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ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TSRWW

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express a gratitude to everyone who gave us the every


possible guidance and help to learn more about TRACK SENSING ROBOT WITH
WEBCAME which imparted more knowledge about the topic.

In the first instance we would like to thanks mechanical-


ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION department of our Institute for
giving us permission to commence this project.

We would furthermore like to specially thank Access computech


pvt lmt for their constant guidance and encouragement. Who spent long
hours on this Report in addition to their regular work.

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ABSTRACT

Our Project as a new revolution in EC branch because robotics as a lot of


mechanical and electronics both combination project like mechatronics subject.
Our project through us are provide high tech technology concept and easily
understand mechanical subjet. Also then we are thanking to all helping our
project members, college workshop in charge and external guide also

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CH1.Industry Information

The company begun operations in August 1994 with sole aim of providing customized
innovative user friendly and reliable technology for attendance recording and allied services.

They are the leaders in providing innovative applications related to personalized


identification Systems. We have a state of the art complex for product design, manufacture,
testing and development, a team of dedicated software developers to meet the diverse needs
for any industry.One of the most common application is Attendance Recording and Access
Control Systems, which has become a necessity of the industry.
For providing total solutions, They also manufacture ID cards, Fused PVC & Instant PVC
dye-sublimated cards and access control equipments like turnstiles(Tripods) and other
physical access control devices.

This focused approached has transformed us into leaders in the fields of attendance recording
we also provide integrated solution for employee access control, Canteen application, loyalty
program and clubs, visitors management, event management and on.

They have successfully integrated and provided solution for various reading technologies like
biometric fingerprint, mifare, proximity, barcode, magnetic, holorith. Thye have also
integrated various communication technologies like network TCP / IP , modem dial-up email
dump, ftp, and serial communication. They have provided solution for various industries,
petrochemical, refinery, enterprises, steel, mining, power, instrumentation, electronics,
engineering and textile.

Some of them major clients like BHEL, ABB, IPCL, IOCL, NMDC, BEL, NHPC, RIL, RPL,
ELECTROLUX, G S R T C, ZYDUS CADILA, ASHIMA, ATUL, AMUL. OrdFac Board

They operate through regional offices and dealer network. spread over the entire country.

» Leaders in providing " Total HR Solution " and "Turnkey System".

» In-House mfg and R&D of Recorders, Softwares, Turnstile & Id Cards.


» User friendly software for all popular platforms and database
» Export and linking to ERP (SAP/ PeopleSoft etc) or any payroll system
» Customer Support network all over India.
» 3000+ satisfied customers, 15000+ recorders installed all over India.
» Total Customer satisfaction ~ " Our Ultimate Goal "

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ON LINE ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM :-

True online access control can be achieved if we have one computer on, at all times. No
sooner than an employee punches his card, the reader decodes its and data sent to the PC.
The software tests the validation checks for grace period of the shift attended, deviation if
any between the designated shift & the attended shift and whether this deviation has prior
sanction or not etc. On receipt of this confirmation, the machine will operate the turnstile
and permit that employee to enter. The process is foolproof, extremely fast and reliable. In
cases of unauthorised sift changes, only the assigned authority present at that time, will have
the predefined rights to over ride the system and permit entry.

The system will be further refined by programming the machines installed at the Plant
Control Room, Lab, Administration Block, Stores & Warehouse etc. to prompt the
employee to key in a “ Personnel Identification Number Code” (PIN), through the keypad
on the machine. Only if the Employee card Number, PIN Number and the access rights
assigned to that employee for that department or area perfectly matches, will the machine
installed in that site permit entry.

Alternatively, the employee can be just asked to punch their card once again at their
designated work places. The time gap between the first punch at the gate and the second
punch at their respective location can be fed depending on the distance and the average time
taken to cover it. Thus attendance & reaching at their designated work place can be
monitored.

VISITOR’S GATEPASS CONTROL :-


Visitor’s entry to the complex will be efficiently regulated by the above Online Access
Control System. The will be issued a Coded ID Card at the gate. The authorities, to accept
or deny entry to the cardholder then suitably program the various installed machines in the
complex will. There is no upward limit on how many can be given entry at a given point of
time, unless specified. The system will also prompt while issuing ID Card to different
visitors wanting to meet a particular staff member at the same time. A log can also be
generated as required.

