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Densities and

Electric Field Intensity

Charge Configuration

a) Point Charge:

dimensions of an electric charge distribution are very

small compared to the distance to the neighboring

charges, i.e. the point charge is occupying a very small

physical space

b) Distributed Charge

surface or among a volume.

++ ++

+

+

+

The line charge density 𝝆𝒍 is dl

+

+

dQ = ρL dl

defined as the charge per unit +

+

+ + + +

length.

∆𝑸 𝑪

𝝆𝒍 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎∆𝒍→𝟎 � �𝒎�

∆𝒍

𝒅𝑸

𝝆𝒍 = �𝑪�𝒎�

𝒅𝒍

So,

𝒅𝑸 = 𝝆𝒍 𝒅𝒍

𝒍 𝒍

𝑸 = � 𝒅𝑸 = � 𝝆𝒍 𝒅𝒍 [𝑪]

𝟎 𝟎

𝑸 = 𝝆𝒍 𝒍 [𝑪]

U

per unit surface area.

∆𝑸

𝝆𝒔 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎∆𝒔→𝟎 �𝑪� 𝟐 �

∆𝒔 𝒎

𝒅𝑸

𝝆𝒔 = �𝑪� 𝟐 �

𝒅𝒔 𝒎

So,

𝒅𝑸 = 𝝆𝒔 𝒅𝒔

𝑸 = � 𝒅𝑸 = � 𝝆𝒔 𝒅𝒔

𝑸 = 𝝆𝒔 𝑺 [𝑪]

U

∆𝑸

𝝆𝒗 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎∆𝒗→𝟎 �𝑪� 𝟑 �

∆𝒗 𝒎

�𝑪� 𝟐 �

𝒅𝑸 dv

𝝆𝒗 = 𝒅𝒗 𝒎 dQ = ρv dv

So,

𝒅𝑸 = 𝝆𝒗 𝒅𝒗

𝑸 = � 𝒅𝑸 = � 𝝆𝒗 𝒅𝒗

U U

𝑸 = 𝝆𝒗 𝑽 [𝑪]

Example:

distribution contains a total charge of 10-8 C, if the

radius of the sphere =2x10-2 m. Find ρv .

Solution:

4π 3 4π

Q = 10 −8 C , r = 2 * 10 −2 m , V = r = (2 * 10 −2 ) 3 = 8 * 10 −6 m 2

3 3

10 −8

.

Q

∴ ρv = = = 2.98 * 10 −4 C m −3

V 4π

* 8 * 10 −8

3

Example:

U

𝒌

distribution with 𝝆𝒗 = 𝟏 C.m-3. Find the total

𝒓𝒔

P P

radius a [m]

Solution:

U

𝒅𝑸 = 𝝆𝒗 𝒅𝒗

𝑸 = � 𝒅𝑸 = � 𝝆𝒗 𝒅𝒗

𝒌𝟏 𝟐

= � 𝒓 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝜽 𝒅𝜽 𝒅𝝋

𝒓𝒔 𝒔

𝒂

𝒓𝟐𝒔

𝑸 = 𝒌𝟏 � � [𝝓]𝟐𝝅

𝟎 [−𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 ][−𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 ]𝝅

𝟎

𝟐 𝟎

𝑸 = 𝟐𝝅𝒌𝟏 𝒂𝟐 𝑪

Coloumb’s Law:

Force Between Two Point Charges:

Q1,Q2 is proportional to the product of the two

charges and inversely proportional to the square of the

distance R between them.

F21 R â12 F12

Q1 Q2

𝑸𝟏 𝑸𝟐

�𝑭⃗𝟏𝟐 = �

𝒂

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝟐 �𝑹�⃗𝟏𝟐

𝑸𝟏 𝑸𝟐

�⃗𝟐𝟏 =

𝑭 �

𝒂

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝟐 �𝑹�⃗𝟐𝟏

��𝑹�⃗𝟏𝟐 = −𝒂

Where: 𝒂 ��𝑹�⃗𝟐𝟏 unit vector from charge Q 1 to Q 2

R R R R

charge.

