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Angles:-

An angle is a figure formed by two rays with a common initial point, say O. This

point is called the vertex

Types of Angles:-

3) If an angle is greater than 900 but less than 1800,it is called obtuse.

4) If an angle is of 1800 , it is called a straight angle, an angle greater than 1800 but less than

3600 is called a reflex angle.

5) Two angles whose sum is 1800 are called supplementary angles, each one is a

supplement of the other.

6) Two angles whose sum is 900 are called complementary angles, each one is a

complement of the other.

7) Two adjacent angles whose sum is 1800 are the angles of a linear pair.

When two lines intersect, two pairs of vertically opposite angles are formed. Vertically

opposite angles are equal.

Thus, are equal. a b are equal.

Also, sum of all the angles at a point = 3600 i.e.

If a transversal (cutting line) cuts two parallel lines corresponding angles are equal

i.e. a = e, d = f, b = h, c = g.

Alternate angles are equal

i.e. c = f, d = e.

Interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary,

i.e. c + e = d + f = 180°

Triangles:-

A triangle is a polygon with three vertices and three sides (edges). It has three

internal angles. When we add all the internal angles together, we will definitely get 180°.

1. Acute triangle: The triangle which has all acute angles (i.e less than 900).

2. Obtuse triangle: The triangle which has one obtuse angle (i.e greater that 900)

3. Right angle triangle: The triangle which has one right angle i.e 900.

5. Isosceles triangle: An isosceles triangle is a triangle that has two equal sides.

6. Equilateral triangle: The triangle of which all sides are equal is known as equilateral

triangle & all angles are equal to 600.

Properties of Triangles

1. Sum of the angles of a triangle are 180° (angles of a triangle are supplementary)

2. The exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles.

Here, 1 = 2 + 3

3. Angles opposite to two equal sides of a triangle are equal & vice versa.

Here, 1 = 2

4. If two sides of a triangle are unequal then the greater angle is opposite to greater side &

vice versa

5. Two triangles are congruent if two angles & included side of one triangle is equal to the

corresponding two angles & included side of the other triangles.

1= 3 2 = 4, BC = EF

or ABC DEF

6. If two sides & included angle of a triangle are equal to corresponding two sides &

included angle of another triangle then the two triangles are congruent.

AB = DE, AC = DF , 1 = 2

ABC DEF

7. If two angles & non included side of one triangle are equal to corresponding two angles &

non included side of another triangle then the two triangles are congruent.

8. If three sides of a triangle are equal to three sides of another triangle each to each then

the triangles are congruent

AB = DE, AC = DF, BC = EF

9. Triangles on the same base & between the same parallels are equal in Area

10. Two right triangles are congruent if the hypotenuse & one side of one triangle are

respectively equal to hypotenuse & one side of the other triangle.

AB = DE, AC = DF

or ABC DEF

11. Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third.

Similar Triangles

1. If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle the other two sides are divided

proportionally & vice versa

if DE || BC so =

if so = then DE || BC

2. If two triangles are equiangular (i.e. the corresponding angles are equal) then the

triangles are similar & hence their sides are proportional

= =

3. If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional then the triangles are

equiangular / similar.

4. Ratio of areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares of two

corresponding sides.

5. In a right triangle the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the

other two sides

= + 2AB.BD

if B > 90°

7. In the figure (Acute angles triangle)

= + - 2BC.BD

if B < 90°

Area of triangle

Area =

3) When lengths of two sides and the included angle are given:-

Area =

√

Area =

Area = √4

6) When three median are given

A= √ ( )( )( )

Where,

S=

Apollonius Theorem

AB² + AC² = 2(AD² + BD²)

=

Inradius and circumradius of triangle

# Inradius

√

# Circumradius

√

Circles:-

Circle illustration with circumference (C) , diameter (D) , radius (R) , and centre or

origin (O)

Centre: the point equidistant from the points on the circle.

Chord: a line segment whose endpoints lie on the circle.

Circular sector: a region bounded by two radii and an arc lying between the radii.

Circular segment: a region, not containing the centre, bounded by a chord and an arc

lying between the chord's endpoints.

Circumference: the length of one circuit along the circle.

Diameter: a line segment whose endpoints lie on the circle and which passes

through the centre; or the length of such a line segment, which is the largest

distance between any two points on the circle. It is a special case of a chord, namely

the longest chord, and it is twice the radius.

Radius: a line segment joining the centre of the circle to any point on the circle itself;

or the length of such a segment, which is half a diameter.

Secant: an extended chord, a coplanar straight line cutting the circle at two points.

Semicircle: a region bounded by a diameter and an arc lying between the diameter's

endpoints. It is a special case of a circular segment, namely the largest one.