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MONITORING NIGHT TIME SECURITY PERFORMANCE :-


In normal cases, one or more number of shifts assigned to various staff categories with
provisions for a maximum of 6 punches per shift. Special shift categories can be defined for
staff regularly going out of the premises like peons or the night-time security staff, whereby
the machines will accept a maximum of 33 punches per shift. Thus depending on the
number of machines installed & the time taken to cover the perimeter of the complex, the
security personnel can be instructed to punch their card at designated machine installed at
the perimeter at predefined times. This can be configured in such foolproof manner that the
security has to ensure patrolling of the entire complex at regular intervals, without fail. A
log can be generated to monitor the deviations and ensure total vigilance.

PSEUDO RANDUM CHECK OF OUTGOING STAFF :-


Over a period, the element of predictability seeps in to this operation as the staff & security
become acquainted with each other. These can some day lead to any untoward & serious
complication for the organisation. To prevent this eventuality, we will program the software
& machine to randomly select one or two cards out of a predefined range of out going staff
punches and raises an alarm. This selected staff need only be checked.

To illustrate, if the predefined no. Of card is 1-20, then the computer will randomly select 1-
2 cards out of every 20 cards punches say for example 1&20 for the first batch, 11&12 for
the second batch, 19&3 for the third, so forth. The above sequence is not regulated in any
way by the software. This keeps the security staff very alert during this operation.

CANTEEN MANAGEMENT & TEA/COFFEE


VENDING MACHINES:-

A similar card reader will be installed in the automatic Tea & coffee Vending
Machines. No sooner than a card is punched, it will signal the dispenser to
pour out the selected beverage. Usage can be regulated & access consumption
above the number of times it is given free, can be debited to the employee’s
pay.
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In case of visitors, a special card is to be used before & after the employee’s
card to signal the software that this consumption is to be debited to office
expenses. In an on – line mode, misuse will be totally prevented as nobody can
use an absent employee’s card as the machine will Verify that employee’s
presence and only then signal the vending machine.

Canteen management can also be programmed entirely to your requirements.


Menu selection & printing of coupons will be done through the machine
installed there. Various reports based on period, department, employee, item
offered etc. can be generated.

TRUE INTELLIGENT TERMINALS :

Which can communicate to the user, like giving stored massages, displaying
names, showing current balances (In case of complete canteen management,
thus no use of issuing coupons or tokens.)

The terminals since are giving data instantaneously to central data base server
and with the help of our personalised software, the processed and verified data
is returned to the recorder immediately in micro second, thus lot of features
and facility can be customised. Above are the some of the examples, like these
there can be any type of application linking the card, readers and true online
software.

VEHICLE TRACKING MANAGEMENT :


The competitive nature of our world today requires that we manage all aspects of our
business. This includes your mobile resources, the fleet of vehicles that play an integral part
in delivering your products and services to the customer. Vehicle Tracking Services (VTS)
is how TrackYourTruck proposes maximizing the utilization of these mobile resources.

VTS is the tracking of vehicles that leads to the collection and transmission of data; when
put in the right hands, this data becomes information.

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This information improves your value to the customer by improving the level of service
provided. Better information also leads thigher profits through better fleet management.

JOB RECORDING SYSTEM :-

The Job Recording module uses barcode data capture techniques to enable direct shopfloor
workers to book on and off Works Order operations and record periods of non-productive
time. It provides up-to-date information on the status of all open Works Orders in real time
and the current deployments of all direct workers. Labour analyses and job/work centre
performances statistics can be produced through the system.

Information is captured at source using rugged bar-coded data collection terminals at key
shopfloor locations. Each Works Order is identified by its own barcoded job ticket, which is
routinely produced by the company’s Production Planning system. At the start of each
assignment, each employee identifies himself or herself using a personal Id-badge before
scanning the Works Order Operation on the job ticket. These details, along with the date,
time and location are passed to the host system to signify a Job Start.

Job completion times are recorded in a similar manner with additional facilities to enter
operation quantities of good and scrap production. The Job Recording system can record
non-productive work using user-defined codes to help managers analyse lost or non-
productive time. During breaks and other interruptions, the employee can hold or restart a
job. The system uses data from Time & Attendance to calculate break periods and to
reconcile Clocked and Booked hours.