𝟏𝟎−𝟗

and, 𝜺𝒐 = = 𝟖. 𝟖𝟓𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟐 𝑭/𝒎

𝟑𝟔𝝅

�⃗𝒕 on point charge 𝑸𝒕 due to n point charges can be

Force 𝑭

determined as

R1t Qt

Q1

𝒏

𝑸𝒊 𝑸𝒕

�⃗𝒕 = �

𝑭 � �⃗𝒊𝒕 [𝑵]

R2t

𝟐 𝒂�𝑹

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝒊𝒕

𝒊=𝟏 Rn t

Qn

Example:

U

Find the force 𝑭 R R P P

R R P P R R

R R

Solution:

U

Q1Q2 ∧ Q1Q2

F= a 21 = R21

4πε 0 R 2 21 4πε 0 R21

3

R21 = (0 − 2) xˆ + (1 − 4) yˆ + (2 − 5) zˆ

= −2 xˆ − 3 yˆ − 3zˆ

∴ R21 = 4 + 9 + 9 = 22

R21 − 2 xˆ − 3 yˆ − 3zˆ

aˆ 21 = =

R21 22

(0 −4 ∗ 2 ∗ 10 −5 ) ⋅ (−2 xˆ − 3 yˆ − 3zˆ)

∴F = N

4π ∗ 8.85 ∗ 10 −12 ( 22 ) 2 ⋅ 22

Point Charge Q:

It is a vector force acting on a unit (+ve) charge. The

electric field intensity due to a point located at distance R

from the charge Q is given by:

𝑸∗ 𝟏 ��⃗

𝑸𝑹

�𝑬

�⃗ = �

𝒂 = 𝒗𝒐𝒍𝒕�

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝟐 �

�⃗

𝑹 𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝟑 𝒎𝒆𝒕𝒆𝒓 (𝑽/𝒎)

Charges Q1 , Q2 ,….., Qn:

If we have a system of charges Q 1 , Q 2 …Q n . the total

electric field at a point is the vector sum of all fields

due to the different charges.

��⃗

�𝑬⃗𝒕 = ∑𝒏𝒊=𝟏 𝑸𝒊 𝑹 𝟑 𝒂

��𝑹�⃗𝒊𝒕 [𝑵/𝑪]

𝟒𝝅𝜺 𝑹 𝒐

α

R1

â1 Rn

𝒏 R2

𝑸𝒊

Q1

â 2

𝟐 𝒂�𝑹

â n

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝒊 Q2 Qn

𝒊=𝟏

Example:

Find the electric field intensity at the point (2,4,5) m, due to

a point charge Q = 2*10-5 C, located at (0,1,2) m.

Solution:

QR

E =

4πε 0 R 3

R = (2 − 0) xˆ + (4 − 1) yˆ + (5 − 2) zˆ

= 2 xˆ + 3 yˆ + 3z

R = 4 + 9 + 9 = 22

2 ∗ 10 −5 (2 xˆ + 3 yˆ + 3zˆ)

E= = ... xˆ + ... yˆ + ... zˆ

4π (8.85 ∗ 10 )( 22 )

−12 3

Electric Field Intensity at a point p (rc, φ, z)

due to line charge

��𝑹�⃗

𝒅𝑸 𝒂 z

��⃗ =

𝒅𝑬

dE

b

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝟐 R

a

dl

𝒅𝑸 �𝑹

�⃗ y

=

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝟑 x

𝒃

𝝆𝒍 𝒅𝒍 �𝑹

�⃗

�𝑬⃗ = �

𝒂 𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝟑

due to Uniform Line Charge Along z-Axis

z

b

dz'

R

α2 ⊕⊕

z' R

z α1 (rc,φ,z)

a

z

y rc

x

��𝑹�⃗

𝒅𝑸 𝒂

��⃗ =

𝒅𝑬

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝟐

𝒅𝑸 = 𝝆𝒍 𝒅𝒍 = 𝝆𝒍 𝒅𝒛′

��⃗ = 𝒂

𝑹 �𝒛 (𝒛′ − 𝒛)

�𝒓𝒄 𝒓𝒄 − 𝒂

��⃗

𝑹 � 𝒛 (𝒛 ′ − 𝒛 )

