42 views

Uploaded by Dipaloy Datta

This document described the design of fixed bed adsorption columns

- 10.1016@j.mineng.2005.05.014.pdf
- TABEL PAP.docx
- Activated Carbon Adsorption Reactivation
- Š Synthetic activated carbons for the removal of hydrogen cyanide from air
- Adsorption Cr (VI) activated carbon from oil palm endocarp.pdf
- EXP 32 - Batch Adsorption
- 2011 Paper
- 22777207220e7c0b899eef45cbb8857c7912
- Brochure Oil and Gas Purification
- CAL-In Activated Carbon
- 1-s2.0-S1385894714003301-main
- BTP
- Filters
- adsorption-column-design.pdf
- Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 7741 –7745
- 9812383492Adsorption.pdf
- Adsorption of Co2, Ch4, n2 and h2o on an Interwoven Copper Carboxylate (MOF 14)
- Fixed-bed-column Studies for Methylene Blue Removal and Recovery by Untreated Coffee Residues
- techbrieftb-007
- Wang--092011--01162014feature.pdf

You are on page 1of 9

Fixed bed is a widely used method for adsorption

adsorption at any time takes place in a relatively

of solutes from liquid or gases. Granular particles

narrow adsorption or mass-transfer zone. As the

are packed inside the fixed-bed. The fluid to be

solution continues to flow, this mass transfer zone,

treated is passed down through the packed bed at which is S-shaped, moves down the column. The

a constant flow rate. Mass transfer resistances are outlet concentration remains near zero until the

important in the fixed bed process and the process mass-transfer zone starts to reach the tower outlet at

is unsteady state. The overall dynamics of the time t4. Then the outlet concentration starts to rise

system determines the efficiency of the process and at t5 the outlet concentration has risen to cb,

rather than just the equilibrium considerations. which is called the break point.

Adsorbate concentration concentration c rises rapidly up to point cd, which

in solution varies over is the end of the breakthrough curve where the

the length of the reactor bed is considered ineffective. The break-point

and as a function of time concentration represents the maximum that can

be discarded and is often take as 0.01-0.05 for

Fixed bed adsorber cb/c0. The value cd/c0 is taken as the point where

cd is approximately equal to c0.

87 88

CENG 371 Environmental Control CENG 371 Environmental Control

89 90

CENG 371 Environmental Control CENG 371 Environmental Control

Capacity of column and scale-up design method If the entire bed comes to equilibrium with the feed,

the total or stoichiometric capacity of the packed-bed

A narrow mass-transfer zone makes efficient use tower is proportional to the area between the curve

and a line at c/c0 = 1. The total shaded area represents

of the adsorbent. The mass-transfer zone width

the total capacity of the bed as follows:

and shape depends on the adsorption isotherm,

⎛ c⎞

flow rate, mass-transfer rate to the particles, and t t = ∫0∞ ⎜1 − ⎟ dt (16)

⎝ c0 ⎠

diffusion in the pores. Experiments in laboratory where tt is the time equivalent to the total capacity.

scale are needed in order to scale up the results. The usable capacity of the bed up to the break-point

time tb is the crosshatched area.

⎛ c⎞

t u = ∫0t b ⎜1 − ⎟ dt (17)

⎝ c0 ⎠

where tu is the time equivalent to the usable capacity or

the time at which effluent concentration reaches its

maximum permissible level. tu is usually very close to tb.

91 92

CENG 371 Environmental Control CENG 371 Environmental Control

The ratio tu/tt is the fraction of the total bed transfer section, HUNB, is added to the length

capacity or length utilized up to the break point. needed, HB, to obtain the total length HT.

Hence, for a total bed length of HT, HB is the H T = H B + H UNB (17)

length of bed used up to the break point,

t A simple procedure is to assume that the

HB = u HT (18)

tt breakthrough curve is symmetrical at c/c0 = 0.5

The length of unused bed HUNB is then the unused and ts. Then tt = ts. This means that the area

fraction times the total length. below the curve between tb and ts is equal to the

⎛ t ⎞ area above the curve between ts and td.