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CH2.Introduction
Introduction

For my final year project, I decided to make a track sensing robot with
webcam .This Simple robot is designed to follow a black
line on the ground without getting off the line too much. The robot has
two sensors installed underneath the front part of the body, with attached
web-camera and two DC motors drive wheels moving forward.

The circuit inside takes an input signal from two sensors and controls the
speed of wheels rotation the control is done in such a way that when a
sensorsenses a black line, the motor slows down or even stops. Then the
difference of rotation speed makes it possible to make turns. For
instance, in the figure on the right, if the sensor somehow senses a
black line, the wheel on that side slows down and the robot will make
a right turn.

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CH:-3. Whole Industrial Process


and problem study.

DEFINATION :-

Track sensing is a machine that can follow a path. The path can be visible like a
blackline on a white surface (or vice-versa) or it can be invisible like a magnetic field.

Sensing a line and maneuvering the robot to stay on course, while constantly
correcting wrong moves using feedback mechanism forms a simple yet effective closed
loopsystem.

As a programmer you get an opportunity to ‘teach’ the robot how to sense thetrack
thus giving it a human-like property of responding to stimuli.

This project all functions operates withmicrocontrollertechnology because this project


has all system operates by ‘C’ programming logic,this project work with 8bit.

POT 0.1,ULN 2003 for output.POT0.2 and 0.3 are used for ADC and pulse input with
sensor connect.

This project practical demonstration for use 12v dc gear motor this motor we connect
rubber wheel on robotic model.

This project have main part of LDR sensor and next main part of webcame.LDR
sensor senses light and dark with respect output voltage very on circuit.

This minor voltage amplified by comparator on inverting and non-inverting with 0-


1,opampdata connect with controller POT pin and POT operate with dark and light path
according to LDR sensor,DC motor work for use two-NC/NO type 12V de relay it relay
voltage supply change and ON OFF.

This relay for supply voltage DC 12V provided by IC ULN 2003 this IC 5V switching
by 12V like transistor function.This all project work with 12V DC re chargeable battery.

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i) How to sense a black line


The sensors used for the project are Reflective Object Sensors, 0PB710F that are already
ready in the Electronic Lab. The single sensor consists of an infrared emitting diode and a
NPN Darlington phototransistor. When a light emitted from the diode is reflected off an
object and back into the phototransistor, output current is produced, depending on the amount
of infrared light, which triggers the base current of the phototransistor. In my case, the
amount of light reflected off a black line is much less than that of a white background, so we
can detect the black line somehow by measuring the current. (This current is converted to
voltage.)

ii) How to control a DC motor


Instead of applying a constant voltage across a DC motor, we repeat switching on and off
the motor with a fixed voltage (Vcc) applied to the motor. This is done by sending a train of
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) pulses to a power MOSFET in order to turn it on and off.
Then, the motor sees the average voltage while it depends on duty cycle of PWM pulses. The
speed of rotation is proportion to this average voltage.

By PWM method, it’s easier to control the DC motor than by directly controlling the voltage
across it. All we have to do is to modulate pulse width, in order words, a duty cycle. Also, a
power MOSFET consumes only negligible power in switching.

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This small line follower robot, was designed to be easily built at


home without any special equipment, and using a minimum
number of mechanical parts. You wont need more than 2 small
motors, 2 free wheels and a piece of pcb (to hold the micro-
controller, the motors driver and the line sensor) and sure..your
soldering iron!

The main trick making this design simple and affordable, is that
the robot's chassis is actually the main board of the robot, where
some supports for the wheels - also made of small parts of copper
boards - are soldered to it. All the motors, and the skids are
mounted on the main PCB. For an electronics hobbyist, PCB
manufacturing is a skill that will be learnt sooner or later, so this
design lets you use your experience in PCB manufacturing to
Design a high precision chassis for your robot.