�𝒓𝒄 𝒓𝒄 − 𝒂

𝒂

�𝑹

𝒂 ��⃗ = =

𝑹 �𝒓𝟐𝒄 + (𝒛′ − 𝒛)𝟐

�𝒓𝒄 𝒓𝒄 − 𝒂

�⃗ =

𝒅𝑬 𝟑�

𝟐

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 �𝒓𝟐𝒄 + (𝒛′ − 𝒛 )𝟐 �

𝝆𝒍 𝒃 �𝒂

� 𝒓𝒄 𝒓𝒄 − 𝒂� 𝒛 �𝒛′ − 𝒛��

��⃗ =

𝑬 � 𝒅𝒛′

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝒂 𝟑

𝟐 �𝟐

�𝒓𝟐 ′

𝒄 + � 𝒛 − 𝒛� �

note:

𝒃

𝒅𝒙 𝒙

� 𝟑� = 𝟏�

𝒂 𝟐 𝟐

�𝒄𝟐 + 𝒙𝟐 � 𝒄𝟐 �𝒄𝟐 + 𝒙𝟐 �

𝒃

𝒙𝒅𝒙 −𝟏

� 𝟑� = 𝟏�

𝒂 𝟐 𝟐

�𝒄𝟐 + 𝒙𝟐 � �𝒄𝟐 + 𝒙𝟐 �

⎡

𝒃

𝝆𝒍 ⎢ 𝒅𝒛′

�𝑬

�⃗ =

⎢ 𝒂

� 𝒓𝒄 𝒓𝒄 � 𝟑�

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝒂 𝟐 𝟐

⎢ 𝟐 ′

�𝒓𝒄 + �𝒛 − 𝒛� �

⎣

𝒃 �𝒛′ − 𝒛� 𝒅𝒛′

− 𝒂 �𝒛 � 𝟑 �

𝒂 𝟐 �𝟐

�𝒓𝟐 ′

𝒄 + � 𝒛 − 𝒛� �

𝝆𝒍 (𝒛′ − 𝒛)

�⃗ =

𝑬 � 𝒓

�𝒂

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝒓𝒄 𝒄 𝟏�

𝟐

𝒓𝟐𝒄 [𝒓𝟐𝒄 + (𝒛′ − 𝒛)𝟐 ]

𝒃

𝟏

�𝒛

+ 𝒂 𝟏� �

𝟐

[𝒓𝟐𝒄 + (𝒛′ − 𝒛)𝟐 ]

𝒂

𝝆𝒍 �𝒓

𝒂 (𝒃 − 𝒛) (𝒂 − 𝒛)

�𝑬

�⃗ = � 𝒄� − �

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝒓𝒄 [𝒓𝟐 + (𝒃 − 𝒛)𝟐 ]𝟏�𝟐 [𝒓𝟐 + (𝒂 − 𝒛)𝟐 ]𝟏�𝟐

𝒄 𝒄

𝒃

�𝒛

𝒂 𝒓𝒄 𝒓𝒄

+ � − ��

𝒓𝒄 [𝒓𝟐 + (𝒃 − 𝒛)𝟐 ] �𝟐 [𝒓𝟐 + (𝒂 − 𝒛)𝟐 ]𝟏�𝟐

𝟏

𝒄 𝒄

𝒂

𝒃

𝝆𝒍 �𝒓

𝒂 �𝒛

𝒂

��⃗ =

𝑬 � 𝒄 [𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜶𝟐 + 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜶𝟏 ] + [𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜶𝟐 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝜶𝟏 ]�

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝒓𝒄 𝒓𝒄

𝒂

𝝆𝒍

�𝑬⃗ = �𝒓𝒄 [𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜶𝟐 + 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜶𝟏 ] + 𝒂

�𝒂 �𝒛 [𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜶𝟐 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝜶𝟏 ]�

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝒓𝒄

Note:

- For infinite line 𝜶𝟐 = 𝜶𝟏 = 𝟗𝟎𝒐

So,

𝝆𝒍

�𝑬⃗ = 𝒂

�𝒓𝒄

𝟐𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝒓𝒄

Projection point

�𝒓𝒄 𝒓𝒄

𝒂

Intersection point

Electric Field Intensity at a point p (0,0,z) on the

axis of a ring charged with uniform ρL of radius a

centered at the origin and positioned in (x-y) plane

Ẑ

dE

(0,0, z )