H UNB = ⎜1 − u ⎟ H T (19)

⎝ tt ⎠

The HUNB represents the mass-transfer section or Example. Scale-up of laboratory adsorption

zone. It depends on the fluid velocity and is column.

essentially independent of total length of the A waste stream of alcohol vapor in air from a

column. Therefore, HUNB can be measured at the process was adsorbed by activated carbon

design velocity in a small column packed with the particles in a packed bed having a diameter of 4

desired adsorbent. Then the full-scale adsorber cm and length of 14 cm containing 79.2 g of

can be designed by first calculating the usable carbon. The inlet gas stream having a

bed length up to the break point (HB) which is concentration co of 600 ppm and a density of

proportional to tb. Finally the length of the mass- 0.00115 g/cm3 enter the bed at a flow rate of 754

93 94

CENG 371 Environmental Control CENG 371 Environmental Control

curve are given below.

(a) for c/co =0.01, the break-point time is tb = 3.65

of total capacity used up to the break point,

h from the graph, td = 6.95 h. The time equivalent

and the length of the unused bed. Also

to the total capacity of the bed is

determine the saturation loading capacity of ⎛ c⎞

t t = ∫0∞ ⎜1 − ⎟ dt = A1 + A 2 = 3.65 + 1.51 = 5.16 (h)

the carbon. ⎝ c0 ⎠

(b) If the break-point time required for a new The time equivalent to the usable capacity of the

column is 6.0 h, what is the new total length of bed up to the break-point time is

the column required? ⎛ c⎞

t u = ∫0t b ⎜1 − ⎟ dt = A1 = 3.65 (h)

⎝ c0 ⎠

Hence, the fraction of total capacity used up to

the break-point is tu/tt = 3.65/5.16 = 0.707.

95 96

CENG 371 Environmental Control CENG 371 Environmental Control

The length of the used bed is HB = 0.707(14) = (b) For a new tb of 6.0 h, the new HB is obtained

9.9 cm. The length of unused bed is simply from the ratio of the break-point times

⎛ t ⎞ multiplied by the old HB.

H UNB = ⎜1 − u ⎟ H T = (1 − 0.707)(14) = 4.1 (cm)

⎝ tt ⎠ 6.0

HB = (9.9) = 16.3 (cm)

To determine the saturation capacity of the 3.65

H T = H B + H UNB = 16.3 + 4.1 = 20.4 (cm)

carbon, air flow rate is

Q = (754 cm3/s)(3600 s/h)(0.00115 g/cm3) The fraction of the new bed used up to the break

=3122 (g air/h) point is now

H B / H T = 16.3 / 20.4 = 0.799

⎛ 600 g alcohol ⎞

⎜ ⎟ ( 3122 g air / h ) (5.16 h ) = 9.67 g alcohol

⎝ 10 6 g air ⎠

Saturation capacity (Equilibrium isotherm at

c=600 ppm) is

q = 9.67 g alcohol/79.2 g carbon

= 0.122 g alcohol/g carbon

97 98

CENG 371 Environmental Control CENG 371 Environmental Control

Bohart-Adams model (Bed Depth-Service Time, BDST) The adsorptive capacity of the system, N0, and the rate

constant, K, can be evaluated from the slope and

This model assumes that the adsorption rate is intercept of the plot of t versus D, which yields a

proportional to both the residual adsorbent capacity straight line. The slope term, a, provides a measure of

and the remaining adsorbate concentration. The bed the velocity of the adsorption zone (the speed at which

service time is carbon is exhausted). The velocity of the adsorption

N0 1 ⎛c ⎞

t = aD + b = D− ln⎜ 0 − 1⎟ zone is 1/a= (c0V)/N0.

c0V Kc 0 ⎝ c B ⎠

where

The rate of carbon utilization

V=superficial velocity (ft3 liquid/ft2 adsorbent/h)

=(area of column) (1/a)(bed density of carbon)

D = depth of adsorber bed (ft)

K = rate constant (ft3 liquid/lb solute/h)

N0=adsorptive capacity (lb solute/ft3 adsorbent)

c0=influent solute concentration (lb solute/ft3 liquid)

cB=solute concentration at breakthrough.

