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You are on page 1of 76

STATION

A DISSERTATION

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the

requirement for the award of the degree

of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY

in

ALTERNATE HYDRO ENERGY SYSTEMS

by

DHUKPUOU ABEL MAKOI

INDIAN INSTITUE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE

ROORKEE-247667, UTTARAKHAND INDIA

MAY - 2016

CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the work which presented in this dissertation report entitled “SIMULATION AND

MODELING OF STAND ALONE INDUCTION GENERATOR IN SMALL HYDRO POWER

STATION” Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of

Technology in “Alternate Hydro Energy System’’ from the Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian

Institution of Technology Roorkee is an authentic record of my own work carried out during the period from

June 2015 to May 2016 under the guidance and supervision of Dr. S. N. Singh, Senior Scientific Officer,

Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.

I certify that I have not submitted this matter embodied this report for the award of any other

degree or diploma.

CERTIFICATTE

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my

knowledge.

(S. N. SINGH)

Senior Scientific Officer

Alternate Hydro Energy Centre

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Roorkee- 247667

i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Scientific Officer, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institution of Technology Roorkee,

for his visionary guidance, endless support and encouragement. I would like also to thank Dr. M.

P. Sharma, professor and Head of Alternate hydro energy center for his support and assistance.

And I am grateful for the faculty members and stuff of this unique center for their

willingness to help and assist at any time.

And I want to thank my fellow colleagues and friends who assist and encourage me to

complete this Dissertation report.

I would like also to thanks my parent for their moral support and encouragement.

Place: Roorkee

ii

ABSTRACT

The recent trend in renewable energy source small hydropower has gain a success in rural

electrification where the extension of grid require a huge investment in infrastructure because it is

cost effective and decentralize system, it deliver electricity to millions of people and elevate poverty

improve life standard and create jobs.

The induction motor is the widely used electric machines, and it is known to be reversible and can

operates as induction generator, for autonomous operation

The self-excited induction generator (SEIG) are found be most suitable machines for energizing

isolated locations using locally available renewable energy due to the advantages well known,

Dynamic analysis of self-excited induction generator (SEIG) driven by a constant torque from

hydro turbine is carried out by using MATLAB/SIMULINK to predict the performance of SEIG

under different conditions, this dissertation aim to study the research papers done by various

researchers in analyzing the performance of self-excited induction generator (SEIG) and its

behavior under various conditions, also show the process of self-excitation and voltage build up in

the induction machine, the study is based on d-q axis synchronous reference frame equivalent circuit

which is driven from state space model, the arbitrary reference frame is considered to be rotating

with stator angular frequency.

The model developed using “SimPowerSystems” library from SIMULINK to perform the

simulation and the dynamic analysis of self-excited induction generator (SEIG).

iii

TABLE OF CONTENT

CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii

ABSTRACT iii

TABLE OF CONTENT iv

LIST OF TABLES ix

LIST OF SYMBOLS x

ABBREVIATIONS xii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 GENERAL 1

1.2.1 Definition of Small Hydropower 3

1.2.2 Classification of Small Hydropower 3

1.2.3 Benefits of Small Hydropower 4

1.2.4 Potential Estimation 5

1.3.1 Run off River Scheme (ROR) 6

1.3.2 Canal Falls Scheme 7

1.3.3 Pump Storage Scheme 7

1.3.4 Dam or Storage Schemes 8

1.4.1 Impulse Turbine 10

1.4.2 Reaction Turbine 10

1.4.3 TYPES OF HYDRAULICS TURBINES IN SHP 10

iv

1.4.4 Conventional Turbines 10

1.4.3.1 Pelton Turbine 10

1.4.3.2 Francis Turbines 11

1.4.3.3 Axial Flow Turbine 12

1.4.5.1 Pump as Turbine (PAT) 13

1.4.5.2 Cross Flow Turbine 14

1.5.2 Operation Mode of Induction Machine 17

1.5.3 Classification of Induction Generator 17

1.6.1 Grid Connected Induction Generator (GCIG) 17

1.6.2 Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) 18

2.1 OVERVIEW 21

v

CHAPTER 3: MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF SEIG 33

3.1 INTRODUCTION 33

3.2.1 a-b-c to d-q Reference frame Transformation 35

3.2.2 d-q to a-b-c Reference frame Transformation 36

4.1 INTRODUCTION 47

5.1 CONCLUSION 58

REFERENCES 59

vi

LIST OF FICURES

2. Typical Canal falls Scheme 7

3. Typical Pump Storage Scheme 7

4. Typical Dam based Scheme 8

5. Scheme of Pelton Turbine 11

6. Scheme of a Francis turbine 12

7. Scheme of Kaplan, Semi Kaplan and Propeller Turbine 13

8. Scheme of a Crossflow turbine 14

9. connection diagram of self-excited induction generator 18

10. d-q to a-b-c Reference Frame 35

11. Three Phase Induction Machine 37

12. Space Vector equivalent circuit of induction machine in arbitrary reference frame 38

13. Induction generator in d-q axis model in arbitrary reference frame 40

14. d-q axis equivalent circuit of self-excited induction generator 42

15. Induction Machine Parameters Calculation 48

16. turbine model using power and torque equation 49

17. Capacitor connected in delta 49

18. Capacitor connected in star 50

19. Model of Self Excited Induction Generator in Simulink 50

20. SEIG voltage Build up at No Load 51

21. Electromagnetic Torque of SEIG at no Load 51

22. SEIG Terminal current at No Load 52

23. Fig. 23: Active power of SEG at No Load 52

24. SEIG Voltage Build up at full load 53

25. Electromagnetic torque at full load 53

26. SEIG current at full load 54

27. SEIG active power at full load 54

28. SEIG voltage when connected to 6.5 kW Load 55

vii

29. SEIG voltage when connected to 6.6 kW Load 55

30. SEIG voltage build up for delta connected capacitor at full load 56

31. SEIG voltage build up for delta connected capacitor at full load 56

32. SEIG Electromagnetic torque for delta connected capacitor at full load 57

33. SEIG active power for delta connected capacitor at full load 57

viii

LIST OF TABLES

2. Classification of Small Hydropower based on capacity 4

3. Specification of induction machine 47

4. parameters of squirrel cage induction motor 48

ix

LIST OF SYMBOLS

Q Discharge (m3)

H Head (m)

P Power (kW)

η Efficiency

J Moment of Inertia of the rotor (Kgm2)

P Numbers of poles pairs

θ0 Initial angle

x

Lr Rotor self-inductance (H)

𝑋𝑚 Magnetization inductance

C Excitation capacitor

xi

ABBREVIATIONS

AC Alternating Current

CDM Clean Development Mechanism

CSCF Constant Speed Constant Frequency

d-axis Direct axis

DC Direct Current

ELC Electronic Load Controller

GCIG Grid Connected Induction Generator

GHG Green House Gas

IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

IVFC Integrated Voltage and Frequency Controller

KW Kilowatt

MERS Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch

MW Megawatt

PAT Pump as Turbine

q-axis Quadrature axis

ROR Run off River

SEIG Self-Excited Induction Generator

SHP Small Hydro Power

SVC Static VAR Compensator

VSCF Variable Speed Constant Frequency

xii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

The increasing concern toward environmental problems (global warming which is caused

by emission of greenhouse gases), the depletion of fossil fuel, the oil prices uncertainty,

growing energy demand and the need for low generation cost has led to look for an alternatives

and sustainable source of energy by harnessing abundance renewable energy which is

available in the nature such as wind, solar, biogas, micro, mini, and small hydro, at this time

the generation of electricity has been mainly dominated by conventional sources such as

Thermal, Nuclear etc.to meet the growing demand for energy and also to electrify the remote

areas where the extension of grid is not economical and unfeasible [1],[2].

Most of population which they do not have electricity are living in remote rural areas or

off grid, to provide electricity for remote areas is a challenging task which require a huge

investment and infrastructure, it is therefore convenience to provide them with decentralized

energy system like distributed generation or hybrid system etc. utilizing the available

renewable energy.

Wind and hydro systems requires electro-mechanical energy conversion system to convert the

kinetic energy available in water as for hydro system or kinetic energy available in wind as

for wind system to rotational mechanical energy through prime mover to drive the generator

which is couple with the prime mover directly or indirectly through coupling arrangement to

produce electricity [3].

Previously synchronous generator dominate the generation of electricity but induction

generator emerge and become more applicable in the field of renewable energy because of

their relative advantages over the synchronous generator, the induction generator is rugged

can with stand rough condition, brushless low cost, and low maintenance and operation cost,

self-protected against short-circuit, and it is capable of generating power at various range of

speed, it require external source for excitation to generate a rotating magnetic field, the

required reactive power for excitation can be supplied from the grid in this mode known as

grid connected induction generator, or it can be supplied by a capacitor connected to the stator

terminal in this mode it is known as self-excited induction generator [2].

