO₂ centrations, exceeding the given water quality stand-
and NO₂ because the World Health Organization ards (please also see Appendix 5):
guidelines identify exposure limits that are averaged
over 24-hour and one-year periods respectively. In 1 S02-Rt.07/RW.05Higher concentration
contrast, our study calculates the average value over of Iron 2.47 mg/L and Turbidity 25.9 mg/L.
a 2–4 week period. However, these guidelines may 2 L03-Rt.09/Rw.07Higher concentration
provide an indication of the possible gravity of the of Iron 1.58 mg/L.
observed concentrations, if they continue over longer 3 D03-Rt.02/Rw.03Higher concentration
periods. For SO₂, the WHO guideline limit is 20 µg/ of Nitrates 24.1 mg/L and Organic substance
m³ (24-hour average). This value was exceeded at 6 (KMnO4) 13.9 mg/L.
locations in the study, of which 2 were indoors. The 4 D04-Rt.07/Rw.03Higher concentration of Organic
highest recorded exposure was 122.5 µg/m³, located substance (KMnO4) 27.5 mg/L
next to the main road in Kampung Sablon. For NO₂,
the WHO guideline limit is 40 µg/m³ (1-year average). The paragraphs below summarise the po-
This value was exceeded at 19 locations in the study, tential health effects linked to higher concentrations
of which eight were indoors. of the above-stated parameters:

D. Water Quality Monitoring Results • Fe (Iron) High levels of iron are potentially toxic
Altogether five water quality samples were to the human body. Serious health effects can
taken in each kampung to conduct the analysis of develop, including iron overload which may cause
“clean water quality”. The parameters used for testing hemochromatosis, leading to liver, heart and

53 Tab. 5 Water Quality Standards for Clean Water.

pancreatic damage, as well as diabetes. Early A. Demographic Profile of Inhabitants
symptoms include fatigue, weight loss, and joint This survey presents the results of 120 house-
pain. hold interviews (40 households per kampung). Over-
• Turbidity refers to cloudiness of water. It has no all, 66% of the interviewees were women and 34%
health effects but can interfere with disinfection were men, a distribution which is also reflected within
and provide a medium for microbial growth. Tur- the individual sites. The majority of the respondents
bidity may indicate the presence of disease-caus- (52%), were in the age group 35–50, 34% of respond-
ing organisms (USEPA 2017). ents were in the group of 51–69, and 14% in the group
• Nitrates can reach both surface water and ground- of 18–34 years old.
water as a consequence of agricultural activity,
from wastewater disposal and from oxidation of  . Education, Income and
nitrogenous waste products in human and other Location of Work
animal excreta, including septic tanks. Although On average, 12% percent of inhabitants from
the kampungs graduated from higher education, 41%
most absorbed nitrite is oxidised to nitrate in the
of inhabitants graduated from high school, 26% from
blood, residual nitrite can react with haemoglobin.
junior high school and 19% from elementary school,
High levels of methaemoglobin (>10%) formation
while 2% have not completed any formal education.
in infants can give rise to cyanosis, referred to as
blue-baby syndrome. In comparison, the city-level educational profile data
• Organic Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) is a (BPS Bandung 2016) indicates that about 18% of in-
drinking water treatment. Potassium perman- habitants graduated from higher education, 38% grad-
uated from high school, 19% graduated junior high
ganate is used as an oxidant for cleaning, bleach-
school, and 19% from elementary school, while 5%
ing and disinfection purposes. Currently there is
did not complete elementary school.
no evidence that potassium levels in municipally
treated drinking water, even water treated with On average, 64% of the respondents’ month-
ly earnings are below the minimum wage of 2.85 mil-
potassium permanganate, are likely to pose any
risk for the health of consumers (WHO 2011). lion Rupiah. Only, 6% of respondents earn more than
5 million Rupiah. We have also recorded a higher share
Health concerns may potentially affect individuals
of unemployed people from kampungs (40% on av-
in high-risk groups (i.e. individuals with kidney
erage), which is four times as much as the total un-
dysfunction or other diseases, and older individ-
uals or infants). employment rate of Bandung, 9.02% in 2015. This may
be partly due to interviewee selection bias, as many
3.3.3 Household Surveys Results  respondents available for the surveys were represent-
This survey has resulted in multiple data sets ed by ‘homemakers’.
collected at household level, summarised by the fol- In terms of location of workplaces, the ma-
lowing seven themes: jority of residents’ places of employment are found
within the kampungs — i.e. 44%; compared with only
A Demographic Profile of the Inhabitants 23% of interviewees who travel outside of the kam-
B Education, Income and Location of Work pungs to work. On average 46% of all listed occupa-
C Communication with the Government, tions represent “small business owners” having their
Government Support working spaces at home. This fact highlights the cre-
D Internet and ICT use ative business mind-set and entrepreneurship of the
E Built Environment: Water and kampungs.
Waste Management, Electricity Access
F Kampungs: Resilient Communities  . Communication with the
G Health and Access to Health Government and Government Support
H Aspirations for the Kampung Altogether, 76% of interviewees report prob-
lems in the kampungs to the government through
The results for these items are presented their RT/RW leader. However, on average every fifth
in the following sub-sections. person (22%) never reported the problem to the gov-
ernment. Our focus group discussions have clarified

the reasons for not reporting and confirmed the need source and represents a high share of 37%. Respond-
for the additional data-capture system which we pro- ents only buy water for drinking. Water to support oth-
posed. This is further described in Chapter 5.2. er daily uses is available in the kampungs. The ma-
Subsidies for food, education, and health, jority of the waste in the kampungs is being collected
cash assistance, and a family support program (smart by individuals from the kampungs (82%) in the tem-
card) are distributed by the government and regis- porary depots (located within the kampung site or
tered by RT/RW leaders. On average, 35% of respond- nearby) and incinerated locally. Some waste is being
ents receive some type of the above stated govern- collected by public waste collection means (13%),
mental subsidies. However, based on our findings, after which it is either landfilled or incinerated in the
many of the respondents (32% on average) who do city waste facilities (in Bandung waste is either dis-
not receive subsidies are unaware of any type of sub- posed in the landfills (Tempat Pembuangan Akh-
sidy program. Focus group discussions pointed out ir — TPA) or incinerated by using PLTSa (Pembangkit
that more transparency in the subsidy allocation sys- Listrik Tenaga Sampah) technology. Most of the liquid
tem would be desirable. waste in the kampungs is untreated and disposed of
through gutters (57%), kitchens (18%), bathrooms (11%),
D. Internet and ICT Use or directly into the river/land (6%), and it is sometimes
The rate of internet use is very high in Band-
collected in plastic bottles for waste collection (6%).
ung as well as in the whole of Indonesia. In the kam- During the focus group discussions, the need for bet-
pungs, it is on average 55% of residents; however, ter sewage infrastructure arose as a common aspi-
large variations occur between kampungs (especially ration of the three kampungs.
in the economically poorest Kampung Locomotive, Additional information was gathered on the
where we recorded only 30% of residents using the availability of the restrooms at home. Most of the
internet). The percentage of internet users may, how- households have a restroom (93% in Kampung Sa-
ever, be understated, as we have further clarified dur- blon, 98% in Kampung Dago Pojok, 89% in Kampung
ing the focus group discussion workshops. Lokomotif). During the focus group discussions, the
Very commonly, people use the internet to inhabitants of Kampung Dago Pojok acknowledged
access social media (42%), news and information also the aspiration for the provision of public re-
(48%) or communicate by WhatsApp (16%). On aver- strooms inside of the kampung. Based on the survey
age, only 12% of users are connecting to the internet results, all of the households have access to elec-
for work/e-commerce and business purposes. Sup- tricity. (Table 6)
port of e-commerce in the kampungs would poten-
tially be very welcome, as noted during the interviews F. Kampungs: Resilient Communities
with kampung dwellers. The focus group discussions Kampung communities are mature commu-
with kampung inhabitants also pointed out that the nities, with strong social networks and ‘place attach-
general usage of internet and e-commerce may in re- ment’. This claim is supported by the fact that the
ality be higher than recorded during questionnaires. majority of respondents (86% on average) reside in
the kampungs for more than 10 years. Only 14% of
E. Built Environment: Water and Waste inhabitants, on average, reside in the kampungs less
Management, Electricity Access than 10 years. (Figure 31)
In 2012, about 59.3% of clean water supply Most of the kampung inhabitants (66%) have
was provided by PDAM (public water supplier) in relatives living in the kampungs. Strong social net-
Bandung City (Maryati and Humaira 2016). The cov- works are reflected in a deeper sense of trust, as the
erage of water service supplied by the city (PDAM majority of people (85%) responded positively to the
and public well) ranges in our case study areas from question “Would you lend money to your neighbour?”
39% in Kampung Lokomotif to 45% in Kampung Sa- (Table 7)
blon and 48% in Kampung Dago Pojok. A considerable Some robbery incidents occur; however,
share of water is still supplied from private wells: on these are not common. On average, 85% of inhabit-
average 39% in the three kampungs. In the econom- ants have never experienced robbery, 9% experi-
ically weakest kampung, Lokomotif, water supplied enced robbery a few years ago, 5% a month ago and
in jerry cans is still a major drinking water provision 1% a few weeks ago. Reported thefts are mostly

55 Field Study Documentation

Dago Pojok Lokomotif Sablon
Age Groups

18–34 35–50 51–69


Higher Education Senior High School Junior High School Elementary School Other No education

1–2.85 million 2.85–5 million < 1 million > 5 million Not earning
Location of Work

People working in the kampung/home People working ouside of the kampung Not working

Fig. 21 Age profile of the kampung inhabitants

Fig. 22 Education profile of the kampung inhabitants
Fig. 23 Earnings of the kampung inhabitants
56 Fig. 24 Location of work of the kampung inhabitants
Dago Pojok Lokomotif Sablon

problems in the kampung

to the government?
How do you report

Trough RT/RW head Never Other

Government subsidy

None Subsidy
Internet Access

Internet cellular Not using internet/no internet Modem/Wifi Other

What do you use
the internet for?