a

Yˆ

dΦ

dl = adφ

dQ = ρ l dl = ρ l adφ

X̂

��𝑹�⃗

𝒅𝑸 𝒂

��⃗ =

𝒅𝑬

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝟐

��⃗ = −𝒂

𝑹 �𝒓𝒄 𝒓′𝒄 + 𝒂

�𝒛 𝒛 = −𝒂

�𝒓𝒄 𝒂 + 𝒂

�𝒛 𝒛

𝑹 = �𝒓′𝟐

𝒄 + 𝒛 = �𝒂 + 𝒛

𝟐 𝟐 𝟐

��⃗

𝑹 �𝒓𝒄 𝒂 + 𝒂

−𝒂 �𝒛 𝒛

��𝑹�⃗ = =

𝒂

𝑹 �𝒂𝟐 + 𝒛𝟐

�𝒓𝒄 𝒂 +

𝝆𝒍 𝒂𝒅𝝋′ �−𝒂 �𝒛 𝒛�

𝒂

�⃗ =

𝒅𝑬 𝟑�

𝟐

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 [𝒂𝟐 + 𝒛𝟐 ]

𝝆𝒍 𝒂 𝟐𝝅 �−𝒂� 𝒓𝒄 𝒂 + 𝒂� 𝒛 𝒛�

�𝑬

�⃗ = � 𝒅𝝋′

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝟎 𝟑�

𝟐

𝟐

�𝒂 + 𝒛 � 𝟐

𝟐𝝅 𝟐𝝅

𝝆𝒍 𝒂

�𝑬⃗ = ′ �𝒛 𝒛 𝒅𝝋′ �

�𝒓𝒄 𝒂 𝒅𝝋 + � 𝒂

�� −𝒂

𝟑

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 [𝒂𝟐 + 𝒛𝟐 ] �𝟐 𝟎 𝟎

Since, the unit vector 𝒂 �𝒓𝒄 is not a constant unit vector and

it is a function of 𝝋′ , and since

� 𝒓𝒄 = 𝒂

𝒂 � 𝒙 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝝋′ + 𝒂

� 𝒚 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝝋′

So,

𝟐𝝅 𝟐𝝅

⎡− � 𝒂 ′

�𝒙 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝝋 𝒂 𝒅𝝋 − � 𝒂 ′ �𝒚 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝝋′ 𝒂 𝒅𝝋′ ⎤

𝝆𝒍 𝒂 ⎢ 𝟎 ⎥

�𝑬⃗ = 𝟎

𝟑 ⎢ 𝟐𝝅 ⎥

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 [𝒂𝟐 + 𝒛𝟐 ] �𝟐 ⎢ +� 𝒂 �𝒛 𝒛 𝒅𝝋 ′ ⎥

⎣ 𝟎 ⎦

𝟐𝝅

𝝆𝒍 𝒂

��⃗ =

𝑬 �𝒛 𝒛 𝒅𝝋′

� 𝒂

𝟑�

𝟐 𝟎

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 [𝒂𝟐 + 𝒛𝟐 ]

𝝆𝒍 𝒂 𝒛

��⃗ = 𝒂

𝑬 �𝒛 𝟑�

𝟐

𝟐𝜺𝒐 [𝒂𝟐 + 𝒛𝟐 ]

Example:

A uniform line charge of infinite extent with 𝝆𝒍 = 𝟐𝟎 𝒏𝑪/𝒎

��⃗ at (6,8,3) m.

lies on z-axis. Find 𝑬

Solution:

ρl

E= rˆc

2πε 0 rc

rc = x 2 + y 2 = 62 + 82 = 10

20 ∗ 10 −9 rˆc

∴E = = 36rˆc V / m

2π (8.85 * 10 −2 )10 10

Electric field intensity of a surface charge:

z

dE

(0,0,z0)

