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Review of Magnetism

• electrons orbiting a nucleus induce a magnetic “moment”

• each “orbit induces its own separate moment

• depending on particular molecule, can have a net magnetic

moment (i.e. ferromagnetic)

This implies and illustrates a fundamental relationship between

electricity and magnetism

• a moving charge generates a magnetic field, and although not obvious from the above…

• relative motion between a magnetic field and a charge exerts a force on the charge(s)

(and on that which contains them; i.e. a conductor)

• a force field

• visualized as “lines of magnetic flux” that appear to follow rules:

o form closed loops from one “pole” to another

o directional (by convention, from north to south pole of magnet)

o repel each other *

o follow the path of least resistance*

o *these last two rules conflict with one another!

• Remember… the field consists of continuous lines, but are really a visual aid

• Magnetic flux can also be visualized as flowing, similar to water or electric current

(symbol: Φ)

• We are often interested in its density (symbol B)

Depending on the material, the magnetic moments from each set of orbiting electrons in a

molecule can reinforce or cancel each other to give the molecule a net magnetic moment.

Various molecular arrangements lead to three types of materials:

o Paramagnetic – only very slightly receptive to a magnetic field (e.g. air, glass, wood,

paper, plastics etc.)

o Diamagnetic (anti-magnetic) – form opposite dipoles in response to an imposed

magnetic field (bismuth, pyrolytic graphite), but only a weak response

o Ferromagnetic – net magnetism at the molecular level; get together into polarized

“domains”. They are normally oriented randomly, but may be aligned temporarily or

permanently. (E.g. iron, cobalt etc.)

We are interested in this last category because it is relatively easy* to establish magnetic flux,

Φ, in these materials in response to a magnetic field.

• this “relative ease” is somewhat temperature dependent. Each material has a “Currie

temperature”, above which they behave like paramagnetic materials.

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

So we can design “magnetic circuits” to route flux in certain ways and to certain places; the

same way we route electric current or hydraulic fluid. We route this to certain places for one of

two reasons:

1) The force it can provide

a. Speakers, sound reproduction

b. Motors, generators

c. Door bells, electromagnets

2) its magnetizing effect

a. HDDs, magnetic tapes

b. Transformers, inductors

Back to moving charges…

Moving charges, like a current flowing in a conductor, create a magnetic field. The induced

“lines of flux” are formed in concentric circles in a plane perpendicular to the direction of

current flow.

⊗

Looking at a current carrying conductor from one end, the density of the magnetic field, B, is

given by:

µ I µ Ir

B = 0 , outside the conductor, and B = 0 2 inside the conductor.

2π r 2π R

B

Charge-carrying conductor

R r

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

If we route current through a cylindrical coil of wire, we will end up with a fairly uniform

magnetic field inside the coil. The coil, in effect, becomes a magnet (electromagnet), which is a

source of magnetomotive force (mmf), symbol: ℑ.

magnet, will cause an amount of magnetic flux, Φ, to ‘flow’. The amount of flux that floes

depends on the magnetic ‘resistance’ of the circuit or path. Again, we can use a right-hand-rule

(RHR) to determine the north pole of the source of mmf. (For an electromagnet consisting of a

coil of wire, if you wrap the fingers of your right hand around the coil in the direction of current

flow, your thumb points in the direction of the flux flow, and the north pole.)

The ‘resistance’ of the path is proportional to the length, l, inversely proportional to the area, A,

and is know as the reluctance, ℜ. Similar to electrical resistance where, the magnetic

l

reluctance, ℜ = , where µ is the permeability of the material and is the product of the

µA

relative permability, µr, and the permability of free space, µ0 (µ=µrµ0).

Also similar to the electric circuit case, there is a fundamental relationship between the driving

force, ℑ, the reluctance of the path, ℜ, and the amount of flux, Φ, that flows in the circuit. This

relationship is know as Ohm’s Law for Magnetic Circuits: ℑ=Φℜ, which will be a fundamental

too for analysis of magnetic circuits.

ℑ = magnetomotive force (mmf) = (number of turns)(current in Amperes) = NI

Φ = total magnetic flux in Webers, Wb

l

ℜ= = reluctance in Amp-turns per Weber (A-t/Wb) or rels, and

µA

l = average path length in meters

A = cross-sectional area in m2

µ = µrµ0, and µr is unit-less and specific to the material,

and µ0 = 4π X 10-7 Wb/At-m.