1

1.2 SMALL HYDROPOWER (SHP)

Rivers and water streams are very important for human life, they secure the continuity of

life, also they provide us with drinking water, and water for irrigation, also they preserve

aquatic life, fisheries, production of energy, cheap transportation, recreation and natural

beauty and tourism.

Hydropower is the main source of renewable energy in the world which contribute about

19% of the world electricity generation, and 88% of the world renewable electric power, it is

reliable source, cost effective and has longer lifespan up to 50 years.

Hydropower generation is carried out by large scale and small scale, but there are many

social and environmental problems related to large scale hydropower like submergence of

land which affect the community near the project and causes losses of their properties,

heritage, archeological and spiritual sites, which will eventually causes displacement and

resettlement of people, most of the large hydropower projects are dam base which creates

reservoir and prevent fish migration also it change water temperature and affect water quality.

Small hydropower overcome the major environmental and social problems related to large

hydropower, it can be installed with negligible effect on the environment, also it categories

under clean development mechanism (CDM) because they do not consume fuel so it reduces

emission of greenhouse gasses, it reduces electricity cost and has the best payback and higher

energy conversion efficiency in comparison with other renewable sources, because of all the

features Governments and international bodies provide incentive to motivate and attract the

investment for the development of small hydropower [4].

Most of untapped small hydro potentials are in the remote areas where accessibility is the

big challenge to the developer, such locations has numerous technical and administrative

challenges, Small hydro development contributed in rural electrification because it is cost

effective cost-effective for off grid modes, with this considerable achievement small hydro

has many technical and administrative barriers and challenges such as long process to get

approvals and clearances [5].

2

1.2.1 Definition of Small Hydropower

There is no common definition for small hydropower capacity worldwide, it differs from

country to country, SHP lies between 1.5 MW - 50 MW the following table shows the rating

capacity of small hydropower for different countries. Table 1 shows the capacity of small

hydro power around the world [6].

Country Capacity (MW)

Brazil ≤ 30

Canada ≤ 50

China ≤ 50

European Union ≤ 20

India ≤ 25

Norway ≤ 10

Sweden ≤ 1.5

USA 5 - 100

India has a long history of Hydro power and the first plant was small hydro with a capacity

of 130 kW commission in 1897, Small hydro power in India is classified according to Ministry

of New and Renewable Energy which is responsible for developing projects up to 25 MW as

given table 2.

Hydro power can be classified on different basis, some of the basis are as follows:

(ii) Based on Head.

(iii) Based on Capacity.

(iv) Based on Turbine Characteristics.

(v) Based on Load Characteristics.

(vi) Based on Interconnection.

3

Table 2: Classification of Small Hydropower based on capacity [6]

Pico Up to 5 kW

Micro Up to 100 kW

Small hydro plants overcome the disadvantages of large hydro and has following

advantages as listed below:

(i) Small Hydropower is renewable: hydropower does not consumed any fuel or water for

the generation of electricity.

(ii) Clean source of energy: small hydropower has low carbon foot print and low GHG

emission, so reducing the amount of carbon in the atmosphere, also less or negligible

submergence of land, and less effect on the environment in comparison with

conventional source of energy.

(iii) Small Hydropower contribute to rural development: small hydropower provide

electricity to rural population, create jobs and the development of small scale industries

also alleviate poverty, also it helps in the development of infrastructures such as roads

and telecommunications, all these factors contribute in the improving of life standards.

(iv) Small Hydropower is sustainable and reliable source: small hydropower provide cheap

electricity and it is not prone to volatility of fossil fuel process, and the cost of unit

generated is free from inflation, it can meet the rapid fluctuation of demand such as

rural demand.

4

1.2.4 Potential Estimation

Hydropower works on the principle of energy conversion, it convert kinetic energy

available in water flow from higher elevation to lower elevation, to mechanical energy through

hydro turbine, then utilizing the mechanical energy to drive the generator in power house and

generate electricity, the different between higher level and lower level is known as head which

can be naturally as in rivers and water falls or it can be artificially by building dams and canals.

The potential of hydropower depend upon the availability of head (H) and the flowing

discharge (Q), following terminology related to estimation of hydropower potential

Gross Head (H) Difference in elevation of the head water level and tail water level when

no water is flowing.

Net Head - Effective head available for power generation which is gross head minus all the

losses that occur in the penstock.

Discharge (Flow Rate Q) is the volume of water in the conductor system or in the river

measured in cumecs (m3/sec).

The hydro potential at turbine shaft can be calculated from the following equation:

p=𝜂𝜌𝑔𝑄𝐻 (1. 1)

η = turbine hydraulic efficiency.

ρ = the density of water (kg/m3).

g = the acceleration due to gravity (m/s2).

Q = quantity of water flowing through the hydraulic turbine (m3)

H = Net available head in meters (m)

While input torque can be computed by the following equation

T = P/ω (1. 2)

5

1.3 TYPES OF HYDROPOWER SCHEMES

The most common small hydro schemes are listed below

(ii) Canal falls scheme.

(iii) Dam based scheme.

(iv) Pumped storage scheme.

(v) In stream scheme.

Run off river scheme shown in fig.1 is the most popular scheme for small hydropower

projects, it can be with storage or without storage, the plant with storage provided with barrage

to balance daily electricity demand also the storage is small and it is only required to

developed head, in this type of scheme a portion of water is diverted from the main stream or

river with open or closed channel on either side of the bank, from the intake through a water

conveyor system to the turbine couple with generator, run off river scheme has minimum

effect on the environment.

6

1.3.2 Canal Falls Scheme

Canal based hydropower scheme shown in fig. 2 is developed on existing irrigation canal,

where the land is plain and falls exist, they are easy to access also near to load centres, the

head is low so it depend on the high discharge, development of such plans should not affect

the amount of water required for irrigation and drinking.

7

Pump storage hydropower scheme shown in fig. 3 has two reservoirs upper and lower

reservoir, during the peak period the water in the upper reservoir to generate power, and

during off-peak period the generated electricity is used to pumps the water from a lower

reservoir back into the upper reservoir

(ii) Mixed pumped-storage plants.

Dam based scheme shown in fig. 4, a reservoir is created by building a dam across the river

to store the water, this scheme can be single purpose like generation of power only or

multipurpose utilizing the river water for irrigation, flood control, navigation, drinking etc.,

water is conveyed to the turbine by penstock extended directly from the reservoir to the power

house, in this scheme discharge is consider to be constant and the head vary with the amount

of water stored in the reservoir.

8

1.4 HYDRAULIC TURBINES

Hydraulic turbine consider to be the heart of hydropower plant, and it can be define as

hydraulic machines which is used to convert the potential energy available in water flowing

due to head difference to mechanical energy then utilize this mechanical energy to drive

generator power station coupled directly to the shaft or coupled via gearbox.

(i) Impulse Turbines (Pelton, Turgo Impulse)

(ii) Reaction Turbines (Francis, Axial flow turbines)

2. According to head and discharge

(i) High head low discharge (Pelton, Turgo Impulse)

(ii) Medium head medium discharge (Francis Turbine)

(iii) Low Head high discharge (Axial flow turbines)

3. According to direction of flow over the runner

(i) Tangential flow turbine (Pelton Turbine)

(ii) Radial flow turbine (Old Francis, Turgo Impulse)

(iii) Axial Flow turbine (Kaplan, Semi - Kaplan, Propeller)

(iv) Mixed flow turbine (Modern Francis)

4. According to the direction of the shaft

(i) Horizontal shaft

(ii) Vertical shaft

(iii) Inclined shaft

5. According to the specific speed

(i) Up to 35 (Pelton Turbine)

(ii) 30 – 80 (Turgo Impulse Turbine)

(iii) 80 – 400 (Francis Turbine)

(iv) 340 – 1000 (Axial flow turbines)

9

1.4.1 Impulse Turbine

Impulse turbine operates under atmospheric pressure hence it is open turbine, the energy

in this type of turbine available initially inform of potential energy and it is has to be converted

to kinetic energy through one or more nozzles inform of water jet before water enter the runner

and strike the turbine buckets and causes the turbine runner to rotate using impulse force,

Pelton and Turgo-Impulse falls under this category.

Under this category Francis, Kaplan semi Kapan and propeller, Reaction turbines are fully

immersed in water and it is differ from impulse type that the energy in the water is not

completely converted in kinetic energy but part of it is converted to kinetic energy and the

other part is converted into pressure energy.

Hydro Turbines in Small Hydropower are classified into categories:

(i) Conventional Turbines such as Pelton, Francis Axial Flow Turbines etc.

(ii) Non- Conventional Turbines such as Pump as Turbine and cross flow turbine.

1.4.3.1 Pelton Turbine

The scheme of Pelton turbine shown in fig. 5, Pelton turbine developed by Lester Pelton in

the USA in the year 1889, it is impulse turbine purely tangential flow where the potential

energy is converted to kinetic energy through nozzle so water jet strike number of bucket

mounted on periphery of a circular disk hence the runner rotate the shaft, it operates under

atmospheric pressure, the bucket is hemispheric shape divided into two halves to neutralize

the axial thrust having notch cut at the tip, the main parts of Pelton turbine are:

(ii) Nozzle.