depth of adsorbent that is sufficient to prevent the

effluent solute concentration to exceed cB at zero time,

which is calculated from the BDST equation when BDST figure 1

t=0:

V ⎛c ⎞

D0 = ln ⎜ 0 − 1⎟

KN 0 ⎝ c B ⎠

99 100

CENG 371 Environmental Control CENG 371 Environmental Control

total number of columns is

n = ( AZ / d ) + 1

where n = number of columns in series

(rounded up to a whole number)

AZ = height of an adsorption zone

= MTZ = mass transfer zone

d = height of a single column

system. A ground water flowing at a rate of 0.145

m3/min (55,000 gal/day) requires treatment to reduce

organic concentration from 89 mg/L to 8.9 mg/L

(90% removal). Laboratory studies are run in 2.3 m

(7.5 ft) long by 0.051 m (2 in) diameter columns at a

flow rate of 0.5 L/min (190.2 gal/day). The results are

shown in the previous two figures. Assume a unit

weight of carbon of 481 kg/M3 (30 lb/ft3).

BDST figure 2 Determine: The height of the adsorption zone,

number and size of columns required, and the carbon

usage rate.

The horizontal distance between the curve

representing exhaustion and breakthrough

represents the height of an adsorption zone.

101 102

CENG 371 Environmental Control

Solution.

1. Height of adsorption zone, AZ = 2.5 m (8.25 ft)

(from Fig. 2)

2. Number and size of units:

n = (AZ/d) + 1 = (2.5/2.3) + 1 = 2.09;

therefore, number of units = 3 columns.

Area of lab columns = 2.043 x 10-3 M2 (3.14 in2)

Loading rate in laboratory columns:

V = (5.0 x 10-4 M3 /min)/2.043 x 10-3 m2

= 0.245 m3/m2. min (6.14 gal/ft2.min).

Using the same loading rate for the full scale unit

yields:

0.145m3 / min

Area = Q / V = 3 2

= 0. 59 m 2

(6.32 ft 2

)

0.245m / m min

Diameter = 0.867 m (2.84 ft)

10% of feed concentration in Fig. 1)

Slope a = 5.8 days/0.91m = 6.34 days/m (1.93 days/ft)

Intercept b: -7 days

Equation of line: t = 6.34X - 7

Velocity of adsorption zone = 1/a = 0.158 m/day (0.52

ft/day)

Carbon utilization = Area x (1/a) x Unit weight

= 0.59 m2 x 0.158 m/day x 481 k g/M3

= 44.8 kg/day (131 lb/day)

103

- 10.1016@j.mineng.2005.05.014.pdfUploaded bycuberbill1980
- TABEL PAP.docxUploaded byAndriyani
- Activated Carbon Adsorption ReactivationUploaded byNatalia Capacho
- Š Synthetic activated carbons for the removal of hydrogen cyanide from airUploaded byJugoslavKrstic
- Adsorption Cr (VI) activated carbon from oil palm endocarp.pdfUploaded bytri meliasari
- EXP 32 - Batch AdsorptionUploaded byResky Ervaldi Saputra
- 2011 PaperUploaded byYeshwanth Reddy
- 22777207220e7c0b899eef45cbb8857c7912Uploaded byAmeer James
- Brochure Oil and Gas PurificationUploaded byjast1111
- CAL-In Activated CarbonUploaded byhgssdpatel
- 1-s2.0-S1385894714003301-mainUploaded byAysha Alobeidli
- BTPUploaded byvpsrpuch
- FiltersUploaded byRonak Kadikar
- adsorption-column-design.pdfUploaded byazizkhouribga
- Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 7741 –7745Uploaded byThinh Dang
- 9812383492Adsorption.pdfUploaded byJuan José Merino
- Adsorption of Co2, Ch4, n2 and h2o on an Interwoven Copper Carboxylate (MOF 14)Uploaded byTuanArifHussaini
- Fixed-bed-column Studies for Methylene Blue Removal and Recovery by Untreated Coffee ResiduesUploaded byAnonymous kqqWjuCG9
- techbrieftb-007Uploaded byMinh Nguyen Van
- Wang--092011--01162014feature.pdfUploaded byxic099
- Conclusion Chapter 5Uploaded byRanjan Kumar Jena
- Chemical Process Equipment Design-IIUploaded byashish gawarle
- ACES_2015011515413144.pdfUploaded byDiego Esteban Huerta Cruz
- AReactorPlantforActivatedCarbonProduction-348Uploaded byFrank Mtetwa
- 1-s2.0-S1387181105001290-mainUploaded byFitra Isni Rosita
- LNG ColumnsUploaded byYogesh Yadav
- Jurnal Acara 2 Organik Inter IUploaded byputri
- Textiles ChiavolaUploaded byMeilisa
- AN ANALYSIS OF A NONISOTHERMAL ONE-COMPONENT SORPTION IN A SINGLE ADSORBENT PARTICLE.pdfUploaded byali105