News and information other Social Media WhatsApp Work All of the left

Fig. 25 Communication with the government in the kampungs

Fig. 26 Distribution of government subsidies in the kampungs
Fig. 27 Internet access in the kampungs
57 Fig. 28 Internet usage in the kampungs
Dago Pojok Lokomotif Sablon
Clean Water Source

Private well PDAM Public well Water from official company Purchased water in jerry cans
Solid Waste

Public waste collection Collected by local waste collector other Incinerated locally in the kampung
Length of Residence

> 10 years 5–10 years 1–5 years

experience robbery?
When did you last

Never A few years ago A month ago A few weeks ago

Fig. 29 Clean water sources in the kampungs

Fig. 30 Solid waste management in the kampungs
Fig. 31 Length of residence in the kampungs
58 Fig. 32 Occurrences of robbery in the kampungs
Dago Pojok Lokomotif Sablon
When sick visiting

Public clinic/doctor Buy own medicine from pharmacy/store Private clinic/doctor Other
of Diarrhoea

Almost never Last week Last month

Kampung Kampung Kampung

Dago Pojok Sablon Lokomotif

Access to Electricity 100% 100% 100%

Restroom at home 98% 93% 89%

Social Networks and Trust

Do you have family who lives in

kampung? (yes response) 80% 53% 65%

Would you lend money to your

neighbour? (yes response) 100% 97% 59%

Health Related Issues

Dengue (yes response) 8% 15% 6%

Respiratory Problems
(yes response) 30% 23% 31%

Smoking (yes response) 43% 38% 30%

Fig. 33 Medical options for kampung inhabitants

Fig. 34 Occurrences of diarrhoea in the kampungs
Tab. 6 Access to electricity and availability of restroom in the kampungs.
Tab. 7 Social networks and trust in the kampungs.
59 Tab. 8 Health related issues in the kampungs
blamed on outsiders. Residents mostly express dis- within a short time, one week. The majority of respond-
trust toward outsiders and newcomers, as noted dur- ents (87%) do not face any such problems over the
ing focus group discussions. (Figure 32) longer term.

G. Healthcare and Access to Healthcare  . Aspirations (grouped based

When sick, most respondents seek profes- on common themes)
sional help from a doctor. Our results showed that During the survey the inhabitants were asked
69% of people visit public clinics; 12% visit private to list aspirations and hopes for their kampungs. Some
doctors; and only 14% buy their own medicine from aspirations highlighted in the table below are com-
a pharmacy or store when they are sick. mon themes in the three kampungs and represent:
We have monitored the incidences of res- Security, Employment, Development and Progress,
piratory problems, dengue and diarrhoea. Higher oc- Cleanliness, Support to Education and Subsidy, Sewer
currence of dengue was noted in Kampung Sablon Infrastructure etc. Specific themes which were noted
(15%). We have also recorded that on average 28% of for Kampung Sablon were Development of the Busi-
the respondents have respiratory problems and on ness Space; for Kampung Dago Pojok: Accessibility
average 37% of respondents are smoking. (Table 8.) and Road Development; and for Kampung Lokomotif:
In terms of occurrence of diarrhoea, on Provision of Water, Green Space and Public Space.
­average 8% of respondents reported its incidence (Table 9)

Kampung Aspiration Priority of Aspirations

Kampung 1. Road
Dago Pojok 2. Cohesive
3. Cleaner
4. Progress/development
5. Sewer
6. Employment
7. Government support
8. Education

Kampung 1. Security
Sablon 2. Progress/Development
3. Cleaner
4. Solidarity
5. Subsidy
6. Employment
7. Business space
8. Education

Kampung 1. Progress/Development
Lokomotif 2. Water
3. Subsidy
4. Safer
5. Greenery
6. Cleaner
7. Sewer
8. Public space

Tab. 9 Aspirations of the kampungs (aspirations marked in bold are common aspirations of
60 the three kampungs).
Pic. 1 The FCL team (from left: Prof. Stephen Cairns, Dr. Devisari Tunas, Dr. Heiko Aydt)
meets the collaborating team in Indonesia. Dr. Laksmi Darmoyono (right) and
community leader, Mr. Rahmat Jabaril, in Kampung Dago Pojok.
Pic. 2 Photo-documentation from the discussions with the city agencies.
62 Pic. 3 Visit to Bandung Command Centre.
Pic. 4ab Workshop with city stakeholders at the Bappelitbang office to discuss the priorities in
the Kampung facilitated by Laksmi Darmoyono.
Pic. 5 Discussing the feasibility of the proposed system with the city stakeholders.
63 Pic. 6 Presenting the proposed integrated kampung smart systems at Bappelitbang.
Pic. 7 Ur-scape training with city stakeholders at Bandung’s Mayor Residence
64 Pic. 8 “Question and Answer” session after the training
Pic. 9 Lack of open space in Kampung Lokomotif results in children using railroad
tracks as a playing space
Pic. 10 Survey of ecosystem services: trees and potted plants
65 Pic. 11 Mapping of Ecosystem Services and kampung’s functions
Pic. 12 Distribution of drinking water in jerry cans (Kampung Lokomotif)
66 Pic. 13 Creating positive soundscapes in the kampungs (Kampung Lokomotif)
Pic. 14 Kampung “Kreatif” Dago Pojok
67 Pic. 15 Net fishing in Kampung Dago Pojok
68 Pic. 16 Vegetable market in Dago Pojok
Pic. 17 Mural art in Kampung Dago Pojok
Pic. 18 Kampung Kreatif Dago Pojok
69 Pic. 19 Small-scale vertical farming examples in Kampung Sablon
Pic. 20  roup photo with Mr. Ridwan Kamil, Bandung Mayor, and ADB partners after present-
ing the proposal in the Mayor’s residency
Pic. 21 Dr. Devisari Tunas presenting household survey findings to the participants of the
70 focus group discussions in Kampung Dago Pojok
Pic. 22ab Photo-documentation from the Focus Group Discussions in Kampung Lokomotif
Facilitator and participants discussing ways to give effective feedback to
71 the government
Pic. 22ab Participants in Kampung Dago Pojok proposed the concept of an information hub. In
this model, the hub also functions to educate people, help link communities, and hold
programmes to develop ideas and aspirations. (top and right page)
72 Pic. 23ab Prototype for the solution, development of an application.
Pic. 24  iscussion of the RT leader of Kampung Locomotif with the representative of the
Bandung Housing Agency (Ibu Yanti).
Pic. 25 Meeting with the Mayor of Bandung, Mr. Ridwan Kamil, to discuss the continuation of
the Bandung Smart Systems Project.
Pic. 26 A group photo with city stakeholders, FCL team and city stakeholders after the ur-scape
74 training.
 omestic Visual Survey
in the Three Kampungs

 omestic Visual Survey is a detailed docu­

mentation of the interior and exterior of a
dwelling unit using a 360-degree photo
The purpose of this survey is to verify the
results of the questionnaire in relation to
the inhabitantʼs lifestyle, socio-economic
conditions and the quality of his/her living