(iii) Casing and

(iv) Shaft and Bearing.

10

Fig. 5: Scheme of Pelton Turbine [8]

The scheme of Francis Turbine shown in fig. 6, Francis turbine developed by James Francis

in 1849, it is reaction turbine where the water enter the runner in radially direction and exit

from the outlet axially, the runner is a circular with fixed vanes and a guide vane surround

the runner to control the speed, part of energy is converted to kinetic energy and the other

part is converted to pressure energy, draft tube is attached to the outlet of the Francis

turbine to crate the velocity head, the main parts of Francis Turbine are:

(ii) Spiral casing.

(iii) Guide vanes.

(iv) Draft tube.

(v) Shaft and Bearings.

11

Fig. 6: Scheme of a Francis turbine [8]

Scheme of Axial flow turbine is shown in fig. 7, in Axial Flow Turbine the water enter the

inlet of the runner in axial direction and leaving from the outlet also in axial direction parallel

to the axis of turbine shat, further the axial flow turbine are classified as:

(i) Tubular Turbine (L-Type, S-Type and Split Casing).

(ii) Bulb Turbine.

(iii) Stra-Flow Turbine.

2. Based on operating arrangement

(i) Kaplan

If the axial flow turbine having adjustable blade runner and movable wicket gates.

(ii) Semi Kaplan

If the axial flow turbine having adjustable blade and fixed wicket guide vane.

(iii) Propeller

If the axial flow turbine having movable guide vane and fixed blade.

12

Fig. 7: Scheme of Kaplan, Semi Kaplan and Propeller Turbine [8]

1.4.5.1 Pump as Turbine (PAT)

Standard water pump when operates in reverse direction known as pump as turbine (PAT),

it has numerous advantages over conventional turbine which make it cost effective in mini and

micro hydro and can be classified based on specific speed (𝑁𝑠𝑝 ) as follow:

(ii) Mixed flow pumps with outlet edge parallel to machine axis (𝑁𝑠𝑝 = 40 to 80)

(iii) Mixed flow with outlet edge inclined to machine axis provided with volute chamber

(𝑁𝑠𝑝 = 80 to 100)

(iv) High specific speed axial flow pumps delivering axially, provided with vanes (𝑁𝑠𝑝 100

to 1000)

13

1.4.5.2 Cross Flow Turbine

Cross flow turbine associated with three inventor Anthony Mitchell from Austria, Donat

Banki from Hungary and Fritz Ossberger from Germany. Fig. 8 shows the scheme of cross

flow turbine, it is an impulse turbine water jet coming from nozzle having rectangular shape

which cover the runner, it runner is shaped in drum shape runner where number of curve

vanes are attached between two disk.

Water jet enter the runner of the cross flow turbine and the energy is converted in two

stages, the water jet in the first stage strike the runner vanes at the entrance and 2/3 of the

energy is converted and in the second stage the water jet strike the runner at the exit and the

last 1/3 of the energy is converted.

14

1.5 INDUCTION MACHINE

The induction machine is an AC electromechanical energy conversion device, like other

rotating machines they can operate as motor or as generator.

The three phase induction motor consist of two main part the stationary part which is known

as stator and the rotating part which is known as rotator, each of these two consist of three

windings apart from each other by angle of angle of 120º to form a three phase winding.

(ii) Slip ring or wound rotor.

When three phase supply connected to stator winding of three phase induction motor,

current flow through the winding and it will cause a rotating magnetic field of constant

magnitude to set up. This rotating magnetic will rotate with synchronous speed which is given

in equation (1.3)

120 f

𝑁𝑠 = (1. 3)

p

Where, f = supply frequency (Hz)

By Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction an emf induced in the rotor conductors, since

the rotor conductors are short circuited with end ring in cage rotor or with external resistance

in wound rotor, the induced emf causes a current to flow in the rotor conductor, by right hand

thumb rule the direction of the induced current can be determined.

The current in the rotor conductor produces its own magnetic field, a force produced on the

rotor conductor the direction of this force can be found by left hand thumb rule. The force

acting on the rotor conductors is in the same direction of the rotating magnetic field, this force

act on tangential direction and develop a torque.

15

According to Lenz’s law “the direction of induced current in the rotor is so as oppose the

cause produce it, this mean the developed torque must oppose the cause, and it will lead to

reduce the relative speed between the rotating magnetic field and the rotor conductors”.

The difference between the rotating magnetic field and speed of the rotor is known as slip.

Ns − Nr

S= (1. 5)

Ns

Ns − Nr

%S = ∗ 100 (1. 6)

Ns

Also we know

fr = sfs (1. 7)

fs = stator frequency

16

1.5.2 Operation Mode of Induction Machine

The induction machine will work as motor when rotor speed is below synchronous speed at

positive slip (0<S<1), and it will works as generator when speed is above synchronous speed

at negative slip (S<0). And the induction machine will work as a beak when the slip in more

than one (S>1).

On the basis of rotor construction, induction generators are two types (wound rotor induction

generator and squirrel cage induction generator). Based on the prime movers used (constant

speed or variable speed). And base the excitation modes (Self-excited and Grid Connected

induction generator), Induction generator can be broadly classified into:

(ii) Variable Speed constant-frequency (VSCF).

(iii) Variable Speed variable-frequency (VSVF).

Induction generator can be classified as follow:

(ii) Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG)

The induction generator which is connected to grid having constant frequency and voltage

(infinite bus bar), supply the gird with active power when prime mover rotates with speed

more than synchronous speed know as grid connected induction generator (GCIG).

The induction generator draw reactive power from the grid which is equal to supplying leading

reactive power to the grid, the grid regulate the frequency and the voltage of the induction

generator.

17

1.6.2 Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG)

Self-excited induction generator does not required grid to draw magnetizing reactive power,

the necessary reactive power for excitation is provided by a capacitor bank connected across

the stator terminals as shown in fig. 9.

The speed and excitation capacitance must also be sufficient to excite the machine to operate

under no load or loading conditions. This means that there are minimum speed and capacitance

requirements that must be fulfilled for self-excitation which depend upon the load connected

to the machine.

Capacitive reactive power required for excitation and maintain the terminal voltage shown

below

Following Among the advantages may be listed the characteristic mechanical strength and

ruggedness of the induction machine, decrease in station sustained short-circuit risk, the

ability to run at high speeds, and relatively low initial and upkeep costs are advantages of

SEIG

18

(i) Simple and rugged in construction.

(ii) Low cost and reliable.

(iii) Required minimum maintenance.

(iv) No DC supply for excitation is required.

(v) Protected against short circuit.

(ii) It cannot be operated independently without reactive power source.

The Dissertation report present Modeling and Simulation of Stand Alone Induction Generator

in Small Hydropower with the following objectives:

(ii) Literature Survey on self-excited induction generator and hydro turbines.

(iii) Dynamic Modelling of self-excited induction generator coupled with hydro turbine.

This dissertation consist of five chapters which summarize as follow:

Chapter 1 describe small hydropower and gives a brief introduction to different hydropower

scheme component and technology, the different types induction generator used in the

small hydropower and it working principle, also shows the classification of hydro

turbines

Chapter 2 presented the literature reviews on steady state analysis of self-excited induction

generator, different numerical application to obtain minimum and maximum

capacitance, and control of voltage and frequency using power electronic devices.

Chapter 3 Describe the mathematical modeling and simulation of self-excited induction generator

also the mathematical modeling of hydro turbine.

19

Chapter 4 Shows the dynamic simulation of self-excited induction generator, and interpretation

of the results

20

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 OVERVIEW

This chapter presents the research papers done so far by researchers in the field of self-

excited induction generator (SEIG) to be utilized for renewable energy application. The self-

excited induction generator has two main drawbacks; it requires a reactive power to build up

a residual magnetic in the rotor winding, and it has poor voltage and frequency regulation

when there is variation in rotor speed and load.

The phenomena of self-excitation has been known for long time, when an induction machine

is driven by a prime mover to speed higher than synchronous speed in negative slip the

induction machine can operate as induction generator, and when connecting a capacitor across

the stator terminals it can operate in isolated mode or as self-excited induction generator

(SEIG).

The process of self-excitation in induction machine is similar to that of D.C machine, the

voltage will not build up unless there is sufficient magnetic field in the rotor winding.

Following literature review shows the excitation phenomena and voltage buildup in induction

generator.

Potter et al. [10] shown experimentally that the induction generator can operate in isolated

mode by connecting a shunt capacitor across the stator terminals to supply the magnetizing

current which is required for building up the output voltage, also found that the final value of

the output voltage and frequency can be predicted for any value of reactance of the capacitor

and load, found that lagging loads caused the voltage to fall, while leading loads hold up the

voltage, also observed that the capacitor causes the output current to lag the output voltage.