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Block Diagram of TSRWW

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Circuit Diagram of TSRWW

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ADC, MAX & Power Supply:

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Program
/*****************************************************
Project : Line Follower
Version :
Date : 2/19/2006
Author : g 1
Company : Home
Comments:

Chip type : ATmega16


Program type : Application
Clock frequency : 7.372800 MHz
Memory model : Small
External SRAM size : 0
Data Stack size : 256
*****************************************************/

//#define debug 1
#include<mega16.h>
#include<delay.h>
#ifdef debug
#include<stdio.h>
#endif

#defineFWD 0xAA
#define REV 0x55
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#define R 0x22
#define L 0x88
#define CW 0x99
#define CCW 0x66
#define STOP 0x00
#define B 0xFF
#define RSPEED OCR1AL
#define LSPEED OCR1BL
#define SPEED0 255
#define SPEED1 0
#define SPEED2 0
#define SPEED3 0
#define MAX 3
#define HMAX 1

void move (unsignedchardir,unsignedchardelay,unsignedchar power);


unsignedchar i,rdev,ldev,ip,delay,dir,power,dirl,history[MAX],hcount=0,rotpow;

#ifdef debug
unsignedchar rep=0,prev=0;
#endif

void
main(void)
{

// Input/Output Ports initialization


// Port A initialization
// Func7=In Func6=In Func5=In Func4=In Func3=In Func2=In Func1=In Func0=In

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// State7=T State6=T State5=T State4=T State3=T State2=T State1=T State0=T


PORTA=0x00;
DDRA=0x00;

// Port B initialization
// Func7=In Func6=In Func5=In Func4=In Func3=In Func2=In Func1=In Func0=In
// State7=T State6=T State5=T State4=T State3=T State2=T State1=T State0=T
PORTB=0x00;
DDRB=0x00;

// Port C initialization
// Func7=In Func6=In Func5=In Func4=In Func3=In Func2=In Func1=In Func0=In
// State7=T State6=T State5=T State4=T State3=T State2=T State1=T State0=T
PORTC=0x00;
DDRC=0xFF;

// Port D initialization
// Func7=In Func6=In Func5=Out Func4=Out Func3=In Func2=In Func1=In Func0=In
// State7=T State6=T State5=0 State4=0 State3=T State2=T State1=T State0=T
PORTD=0x00;
DDRD=0x30;

// Timer/Counter 0 initialization
// Clock source: System Clock
// Clock value: Timer 0 Stopped
// Mode: Normal top=FFh
// OC0 output: Disconnected
TCCR0=0x00;
TCNT0=0x00;

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OCR0=0x00;

// Timer/Counter 1 initialization
// Clock source: System Clock
// Clock value: 921.600 kHz
// Mode: Fast PWM top=00FFh
// OC1A output: Non-Inv.
// OC1B output: Non-Inv.
// Noise Canceler: Off
// Input Capture on Falling Edge
TCCR1A=0xA1;
TCCR1B=0x0A;
TCNT1H=0x00;
TCNT1L=0x00;
ICR1H=0x00;
ICR1L=0x00;
OCR1AH=0x00;
OCR1AL=0xFF;
OCR1BH=0x00;
OCR1BL=0xFF;

// Timer/Counter 2 initialization
// Clock source: System Clock
// Clock value: Timer 2 Stopped
// Mode: Normal top=FFh
// OC2 output: Disconnected
ASSR=0x00;
TCCR2=0x00;

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TCNT2=0x00;
OCR2=0x00;

// External Interrupt(s) initialization


// INT0: Off
// INT1: Off
// INT2: Off
MCUCR=0x00;
MCUCSR=0x00;

#ifdef debug
// USART initialization
// Communication Parameters: 8 Data, 1 Stop, No Parity
// USART Receiver: On
// USART Transmitter: On
// USART Mode: Asynchronous
// USART Baud rate: 57600
UCSRA=0x00;
UCSRB=0x18;
UCSRC=0x86;
UBRRH=0x00;
UBRRL=0x07;
#endif

// Timer(s)/Counter(s) Interrupt(s) initialization


TIMSK=0x00;

// Analog Comparator initialization

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// Analog Comparator: Off


// Analog Comparator Input Capture by Timer/Counter 1: Off
ACSR=0x80;
SFIOR=0x00;

while (1){

#ifdef debug
if(rep<255)
rep++;
if(prev!=PINA) {
prev=PINA;
printf("%u\r",rep);
for(i=0;i<8;i++)
printf("%u\t",(prev>>i)&0x01);
rep=0;
}
#endif

if
(PINA!=255){
rotpow=255;
ldev=rdev=0;

if(PINA.3==0)
rdev=1;
if(PINA.2==0)
rdev=2;
if(PINA.1==0)