- Waicee BrochureUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- The Environmental, Health and Economic Impacts of Textile Azo DyesUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- Smooth Roll CrusherUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- Research Methodology & DOEUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- Status of the Reactive Extraction as a Method of SeparationUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- packed n fluidized bedUploaded byhariprakav
- Smooth-Roll-Crusher.pdfUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- LiquidUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- Application of natural dye on synthetic fabrics: A reviewUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- Address Wasewar SirUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- Qip Iitd Teqip March 2015Uploaded byDipaloy Datta
- Laboratory Equipments.docxUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- 00_73_RUG_August10Uploaded byDipaloy Datta
- Compressors and Compressed Air SystemsUploaded byAhmed Fouad
- Cement Technology HandoutUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- Investigations of Biocompatible Systems for Reactive Extraction of Propionic Acid Using Aminic Extractants (TOA and Aliquat 336) - SpringerUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- Announcements IIChEUploaded byDipaloy Datta
- pKa-tableUploaded byRangga Asri

- dysgraphiaUploaded byEsperanza M. Garcia
- Soaring Crane Qigong Remedy 2 - Discharging Turbid Substances From LiverUploaded byapi-3821211
- Application of Remotely Sensed Data and GIS in Assessing the ImpactUploaded byMaria Diamantopoulou
- ELISAUploaded bykhinseh
- The MoleUploaded byPujara Manish
- Chinese Japanese Cook Book BOSSEUploaded byaureamariay
- Lists for Medical StudentsUploaded bybrickett
- #4 the Fishers of Men Propagating Rules Inside of Paa Munzal's Wu Nuwaupu CommunityUploaded byNathaniel Adams
- RAINWATER HARVESTING.xlsUploaded byHafiz Budean Rahman
- FAQS- 2014Uploaded byvjeet_2001
- TI- Uso de Inhaldores AsmaUploaded byJuan José Montenegro Idrogo
- rep_dceUploaded byRobin Keshaw
- IGIP&IOIP Calculation ResultsUploaded byDonny Ridwan Prihadi
- Shaft and Raise Boring MachinesUploaded byhidayah
- IMPROVING CLINICAL OUTCOMES THROUGH SETTING UP OF A SPECIALISED DENGUE TREATMENT UNIT.Uploaded byIJAR Journal
- DementiaUploaded bynadya
- LM-U1350A,D,XUploaded byAnonymous CpJtWd
- Compelling IndicationUploaded byYogiHaditya
- GENERAL GUIDELINES ON CLAIMSUploaded byShawn Greyson
- GTC Waste to EnergyUploaded byaleedibui
- Colorado Child Support Enforcement Procedures Act _ Colorado Mediators & ArbitratorsUploaded byjames
- Befor Dep EngineUploaded bymarinermonu
- FAQ on Nullity and Foreign DivorceUploaded byGenevieve Penetrante
- current_transformer.pptxUploaded bypkilias
- Aim Engineers ProfileUploaded byRahul Kumar
- RA 7160 local government code of the Philippines.pdfUploaded byJason Fox
- solubility lesson plan- portfolioUploaded byapi-301353420
- chem 2202 june 2012 common exam constructed response answerUploaded byapi-250004366
- Creative Director / Public RelationsUploaded byapi-121661137
- Revised Phone Limits for Abnormal Laboratory ResultsUploaded bynaeem2009