21

Elder et al. [11] presented the mechanism how self-excitation occur in the machine as

changing its state from synchronous to asynchronous mode, and observed some important

parameters that affect the excitation to be shaft speed, the residual magnetism, permeability

at low magnetism and the size of the capacitor connected across the stator terminals, also

presented how the voltage is build up at the stator terminal from insignificant value to full

rated value of the machine due to the existence of the residual magnetism in the rotor winding.

Wagner [12] shown the self-excitation in induction motor by an experiment under different

conditions of operation, under load, no load, balanced operation and unbalanced operation,

also found that the value of the terminal voltage will increase due to self-excitation which

depends on the rotor speed, value of the capacitor, and the load.

Brennen et al. [13] reviewed the use of induction motor as isolated generator or self-excited

induction generator (SEIG) by using static reactive power generator implemented with fixed

capacitor and thyristor controlled inductor, and observed that the voltage generated is depends

on the nonlinear magnetizing curve of the induction motor and it require minimum value of

capacitance to buildup, they have maintain the generated voltage with the variation in load

and speed by using adjustable reactive power connected across the stator terminals of the

induction motor.

Various models have been presented [11-12] to analyze the steady-state as well as dynamic/

transient performance of self-excited induction generator (SEIG) operating under different

conditions.

Krause et al. [14] presented computer representation of induction machine referencing the

stator and the rotor to d-q reference frame to analyze the dynamic behavior of induction

machine under balanced conditions and modified the computer representation to analyze the

unbalanced conditions by neglecting the effects of nonlinear magnetic current and the change

in resistance due to increase in temperature and the harmonic current.

22

Quazene et al. [15] presented steady state analysis to predict the induction machine

characteristics using admittance model, solved three phase induction machine base on

Steinmetz circuit model neglecting the core losses, applied Kirchhoff’s law to the node with

magnetizing admittance and separated the real from the imaginary to determine the frequency

(F) the magnetizing inductance (𝑋𝑚 ) for a given load, capacitor and shaft speed.

Novotny et al. [16] proposed analytical model to analyze the self-excited induction

generator based on reference frame model considering that the inductance is variable and it is

depending on the air gap flux, also observed there is maximum and minimum limit of the slip

and capacitance to maintain the self-excitation.

coupled with variable speed prime mover, based on synchronous reference frame theory ,

analyzed the dynamic voltages, currents and electromagnetic torque developed by SEIG using

Matlab/ Simulink environment.

Murthy et al. [18] developed analytical techniques to analyze the steady state performance

of self-excited induction generator using Newton Raphson method , neglected core loss,

ignored harmonic and assumed stator and rotor reactance’s to be equal, applied loop

impedance method to solve the real and imaginary part by Jacobian matrix and to find out the

values of per unit frequency (F) and magnetizing reactance (𝑋𝑚 ), used computer program to

study the effect of various parameter on the steady state performance of SEIG.

Naryanan et al. [19] presented a computer model to analyze the steady state performance

of self-excited induction generator for a given speed capacitance and load conditions, shown

procedure to check the operating point of unregulated prime mover coupled with self-excited

induction generator for a given load is satisfactory, and predicted the maximum and minimum

values of terminal voltage, frequency, input mechanical power and output power.

Bouzid et al. [20] developed a dynamic model using d-q stationary reference based on

state-space approach, analyzed the self-excited induction generator by using MATLAB/

SIMULINK, determined the value of capacitance which required for self-excitation, and

shown the effect of variation of excitation capacitance, load and speed under balanced and

unbalanced operation.

23

2.4 STEADY STATE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

Steady state performance analysis of induction generator is of interest both from the design

and operational point of view, by knowing some of the machine parameters we can predict

the performance of the machine, to ensure power quality and stability of the setup for a

particular application.

Following literatures shows the steady state analysis of self-excited induction generator

Chan [21] presented two techniques to analyze the steady state performance of self-excited

induction generator, first technique based on loop impedance method for RL load to eliminate

(𝑋𝑚 ) from the non-linear equation and yield 7th order polynomial in (F), second technique

based on nodal admittance method, used symbolic programing to find the solution of the

higher of higher order polynomial equation, demonstrated a voltage regulation of SEIG by a

shunt and series capacitance.

Alghuwainem [22] presented steady state analysis of SEIG driven by regulated and

unregulated prime mover using node admittance method and Newton Raphson method to

solve the nonlinear equation, considered the no load speed as independent parameter, Solved

the equivalent circuit directly for the air-gap voltage instead of the magnetizing reactance,

found that speed has significant impact on Self-excited induction generator performance.

Chan [23] developed a fast convergence and accurate iterative technique to analyze the

steady state performance of self-excited induction generator based on nodal admittance

method by considering the conductance connected across the air gap, included the core loss

effects, analyzed SEIG with series capacitance compensation.

Wang et al. [24] proposed numerical method approach based on eigenvalue and eigenvalue

sensitivity analysis to predict the minimum and the maximum value of capacitance for steady

state equivalent circuit of SEIG, linearized the nonlinear equation by applying Taylor’s

expansion, also investigated the transient response of the output voltage, and performed its

corresponding spectrum analysis by Forward Fourier Transform to determine the output

frequency.

24

Hashemnia et al. [25] proposed method to evaluate steady state performance of SEIG based

on nodal admittance method by minimization of conductance, used "min" command in Matlab

environment to calculate the minimum element of the conductance matrix, obtained the per

unit frequency (F) from the minimum value of net conductance and the magnetizing reactance

(𝑋𝑚 ) by equating net susceptance to zero.

Malik et al. [26] proposed method to predict the steady state performance of SEIG

connected to R-L load, based on loop impedance method by considering the effect of

resistance core loss, predicted a capacitance required under variable speed of the prime mover

and different load conditions to maintain the quality of terminal voltage, shown that the

capacitor required for excitation increase with the decrease in speed, load impedance and

power factor.

Shridhar et al. [27] obtained experimentally the effect of various parameters on the

performance of self-excited induction generator, also developed theory and concept of voltage

regulation, observed the effect of the machine parameter on the frequency is not as much as it

is on the terminal voltage and reactive power required.

Rajakaruna et al. [28] presented analytical method to determine the steady state

performance of self-excited induction generator with regulated or unregulated prime mover

based on nodal admittance method, modified the equivalent circuit to consist only parallel R,

L and C with the magnetizing voltage.

Haque [29] presented method to evaluate steady state performance of self-excited induction

generator based on loop impedance method driven by small hydro turbine prime mover,

included the iron core losses, considered speed torque characteristics of the prime mover, used

“fsolve” from Matlab optimization toolbox to find out the values of frequency (F),

magnetizing reactance (𝑋𝑚 ) and speed (v).

El-Kafrawi et al. [30] presented steady state analysis of Self excited induction generator

under variable speed or constant speed operation, used interpolation form the Matlab

command “Interp1” in algorithm to determine the speed and operating torque, determined

frequency (F) and magnetizing reactance for constant speed operation, and located the

operating point for variable speed from the torque speed characteristics of SEIG.

25

Chan et al. [31] developed a method to analyze the steady state performance of self-excited

induction generator under unbalanced conditions, investigated phase balancing for SEIG

when supplying single phase load, applied symmetrical component method to account for the

unbalanced circuit conditions, and reduced the SEIG equivalent circuit to a passive circuit,

assumed all the machine parameter constants expect magnetizing induction to be function of

positive sequence air gap voltage, employed the minimization technique to find out the

unknown frequency (F) and magnetizing reactance (𝑋𝑚 ).

Hauqe et al. [32] presented method to evaluate the steady state performance of self-excited

induction generator based on loop impedance method operating in shunt, short-shunt and

long-shunt configurations, represented the equivalent circuit by circuit consisting of four

series impedance, solved the unknowns from nonlinear equation by using “fsolve” from

MATLAB optimization toolbox, found the performance of short shunt to be the best among

the three configurations .

Selmi et al. [33] proposed method to evaluate steady state characteristics of self-excited

induction generator, avoided the complexity of separating the real and imaginary part,

included core loss and other component easily, used “fzero” from MATLAB optimization

toolbox to solve the nonlinear equation, simplified the equivalent circuit to three impedances

then used nodal admittance method to evaluate the performance of SEIG.

Murthy et al. [34] used symmetrical component theory to obtain the steady state

performance of three phase self-excited induction generator connected to unbalanced three

phase capacitive and resistive load, also assumed per unit frequency (F) equal to per unit speed

(v) be carried out the analysis in MATLAB environment, observed the terminal voltage of

SEIG decreases with the increase in load under fixed value of excitation capacitance.

26

2.5 TRANSIENT / DYNAMIC ANALYSES

The operation of SEIG under unbalanced operating conditions causes additional loss,

excessive heating, large insulation winding stress, and shaft vibrations.

Various dynamic models have been reported to study the dynamic and transient behaviour of

induction machine using either currents or fluxes as state variables, but two-axis d–q model

has proved to be reliable and accurate, the analysis during transient conditions is important in

the applicability of induction generator for electric power generation utilizing non-

conventional energy resources

Smith et al. [35] developed differential equation based on d-q reference frame to evaluate

the influence of capacitor on transient behaviour of induction generator, considered the

saturation effect, shown that the saturation of the main flux path does not affect the transient

behaviour of the machine without terminal capacitor, observed the measured current under

high flux contain harmonics not present in the simulation.

