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GORDON W.

ALLPORT

1. Biography Review
Gordon Allport was born in Montezuma, Indiana, on November 11, 1897. He
was the youngest of four brothers and was often described as shy, but also hard-
working and studious. His mother was a school teacher and his father was a
doctor who instilled in Allport a strong work ethic. During his childhood, his father
used the family home to house and treat patients.
Allport enrolled at Harvard in 1915. He received his bachelor’s degree in
1919 majoring philosophy and economics. But he was uncertain about his future
career. Both of his majors left good impression on him. He went to teach in
Turkey and found out it was his calling.

2. Theory Review
A) Allport’s Approach to Personality
Allport emphasized the uniqueness of the individual. He didn’t believe
that mature and healthy people are controlled by unconscious forces (that can’t
be seen or affected). But he believed it is an important factor for neurotic people.
A person with mature personality and healthy isn’t controlled by traumatic events
or conflict in childhood era. A healthy person is guided by present time and
anticipates the future. Some motivation is driven by hidden impulses and
sublimated drives.
B) Motivation of Healthy Personality
Main problem on Psychology of Personality is motivation. Influences by
biological needs, such foods, sleeps, and sex. Sources are intentions, hopes,
aspirations, and dreams. It Does not come from the unconscious and past
experiences. Happiness is not the main goal but it is just a bonus. Principle of
organizing the energy level and mastery and competence means healthy self
tends to channel their energy to to seek for new challenges and skills in life.
C) “Self” Concept of A Healthy Person
Allport has a self concept known as The Propium. Propriate comes from the
word proprium, Allport’s name for that essential concept, the self. Propriate
functioning can be characterized as proactive, future-oriented, and psychological.
Allport came from two directions, phenomenologically and functionally. There are
seven stages of the self concept,
Seven stages of the nature and development of the proprium

1. Sense of Body

Sense of body is developed in the first two years of life. In this


stage, a person is aware of touch and movement, pain and injury,
closeness, and other person’s warmth.

2. Self Identity
Self identity is also developed in the first two years of life. An
individual knows that himself or herself is different from others and
recognition as a person who is having a past, present, and future.
Children learn about their name, aware of the reflection shown on the
mirror are themselves.

3. Self Esteem

Self esteem is developed between two and four years old. There
also comes a time when we recognize that we have value, to others and
to ourselves. This is especially tied to a continuing development of our
competencies.

4. Self Extension

Develops between four and six. Certain things, people, and events
around us also come to be thought of as central and warm, essential to
my existence.Some people define themselves in terms of their parents,
spouse, or children, their clan, gang, community, college, or nation.

5. Self Image

Develops between four and six. This is the “looking-glass self,”


the me as others see me. This is the impression I make on others, my
“look,” my social esteem or status, including my sexual identity. It is the
beginning of what others call conscience, ideal self, and persona.

6. Rational Coping
Is learned predominantly in the years from six till twelve. The child
begins to develop his or her abilities to deal with life’s problems rationally
and effectively. This is analogous to Erikson’s “industry.”

7. Propriate Striving

Doesn’t usually begin till after twelve years old. This is my self as goals,
ideal, plans, vocations, callings, a sense of direction, a sense of purpose. The
culmination of propriate striving, according to Allport, is the ability to say that I am
the proprietor of my life i.e. the owner and operator!

D) The Development of Healthy Personality


1.No sequence of stages
2. Maternal is the main factor to build self-identity and self-concept
3. Bad maternal could develop egocentrism and aggressiveness that can leads to
mental illness
4. Emphasizing more on healthy personality rather than neurotic

E) The Criteria for Personal Maturity

1. Extension of the sense of self.


Mature people continually seek to participate in and identify with
events outside themselves. Mature people continually seek to participate
in and identify with events outside themselves. Mature people are not only
concern about their own welfare, but pay attention to the other’s welfare
as well.
2. Warm relating of self to others
Mature people are having the capacity to love others in an intimate
and compassionate manner. Allport also distinguish warmth into two: the
capacity of intimacy and the capacity of compassion. Intimacy is the
capacity for love, whether for the family or friends. Meanwhile,
compassion is a “feeling for other” wherein individual are able to feel
respectful and empathic for the other.
3. Emotional Security
Mature people accept themselves for what they are. Mature
people have a high tolerance level therefore, they are not overly upset
when things do not go as planned. On the other hand, neurotic people
tend to act impulsively and to giving up on their dominance emotion at the
moment.
4. Realistic perception
Mature individuals possess realistic perception of their
environment and do not continually distort their reality. As for neurotic
people, they are likely to change the reality to fit in their need.
5. Skills and assignments
Allport believed of work and responsibility provide meaning and
sense of continuity to life. Mature people are having the knowledge and
skills necessary to observe the living an objective life.
6. Self insight
Mature Individuals know themselves and therefore, they have no
need to project their mistakes and weaknesses toward others. Thus,
mature people can be amused by their own mistake and open to others
opinion in constructing the objective self-image.
7. A unifying philosophy of life
Healthy People have a clear view of the purpose of life. They are
encouraged by the long-term goals. Allport define it as the sense of
directedness. Allport believe that a healthy person will have aspirations
and goals in their life.

3. Group Personal Review