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rdev=3;

if(PINA.0==0)
rdev=4;

if(PINA.4==0)
ldev=1;

if(PINA.5==0)
ldev=2;
if(PINA.6==0)
ldev=3;

if(PINA.7==0)
ldev=4;

if(rdev>ldev)
move(R,0,195+12*rdev);

if(rdev<ldev)
move(L,0,195+12*ldev);

if(rdev==ldev)
move(FWD,0,200);
}

else {

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for(i=0,dirl=0;i<MAX;i++) {

if(history[i]==L)
{dirl++;}
}
if(rotpow<160) {rotpow=160;}

if(rotpow<255) {rotpow++;}

if(dirl>HMAX)
{move(CW,0,rotpow);}
else
{move(CCW,0,rotpow);}
}
};
}

void move (unsignedchardir,unsignedchardelay,unsignedchar power) {


PORTC=dir;
if(dir==L || dir==R) {
hcount=(hcount+1)%MAX;
history[hcount]=dir;
}
LSPEED=RSPEED=255;
//power;
//delay_ms(delay);

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CH:-4.The Problem solution Outline

 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO 8051 MICROCONTROLLER:-


When we have to learn about a new computer we have to familiarize about the machine
capability we are using, and we can do it by studying the internal hardware design (devices
architecture), and also to know about the size, number and the size of the registers.

A microcontroller is a single chip that contains the processor (the CPU), non-volatile
memory for the program (ROM or flash), volatile memory for input and output (RAM), a
clock and an I/O control unit. Also called a "computer on a chip," billions of microcontroller
units (MCUs) are embedded each year in a myriad of products from toys to appliances to
automobiles. For example, a single vehicle can use 70 or more microcontrollers. The
following picture describes a general block diagram of microcontroller.

AT89S52:- The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller


with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using
Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-
standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to
be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By
combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip,
the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller, which provides a highly flexible and cost-
effective solution to many, embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the
following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog
timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt
architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the
AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two
software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the
RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-
down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip
functions until the next interrupt

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The hardware is driven by a set of program instructions, or software. Once familiar with
hardware and software, the user can then apply the microcontroller to the problems easily.

The pin diagram of the 8051 shows all of the input/output pins unique to microcontrollers:

The following are some of the capabilities of 8051 microcontroller.

 Internal ROM and RAM


 I/O ports with programmable pins
 Timers and counters
 Serial data communication

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The 8051 architecture consists of these specific features:

 16 bit PC &data pointer (DPTR)


 8 bit program status word (PSW)
 8 bit stack pointer (SP)
 Internal ROM 4k
 Internal RAM of 128 bytes.
 4 register banks, each containing 8 registers
 80 bits of general purpose data memory
 32 input/output pins arranged as four 8 bit ports: P0-P3
 Two 16 bit timer/counters: T0-T1 Two external and three internal interrupt
sources Oscillator and clock circuits.

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 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF SENSOR:-


The resistance of the sensor decreaseswhen IR light falls on it. A good sensor will
have near zero resistancein presence of light and a very large
resistance in absence of light.We have used this property of thesensor to form a potential
divider.The potential at point ‘2’ is
Rsensor / (Rsensor + R1).
Again, a good sensor circuit shouldgive maximum change in potential at
point ‘2’ for no-light and bright-lightconditions. This is especially important if you plan to
use an ADC in place of the comparator
To get a good voltage swing , the value of R1 must be carefully chosen

CKT OF SENSOR

A sensor (also called detector) is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it
into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, a mercury-
in-glass thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a
liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple converts temperature to
an output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, most sensors
are calibrated against known standards.

Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor)
and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable
applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include cars,
machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics.
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A sensor is a device which receives and responds to a signal. A sensor's sensitivity indicates
how much the sensor's output changes when the measured quantity changes. For instance, if
the mercury in a thermometer moves 1 cm when the temperature changes by 1 °C, the
sensitivity is 1 cm/°C (it is basically the slope Dy/Dx assuming a linear characteristic).
Sensors that measure very small changes must have very high sensitivities. Sensors also have
an impact on what they measure; for instance, a room temperature thermometer inserted into
a hot cup of liquid cools the liquid while the liquid heats the thermometer. Sensors need to be
designed to have a small effect on what is measured; making the sensor smaller often
improves this and may introduce other advantages. Technological progress allows more and
more sensors to be manufactured on a microscopic scale as microsensors
using MEMS technology. In most cases, a microsensor reaches a significantly higher speed
and sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches.