 .3.4 Validation: Focus Group
3 RW leader; b) by direct communication with help
Discussions of mobile phone applications and/or social media;
Validation of the research findings obtained and c) by establishing a communication hub which
from the 40 in-depth interviews in each of the kam- functions to educate people, help link commu-
pungs was undertaken during the focus group dis- nities, and also hold programmes to develop
cussion (FGD). The second objective of FGD was to ideas and aspirations to be addressed by the
find the best possible way of communicating the kam- government”.
pung-specific issues to the government, and to ideate • Some inhabitants feel that the communication of
the approaches to data gathering. The feedback from problems to the government through the RT/RW
the focus group discussions was collected during leaders is insufficient. People reported that RT/
29th–30th August 2017, by conducting individual RW leaders in some instances do not accommo-
events in each of the three kampungs. Results that date input satisfactorily or are not concerned
arose from the FGDs were grouped based on com- enough with the conditions in the kampungs.
mon themes and are described below. 2 Built Environment: Water and Waste Manage-
ment, Electricity Access
A. Kampung Sablon • Participants requested public restrooms and
1 Internet and ICT Use homestay facilities for guests of the kampung.
• The usage of internet is mostly for social media • No residents buy water for daily use as indicated
purposes, rarely for e-commerce or business. in the survey result. They only purchase water for
2 Communication with the government, government drinking purpose.
support 3 Internet and IT Use
• Most residents report kampung-specific problems • Usage of the internet may be higher than reported
through RT/RW leaders. The RT leader is active, in the questionnaire (90%). There are more ­people
and the residents have a chat group via WhatsApp using the internet for their business/work e-com-
which connects the residents and the leaders. merce than reported.
• Specific requests are addressed to corresponding 4 Kampungs: Resilient communities
agencies, such as those concerning electricity or • The residents are mostly members of three large
water, and some requests go directly to the mayor families; thus, almost everybody is related in the
via a Twitter account. kampung.
• Hotlines for flood/thefts/medical emergency are • The residents generally express distrust to out-
not commonly used. (Some residents are not siders and newcomers. Theft occurs only seldom,
aware of it.) and the perpetrators are not local.
• The low percentage of government support ben- • The Creative Kampung Initiative is claimed to be
efactors was explained by the participants as an idea of the kampung inhabitants themselves,
­resulting from some residents having sufficient not an initiative from the government.
resources and thus not needing government
support. C. Kampung Lokomotif
3 Education, Income and Location of Work 1 Communication with the Government and Gov-
• Residents wish to sell their products from ernment Support
screen-printing businesses inside of the kam- • Subsidy distribution needs to be more transparent
pung. Currently, the kampung space is only used and better targeted. The problem of subsidy dis-
for production. tribution is rooted in the discrepancy between
registration and actual subsidy allocation. Subsidy
B. Kampung Dago Pojok distribution is based on the previous year’s reg-
1 Communication with the government, istration, which may not be updated (such as in
government support 2011 and 2013). The distribution of welfare support
• Participants prefer to improve the communication is therefore often not well targeted, as further de-
process with the government and deliver infor- scribed in Chapter 2.
mation about problems to the government • Aid programmes take too long to be implemented
through three main pathways: a) through the RT/ and processed.

83 Field Study Documentation

• Participants are not familiar with the new e-Mus- residents, the leaders claimed that it is not possible
renbang system. They still submit their proposals to involve everybody in the community. Rembug war-
manually through the old system. ga therefore mostly involves a number of formal com-
2 Education, Income and Location of Work munity leaders (RT/RW leaders) and some represent-
• Unemployment is higher than 50%. atives from local organisations and other “informal”
• There is a need for more youth activities. community leaders. Residents claimed that not all
3 Built Environment: Water and Waste Management, their concerns were well represented during rembug
Electricity, Housing warga, which was therefore not inclusive enough.
• There is a need for better clean water infrastruc- Rembug warga will summarise a number of sugges-
ture, sewage and waste management. tions for the government. The suggestions will be
• There is a need for a children’s playground, as submitted to the e-Musrenbang system (or tradition-
well as for better protection in the railway track ally via memorandum to the Lurah leader) by the RT/
area. RW leaders. The local leaders claimed that the e-Mus-
renbang system platform is inadequate because they
 .3.5. Feedback on the Practice
3 have to choose from a dropdown list which some-
of e-Musrenbang in the Kampung times does not listed their suggestion. Therefore, they
A specific session was dedicated to discuss- often choose other suggestions which probably are
ing the practice of e-Musrenbang in the three case not urgent in order to fulfil their entitlement to three
study kampungs during the Focus Group Discussions. proposals.
Following are the summaries of the feedback gained Not all local RT leaders are able to work with
from the discussions: computers, and they therefore often request help
Musrenbang is initiated at the local level from local youth to help them do the e-Musrenbang
through community discussion or Rembug Warga. submissions through any available personal comput-
It was meant to gather aspirations and ideas from all er in the kampung. If a proposal was granted, it will
the residents. However, due to the sheer number of be implemented in the next administration year. It is



MUSRENBANG • Policy directions and priorities EXECUTION
CITY • Financial priorities WORK PLANS
• Policy recommendations

• Priorities
• Agency representatives

• Priorities
• Agency representatives

• Priorities
• Community representatives

• Priorities
• Community representatives

84 Fig. 35 Summarises identified gaps of the e-Musrenbang planning system.

a very lengthy process, and sometimes the eventual
implementation becomes untimely, for example be-
cause the residents may decide to take matters into
their own hands and choose to solve the problems
themselves rather than waiting for government ac-
tion. The Kelurahan leaders claimed that all proposals
will be forwarded to the higher level for Bappelitbang
review and decisions. There are perceptions that the
Bappelitbang staff are often not aware of the local
contexts and problems, which often lead to improper
decision making.
In conclusion, the existing participatory
planning system only partially addresses the prob-
lems in the kampungs and has the following main

• Community meetings are held among the select-

ed representatives only and do not necessarily
give voice to the needs of the whole community.
The key aspirations of the community therefore
often differ from what is communicated to the
government through the e-Musrenbang process.
For this reason, the general attitude of the kam-
pung inhabitants with regard to the efficiency of
participatory planning processes addressing their
needs remains rather doubtful.
• The existing participatory planning platform is not
yet integrated with the existing plans and docu-
ments of the city, e.g. Rencana Detail Tata Ruang
2015 — Master Plan 2015, or datasets such as, for
example, socio-economic data, infrastructure
plans (water, sewage etc.) which would enable
planners to verify and prioritise the e-Musrenbang
project applications.

85 Field Study Documentation

Building inclusivity into governance,
and particularly e-governance, first re­
quires an identification of the excluded,
or vulnerable groups. Identifying these
groups and understanding their socio-
economic, legal, demographic, and
spatial situations and limitations is
critical to developing ways of over­
coming the barriers of access to the
information and participation oppor­
tunities necessary to make e-gover­
nance work for vulnerable groups …
Complementary, low-tech interfaces
are critical to building participation
opportunities and information channels
in relation to marginalized communities
(Morgan, 2013). One of the primary
takeaways from the social sustainability
audit was that when it comes to social
accountability and ICT-enabled tools,
one solution does not fit all. Different
communication conduits are necessary
to reach diverse groups of vulnerable
 NHSP (2015) E-Governance and Urban
Policy Design in Developing Countries
UN-Habitat for A Better Urban Future,
86 UNHSP, Nairobi
Principles and level, considering socio-economic context and
ICT capability/accessibility;

Guidelines for 3 Design the system to be able to accommodate

the aspirations that really matter for the com-

Kampung Smart 4
Integrate this system with the existing city-wide

Systems participatory planning system components that

are already being implemented, such as e-Mus-
renbang and other city apps;
5 Identify and analyse the gaps in the existing sys-
tem at every level, and see in which manner the
Bandung has been at the forefront of the gaps can be addressed;
smart city movement in Indonesia, with a long list of 6 Integrate the data gathering system as much as
ICT innovations which led to the launch of hundreds possible with the city-wide database through a
of apps both from the public and private sectors. The specific platform that has a complete overview
city is therefore not lacking the potential data capture of the whole data landscape;
systems which can be tapped into and further devel- 7 Make this platform accessible to the relevant
oped and integrated. stakeholders in the city to aid planning and man-
At the same time, the city has also been em- agement decision making.
ploying the e-Musrenbang system which allows in-
cluding the communities’ aspirations in planning and In the following section(s) we describe some
decision making. The system, however, is still in its specific system components which would meet the
infancy, and as our interviews revealed, it can be fur- guidelines above.
ther improved.
Following are guidelines for “Smart Kam-
pung Systems” which we have summarised from our
study. We recognise the need to put emphasis on
the system rather than on the technology. The appli-
cation of smart systems in Bandung kampungs should
not focus on the implementations of certain technol-
ogies (apps, etc.), but it should focus on clarification
of the decision making process, the reporting pro-
cess, and the data gathering process. In short, it
should focus on improving the system and address
the questions:

• how can the kampung residents better commu-

nicate their problems and aspirations to the city?
• how can the city better integrate the residents’
aspirations in the planning process?

 e therefore propose guidelines for system

development as follows:

1 Include the voices and aspirations of those who

are living in the informal settlement; support not
only the voices of the leaders but also the voices
of all in the community;
2 Identify a system that can work on the grassroots