Shridhar et al. [36] investigated the behaviour of short shunt self-excited induction

generator (SEIG) under different dynamic conditions, considered the cross saturation effect

to predict the performance of self-excited induction generator, observed that simple shunt

suffer from loss of excitation, re-excitation and short circuit, shown SEIG can sustain short

circuit and its voltage and current settle at higher values.

Salama et al. [37] presented dynamic and steady state performance of self-excited induction

generator (SEIG) based on d-q reference frame and nodal admittance method respectively by

varying different parameters, observed variation in load resistance result in change in the

values of minimum and maximum capacitance for same output frequency.

Wang et al. [38] presented transient performance of isolated SEIG, derived the dynamic

equations of self-excited induction generator under unbalanced excitation capacitor,

investigated the voltage build up process, sudden disconnection of capacitor, and observed

when one capacitor is switched off the other two phases maintained self-excitation and good

voltage in other phases, when two capacitor switched off the machine lose self-excitation and

voltage drop to zero.

27

Mahato et al. [39] presented transient analysis of single phase SEIG using three phase

induction machine feeding induction motor based on stationary reference frame d-q axes,

observed that heavy transient occur during switching of the induction motor, studied

performance of SEIG with and without damping resistance, observed that the motor can start

up with minimum damping resistance, below that the voltage collapse, also the change in the

load the capacitance and damping resistances must be changed to sustain the output voltage.

Jain et al. [40] presented a dynamic model of delta connected three-phase self-excited

induction generator (SEIG), based d-q reference frame theory, considered the effect of the

main and cross flux saturation, used the developed model to study the different symmetrical

and unsymmetrical load and capacitor configuration, obtained from the result that SEIG

cannot sustain three phase short circuit and the voltage collapse to zero without transient.

Ojo [41] presented modelling and transient performance of single phase self-excited

induction generator connected with series or parallel connected load, expressed the equations

in term of flux linkages, included the effect of magnetizing flux linkage saturation, and

predicted the self-excitation process, also observed that for self-excitation to occur a minimum

flux linkage is required.

Wang et al. [42] presented the dynamic performance of self-excited induction generator

connection in short and long shunt based on reference d-q frame subjected to sudden

connection of induction motor dynamic load, employed eigenvalue to examine various

conditions, also observed that when connecting suddenly induction motor load to short shunt

connection SEIG can maintain the output voltage but the frequency drop, and when connected

to long shunt the voltage is distorted.

Singh et al. [43] presented transient behavior of self-excited induction generator driven by

micro hydro turbine and connected to electronic load controller (ELC), developed a

mathematical model for prime mover, SEIG, ELC and load, observed that Electronic Load

Controller can handle the transient cause by switching, found the total harmonic distortion of

SEIG voltage within the limit under certain amount of load.

28

Kishore et al. [44] developed state-space dynamic model of a three phase SEIG based on

d-q stationary reference frame to analyze its transient performance, proposed method extended

to handle variable prime mover speed, and various transient conditions and switching,

separated the machine parameters from the self-excitation capacitor and load parameters.

Aree et al. [45] carried out simulation of self-excited induction generator feeding to

induction motor load to investigate its transient performance when the load is suddenly

connected to SEIG, implemented the mathematical model in MATLAB/ SIMULINK

environment, considered constant and squared torque loads of the induction motor, observed

that the voltage sag when the load is suddenly connected and its required reactive power from

excitation capacitor and static capacitor to start the motor and overcome the over current.

Seyoum et al. [46] presented the dynamic performance of self-excited induction generator

using d-q stationary reference frame theory, and shown the effect of magnetizing current on

the self-excitation process, described the loading analysis of SEIG and how the frequency and

voltage are affected by the change in slip value for regulated and unregulated prime movers,

observed that voltage drop can be maintain by increasing the capacitance and the frequency

drop can be regulate by increasing prime mover speed, analyzed the dynamic voltage, current,

power, frequency and electromagnetic torque of SEIG.

Alsalloum et al. [47] developed a model of self-excited induction generator based on direct

phase quantities in a-b-c reference to study its transient performance under balanced or

unbalanced conditions, observed that the unbalance in voltage is caused by lost in the

excitation, the resistive load has an indirect effect on the excitation current, also the inductive

load reduces the terminal voltage if exceed certain limit.

induction generator feeding induction motor load based on d-q stationary reference frame,

observed that without series capacitor induction motor will not start due to the sudden collapse

of voltage and current of SEIG, observed that the sub synchronous resonance SSR can be

avoided by proper selection of series and shunt excitation capacitors.

29

2.6 REQUIRED CAPACITANCE FOR EXCITATION

Following literature review shows method proposed to find out the minimum as well as

maximum value of capacitance required for maintaining excitation

Harrington et al. [49] presented method to compute value of minimum capacitance required

for excitation based on based on the analysis of the complex impedance matrix of self-excited

induction generator connected to R-L load, obtained frequency by solving one algebraic

equation, extended the method to compute the value of capacitance required to maintain the

terminal voltage.

Malik et al. [50] proposed analytical method to calculate the minimum value of capacitance

required for excitation of self-excited induction generator (SEIG) under no load conditions,

obtained that the no load value of minimum capacitance is inversely proportional to the square

of speed and inversely proportional to the maximum value of magnetizing reactance, also

observed that the capacitance required for loaded SEIG is higher in comparison when it is no

loaded.

Chan [51] presented a method to determine the minimum value of capacitance needed by

SEIG to build up its terminal voltage based on nodal admittance method connected to R-L

load, considered conductance’s of the steady state equivalent circuit and yield 6th order

polynomial in the per unit frequency, computed the real root of the polynomial equation to

find out the value of minimum capacitance, developed an iterative procedure to predict

capacitance required to maintain the terminal voltage.

AL Jabri et al. [52] presented a method to determine minimum capacitance needed for self-

excitation of SEIG connected to R-L load, based on loop impedance method and ignored the

core losses, assumed a value of terminal capacitance and solved the real and imaginary part

for magnetizing reactance (𝑋𝑚 ) , obtained the value of minimum capacitance from the value

of maximum capacitance reactance.

Kumar et al. [53] developed a quadratic equation from steady state equivalent circuit to

calculate the minimum and maximum value of excitation capacitance, developed another

quadratic equation to calculate the maximum load impedance for a given rotor speed power

factor and capacitance without losing excitation.

30

Chandran et al. [54] applied the nodal admittance method to predict the value of capacitive

reactance needed for excitation of self-excited induction generator under different operating

conditions of load and shaft speed, observed reveals that the minimum capacitance required

for self-excitation impedance load is more inductive load, and when speed increases the

minimum capacitance required drops.

Eltamaly [55] presented new formula to calculate the value of minimum capacitor required

for excitation of self-excited induction generator connected to resistive inductive (R-L) load

which does not require numerical analysis iteration, based on nodal analysis, also assume the

initial value of capacitor, obtained the minimum capacitance without divergence.

One of the major drawbacks of the self-excited induction generator is its poor voltage and

frequency regulation, Frequency is controlled by employing a converter and inverter scheme,

and the voltage is controlled by adjusting the value of terminal capacitor as load or speed

varies.

(ii) Electronic load controllers (ELCs).

(iii) Variable VAR controllers.

(iv) Other solid-state controllers.

self-excited induction generator suited for standalone wind turbine, authenticated

performance of the system by conducting simulation and thorough analysis. Observed that

control of the terminal voltage is possible for change in speed and load by the combination of

fixed capacitor, switched capacitor and TCR, and the variable frequency, constant voltage

power can be controlled by using rectified for charging a bank of batteries.

Singh et al. [57] developed a dynamic model of the SEIG–STATCOM feeding nonlinear

loads using stationary d−q axes reference frame for predicting the behavior of the system

31

under transient conditions. used a three-phase insulated-gate-bipolar transistor-based (IGBT)

current-controlled voltage source inverter working as STATCOM for harmonic elimination,

also to provides the required reactive power for the SEIG with varying loads to maintain a

constant terminal voltage, observed that SEIG terminal voltage is maintained constant, even

with nonlinear balanced and unbalanced loads, concluded that STATCOM acts as voltage

regulator, load balancer, and harmonic eliminator.

Wijaya et al. [58] proposed a new voltage regulator applied to self-excited induction

generator using SVC magnetic energy recovery switch (MERS). observed that it regulate the

output voltage at variable load and speed conditions with high performance, found it is Simple

and fast control, Low switching losses, Low harmonic distortion, also rating reduction of SVC

MERS can be achieved with about 60% by combining fixed AC capacitors connected in

parallel to the induction generator terminal.