µr ~ 1 for paramagnetic materials,

and >>1 for ferromagnetic materials

l

Substituting ℑ=NI and ℜ = into Ω’s Law for Magnetic Circuits gives us:

µA

µA

Φ= NI , with a slight rearrangement…

l

Φ NI Φ NI

=µ , now defining two new quantities: B = and H = , where:

A l A l

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

B is the flux density in Webers per square meter (Wb/m2) or Teslas, (T)

(1T=10,000Gauss)

H is the magnetizing force or magnetic field intensity in Amp-turns/m (A-t/m),

and substituting these expressions for B and H in the last expression, we have:

B = µH

Φ

Take the expression for flux density: B = , or Φ = BA. Recalling Ω’s Law and that the mmf,

A

ℑ = NI = Φℜ, we can do another manipulation:

⎛ l ⎞ B

( )( ) ( )

NI = Φ ℜ = BA ⎜ = l = Hl

⎝ µ A ⎟⎠ µ

or NI = Hl, which is a variation of Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law for electric circuits, which

can also be stated as: ∑ NI = ∑ Hl , or the sum of the mmf rises around any loop in a magnetic

circuit must equal the sum of the magnetizing force drops. This relationship will prove very

useful in analyzing magnetic circuits!

Let us re-examine the relationship between the flux density, B (which is proportional to Φ) and

the magnetizing force, H (proportional to NI) given as B=µH. µ is the slope of the relationship

between B and H and is typically not linear for magnetic materials. It is usually given in

graphical form in a “B-H curve”.

Hysteresis

Hysteresis is a property of magnetic material that causes some residual magnetism to remain in

a material after it has been exposed to an external source of mmf. Once a ferromagnetic

material is subjected to a magnetic field, the domains align. If the magnetic field is removed,

most of the domains will return to (approximately) their original orientation. Dependent on the

type of material, some domains may stay oriented in the induced direction, giving the sample

some residual magnetism of its own. The amount of (reverse) field strength needed to return

the magnetic moment of the sample back to zero is called the coercive force.

Magnetic circuit problems faced by a designer are generally one of two types:

1. the NI (mmf) is known, and we need to find the flux, Φ or B, or

2. the desired flux, Φ, or flux density, B, is known and we want to find the required NI.

Fluids Electricity Magnetics

Pressure

(pump) Restriction Restriction

Pressure Pressure N (reluctance)

(voltage) + (resistance) (mmf)

Restriction

(valve)

S

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

The parallel between magnetic circuits and (particularly) electric circuits is very useful for

analyzing and designing magnetic circuits!!

Channeling Flux: Gaps and Fringing; Laminations and Magnetic Force of Attraction

Fringing:

Recall that two opposing properties of magnetic ‘lines’ of flux is that they will “avoid” each

other by spreading out as much as possible, but that they also take the path of least resistance,

so they will “get together” to follow a lower reluctance path. This means that when they have

been channeled through a ferromagnetic material (easy path) and then come to a paramagnetic

(e.g. air) gap, they will start to “spread out” to avoid each other again over the length of the gap,

which will affect the density, B. To estimate the effective area of the path in an air gap:

• add the length of the gap, g, to the length and width of a rectangular or square cross-

section:

( )(

AEff − gap = l + g w + g ) l+g effective area

the radius of a circular (or r

w w+g

elliptical) cross-section:

( )

2

AEff − gap = π r + g r+g

physical area

Laminations:

Magnetic cores are often laminated to reduce heating and losses from eddy currents (those

currents induced in a conductor by a varying magnetic field). For laminated cores, the effective

area is the nominal area multiplied by the Stacking Factor (S.F.).

AEff

StackingFactor =

AOverall

For a rectangular cross-section, for example,

AEff. = (S.F.)(length X width)

Note: the Stacking Factor is sometimes given 2cmX4cm

as a percentage: e.g. S.F. = .95 or 95%.

Where two legs of a magnetic circuit come 2cmX2cmX0.95

together, the areas may not be the same or

S.F.=0.95

oriented to exactly match. In these cases, the

flux will almost entirely pass through the

overlapping area. Although the lines of flux will have to make some path adjustment when

transitioning from one piece to the other, this happens quickly enough so an assumption that it

happens immediately at the transition is a reasonable one.

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

In any magnetic circuit, there is a ‘magnetic force of attraction’. This attractive force exists

anywhere in the circuit, but is most useful where there is a physical break or separation between

one piece and another. This makes it possible to lift or hold ferromagnetic loads with a magnet

(or electromagnet). The magnetic force of attraction is given by:

2

Bgap Agap

FMag − Attr = .