5 Proposed Tools 89
5.1 An Interactive Planning Support Tool for Rapidly
Urbanizing Regions | ur-scape 89
5.1.1 What is ur-scape 89
5.1.2 Aims 89
5.1.3 Approach 90
5.1.4 Data Sources 90
5.1.5 Interactive Formats 90
5.1.6 Outputs 90
5.1.7 Output Formats 90
5.1.8 Platforms 91
5.1.9 Data Implemented within ur-scape for Bandung
and Visualisation Examples 91
5.2 Grass-roots Data Capture System | E-Mah warga 94
5.2.1 What is E-Mah warga 94
5.2.2 Functions 94
5.2.3 Database 94
5.2.4 Placement 94
5.2.5 Users 95
5.2.6 Further Development 95

Proposed Tools
designed for rapidly urbanising areas where data is
often difficult to access and uneven in quality, and
where development needs are especially urgent and

5.1.2 Aims
Ur-scape has one overarching aim:

1 To support government and multilateral agencies,

communities and private sector partners (city mak-
ers all) to plan and design better future cities.
Based on the principles that we summarised
in the previous chapter, we propose the following Ur-scape has five enabling aims:
solutions for the city of Bandung: ur-scape and e-mah 1 Present the best available data and metadata: co-
warga, which will work in integration with the existing ordinated, transparent and easily updatable, help-
planning systems in the city (Figure 36). ing to identify missing or incomplete data, and
strengthening evidence- and participation-based
decision making;
 .1 An Interactive Planning Support Tool
5 2 Recognise settlements as systems: multi-scaled
for Rapidly Urbanizing Regions | ur-scape and inter-dependent systems, in which lived plac-
es (homes, streets, neighbourhoods), technolog-
5.1.1 What is ur-scape ical structures (water, energy, transport) and ter-
Ur-scape is an interactive, visual planning ritories (food producing hinterlands, city networks)
support tool. It integrates data at multiple scales to interact well;
support efforts to make more liveable neighbour- 3 Facilitate comparative analysis: between neigh-
hoods, create more responsive towns, reduce city bourhoods, towns, cities, and regions through
‘stress points’ (flooding, traffic snarls, poverty), en- benchmarks, indicators and development goals
hance ‘sweet spots’ (accessibility, equitability, eco- such as SDGs, Urban Health Index (UHI), and City
nomic vibrancy), and achieve development goals Resilience Index (CRI),
(such as SDGs) across urban and rural regions. It is



MUSRENBANG • Policy directions and priorities EXECUTION
CITY • Financial priorities WORK PLANS
• Policy recommendations

• Priorities
• Agency representatives

• Priorities
• Agency representatives TOOL
• Priorities
• Community representatives

• Priorities
• Community representatives


Direct input

Induvidually through RW Leaders

Rembug Warga through representatives LAPOR!, SOCA, Gampil

Fig. 36 Two components proposed to complement the existing planning system for Bandung;
89 urscape (1) and e-mah warga (2).
4 Generate customised knowledge: drawing on lo- 5.1.5 Interactive Formats
cal situations, relevant to local communities, and Ur-scape uses the following interactive and
open to policy needs and research questions in visual formats:
specific neighbourhoods, towns, cities, and
regions, • Touch, pinch and zoom navigation in real time
5 Build critical planning capabilities: by describing • Multi-layered, colour-filtered geospatial data
and evaluating competing development needs, • Multiple base maps (satellite, cadastral, traffic,
identifying priorities, complementarities, and Open Street Map)
trade-offs, and testing alternatives at local and • Contour identification for single and multiple da-
strategic levels in short, medium, and long terms. tasets (e.g.: 1000 vs. 1500 people per km2)
• Transects and dissects.
Specifically in Bandung, ur-scape can be
placed in Forum PD to support discussions and ne- 5.1.6 Outputs
gotiations among decision makers. It can help related Ur-scape generates ‘knowledge packages’
stakeholders to plan and decide through the visual- that are designed to support planning discussions
isation of: 1) various citizen concerns such as aspi- and decision making at different scales. A knowledge
rations from e-Musrenbang, surveys and other city package typically includes data, information, and a
apps; 2) existing city planning maps; 3) socio-eco- set of conceptual principles. These can take the fol-
nomic indicators; and 4) trade-off simulations of spe- lowing forms:
cific interventions, at neighbourhood, city, and district
levels. • Comparative studies: Comparative studies typi-
cally take the form of index-linked analyses con-
5.1.3 Approach cerning city resilience (CRI), environmental sus-
Ur-scape achieves these aims by: tainability (ESI), urban health (UHI) based, for
example, on existing generic data;
• Gathering geospatial data of diverse types, scales, • Customised packages: These are typically cus-
resolutions, and sources; tomised for specific research questions or policy
• Integrating those data; needs — vulnerability mapping, resilience, acces-
• Managing those data (and metadata) in system- sibility, population density, distribution of jobs,
atic ways for regular and easy updating; land-use; and
• Visualising those data on multiple platforms; • Tailored studies: Such studies combine generic
• Interacting with those data intuitively and in real data at larger scales and local, customised data
time. at local scales.

5.1.4 Data Sources 5.1.7 Output Formats

Ur-scape combines data from the following Ur-scape supports the following output
sources: formats:

• Satellite — land cover, and changes thereof • Real time studies, discussion and presentations
• Multilateral and state agencies — census, (ur-scape)
planning, and environmental agencies • High resolution visuals preserving multiple data
• Civil society and commercial partners — real layers (Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop, PNG)
estate, telcos, marketing, advocacy • Data sets for planning scenarios (Excel, CSV)
• Crowdsourcing and social media — Twitter, • Video of analyses and in-tool bookmarking (ur-
Instagram, Open Street Map scape, QuickTime, MOV, MP4)
• Surveys — commissioned and • Printed maps, data sets, analyses and scenarios
secondary sources (Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop, PDF)

90 Proposed Tools
5.1.8 Platforms • Socio-economic data per kelurahan by age
The ur-scape tool is designed to be viewable (young, productive, elderly) and education level
on the following platforms: • Satellite images, actual traffic as a background
• Standalone (PC/Mac)
• Web  vailable data at the metropolitan level (in-
cluding Bandung) in ur-scape are:
 .1.9 Data Implemented within ur-scape
for Bandung and Visualisation Examples • Soil suitability, all crops production
Several city datasets have already been in- (GLUES, EarthStat)
tegrated within ur-scape. At the city level they repre- • Vulnerable land: floods, land movements
sent the following: (NASA)
• Meteorological data: rainfall, solar GHI, wind
• Current land-use map — including road infrastruc- (TRMM, Solaris)
ture, residential houses, public facilities (trans- • Land cover (USGS)
port, education, health and sport facilities), power • GDP (NASA)
plants, government offices, military zones, farm- • Night light (NASA)
land, recreation areas, and green space (forest, • Poverty (NASA)
parks, uncultivated green areas)
• Detailed Master Plan — Rencana Detail Tata Ruang Available data at the selected kampung lev-
2015 (RDTR) E-Musrenbang database el in ur-scape:
• On Ground Survey (FCL)
• Road network (OSM)Night light (NASA) • Air quality: Sulphur dioxide (FCL)
• Land price (Data from Dewi Kania Sari) • Air quality: Nitrogen Dioxide (FCL)
• Population density • Density (Experimental Data_ FCL)
• Topography and slope (NASA) • Green Area (USGS)
• Green cover (USGS)
• Map of concentration of sub-standard housing Figure 37 below shows several visualisations
in Bandung (Peta Jumlah Rumah Di Lokasi Kumuh and examples of ur-scape capabilities.
Di Kota Bandung)

91 Fig. 37a Density function. Examples of the variation in housing density in Bandung city.
Fig. 37b Examples of the densest slum areas of Bandung.
Fig. 37c Reachability function. Example of the selected areas’ reachability of existing health
92 facilities.
Fig. 37d Example of “urban farming” opportunities in the existing urban matrix.
Fig. 37e Examples of the RW leader’s requests from the e-Musrenbang database, grouped by
category, where bigger label marks indicate higher occurrence of the category per
93 specific area.
 .2 Grass-roots Data
5 • Registration for government subsidies
Capture System | E-Mah warga • Registration of newcomers
• Registration of kampung visitors
5.2.1 What is E-Mah warga • Registration of businesses
E-mah warga (EW) is a kampung-level da-
ta-capture system. It is part of an integrated Kam- 5.2.3 Database
pung Smart System. It is designed to complement The data collected from EW would be stored
the existing participatory planning platform, or in a shared database system and channelled to ur-
e-Musrenbang. It will work as a verification or vali- scape for visualisation and analytic purposes. Sub-
dation mechanism in the existing system, where sequently the data could be channelled to the data-
approved requests/applications (from e-Musren- base(s) of relevant institutions or city departments.
bang) can be contrasted with data from the ground. The channelling of data from EW to the shared data-
EW is implemented as an app on a device base would be done automatically. The integration
(tablet) whereby the kampung residents can voice of EW data to ur-scape may require some processing
their concerns, reports, and requests, and potentially and manipulation; this process, however, could be
register for government programmes. It also has the made seamless and automatic.
potential to help residents create connections with
other kampung residents. 5.2.4 Placement
EW would be placed in the local shops
5.2.2 Functions (warung), as these are the most frequented spots in
The functions of EW can be augmented the kampungs. Incentives would be offered to shop
through time with app updates. New functions could owners to host and maintain the systems. This could
be easily integrated. Among the possible functions be done in collaboration with local youth, who are
to be included are: likely to be more technology savvy. The device could
be stationed in a specific location in the shops, pro-
• Reporting of problems tected from vandalism and weather.
(physical, social, or environmental) The placement of EW in the kampungs would
• Requests for improvements rely on the existence of electrical supply and internet
(physical, social, or environmental) access in the shops through wi-fi, cellular or modem