Youssef et al. [59] proposed a new and simple technique for voltage and frequency control

of self-excited induction generator with variable DC link voltage was. The voltage regulation

is done by controlling the modulation index rather than the DC voltage. They proved it to be

excellent for controlling voltage and frequency under sudden changes in load and speed. Also

it could compensate for reactive power demand of the inductive loads, and eliminates the need

for an auxiliary switch.

Chilipi et al. [60] demonstrated the performance of SEIG-IVFC system for isolated micro

hydropower generation for load leveling, voltage and frequency control. They found that

proposed integrated voltage and frequency controller (IVFC) is capable of feeding various

types of loads such as linear and non-linear loads. Also they demonstrated the capabilities of

the voltage and frequency controller such as harmonic elimination, load balancing, load

leveling and voltage and frequency control of the SEIG system.

32

CHAPTER 3

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF SEIG

3.1 INTRODUCTION

The mathematical model of the induction machine is derived the same way the synchronous

machine equations are derived, and it is used to simplify the analysis of the machine and allow

us to perform computer simulation to predict the behaviour of the machine under various

condition of operation, and to study the machine behaviour during change in one of its

variables, the induction machine can be analysed for:

(ii) Dynamic / Transient Analysis.

circuit, consisting of resistors and reactances which are useful to study the performance of the

induction machine in steady state, neglecting the transient during change in load and

frequency, at steady state the voltages and currents are considered to sinusoidal with constant

amplitude and frequency, for steady state analysis of isolated induction machine terminal

voltage and frequency have to be calculated for a known values of speed, capacitance and load

impedance, usually the isolated induction machine has four variables excitation capacitance

(𝑋𝑐) , Magnetizing capacitance (𝑋𝑚 ) , per unit speed (v) and per unit frequency ( F ), two

different methods of solution have been used namely,

(ii) Nodal admittance method.

The dynamic or transient analysis of induction machine is derived by using two phase

equivalent circuit in direct (d-axis) and quadrature (q-axis) which includes differential

equations to express the voltages of the stator and the rotor, flux linkages, currents, motion

equation, and electromagnetic torque, the dynamic model is developed by transforming three

phase a-b-c into two phase in d-q axes reference frame by appropriate reference

transformation theory.

33

Following are method to analyse the induction machine in dynamic or transient state

(ii) d-q axes model derived from the space vector model.

The reference frame theory can be used to simplify the analysis of induction machine and

also to simulate the machine using computer to study the dynamic and transient behaviour of

the machine under study, number of reference frames have been proposed:

(ii) Two phase stationary frame (α β frame).

(iii) Synchronous frame (d-q frame).

Following are the common reference frame used to analyse the induction machine:

(i) Stationary reference frame

Should be used to simulate the induction machine if for example the stator voltage are

unbalanced or discontinuous and the rotor applied voltage are balanced or zero, when d-q axes

does not rotates.

If the external circuit are unbalanced but the applied voltages are balanced, when d-q axes

rotates at rotor speed.

It is continent when incorporating with the dynamic characteristics of induction machine into

digital computer used to study the transient and dynamic stability of larger system also it can

be used for variable frequency application, when d-q axes rotates at synchronous speed.

The conventional three phase a-b-c reference frames of the machine are transformed into two

reference frames, d and q and all the analysis are carried out using rotor, stationary or

synchronous reference frame. The results are then transformed back to the actual a-b-c

34

reference frames. If the time varying terms in the d-q axis model are ignored, the equations

then represent only the steady-state conditions.

Considering three phase electrical variables 𝑋𝑎 , 𝑋𝑏 and 𝑋𝑐 which can be voltage, current or

flux linkage, the three phase variable represented by space vector x in three phase (a-b-c)

stationary frame, the space vector 𝑥⃗ rotates with arbitrary speed ω with respect to (abc), its

phase values can be obtained by projecting 𝑥⃗ corresponding to a-, b- and c- axes the are 2π/3

apart in space, figure 10 shows transformation of d-q to a-b-c Reference Frame.

The d-q has an arbitrary position with respect to a-b-c axes stationary frame given by an angle

θ between a-axis and d-axis, the d-q axis rotates in space with speed ω.

Xb xq

q-axis

ω d-axis

Xd

θ a-axis

Xa

Xc

The values of direct and quadratic axes can be found by summing the projections to find 𝑥𝑑

and 𝑥𝑞 which can be written as follow:

2π 4π

xd = xa cosθ + xb cos ( − θ) + xc cos ( − θ) ( 3. 1)

3 3

Which can be rewritten as:

35

2π 4π

xd = xa cosθ + xb cos (θ − ) + xc cos (θ − ) ( 3. 2)

3 3

2π 4π

Also xq = −xa sinθ − xb sin (θ − ) − xc sin (θ − ) ( 3. 3)

3 3

Similarly for q-axis, and the transformation matrix can be written as

2π 4π

cosθ cos(θ − ) cos(θ − ) xa

xd 2 3 3

[x ] = [ ] [x ]

q 3 2π 4π xb ( 3. 4)

−sinθ −sin(θ − ) −sin(θ − ) c

3 3

The coefficient 2/3 is arbitrary and the main advantage of using it is that the magnitude of two

phase variables will be equal that of three phase.

The equations of inverse transformation obtained through matrix operation, the dq in rotating

frame can be transformed back to three phase (a-b-c) in stationary frame the following

equations

𝑥𝑎 = 𝑥𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 − 𝑥𝑞 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 ( 3. 5)

2𝜋 2𝜋

𝑥𝑏 = 𝑥𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝜃 − ) − 𝑥𝑞 sin (𝜃 − ) ( 3. 6)

3 3

4𝜋 4𝜋

𝑥𝑐 = 𝑥𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝜃 − ) − 𝑥𝑞 sin (𝜃 − ) ( 3. 7)

3 3

And it can be written in matrix form as follows

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 −𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

𝑥𝑎 2𝜋 2𝜋

𝑥 cos (𝜃 − ) −𝑠𝑖𝑛 (𝜃 − ) 𝑥𝑑

[ 𝑏] = 3 3 [𝑥 ] ( 3. 8)

𝑞

𝑥𝑐 4𝜋 4𝜋

[ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝜃 − ) −𝑠𝑖𝑛 (𝜃 − )

3 3 ]

𝜔𝑠 = 2𝜋𝑓𝑠 ( 3. 9)

t

θ(t) = ∫ ωs (t)dt + θ0 ( 3. 10)

0

36

Where, fs = Stator frequency in Hertz

θ0 = Initial angle

Figure 11 shows Three Phase Induction Machine, there are two commonly used dynamic

model for induction machine the first model based on state space vector theory and the

second model d-q axis reference frame theory.

The space vector model compact mathematical expression and has a single equivalent circuit

but requires complex variables real and imaginary, where d-q frame model is having two

equivalent circuits one for each axis.

The state space model of induction machine required complex variables real and imaginary,

the following are assume to drive the model:

37

(i) The induction generator is symmetrical.

(ii) The magnetic core is linear for the stator and rotor winding, with negligible core loss.

Rs

+ -

+ is im ir +

Vs pλs Lm pλr Vr

- -

Fig. 12: Space Vector equivalent circuit of induction machine in arbitrary reference frame [61]

The state vector model shown in figure 12 composed of three sets of equations, voltage

equations, flux linkage equations and the motion equations.

The voltage equations for the stator and rotor of the induction machine in arbitrary reference

frame is as follows

Where,

38

The terms 𝑗𝜔𝜆𝑠 and 𝑗(𝜔 − 𝜔𝑠 )𝜆𝑠 are referred to as speed voltages which are induced by the

rotation of reference frame at arbitrary speed of ω.

The second set of equations is for the stator and Rotor flux linkages 𝜆𝑠 𝜆𝑟

Where,

All the rotor variable such as 𝑅𝑟 , 𝐿𝑙𝑟 , 𝑖𝑟 and 𝜆𝑟 are referred to stator side by transformation

ratio.

𝑁𝑟 𝑁𝑠 𝑁𝑠 𝑁𝑠 2

𝑖𝑟 = ( ) 𝑖𝑟 ; 𝑉𝑟 = ( ) 𝑣𝑟 ; 𝜆𝑟 = ( ) 𝜆𝑟 ; 𝑅𝑟 = ( ) 𝑟𝑟 ( 3. 15)

𝑁𝑠 𝑁𝑟 𝑁𝑟 𝑁𝑟

The third set of equations is the motion equation which describes the dynamic behaviour of

the rotor and the mechanical speed in term of mechanical and electromechanical torque.