R ρ S

y

rc

ds

x

��𝑹�⃗

𝒅𝑸 𝒂

��⃗ =

𝒅𝑬

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝑹𝟐

��⃗ = −𝒂

𝑹 �𝒓𝒄 𝒓′𝒄 + 𝒂

�𝒛 𝒛

𝑹 = �𝒓′𝟐

𝒄 +𝒛

𝟐

��⃗

𝑹 �𝒓𝒄 𝒓′𝒄 + 𝒂

−𝒂 �𝒛 𝒛

��𝑹�⃗ = =

𝒂

𝑹 �𝒓′𝟐𝒄 +𝒛

𝟐

�𝒓𝒄 𝒓′𝒄

𝝆𝒔 𝒓′𝒄 𝒅𝒓′𝒄 𝒅𝝋′ �−𝒂 �𝒛 𝒛�

+ 𝒂

�⃗ =

𝒅𝑬 𝟑�

′𝟐 𝟐

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 �𝒓𝒄 + 𝒛𝟐 �

′𝟐 ′

𝝆𝒔 𝒂 �𝒓𝒄 �𝒅𝒓𝒄 𝟐𝝅 𝒂 �𝒓′𝒄 �𝒅𝒓′𝒄 𝟐𝝅

�⃗ =

𝑬 �∫𝟎 𝟑 ∫ �𝒓𝒄 �𝒅𝝋′

�−𝒂 + ∫𝟎 𝟑� �𝒛 𝒛 𝒅𝝋′ �

∫𝟎 𝒂

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝟐 �𝟐 𝟎 𝟐 𝟐

�𝒓′𝒄 +𝒛𝟐 � ′ 𝟐

�𝒓𝒄 +𝒛 �

Since, the unit vector 𝒂 �𝒓𝒄 is not a constant unit vector and

it is a function of 𝝋′ , and since

� 𝒓𝒄 = 𝒂

𝒂 � 𝒙 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝝋′ + 𝒂

� 𝒚 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝝋′

So,

𝒂 𝟐 𝟐𝝅

𝝆𝒔 �𝒓′𝒄 �𝒅𝒓′𝒄

�𝑬⃗ = �� � �−𝒂 �𝒙 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝝋′ − 𝒂

�𝒚 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝝋′ �𝒅𝝋′

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝟎 ′ 𝟐 𝟑 �

�𝒓𝒄 + 𝒛𝟐 � 𝟐 𝟎

𝒂 [𝒓′𝒄 ]𝒅𝒓′𝒄 𝟐𝝅

+� 𝟑�

� 𝒂 �𝒛 𝒛 𝒅𝝋′ �

𝟎 �𝒓′ 𝟐 + 𝒛𝟐 � 𝟐 𝟎

𝒄

Then,

𝒂 [𝒓′𝒄 ]𝒅𝒓′𝒄 𝟐𝝅

𝝆𝒔

�𝑬⃗ = �� �𝒛 𝒛 𝒅𝝋′ �

� 𝒂

𝟒𝝅𝜺𝒐 𝟎 𝟑�

𝟐 𝟎

�𝒓′𝒄 𝟐 + 𝒛𝟐 �

and since,

𝒂

𝒂 𝒓′𝒄 𝒅𝒓′𝒄 −𝟏 −𝟏 𝟏

∫𝟎 𝟑� = � 𝟏� � = � 𝟏 + 𝟏 �

′ 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 ′ 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 [𝒂𝟐 +𝒛𝟐 ] �𝟐 [𝒛𝟐 ] �𝟐

�𝒓𝒄 +𝒛 � �𝒓𝒄 +𝒛 �

𝟎

So,

𝝆𝒔 −𝒛 𝒛

�𝑬⃗ = 𝒂

�𝒛 � + �

𝟐𝜺𝒐 𝟏� 𝒛

𝟐

[𝒂 + 𝒛 ]

𝟐 𝟐

𝝆𝒔 𝒛

�𝑬

�⃗ = 𝒂

�𝒛 �𝟏 −

𝟐𝜺𝒐 𝟏� �

𝟐

�𝒂𝟐 + 𝒛𝟐 �

𝝆𝒔

�𝑬⃗ = 𝒂

�𝒛

𝟐𝜺𝒐

Note:

𝝆

For infinite surface the electric field �𝑬

�⃗ = 𝒂

�𝒛 𝒔

𝟐𝜺 𝒐

and in direction normal to the surface and out of it.

Example:

at 𝒙 = ±𝟏 as shown in figure. Find the electric field in all

regions.

Solution:

y

-1 x=1

x

ρ

ρ s2

S1

Region 1 :

ρs ρs

E1 = 1

xˆ , E2 = 2

xˆ

2ε 0 2ε 0

∴ Et = E1 + E2 =

1

[

ρ + ρ s2 xˆ

2 ε 0 s1

]

Region 2 :

ρs ρs

E1 = 1

( − xˆ ) , E2 = 2

( xˆ )

2ε0 2ε0

∴ Et =

1

2ε0

−ρ +ρ

s 1 s 2

[

xˆ ]

Region 3 :

ρs ρs

E1 = − 1

xˆ , E2 = − 2

xˆ

2ε0 2ε0

∴ Et = −

1

2ε0 1

[

ρ s + ρ s xˆ

2

]

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