94 Fig. 37f Examples of the trade-offs between low-rise and medium-rise housing opportunities.
connections. Our surveys showed that this infrastruc- Example of Use Case for the Data Hub: Reg-
ture already exists in most kampungs in Bandung. istration, Information and Feedback on Health Care
5.2.5 Users
The EW interface will be designed to be us- Figure 38 presents an example of how the
er-friendly, easily understood and used by residents data hub functions for dissemination of governmental
who may come from lower educational backgrounds. information, for example: existing health support pro-
EW can be used by kampung residents over 18 years grammes, information on health card registration,
of age. A one-time registration process is needed, available health-care support for low income house-
where users input their valid national id number (KTP holds, etc. Government agencies/officials submit in-
or NIK). Those who do not have a number can be reg- formation about subsidies and relevant health pro-
istered by a friend, neighbour or relative. grammes into the shared database (1); Residents can
A socialisation and training programme for actively search the database for the subsidies through
the residents may need to be conducted to raise the EW Data Hub and/or get notifications on their
awareness of EW’s purposes and benefits, and how smartphones (2a); For kampung residents who do
it can be used. Likewise for the shop owners who not use smartphones and/or are unable to use the
would host the system in their shops. EW Data Hub, RW leaders will help to disseminate
the information and advise the residents on possible
5.2.6 Further Development ways of applying for the subsidies and getting sup-
EW can be subsequently developed as a port through health programmes (2b). The two-way
two-way data hub, whereby the residents can also Data Hub can also feed relevant health information
get some relevant information such as: back from the kampungs to the government (for in-
stance in cases related to the spread of infectious
• Employment opportunities disease such as dengue). This way government agen-
• Government programmes and subsidies cies can take prompt action and give more targeted
• Business development support programmes, support to affected areas.
• etc.



MUSRENBANG • Policy directions and priorities EXECUTION (1) Government agencies/officials
CITY • Financial priorities WORK PLANS
• Policy recommendations can submit information about
DRAFT subsidies that are useful for the
• Priorities
• Agency representatives

• Priorities
• Agency representatives TOOL

• Priorities
• Community representatives

• Priorities
• Community representatives


direct input

Induvidually through RW Leaders

Rembug Warga through representatives LAPOR!, SOCA, Gampil

(2b) For those who do not (2a) Residents can see

use smartphones and/or the advertisements in e-kiosk
e-kiosk can contact the RW and/or notifications on their
leaders who can assist them smartphones. They can
to register for subsidies via also actively search for
the existing system. information about subsidies
in the database.

95 Fig. 38 Some examples of use cases for the Data Hub.


proposes an integrated smart system for Bandung
City, which focuses on the improvement of the overall
planning process through integration with e-Mus-
renbang. It specifically proposes to complement the
existing systems with two components. The first com-
ponent is e-mah warga, a grassroots-level data cap-
ture system which can document problems and as-
pirations at the kampung level. As data on kampungs
is notoriously patchy and difficult to get, e-mah warga
can also be used to harness data at the grassroots
level to better understand the kampungs problems
and priorities. Furthermore, e-mah warga could not
only serve as an alternative method for collecting
data at the kampung level in an inclusive, participa-
In the future, Bandung’s local authorities will tory manner, but its functionality can also be expand-
face more challenges to accommodate the growing ed as an information point for the kampung inhabitants
population and their demands for an improved quality where information pertinent to the right for subsidy,
of urban living. Bandung has been leading the smart health and education programme are attainable.
city movement in Indonesia. It has revolutionised the The second component of the proposal is
way the city is managed, governed and administered. ur-scape, a visual and interactive planning support
There is, however, still room for improvement: the City tool which integrates data at multiple scales to sup-
can be “smarter”, as well as more responsive and in- port efforts to better plan and design more respon-
clusive to ensure more nearly equal opportunities and sively, reduce city ‘stress points’ (flooding, traffic
access for all. snarls, poverty) and enhance ‘sweet spots’ (acces-
The kampung residents form the majority of sible, equitable, economically vibrant). It especially
Bandung’s population, yet surveys show that many aims to support government and multilateral agen-
of them are still not included in the city’s smart sys- cies, communities and private sector partners (all
tems. While the government has made important city makers) to better plan Bandung. Ur-scape will
changes to include everybody in its planning process integrate data from the kampung level through e-mah
and decision making, kampung residents are yet to warga, and communicate it to the relevant stakehold-
be more actively included and participate in the pro- ers during the planning process. It will integrate the
cess. From our study — which include a series of sur- kampung data with the existing government data and
veys, interviews, and Focus Group Discussions in other public data from different silos/departments
three kampungs in Bandung — we have concluded across the city, to support decision-making and plan-
that the existing and new e-Musrenbang system has ning processes.
not sufficiently captured the aspirations on the ground. The two components are meant to work to-
The kampung inhabitants need more alternatives to gether to complement existing planning procedures
channel their aspirations and needs, namely through such as e-Musrenbang in Bandung. These proposals
e-Musrenbang, via their community leaders, via their have been presented to various city planning stake-
own smartphones (apps), and/or through a public holders and to Mayor Ridwan Kamil in two workshops
facility that is stationed conveniently within their liv- at the Bappelitbang office. The proposals were well
ing environment. The availability of these alternatives received in both events. Not only did the participants
would ensure that the inhabitants can voice their as- recognise the usefulness of the proposals, but they
pirations in a manner that is most suitable for their also provided a number of positive feedbacks that
specific socio-economic conditions and level of dig- help the further development of ur-scape and e-mah
ital literacy. At the same time, the data collected from warga. In the last workshop in December 2017,
the grassroots level need to be integrated properly the Mayor also gave specific recommendations of
in the existing decision making and planning system. use-cases for further ur-scape development. These
Based on results of the field study, critical observa- use-cases include functionalities to analyse the
tions and the corresponding analysis, this project following:

• Correlation of population density
to water provision; Abdul, Gadis (2016, January 22)
Keuntungan Adanya Kereta Cepat
• Road safety data in specified accident Jakarta-Bandung Versi Ridwan
“black spots”; Kamil. Bintang. Available from http://
• Crime data and exploration of correlated factors 2418090/keuntungan-adanya-kereta-
(such as density, urban design, income); cepat-­jakarta-bandung-versi-ridwan-
kamil. Accessed on 7 December
• Incidence of kampung fires and exploration of 2017.
correlated factors (i.e. topography, rainfall);
Aditiasari, Dana (2017, August 7)
• Poverty indicators; and Kertajati Bakal Jadi Bandara
• Development of fair criteria for the distribution of Terbesar Kedua di RI. Detik.
Available from https://finance.detik.
RW budgets. com/berita-ekonomi-bisnis/
ra-terbesar-kedua-di-ri. Accessed
This specific task to further develop ur-scape on 7 December 2017.
will be the focus of the second phase of this project,
Alexander, Hilda B. (2015, March 25)
starting in January 2018 and running to May 2018. The Bandung TechnopolisTeknopolis,
project team is currently working together closely with Summarecon, dan Proyek
Pencitraan. Kompas. Available from
the city departments under the coordination of Band-
ung Cooperation Division and Diskominfo to acquire read/2015/03/25/071056221/
the necessary data and information pertinent to the Summarecon.dan.Proyek.
aforementioned use-cases. Pencitraan. Accessed on 7
December 2017.

Asian Development Bank (2014)

Urban Poverty in Asia. The
Philippines, ABDADB. Manila.

Atkinson, A., M. D. Chabou, D. M.

Karsch (2008) Stratégies pour un
Développement Durable Local.
Renouvellement Urbain et
Processus de Transformations

Bagian Humas Setda Kota Bandung

(2017, October 16) Program Kota
Tanpa Kumuh (KOTAKU) mulai Mulai
Direalisasikan di Kota Bandung.
Bandung. Available from https://
ta-bandung. Accessed on 7
December 2017.

Bandung City in Figure (2010) Total

Number of International and
Domestic Tourist in Bandung City
2005–2009. Book report.

Bashu, M. (2016) Bandung Mayor

wants 1,000 new city apps.
GovInsiders. Available from https://
city-apps/. Accessed on 7
December 2017.

BPS DKI Jakarta (2015). Statistik

Daerah Provinsi DKI Jakarta 2015.
Badan Pusat Statistik DKI Jakarta.

BPS Kota Bandung (2015) Kota

Bandung Dalam Angka 2015. Badan
Pusat Statistik Kota Bandung.