𝑑𝜔

𝑗 = 𝑇𝑒 − 𝑇𝑚 ( 3. 16)

𝑑𝑡

3𝑃 3𝑃

𝑇𝑒 = 𝑅𝑒 (𝑗𝜆𝑠 𝑖𝑠∗ ) = − 𝑅 (𝑗𝜆 𝑖 ) ( 3. 17)

2 2 𝑒 𝑟𝑠

𝜔𝑚 = 𝜔𝑟 /𝑃 ( 3. 18)

Where,

P = numbers of poles pairs

Tm = mechanical torque from the generator shaft (N.m)

39

Te = Electromechanical Torque (N.m)

The d-q axis model of induction machine can be obtained from decomposing the space-vector

model of induction machine into two axis corresponding to d-axis and q-axis as follows

( 3. 19)

𝑉𝑟 = 𝑉𝑑𝑠 + 𝑗𝑉𝑑𝑟 ; 𝑖𝑟 = 𝑖𝑑𝑠 + 𝑖𝑑𝑟 ; 𝜆𝑟 = 𝜆𝑑𝑠 + 𝑗𝜆𝑑𝑟

The induction machine d-q model in stationary frame shown in figure 13, it is obtained by

setting ω to be zero, and the d-q model in rotor reference frame is obtained by setting ω = ωr ,

and the synchronously reference frame is obtained by setting 𝜔 = 𝜔𝑠 .

Rs Rr

- + + -

+ ids idr +

idm

- -

d-axis circuit

ωλqs (ω-ωr)λqr

Rs Lls Llr Rr

+ - - +

+ is iqm ir +

pλqs Lm pλqr

Vqs Vqr

- -

q-axis circuit

Fig. 13: Induction generator in d-q axis model in arbitrary reference frame [61]

40

The d-q voltages equations for induction machine in arbitrary reference frame can be written

as

( 3. 20)

𝑉𝑑𝑟 = 𝑅𝑟 𝑖𝑑𝑟 + 𝑝𝜆𝑑𝑟 + (𝜔 − 𝜔𝑟 )𝜆𝑞𝑟

( 3. 21)

𝜆𝑑𝑟 = (𝐿𝑙𝑟 + 𝐿𝑚 )𝑖𝑑𝑟 + 𝐿𝑚 𝑖𝑑𝑠 = 𝐿𝑟 𝑖𝑑𝑟 + 𝐿𝑚 𝑖𝑑𝑠

𝜆𝑠𝑑 𝐿𝑠 0 𝐿𝑚 0 𝑖𝑠𝑑

𝜆𝑠𝑞 0 𝐿𝑠 0 𝐿𝑚 𝑖𝑠𝑞

= [ ][ ] ( 3. 22)

𝜆𝑟𝑑 𝐿𝑚 0 𝐿𝑟 0 𝑖𝑟𝑑

[𝜆𝑟𝑞 ] 0 𝐿𝑚 0 𝐿𝑟 𝑖𝑟𝑞

The current equation can be written from flux linkage equation (3.22) as follow

𝑖𝑞𝑠 1 0 𝐿𝑟 0 −𝐿𝑚 𝜆 𝑑𝑟

[ ]= [ ] 𝜆 ( 3. 23)

𝑖𝑑𝑟 𝐷 −𝐿𝑚 0 𝐿𝑠 0 𝑞𝑠

𝑖𝑞𝑟 0 −𝐿𝑚 0 𝐿𝑠 [𝜆𝑞𝑟 ]

Where, 𝐷 = 𝐿𝑠 𝐿𝑟 – 𝐿2𝑚

The electromagnetic torque 𝑇𝑒 can be expressed in d-q axis flux linkage and current

3𝑃

(𝑖 𝜆 − 𝑖𝑑𝑠 𝜆𝑞𝑠 )

2 𝑞𝑠 𝑞𝑠

3𝑃𝐿𝑚

𝑇𝑒 = (𝑖𝑞𝑠 𝑖𝑑𝑟 − 𝑖𝑑𝑠 𝜆𝑞𝑟 ) ( 3. 24)

2

3𝑃𝐿𝑚

(𝑖 𝜆 − 𝑖𝑑𝑠 𝜆𝑞𝑟 )

[ 2 𝐿𝑟 𝑞𝑠 𝑑𝑟

41

3.3 MODELLING OF SELF EXCITED INDUCTION GENERATOR

ωλqs Lls (ωs-ωr)λqr

Rs Llr Rr idr

ids + - - +

ild

icd idm

Rl

C Vds λds Lm λdr Vdr

Ll

d-axis

ωλds (ωs-ωr)λdr

Rs Lls Llr Rr

iqs + - - + iqr

ilq

icq iqm

Rl

C Vqs λqs Lm λqr Vqr

Ll

q-axis

Fig. 14: d-q axis equivalent circuit of self-excited induction generator [44]

Figure 14 shows the d-q equivalent of self-excited induction generator, it is convenient to

convert the inductances into reactances by appropriate conversion to simplify the equations,

therefore it can be done as follows

ωb = 2πfs

𝑋𝑙𝑠 = 𝜔𝑏 𝐿𝑙𝑠

𝑋𝑙𝑟 = 𝜔𝑏 𝐿𝑙𝑟

( 3. 25)

𝑋𝑚 = 𝜔𝑏 𝐿𝑚

1 1 1 −1

𝑋𝑙𝑚 =( + + )

𝑋𝑚 𝑋𝑙𝑠 𝑋𝑙𝑟

Also the flux linkages can be converted as follows

42

Where

reference frame with 𝜔𝑠 also substituting the flux linkages from equation (3.26)

1 𝑑𝐹𝑑𝑠 𝜔𝑠

𝑉𝑠𝑑 = 𝑅𝑠 𝑖𝑑𝑠 + − 𝐹

𝜔𝑏 𝑑𝑡 𝜔𝑏 𝑞𝑠

1 𝑑𝐹𝑞𝑠 𝜔𝑠

𝑉𝑠𝑞 = 𝑅𝑠 𝑖𝑞𝑠 + + 𝐹

𝜔𝑏 𝑑𝑡 𝜔𝑏 𝑑𝑠

( 3. 27)

1 𝑑𝐹𝑞𝑠 (𝜔𝑠 − 𝜔𝑟 )

𝑉𝑞𝑠 = 𝑅𝑠 𝑖𝑞𝑠 + − 𝐹𝑞𝑟

𝜔𝑏 𝑑𝑡 𝜔𝑏

1 𝑑𝐹𝑞𝑠 (𝜔𝑠 − 𝜔𝑟 )

𝑉𝑞𝑟 = 𝑅𝑠 𝑖𝑞𝑟 + + 𝐹𝑑𝑟

𝜔𝑏 𝑑𝑡 𝜔𝑏

For a cage rotor induction machine values of 𝑉𝑑𝑟 = Vqr = 0, because all the parameters are

in per unit of base impedance.

( 3. 28)

𝜆𝑞𝑠 = 𝐿𝑙𝑠 𝑖𝑞𝑠 + 𝐿𝑚 (𝑖𝑞𝑠 + 𝑖𝑞𝑟 )

By multiplying the both sides of equation (3.28) by the base angular frequency (𝜔𝑏 ) the flux

linkages can be written as

43

𝐹𝑑𝑠 = 𝜔𝑏 𝜆𝑑𝑠 = 𝑋𝑙𝑠 𝑖𝑑𝑠 + 𝑋𝑚 (𝑖𝑑𝑠 + 𝑖𝑑𝑟 )

( 3. 29)

𝐹𝑞𝑠 = 𝜔𝑏 𝜆𝑞𝑠 = 𝑋𝑙𝑠 𝑖𝑞𝑠 + 𝑋𝑚 (𝑖𝑞𝑠 + 𝑖𝑞𝑟 )

By substituting the values of 𝐹𝑑𝑚 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐹𝑞𝑚 in 𝐹𝑑𝑠 , 𝐹𝑞𝑠 , 𝐹𝑑𝑟 and 𝐹𝑞𝑟 in the above equation we

get

( 3. 30)

𝐹𝑞𝑠 = 𝑋𝑙𝑠 𝑖𝑞𝑠 + 𝐹𝑞𝑚

From the above equation the current equation can be written as follow

𝐹𝑑𝑠 − 𝐹𝑑𝑚

𝑖𝑑𝑠 =

𝑋𝑙𝑠

𝐹𝑑𝑟 − 𝐹𝑑𝑚

𝑖𝑑𝑟 =

𝑋𝑙𝑟

( 3. 31)

𝐹𝑞𝑠 − 𝐹𝑞𝑚

𝑖𝑞𝑠 =

𝑋𝑙𝑠

𝐹𝑞𝑟 − 𝐹𝑞𝑚

𝑖𝑞𝑟 =

𝑋𝑙𝑟

Substituting the current equations above (3.31) to obtain 𝐹𝑑𝑚 and 𝐹𝑞𝑚

𝑋𝑙𝑚 𝑋𝑙𝑚

𝐹𝑑𝑚 = 𝐹𝑑𝑠 + 𝐹

𝑋𝑙𝑠 𝑋𝑙𝑟 𝑑𝑟

( 3. 32)

𝑋𝑙𝑚 𝑋𝑙𝑚

𝐹𝑞𝑚 = 𝐹𝑞𝑠 + 𝐹

𝑋𝑠 𝑋𝑙𝑟 𝑞𝑟

44

By substituting the current equation (3.31) the voltage equations can be rewritten as follow