Tangent: a straight line that touches the boundary of circle at a single point.

Important result

Circumference = 2

Area =

Length of arc ( ) = 2 ( )

°

Area of sector = ( )

°

Properties of circle

1. The perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord.

2. Perpendicular bisectors of two chords of a circle passes through its centre (i.e. intersect at

centre).

3. If two chords of a circle drawn from the same point are equal then the line bisecting the

angle between them passes through centre (or is the diameter)

4. Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre & vice versa.

7. Angle which an arc subtends at the centre is double the angle subtended by the same arc

at any other part of the circumference.

8. From the above we come to know that 2 = 3 hence angles in the same segment of a

circle are equal.

11. A tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact

12. The length of two tangents from an external point are equal

OA = OB

13. If two chords of a circle intersect inside or outside the circle when produced, the

rectangle formed by the two segments of one chord is equal in area to the rectangle formed

by the two segments of the other.

Circle with centre O chords AB & CD intersect at P (fig. 1 inside & fig. 2 outside)

PA.PB = PC.PD

14. If a chord is drawn through the point of contact of a tangent to a circle, then the angles

which this chord makes with the given tangent are equal respectively to the angles formed

in the corresponding alternate segments.

1= 2& 3= 4

Common Tangent To A Pair Of Circles

Common tangents are lines or segments that are tangent to more than one circle at the

same time.

The possibility of common tangents is closely linked to the mutual position of circles.

1. If two circles touch inside, the two internal tangents vanish and the two external ones

become a single tangent.

2. If two circles intersect, the common tangent is replaced by a common secant, whence

there are only two external tangents.

3. If two circles touch each other outside, the two internal tangents coincide in a common

tangent, thus there are three common tangents.

4. If two circles are separate, there are four common tangents, two inside and two outside.

If r1, r2 are the radii of two circles and d is distance between their centers, then

(i) the length of a direct common tangent = √ ( )

(ii) the length of a transverse common tangent =√ ( )

Length of the tangent of two circles which touch each other at an external point with

radius r1 & r2, then the length of direct common tangent = √

Quadrilaterals:-

Quadrilateral Shape Properties Important Results

Square 1. All sides are equal Area = a² = × D²

2. all angles are 90° (D = diagonal)

3.Diagonals are equal

and Bisect each other Perimeter = 4a

at 90°

Diagonal = √2

equal and parallel

2. All angles are 90° Perimeter = 2 2

3. Diagonals are equal

and bisect each other Diagonal = √

and opposite sides are

parallel Perimeter = sum of all sides

2. Opposite angles are

equal 2 2

3. Diagonals are not side² = d1 d 2

equal 2 2

4. Diagonals bisect

each other at 90°

parallel and equal Or b × h

2. Opposite angles are

equal Perimeter = sum of all sides

3. Diagonals of

parallelogram bisect

each other

Trapezium 1. only one pair of Area = (sum of parallel sides)

opposite sides are (height)

parallel

2. The diagonals cut

the quadrilateral into

four triangles of which

one opposite pair

are similar

If lengths of one diagonal and two offsets are given of any quadrilateral

Area = ( )

If lengths of two diagonals and the included angle are given of any quadrilateral

Area =

Solids:-

Cube 4 6

Cuboids 2( ) 2( )

Cylinder 2 2 ( )

Cone 1 ( )

3

= √

Sphere 4 4 4

3

Hemi- 2 2 3

sphere 3

Right

2

prism

Right 1 1

pyramid 3 2

Polygon:-

A closed plane figure made up of several line segments that are joined together.

The sides do not cross each other. Exactly two sides meet at every vertex.

Vertex - point where two sides meet. Two or more of these points are called vertices.

Diagonal - a line connecting two vertices that isn't a side.

Interior Angle - Angle formed by two adjacent sides inside the polygon.

Exterior Angle - Angle formed by two adjacent sides outside the polygon.

Sum of interior angle and exterior angle of any polygon is equal to 180°

Types of Polygons

Regular - all angles are equal and all sides are the same length. Regular polygons are both

equiangular and equilateral.

Equiangular - all angles are equal.

Equilateral - all sides are the same length.

Convex - a straight line drawn through a convex polygon crosses at most two sides. Every

interior angle is less than 180°.

Concave - you can draw at least one straight line through a concave polygon

that crosses more than two sides. At least one interior angle is more than 180°.

N N – Gon 6 Hexagon

3 Triangle 7 Heptagon

4 Quadrilateral 8 Octagon

5 Pentagon 10 Decagon

= Number of sides

Number of diagonals

( 3)

2

= Number of sides

( 4)( 5)

6

= Number of sides

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