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I. Best Practice 2004, aiming to promote public access to the “means
of production and dissemination of culture”. Essen-

Cases of Smart tially, non-governmental associations and local com-

munity associations came together to provide finan-

Initiatives in cial support, technical equipment (computers with

software, cameras, recording studios), skills, and local

Informal spaces for young people to work. The goal was to em-
power young people to produce multimedia works of

Settlements digital culture, and build ground-up social networks.

A choice was made to use free and open
format software as well as free distribution licenses,
There are various examples of the applica- allowing for distribution without the encumbrance
tions of smart city programmes in some informal set- of current copyright laws. This resulted in a peer-to-
tlements around the world, such as in Brazil, India, peer sharing culture. New business models were also
and Kenya. This report looked at five case studies enabled, allowing independent musicians to work
which deal with varying topics such as culture, citi- outside mainstream circuits and sell CDs at low start-
zen e-participation in terms of feedback on govern- up cost. Today, there are more than 2000 Pontos de
ment services and reporting, the sharing economy, Cultura.
and collective mapping. The examples show that gov-
ernments’ commitment to including those who live B. Citizen e-Participation
in the informal settlements can lead to better urban City: Agra | Year: 2014
planning and management. “Pontos a Cultura” in Bra- Indian NGO CURE (Center for Urban Re-
zil, showcases efforts to support the inhabitants in search and Excellence) embarked on a “connecting
developing their artistic aspirations with the provision the disconnected” initiative, which sought to use mo-
of specific software and digital infrastructures. “Cit- bile technology to improve the participation of 8000
izen e-Participation” in Agra and “Crowdsourcing slum-dwelling households in municipal government
Citizen Feedback” in Ghana showcase efforts to pro- decision-making. One of the stated aims was to build
vide accessible low-tech solutions to help slum dwell- a “Smart Project for the less ‘smart’”, allowing “com-
ers voice their problems, priorities and aspirations. munity-city dialogue and real partnership”. A mobile
The “Ericsson Collaborative Platform” in Nairobi ac- platform was developed that would allow basic mo-
tivates the sharing economy. “Map Kibera”, on the bile phone users (not smartphone users) to upload
other hand, paves the way toward the production of their problems, priorities and potential solutions, and
knowledge on informal settlements for insiders as convey them to the municipal e-governance platform.
well as outsiders, which in turn can promote better This technological interface was paired with on-the-
understanding of the local problems and priorities. ground group discussions, brainstorming sessions
While there are many possible implemen- and roundtable dialogue sessions.
tations of smart cities initiatives in the informal set- A small private service provider, U2opia, was
tlement to address myriad problems, some points contracted. The provider used a platform known as
commonly need to be considered: first, the identifi- USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data),
cation of the actual problems, priorities (and interests) which is similar to SMS but allows for a “more com-
that really matter for the inhabitants; second, the ad- plex two-way data flow”. This facilitated polling, pulse
aptation of the technology to a form that is accessible surveys, and ‘crowdsourcing’ of problems, priorities
and usable for the inhabitants; and eventually third, and solutions. The poorest groups, without mobile
buy-in and direct participation by the local actors who phones, were reached through retail service provid-
are going to be the end users. ers like cyber cafes and mobile phone repair shops.

A. Hotspots of Culture Program For more information, see:

Country: Brazil | Year: 2004–present
The Brazilian government rolled out a Pon- the-disconnected
tos de Cultura (Hotspots of Culture) programme in

C. Crowdsourcing Citizen Feedback E. Participatory Mapping and Open Data
Country: Ghana City: Nairobi
CDD-Ghana, a non-profit organization, en- The organisation GroundTruth initiated an
gaged VOTO Mobile, a Ghanaian tech company and open mapping and reporting project for youth resi-
social enterprise, to conduct an interactive voice sur-dents of the Kibera slum to create maps and collect
vey (IVR) of Ghanaian citizens. Survey respondents geodata within Kibera. The aim of the exercise was
are called on their mobile phones and receive prompts to empower the community through increasing knowl-
from pre-recorded messages. They can then respond edge about the informal settlement to both insiders
to questions by pressing buttons on their keypad. and outsiders. GPS devices and computers with open-
The results are stored in a database. In this case, source software were used to collect spatial data,
CDD-Ghana used the survey to gather citizen feed- enabling youth mappers to draw village boundaries,
back on the effectiveness and suitability of a “District
mark out points of interests and amenities, and rep-
League Table” system that they had developed to resent pathways. Other arrays of information, like the
measure and evaluate local government service hours of operation of service providers, were also
standards in different areas. Among the indicators added. A team of reporters was recruited to write
surveyed were opinions regarding access to clean about breaking news around the slum, as well as con-
water, security, healthcare, sanitation, and educa- duct interviews and videos with residents, to produce
tional performance. blog posts and videos, thus amplifying the voice of
the residents of the slum. An SMS integration facility
D. Ideas for Collaborative was also created, allowing anyone in the community
Platforms in Nairobi to text in breaking news or other updates. This pro-
City: Nairobi ject model can still be relevant in places that are less
Ericsson and UN-Habitat signed a partner- severely marginalised, especially with regard to
ship to collaborate around ICT innovations for urban- the thrusts of upskilling youths and empowering a
ization. A few key concepts were selected for future community.
development. Of particular note are: 1) Citizen Field
Engineer — embeds sensors in key public infrastruc- For more information, see:
ture systems, and notifies citizens via mobile notifi-
cations when repairs are required; 2) mCooPe-
sa — sets up a hub for the sharing and storage of
collectively-owned items, increasing accessibility to
shared resources, thereby enhancing individual ca-
pabilities while minimizing costs. So far, they have
not been implemented or publicised.

For more information, see:

Best Practice Cases of Smart

102 Initiatives in Informal Settlements
II. Kampung Data to support the mapping process, e.g. basic maps and
thematic maps of the area.

Collection Toolkit
2. Spatial Mapping

Remote Sensing, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (Drone)

Map Sources:
1. Field Survey Open Street Map (OSM), Drone Images, S
­ atellite Im-
ages, Aerial Photography
Detailed surveys in the kampungs. Records of land-­ Software support:
uses, basic services and infrastructures. QGIS (free Geographical Information System software
can be accessed from
Map Sources: forusers/download.html )
Basic map, Thematic maps (Topography map, Land-
use map or Infrastructure map of drainage, Sewage, Spatial mapping provides a representation
Electricity, Road network etc.) of real-world surfaces and helps planners and other
users understand the structure and spatial relation-
Socio-economic functions and basic infra- ships of the studied area. For the purpose of spatial
structures are the key elements of economic pro- mapping, existing geospatial data sources such as
gress. Land-use indicates the socio-economic use Open Street Map (OSM) or other sources (satellite
of land and the use of ecosystem services that the images, aerial images) can be used. The majority of
natural environment provides. The existing functions kampung houses are, however, not delimited on the
such as current business activities, basic infrastruc- Open Street Map in Bandung. To complement the
tures (waste collection points, library, health clinics missing information, drone mapping should be inte-
etc.), supporting infrastructure networks (road net- grated with the existing geospatial data sources (e.g.
work, etc.) and ecosystem services (uses of land) are OSM). The QGIS software is a freely available Geo-
noted by the surveyors and mapped in the spatial graphic Information Systems software for spatial
context. Different map sources could be also used mapping.

1 2 3 4 5
Field Survey Spatial Mapping Kampung Specific Environment Scan Domestic Visual
Spatial Function Integration with Indicators Ecosystem Services Documentation
Landuses Open Source Platform Water Pollution 360 Degree Photo
Public Facilities (Open Street Map) Air Pollution

Dago Pojok :Earnings

Not earning

 . Kampung Specific Indicators:
3 Air Quality Monitors:
Questionnaires Gradko diffusion tubes
 or more information, see
Methods: environmental/products/sulphur-dioxide.shtml) or other
One-on-one interviews conducted by the surveyor types of monitors

Software support: Water Quality Test:

Quick Tap Survey or Maptionnaire, or other online Clean water quality was tested in Bandung in the pro-
applications designed for survey records fessional laboratory “Laboratorium Kualitas Air, Fakul-
(for more information, see and tas Teknik Sipil Dan Lingkungan, Institut Teknologi Bandung”
(Contact information: Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132. Telp/
One-on-one interviews with randomly select- Fax. (022) 2534176. Email:
ed inhabitants gather in-depth information regarding
the problems, priorities and IT capabilities in the kam- Guidelines:
pung. (The complete list of questions is in Appendix WHO (2005) Air quality guidelines for p
­ articulate mat-
2 below). The interviews can be conducted by the sur- ter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. WHO
veyors with the help of a mobile device with Quick (2011) Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Fourth
Tap Survey or other applications for collecting data. Edition.
Areas of questions may include:  or more information, see:
• Basic information of the respondents (i.e. age, eng.pdf and h ttp://
gender, education attainment, occupation, in- 44584/1/9789241548151_eng.pdf
come, place of origin);
• Lifestyles (i.e. source drinking water, methods of Locations of water and air quality monitors
cooking, waste disposal); should be selected to spatially cover the area of each
• Accessibility to basic provisions (i.e. electricity, kampung. The geospatial coordinates should be re-
water, health services, financial services, govern- corded for each of the sampling points.
ment subsidies);
• Community life (i.e. mode of communication, trust NO₂ and SO₂ are two indicators of air quality
towards neighbours, social linkages); that particularly relate to combustion pollution (WHO,
• Perception of environmental conditions 2005). To quantify the concentration of NO₂ and SO₂
(e.g. noise, quality of water and air); in the study kampungs, diffusion tubes or other mon-
• Perception of governance (i.e. opinions about itors to absorb the pollutants can be used. For as-
government services); and sessment of drinking water quality, the standard wa-
• IT capability and accessibility (i.e. internet access ter quality parameters (stated above) were tested.
and internet usage patterns).
Ecosystem Services
4. Environmental Scan Mapping of vegetation in the kampungs. Surveyors
(botanists) walk the area of the kampungs. Plants are
Water and Air Quality identified up to species level, if possible. The vege-
Parameters: tation mapping includes trees, herbs, and also potted
Air quality (SO₂, NO₂, and other parameters)Water plants. Additional information on ecosystem services
Quality: Drinking water quality (Odour, Total dissolved can be obtained by asking residents during interviews
solids (TDS), Turbidity, Conductivity, Iron (Fe), Floride about the animals they keep, and their satisfaction
(F), CaCO₃, Chloride (Cl-), Manganese (Mn), Nitrate with the general environmental quality. Point loca-
(NO₃), Nitrite (NO₂), pH, Sulfate (SO₄), Surfactants tions of each record are noted using Garmin E-Trex
(detergents), MBAS – Methylene blue active substanc- global positioning system (GPS). The point locations
es, Organic substance (KMnO₄), Chlorine residue) are cross-referenced with the drone images and aerial

photographs, to digitize the area of each vegetation
object as a polygon.

Map Sources:
Drone Images, Satellite Images, Aerial Photography

Software and Hardware support:

Garmin E-Trex global positioning system (GPS); QGIS
(free Geographical Information System, software can
be accessed from

Ecosystem services are the benefits that

nature provides to people. These benefits include
providing food, regulating rainfall to reduce flood risk,
cooling, and improving the aesthetic quality of the
environment to make it more liveable. Assessment
of the ecosystem services in the kampungs can be
valuable information for policy makers, providing an
overview of the types of available services in the city
and how well kampung people use the benefits that
can be obtained from them.
For more information on the classification
of ecosystem services and concepts.

5. Domestic Visual Survey

Spherical Digital Camera

The Domestic Visual Survey is a detailed documen-
tation of the interior and exterior of a dwelling unit
using a 360-degree photo method.
The purpose of this survey is to verify the
result of the questionnaire in relation to the inhabit-
antʼs lifestyle, socio-economic conditions and the
quality of his/her living quarter.

105 Kampung Data Collection Toolkit

III. Questionnaires

1 General information 20 Do you have any accessibility to electricity?

(Description and aims of the survey) (yes/no)
2 Place ID 21 How do you pay for electricity?
(Kampung Dago Pojok (D00 — code); (pre-paid/post-paid/never)
Kampung Sablon (S00 — code); 22 How do you cook at home?
Kampung Lokomotif (L00 — code)) (gas/kerosene/wood/others)
3 Name 23 Do you have a toilet at home?
(for survey coding purpose only) (yes/no)
4 Age 24 Where do you get clean water from?
5 Gender (private well/public well/water in jerry can/rainwater
(male/female) harvest/official water company)
6 Education level 25 Do you have a phone connection at home (landline)?
(never attended school/graduated from primary (yes/no)
school/ graduated from junior high school/graduated 26 What kind of mobile phone contract do you have?
from senior high school/higher education/others) (pre-paid/post-paid/others)
7 Address: 27 What contract do you have?
(RW/RT id number) (monthly/prepaid/other)
8 How long have you been a resident? 28 How do you communicate with your neighbours?
(more than 10 years/between 5–10 years/ (face to face/ WhatsApp sms/ other)
less than 5 years) 29 What kind of Internet access do you have?
9 What is your primary job? (wi-fi/wartel (shop)/from your phone (3G)/wi-fi from
10 Where is the location of this primary job? neighbour)
11 What is your secondary job? 30 What do you use internet for?
12 Where is the location of this secondary job? (news and info/entertainment/social media/all of the
13 How much is your monthly income? above)
(Note: 2,85 million is minimum salary) 31 Do you have a bank account?
(no income/less than 1M/1–2.85M/2.85–5M/ (yes/no)
more than 5M) 32 Do you have a welfare card?
14 How many motorcycles do you have? (yes/no)
15 What is your current living arrangement? 33 When you are sick do you go to: (public clinic/private
(own house/rental house/rental room/living without clinic/self-medicate/others)?
paying/others) 34 What kind of plants do you have at home?
16 If you rent a room or house, how much does it cost? 35 Do you harvest vegetables and fruits from the
(in Rupiah) neighbourhood?
17 If you own your house, are you (owner of the (yes/no)
property/person having a right to use the house/ 36 If you keep animals, what kind?
other)? 37 How many animals do you have?
18 How many family members live in this household? 38 Where do you normally dispose of your garbage?
19 How many people live in this household? (public collection/river/empty plot/other)

39 Where do you normally dispose of your liquid 56 Do you know about any government programmes
garbage? in Bandung?
(gutter/kitchen sink/bathroom/river/others) (yes/no)
40 When was the last time you had diarrhoea? 57 Name five things that you like the most about your
(almost never/last week/last month) kampung.
41 Do you have any respiratory-related problems? 58 Name five things that you dislike the most about
(yes/no) your kampung.
42 Do you smoke? 59 Name five hopes/wishes that you have for the
(yes/no) kampung.
43 Have you had a dengue fever?
(almost never/last week/last month)
44 How clean is the air in the kampung?
(very dirty/quite dirty/mediocre/clean enough/
very clean)
45 How clean is the water in the kampung?
(very dirty/quite dirty/mediocre/clean enough/
very clean)
46 Do you have family who live in the kampung?
47 Would you lend money to your neighbour?
48 Which city were you born in?
49 How often do you go back in a year?
50 How much money do you send home?
(in Rupiah)
51 How do you report problems in the kampung
to the government?
(never/RT/RW/Online/NGO other)?
52 When was the last time you experienced a fire
(never/last year/last month)
53 When was the last time you experienced a robbery?
(never/last year/last month)
54 How often do you go to the local shops?
(daily/1–2 times per week/3–5 times per week/never)
55 What type of subsidies do you receive?

IV. Kampung Use of
Ecosystem Services
(Plants and Animals)

Species Dago Pojok Sablon Lokomotif Total

African tree 1 1
Aloe vera 1 1
Bamboo 1 1
Banana 2 2
Betel 2 2 4
Carrot 1 1
Cashew 1 1 2
Cassava 1 1
Cayenne pepper 1 1 1
Chilli 5 2 1 8
Delicious night 1 1
Durian 1 1
Ginger 1 1
Guava 3 2 5
Jackfruit 1 1
Kangkung 1 1
Lemongrass 1 1
Lime 3 3
Lychee 2 2
Mango 2 1 2 5
Mustard 1 1
Orange 2 2 4
Orchid 1 1 1 3
Pakcoy 1 1
Pandan 1 1
Papaya 3 1 4
Pomegranate 1 1 2
Pumpkin 1 1
Rambutan 1 1
Red ginger 1 1 2
Sapodilla 1 1
Soursop 2 2
Spinach 1 1
Starfruit 1 2 3
Toga 1 1
Flower of triumph 1 1

108 Tab. 1 Number of households in each kampung growing each species

Activity Dago Pojok Sablon Lokomotif

Growing edible
plants at home 13 11 2

Growing ornamental
plants at home 12 11 6

Collection of edible
plants in the
neighbourhood 7 7 1

Animal Dago Pojok Sablon Lokomotif

Bird 6 10 12
Chicken 5 6 2
Cat 4 1 0
Fish 3 3 1
Dog 1 0 0
Rabbit 0 0 1
Squirrel 1 0 0
Duck 1 0 0
Weasel 1 0 0

Tab. 2 Number of households in each kampung using plants for different purposes.
109 Tab. 3 Number of households in each kampung keeping different animals.
V. Water Quality Results

113 Water Quality Results
115 Water Quality Results
117 Water Quality Results
119 Water Quality Results
121 Water Quality Results
123 Water Quality Results
124 Water Quality Results
VI. Air Quality Results

(A division of Gradko International Ltd.) 2187

St. Martins House, 77 Wales Street Winchester, Hampshire SO23 0RH
tel.: 01962 860331 fax: 01962 841339