2 µ0

The designation ‘gap’ in this formula should really be interpreted as ‘interface’, as this force

exists at any interface (or other point in the circuit), regardless of whether an actual gap exists

or not. Also note, it depends only on the flux density, B, and the area of the contact, not on the

length of any ‘gap’. The gap length, however, may indirectly influence the force by increasing

the reluctance of the magnetic path and thus reducing the total flux.

Remember, when dealing with overlap situations, use the smallest common area as the ‘Agap_’.

SUMMARY

Electric Magnetic

Restriction Restriction

Pressure Pressure N (reluctance)

(voltage) + (resistance) (mmf)

S

E = IR ℑ = Φℜ

ρl l

R= ℜ=

A µA

Φ = BA

KVL

ΣVloop = 0 Σℑloop = 0

ΣVloop = ΣIR ΣNIloop = ΣHl

KCL

ΣInode = 0 ΣΦnode = 0

ΣIin = ΣIout ΣΦin = ΣΦout

B – H Curves

Where R typically stays reasonably constant with varying current, ℜ (reluctance) does not

usually stay constant with varying levels of flux!

B = µH

B

µ=

H

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

Fringing:

Overlap/Laminations:

Hysteresis:

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

Ex. 1

needed to provide a flux of 0.35

mWb in this cast steel core?

core if the current flows into the top

terminal as shown?

a)

leg A(m2) l(m) Φ(Wb) B(T) H(A-t/m) Hl(A-t)

Cast S.

Sheet S.

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

Ex. 2

10cm

N = 1000t; I = .25A I

Find the total flux, Φ, produced by the coil if

the core is made of:

a) sheet steel

b) cast steel N 10cm

c) cast iron

2cm 2cm

a) Sheet S.

b) Cast S.

c) Cast Iron

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

Ex: 3

is made of Cast Steel. If

the coil is 1000 turns and

the current is 1.35A,

2cmX2cm

determine the flux in the N

core. L= .5m 2mm gap – part b)

I

b) Given the same

conditions as in a),

determine the flux if a

2mm air gap is cut in the

core as shown. Consider

fringing at the gap.

**Considering Fringing**

leg A(m2) l(m) Φ(Wb) B(T) H(A-t/m) Hl(A-t)

a)

b)

cast steel

gap

cast steel

gap

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

Ex: 4

Sheet steel

N = 500t; I = 0.6A

*Neglecting Fringing* 3cmX3cm

1cmX3cm

1mm gap

a)Find the flux in the air

gap, and N L2 = 0.1m

I

b) the total flux

produced by the

oil. L1 = 0.4m

Cast steel

L-2 .0003 .1 .000465 1.55(sat!) 2440 244

L-3 .0003 .099 .000085 .283 195 19

L-gap .0003 .001 .000085 .283 225,000 Guess 75%

225

L-1(SS) .0009 .4 .000550 .611 75 30

=274

274/300=91%, too low!

L-2

L-3

L-gap

L-1(SS)

So…

a) the flux in the gap is 85µWb, and

b) the total flux produced by the coil is .544mWb

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

in the figure.

N1

N1 = N2 = 200t laminated Sheet 2mm gap

I1 = 8A 15cm Cast Steel

Stacking Factor for the [laminated] cast steel Steel all x-sections

N2

section is 0.93. The sheet steel sections (with 3cm

3cm

the gap) are solid.

I2

Consider fringing effects at the air gap. 15cm

Find the current, I2, required to establish a flux density, B, of 1.1T in the air gap.

Note: You can combine the cast segments into one reluctance

and also the 2 sheet steel segments into 1 ℜ because:

i) same material

ii) same physical characteristics (dimensions)

iii) same flux

Second, make a table, then put in what you know (bold), and finally calculate the rest.

leg A(m2) Φ(Wb) B(T) H(A-t/m) l(m) Hl(A-t)

Magnetic Circuits and Examples EE201

of solid sheet steel. The coil has 200 turns of 12ga

insulated copper wire. N

all x-sections

2cm

If the EM is brought to within 1mm of a 20kg cast steel 2cm l=24cm

bar of the same cross-section, find the current required

1mm gap

to just start lifting the bar.

20 kg

Consider the effects of fringing at the air gaps. 8cm

leg A(m2) Φ(Wb) B(T) H(A-t/m) l(m) Hl(A-t)

sheet steel

EM

gap

cast steel

bar

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