𝑅𝑠 1 𝑑𝐹𝑑𝑠 𝜔𝑠

𝑉𝑑𝑠 = (𝐹𝑑𝑠 − 𝐹𝑑𝑚 ) + − 𝐹

𝑋𝑙𝑠 𝜔𝑏 𝑑𝑡 𝜔𝑏 𝑞𝑠

𝑅𝑠 1 𝑑𝐹𝑞𝑠 𝜔𝑠

𝑉𝑞𝑠 = (𝐹𝑞𝑠 − 𝐹𝑞𝑚 ) + + 𝐹

𝑋𝑙𝑠 𝜔𝑏 𝑑𝑡 𝜔𝑏 𝑑𝑠

( 3. 33)

𝑅𝑟 1 𝑑𝐹𝑞𝑟 (𝜔𝑠 − 𝜔𝑟 )

𝑉𝑑𝑟 =0= (𝐹𝑑𝑟 − 𝐹𝑑𝑚 ) + − 𝐹𝑞𝑟

𝑋𝑙𝑟 𝜔𝑏 𝑑𝑡 𝜔𝑏

𝑅𝑟 1 𝑑𝐹𝑞𝑟 (𝜔𝑠 − 𝜔𝑟 )

𝑉𝑞𝑟 = 0 = (𝐹𝑞𝑟 − 𝐹𝑞𝑚 ) + + 𝐹𝑑𝑟

𝑋𝑙𝑟 𝜔𝑏 𝑑𝑡 𝜔𝑏

The motion equations of SEIG can be expressed as follows

𝐽 𝑑𝜔 𝐵

𝑇𝑒𝑚 = + 𝜔 + 𝑇𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ ( 3. 34)

𝑃 𝑑𝑡 𝑃

Where,

J = Rotor Inertia

Electromagnetic torque can express in term of reactances flux linkages and current as follow

3 𝑋𝑚 𝑃

𝑇𝑒𝑚 = (𝑖 𝐹 − 𝑖𝑑𝑠 𝐹𝑞𝑠 ) ( 3. 35)

2 2(𝑋𝑙𝑟 + 𝑋𝑚 ) 𝜔𝑏 𝑞𝑠 𝑑𝑟

And the electrical angular frequency by ignoring frictional Torque

𝑑𝜔 𝑃

= (𝑇𝑒𝑚 − 𝑇𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ ) ( 3. 36)

𝑑𝑡 𝐽

45

The load impedance model of SEIG can be expressed as follow

𝑑𝑖𝐿𝑑 1

= (𝑉𝑑𝑠 − 𝑅𝑙 𝑖𝐿𝑑 ) + 𝜔𝑠 𝑖𝐿𝑑

𝑑𝑡 𝐿𝑙

( 3. 37)

𝑑𝑖𝐿𝑞 1

= (𝑉𝑞𝑠 − 𝑅𝑙 𝑖𝐿𝑞 ) + 𝜔𝑠 𝑖𝐿𝑞

𝑑𝑡 𝐿𝑙

Finally the excitation capacitor model can be expressed as follow

𝑑𝑉𝑑𝑠 1 1

= − 𝑖𝑑𝑠 + 𝑖𝐿𝑑

𝑑𝑡 𝐶 𝐶

( 3. 38)

𝑑𝑉𝑞𝑠 1 1

= − 𝑖𝑞𝑠 + 𝑖𝐿𝑞

𝑑𝑡 𝐶 𝐶

Where,

C = Excitation capacitor

46

CHAPTER 4

SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter study the dynamic simulation of self-excited induction generator SEIG using

MATLAB/ SIMULINK, the SEIG is driven by a constant torque from hydro turbine which

its model build by potential equation (1.1)

p=𝜂𝜌𝑔𝑄𝐻

The torque is calculated from the torque formula from equation (1.2)

𝑃

𝑇=

𝜔

induction generator, the specification of the induction machine is shown in Table 3 below.

HP 5.4 (4 KW)

Voltage 400 V

Current 8.24 A

Frequency 50 Hz

Phase 3

Poles 4

“power_AsynchronousMachineParams” which is shown in figure 15, and the machine

parameters are shown in table 4.

47

Fig. 15: Induction Machine Parameters Calculation

For turbine model the head assumed to be 5m, the discharge to be 0.1 m3, and efficiency to be

0.85, therefore the computed based on the above parameter to be 4.16 KW to match the

induction motor power.

(i) The voltage build up process of SEIG and the loss of excitation.

(ii) Electromagnetic torque stabilization.

(iii) The active power and the load current.

48

4.2 MATLAB SIMULATION OF SEIG

The Simulink model of self-excited induction generator shown in figure 15, it compromise

of many parts, the hydro turbine model developed based on the potential equation (1.1) and

the torque obtained from equation (1.2) to build the sub system block “TURBINE” in figure

15, the turbine subsystem block shown in figure 16 below .

The model of excitation capacitor connected in star shown in figure 17, and the model of the

excitation capacitor connected in delta shown in figure 18.

49

Fig. 18: Capacitor connected in star

Figure 19 shows the whole model of self-excited induction generator to be study with

Simulink which consist of TURBINE model, capacitor bank model load model, measurement

tools and visualization blocks.

50

4.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Case 1: Process of voltage build up in the self-excited induction generator at no load

For a 4 kW induction motor describe above an constant capacitance of value 850 μF is selected

which is connected in star connection, the SEIG voltage build up shown in fig. 20, excitation

starts after the speed exceed synchronous speed, the sinusoidal voltage start to build up at 0.8

sec. and it is reaches maximum value after 1.3 sec. from the stating of the machine.

51

Figure 21 show the electromagnetic torque at no load its stabilization lead for a terminal

voltage to reach a stabilize peak value of -50.55 N.m.

The current build at the terminal of the SEIG shown in the figure 22 above, the active power

is depending on the load connected to the self-excited induction generator so the active

power at no load will be zero, figure 23 below shows the active power at no load.

52

Case 2: Self-excited Induction generator connected to pure resistive load

capacitance value of 60 μF connected across the stator terminal of the SEIG, at the full SEIG

continue to excite its value less than rated value of voltage, the voltage can be adjusted by

increase the speed of the rotation in the shaft, figure 24 shows the sinusoidal terminal voltage

of SEIG at full resistive load.

53

The electromagnetic torque of SEIG at full load shown in figure 25, it reaches constant

value of -23.13 N.m after 1.9 sec. from the stating of the machine.

Figure 27 shows the SEIG current at full load with the value of 7.8 A which is less than the

rated current, also figure 28 shows the SEIG active power at full load which reach constant

value of -23.13 after1.58 sec.

54

Case 3: Over loading of SEIG and the loss of Excitation

At over loading of SEIG it continue to excited up to certain limit of load then it will lose

terminal voltage, figure 28 shows SEIG connected to 6.5 kW resistive load, it continue to

excite for a capacitance fixed value of 60 μF, and figure 29 shows SEIG connected to 6.6 kW

load its terminal voltage of SEIG drop to zero.

55

Case 4: Excitation Capacitor connected in delta

The delta connection of excitation capacitor shown in figure18, the excitation capacitance in

delta connection equal to 1/3 of the excitation capacitor in star connection, therefore a constant

excitation capacitance of 20μF is connected across the stator terminal of the SEIG, Figure 30

below show the voltage buildup of SEIG when the capacitor connected in delta when it is

connected to 4 kW, the voltage build up the same level as in figure 24.

Fig. 30: SEIG voltage build up for delta connected capacitor at full load

Fig. 31: SEIG voltage build up for delta connected capacitor at full load

56

Also the current in figure 31 is the same as the current in figure 26 also comparing the

electromagnetic at full load of 4 kW in delta connection shown in figure 32 is the same as in

star connection which is in figure 25.

The electromagnetic torque reaches a constant value of -23.13 N.m the same value of case 2

which shows that excitation capacitance in delta equal to 1/3 to that one of star connection.

Fig. 32: SEIG Electromagnetic torque for delta connected capacitor at full load

Fig. 33: SEIG active power for delta connected capacitor at full load

57

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

5.1 CONCLUSION

This dissertation study the dynamic analysis of Self-excited induction generator driven by a

constant torque based on d-q synchronous frame, for induction motor operates as induction

generator at negative slip and also in negative torque, the SEIG was studied under various

condition of loading and it shows that it can sustain overloading up certain point then the

terminal voltage drop drastically to zero, also it shows that the excitation capacitor connected

in delta equal to 1/3 the excitation connected in tar in term of voltage build up, load current

and the electromagnetic torque, the core loss were ignored during while carrying out the

simulation.

The voltage build up depend on the value excitation capacitor the load connected across it and

the speed of the rotor, the SEIG under no load shows no transient during excitation, while

under load it shows transient then it reaches stability.

The model of self-excited induction generator under dynamic condition can be extend to

include the core loss also incorporate the skin effect, the d-q synchronous to be developed

for the following configurations:

(i) D-q synchronous model of induction generator connected with shunt, short shunt and

long shunt capacitor considering core loss to be built with SIMULINK blocks.

(ii) D-q synchronous model of induction generator considering skin effect and the first

configuration.

58

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