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 Relay:-

We can think of a relay as an electromagnetic switch. Apply a voltage to the coil and a
magnetic field is generated. This magnetic field sucks the contacts of the relay in, causing
them to make a connection. These contacts can be considered to be a switch. They allow
current to flow between 2 points thereby closing the circuit.

Let's consider the following example. Here we simply turn on a bell (Lunch time!) whenever
a switch is closed. We have 3 real-world parts. A switch, a relay and a bell. Whenever the
switch closes we apply a current to a bell causing it to sound.

Notice in the picture that we have 2 separate circuits. The bottom(blue) indicates the DC part.
The top(red) indicates the AC part.

Here we are using a dc relay to control an AC circuit. That's the fun of relays! When the
switch is open no current can flow through the coil of the relay. As soon as the switch is
closed, however, current runs through the coil causing a magnetic field to build up. This
magnetic field causes the contacts of the relay to close. Now AC current flows through the
bell and we hear it. Lunch time!

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a


switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are
used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical
isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be
controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits,
repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were
used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor
or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relayscontrol power circuits with no moving
parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated
operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical
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circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are
performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays".

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a


switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are
used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical
isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be
controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits,
repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were
used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor
or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relayscontrol power circuits with no moving
parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated
operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical
circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are
performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays".

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 Motors
An electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical
energy into mechanical energy.

Most electric motors operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying
conductors to generate force. The reverse process, producing electrical energy from
mechanical energy, is done by generators such as an alternator or a dynamo; some electric
motors can also be used as generators, for example, a traction motor on a vehicle may
perform both tasks. Electric motors and generators are commonly referred to as electric
machines.

Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps,
machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. They may be powered
by direct current, e.g., a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle, or by alternating
current from a central electrical distribution grid or inverter. The smallest motors may be
found in electric wristwatches. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and
characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. The very largest
electric motors are used for propulsion of ships, pipeline compressors, and water pumps with
ratings in the millions of watts. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric
power, by their internal construction, by their application, or by the type of motion they give.

The physical principle behind production of mechanical force by the interactions of an


electric current and a magnetic field, Faraday's law of induction, was discovered by Michael
Faraday in 1831. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed from 1821
through the end of the 19th century, but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large
scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks. The first
commercially successful motors were made around 1873.

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Integrated Circuit

Some devices convert electricity into motion but do not generate usable mechanical power as
a primary objective and so are not generally referred to as electric motors. For
example, magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers are usually described
as actuators and transducers, respectively, instead of motors. Some electric motors are used to
produce torque or force.

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Low power quad op amps:-


DESCRIPTION:-
The LM124/SA534/LM2902 series consists of four independent,
high-gain, internally frequency-compensated operational amplifiers
designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a
wide range of voltages.

UNIQUE FEATURES:-
In the linear mode, the input common-mode voltage range includes
ground and the output voltage can also swing to ground, even
though operated from only a single power supply voltage.
The unity gain crossover frequency and the input bias current are
temperature-compensated.

FEATURES:-
• Internally frequency-compensated for unity gain
• Large DC voltage gain: 100dB
• Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1MHz (temperature-compensated)
• Wide power supply range Single supply: 3VDC to 30VDC or dual
7ksupplies: ±1.5VDC to ±15VDC
• Very low supply current drain: essentially independent of supply
voltage (1mW/op amp at +5VDC)
• Low input biasing current: 45nADC (temperature-compensated)
• Low input offset voltage: 2mVDC and offset current: 5nADC
• Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage
• Large output voltage: 0VDC to VCC-1.5VDC swing

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APPENDIX
MICROCONTROLLER:

AT 89s52:-

Features

• Compatible with MCS-51® Products


• 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
– Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles
• 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
• Three-level Program Memory Lock
• 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Eight Interrupt Sources
• Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
• Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
• Watchdog Timer
• Dual Data Pointer
• Power-off Flag
• Fast Programming Time
• Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)

Description

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K


bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using
Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-
standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program
memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory
programmer.

By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on


a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a
highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes
of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a
six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator,
and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation
down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes.
The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and
interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents
but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt

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Pin Description

VCC Supply voltage.

GND Ground.

Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can
sink
eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as highimpedance
inputs.
Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during
accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups.
Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code
bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program
verification.

Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output
buffers
can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high
by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally
being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.
In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count
input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as
shown in the following table.
Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and
verification.

Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output
buffers
can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high
by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally
being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.
Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory
and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @
DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During
accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits
the contents of the P2 Special Function Register.
Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash
programming and verification
.
Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output
buffers
can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high
by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally
being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups.

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RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running
resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times
out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In
the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled.

ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the
address
during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG)
during Flash programming.
In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and
may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one
ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory.
If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the
bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is
weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in
external execution mode.

PSEN Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory.
When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated
twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during
each access to external data memory.

EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device
to
fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH.
Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset.
EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions.
This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash
programming.

XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating
circuit.

XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

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LM 324:
Features

• Operation from Single or Dual Supplies

• Unity-Gain Bandwidth 1MHz (Typ)

• DC Voltage Gain 100dB (Typ)

• Input Bias Current 45nA (Typ)

• Input Offset Voltage 2mV (Typ)

• Input Offset Current

- CA224, CA324, LM324, LM2902. 5nA (Typ)

- CA124 3nA (Typ)

• Replacement for Industry Types 124, 224, 324

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Applications

• Summing Amplifiers

• Multivibrators

• Oscillators

• Transducer Amplifiers

• DC Gain Blocks

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ULN 2003:

SEVEN DARLINGTONS PER PACKAGE

OUTPUT CURRENT 500mA PER DRIVER

(600mA PEAK)

OUTPUT VOLTAGE 50V

INTEGRATED SUPPRESSION DIODES FOR

INDUCTIVE LOADS

OUTPUTS CAN BE PARALLELED FOR

HIGHER CURRENT

TTL/CMOS/PMOS/DTL COMPATIBLE INPUTS

INPUTS PINNED OPPOSITE OUTPUTS TO

SIMPLIFY LAYOUT

DESCRIPTION:

The ULN2001A, ULN2002A, ULN2003 and ULN2004A are high voltage, high current
darlington arrays each containing seven open collector darlington pairs with common
emitters. Each channel rated at 500mA and can withstand peak currents of 600mA.
Suppression diodes are included for inductive load driving and the inputs are pinned opposite
the outputs to simplify board layout.

The four versions interface to all common logic families :

ULN2001A General Purpose, DTL, TTL, PMOS,

CMOS

ULN2002A 14-25V PMOS

ULN2003A 5V TTL, CMOS

ULN2004A 6–15V CMOS, PMOS

These versatile devices are useful for driving a wide range of loads including solenoids,
relays DC motors, LED displays filament lamps, thermal printheads and high power buffers.

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The ULN2001A/2002A/2003A and 2004A are supplied in 16 pin plastic DIP packages with a
copper leadframe to reduce thermal resistance. They are available also in small outline
package (SO-16) .

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CH:-5.APLLICATION

ADVANTAGES:-
 Easy assembly
 Only for self travelling use
 Maximum video capacity
 Easily photo capturing
 Low maintains
 Affordable cost
 Affordable working

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DISADVANTAGES:-
 Choice of line is made in the hardware abstraction and cannot be changed by
software.
 Calibration is difficult, and it is not easy to set a perfect value.
 The steering mechanism is not easily implemented in huge vehicles and impossible
for non-electric vehicles (petrol powered).
 Few curves are not made efficiently, and must be avoided.

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APPLICATION:-
 Industrial automated equipment carriers.
 Tour guides in museums and other similar applications.
 ship yard and port.
 Farming.
 Wireless photography and audio recording in detective agency.

 Bomb navigation used by bomb squad department.

 there are cases where smarter versions of line followers are used to deliver mail
within an office building and deliver medications in a hospital.
 thetechnologly has been suggested for running buses and other mass transit systems, and
may end up as part of autonomous cars navigating the freeway.
just some thoughts.

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FUTURE SCOPE:-
 “Obstacle detecting sensors” to avoid physical obstacles and continue on the line.
 Distance sensing and position logging & transmission.
 logic control by PLC AND CONTROLLER.
 Wireless controlling for use GSM and RF protocol

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CH:-6.Outline of work to be carried


out in sem-VI

 During part-II the hardware portion will be carried out of the project which consists of
components placing on pcb,soldering,testing,etc.

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Bibliography

The Westinghouse crane handbook

www.wikipedia.com

www.sciencedirect.com

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