CUSTOMER Eth Singapore Sec Ltd Attn: Richard Belcher
Create Way 1
06-01 Create Way
Sample Date Date Exposure µg S µg S - SO2 SO2
Location Number Exposed Finished Hours Total Blank µg/m * ppb*

RT 01/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005894 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 478.32 0.87 0.87 66.21 24.83
RT 09/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005895 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.73 0.24 0.24 18.17 6.81
RT 09/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005896 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.63 0.08 0.07 5.59 2.10
RT 05/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005897 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 478.28 0.20 0.19 14.66 5.50
RT 05/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005898 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 478.17 0.18 0.17 13.09 4.91
RT 08/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005899 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 476.98 0.53 0.52 39.90 14.96
Mosque Al-Taiizin RT02/RW07 –
1005900 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 478.12 0.19 0.19 14.36 5.39
RT 01/RW 07 - Lokomotif (x)
1005901 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.07 0.16 0.15 11.56 4.33
Exposure to outdoor as sample
RT 01/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005902 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.00 0.35 0.35 26.45 9.92
RT 03/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005903 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.00 0.25 0.24 18.63 6.99
RT 05/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005904 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.35 0.21 0.20 15.38 5.77
RT 04/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005905 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 476.78 0.19 0.19 14.17 5.32
RT 04/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005906 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 476.68 0.20 0.20 15.07 5.65
RT 04/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005907 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 476.63 0.18 0.17 13.30 4.99
RT 03/RW 07 - Lokomotifv 1005908 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 476.62 0.09 0.09 6.66 2.50
RT 05/RW 05 - Sablon 1005909 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 432.38 0.09 0.08 7.04 2.64
RT 05/RW 05 - Sablon 1005910 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 432.43 0.12 0.11 9.63 3.61
RT 05/RW 05 - Sablon 1005911 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 432.40 1.46 1.45 122.49 45.94
RT 07/RW 05 - Sablon 1005912 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 432.35 0.13 0.12 10.12 3.80
RT 03/RW 05 - Sablon 1005913 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 431.40 0.08 0.07 6.15 2.30
RT /RW 05 - Sablon 1005914 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 431.23 0.08 0.07 6.30 2.36
RT 04/RW 05 - Sablon 1005915 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 431.55 0.07 0.06 5.31 1.99
RT 06/RW 05 - Sablon 1005916 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 431.27 0.12 0.11 9.28 3.48
RT 03/RW 05 - Sablon 1005917 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 430.87 0.08 0.07 6.10 2.29
RT 03/RW 05 - Sablon 1005918 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 429.83 0.09 0.08 7.03 2.64
The Diffusion Tubes have been tested within the scope of Gradko International Ltd. Laboratory Quality Procedures calculations and assessments
involving the exposure procedures and periods provided by the client are not within the scope of our UKAS accreditation. Those results obtained
using exposure data shall be indicated by an asterisk (*). Any queries concerning the data in this report should be directed to the Laboratory
Manager Gradko International Ltd. This report is not to be reproduced, except in full, without the written permission of Gradko International Ltd.
Form LQF32b Issue 7 – Oct 2016 Report Number L07081R Page 1 of 2

(A division of Gradko International Ltd.) 2187
St. Martins House, 77 Wales Street Winchester, Hampshire SO23 0RH
tel.: 01962 860331 fax: 01962 841339


CUSTOMER Eth Singapore Sec Ltd Attn: Richard Belcher
1 Create Way
06-01 Create Tower
RECEIVED 03/10/2017
Location Sample Number Date On Date Off (hr.) g/m * ppb * µg NO2

RT 01/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005847 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 478.32 

29.66 15.48 1.03
RT 09/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005848 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.73 33.91 17.70 1.18
RT 09/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005849 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.63 61.36 32.02 2.13
RT 05/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005850 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 478.28 35.71 18.64 1.24
RT 05/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005851 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 478.17 164.04 85.61 5.70
RT 08/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005852** 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 476.98 74.00 38.62 2.57
Mosque Al-Faiizin RT 02/RW
07 - Lokomotif 1005853 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 478.07 34.76 18.14 1.21
RT 01/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005854 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.07 47.29 24.68 1.64
RT 01/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005855 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.00 61.98 32.35 2.15
RT 03/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005892 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.00 40.38 21.08 1.40
RT 05/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005858 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 477.35 36.74 19.17 1.27
RT 04/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005857 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 476.78 39.24 20.48 1.36
RT 04/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005859 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 476.68 57.25 29.88 1.98
RT 04/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005860 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 476.63 28.52 14.89 0.99
RT 03/RW 07 - Lokomotif 1005861 07/09/2017 27/09/2017 476.62 42.10 21.97 1.46
RT 05/RW 05 - Sablon 1005862 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 432.38 44.28 23.11 1.39
RT 05/RW 05 - Sablon 1005863 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 432.43 58.71 30.64 1.85
RT 05/RW 05 - Sablon 1005864 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 432.40 73.71 38.47 2.32
RT 07/RW 05 - Sablon 1005865 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 432.35 76.53 39.94 2.40
RT 03/RW 05 - Sablon 1005866 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 431.40 28.14 14.69 0.88
RT /RW 05 - Sablon 1005867 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 431.23 28.41 14.83 0.89
RT 04/RW 05 - Sablon 1005868 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 431.55 76.67 40.01 2.40
RT 06/RW 05 - Sablon 1005869 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 431.27 31.60 16.49 0.99
RT 03/RW 05 - Sablon 1005870 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 430.87 26.71 13.94 0.84
RT 03/RW 05 - Sablon 1005871 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 429.83 77.78 40.59 2.43
RT 03/RW 05 - Sablon 1005872 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 429.90 29.10 15.19 0.91
RT 02/RW 05 - Sablon 1005873 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 430.03 25.30 13.21 0.79
RT 05/RW 05 - Sablon 1005874 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 430.33 29.55 15.42 0.92
RT 04/RW 05 - Sablon 1005875 09/09/2017 27/09/2017 429.98 41.64 21.73 1.30
The Diffusion Tubes have been tested within the scope of Gradko International Ltd. Laboratory Quality Procedures calculations and assessments
involving the exposure procedures and periods provided by the client are not within the scope of our UKAS accreditation. Those results obtained
using exposure data shall be indicated by an asterisk (*). Any queries concerning the data in this report should be directed to the Laboratory
Manager Gradko International Ltd. This report is not to be reproduced, except in full, without the written permission of Gradko International Ltd.
Form LQF32b Issue 7 – Oct 2016 Report Number L07082R Page 1 of 2

126 Air Quality Results

VII. List of the Interviews
with Agencies of Bandung

No Code Institution

1 Interview 1 Bappelitbang

2 Interview 2 a. Planning division

3 Interview 3 b. Data, Information, and Report division

4 Interview 4 Dinas Penataan Ruang

5 Interview 5 a. Planning division

6 Interview 6 b. Geospatial division

7 Interview 7 Dinas Perumahan dan Kawasan Permukiman,

Pertanahan dan Pertamanan (DP3KP)

8 Interview 8 a. Settlement division

9 Interview 9 b. Housing division

10 Interview 10 c. Park division

11 Interview 11 Dinas Sosial dan Penanggulangan Kemiskinan

12 Interview 12 Dinas Pertanian dan Ketahanan Pangan


Bandung Smart Systems

Future Cities Laboratory
Asian Development Bank

Future Cities Laboratory, Singapore

Prof. Dr. ­Stephen Cairns
Dr. Devisari Tunas
Dr. Zuzana Drillet
Dr. Heiko Aydt
Dr. Daniel Richards
David Neudecker
Michael Roberto Joos
Dr. Johannes Müller

Consultancy Riset Indie, Bandung

Dr. Laksmi Darmoyono
Shendi Abdiguna
Seterhen Akbar Suriadinata

Studio Joost Grootens /
Joost Grootens
Carina Schwake

Future Cities Laboratory

Singapore-ETH Centre,
#06–01, CREATE Tower
Singapore 138602

This document reports on research concerning smart
and responsive city approaches to the planning of the
city of Bandung, Indonesia. The research was carried
out by a team at Future Cities Laboratory (FCL) under
the auspices of the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB)
Future Cities Programme. The research was conduct-
ed between March and December 2017 under the fol-
lowing agreement: TA9025 REG: Establishing the Fu-
ture Cities Programme in the Asia and Pacific Region.
Smart Cities concepts rely heavily on the
use of technology to address urban problems. The
responsive cities concept takes a more balanced ap-
proach. It recognises the possibilities that technol-
ogy can offer while, at the same time, puts empha-
sis on the importance of engaging ordinary citizens
in the development of viable solutions. The aspira-
tion of a truly responsive city is one in which cities re-
spond constructively, timely, and inclusively to urban
challenges. The responsive city does so by deploy-
ing appropriate technologies and enhancing urban
governance systems to facilitate more inclusive and
responsive approaches to large and complex urban
planning challenges.

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