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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
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CHAPTER - 1

1.1 HISTORY OF SPORTS AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Physical education is education through the physical and of

the physical. It means that through the use of physical

activities, physical education aims to ensure the whole hearted

participation of the child in the totality of his body, mind

spirit. So that these physical activities become real life

experience in educating the child physically, mentally, and

morally. Western experts have defined physical education and

expanded the scope of general education to comprise experiences

related to the physical which are otherwise not available within

the four walls of the classrooms.

J.F. Willians is of the opinion that, physical education is

the sum of man's physical activities selected as to kind and


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conducted as to outcomes. The pleasure of play is in performance

of the activity rather than in its accomplishment.


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Klans Meier has rightly said that the Prize of play is play
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itself. In the words of Jay B. Nash physical education is that

phase of the whole field of education that deals with big muscle

activities and their related responses.

1) J.F. Williams - 'Cultural Aspects of Physical Education" in


the Journal of Health and Physical Education Vol.3 (November
1932) PP 20-23.
2) Klans Meier - Defence of Mediocrity : A re-Visioning of play.
A paper presented a American Alliance for Health physical
education, Recreation and Dance convention, Detroit April .
4, 1930.
3) J.B.Nash
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According to Jhon Bewey, "Play is a spontaneous, natural human

activity," it has extremely deep meaning. Through play, children

learn about the world in which they live and the human society of

which they are a part. He further observes that as the child's

need for order is recognised, play becomes a game with rules. If

you study the human history we shall find some kind of sports of

physical education programme in their social structure. Physical

activities were used for survival of nations and their culture.

The relationship between physical education and education is

natural and cannot be missed or ignored easily. It is a fact that

we cannot conceive physical education without educational value,

as it cannot exist in an educational vaccum. Physical education

is a composite programme designed to coordinate and foster the

physical, social, emotional and intellectual development of

an individual in order that they may be better able to approach

life's problems. Physical education is a way of education through

physical activities which are selected and carried on with full

regard to values in human growth, development and behaviour.


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Charles A. Bucher says that," Physical education is an

integral part of the total education process and as its aim is

the development of physically, mentally, emotionally and socially

1) John Dewey - Lectures in the philosophy of education New


York, Random House 1967 P 151. Also refer P.C.Melutosh et al.
Landmarks in the History of physical education Routedge and
Kegan Paul, London 1981 Chapter 1.
2) Charles A. Buchar : Foundation of Physical education,
Saintstouis C.V.Moshy Co. 1974
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fit citizen through the medium of physical activities which have

been selected with a view to realising these outcomes.

" Physical education is the social process of change in the

behaviour of human organism, originating primarily from the

stimulus of social big muscle-play and related activities "- C.C.


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Dwell

Physical education aims at strengthening the learning-

process of all children and youth so as to make them responsible


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citizens in our democratic society. The integration of the

physical education activities with literature, art, music,

science and with other subjects will make a substantial

contribution towards the intellectual development of the

individual. Plato has rightly said that the dreams of education's

potential was the development of a citizen - a‘man of character.

Sports and games being rhythmic activities, literature and music

were all
activities suited to a man of character because they
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helped to develop harmony of spirit.
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Man has begun co live a soft and sedentary life in the

modern age of science and technology and as a result physical,

fitness of human beings has been deteriorating. This poses a big

1) C.C.Cowell : Scientific foundation of physical education


N.Y. Harper, 1953.
2) W.K.Street and Simon A Menecly A platform for physical
education in journal of the American Association for Health
Physical education & Recreation, Vol. XXI, March, 1950 P.136
3) Plato's the laws (translated with an introduction by A.E.
Taylor) E.D. Dutton and company New York, 1960.
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problem la advanced countries where life has become more

mechanical, thereby reducing the availability of leisure. It is in

this context that some scientific exercises have been adopted in

the Western world. Science and technology have made the world

inter-linked and small. Hence inter-relationship inter-

dependancies, inter-Migration and linkage are not only inevitable

but are eminently necessary for survival. Herold Borrow has

observed that all nations are Microcosm of that larger world.


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Micracoin Donald Keys suggests that a spirit of "Oneness” is

already occuring around the world and for the first time in

history, many individuals of human species are consciously


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experiencing, being a part of the planetory, human species.

Carnes, sports, dances, and art however are aspects of

culture which act as important cultural bridges between people of

the world. International competition in games sports such as

Olympic games, dance festivals, art exhibitions act as


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integrating agents between two different nations of the world.
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This idea of improving understanding among the different

nations of the world inspired Baron pierre De Coubertin to revive

the Olympic games. It gave birth to many international

1) Harold M. Barrow : Man and movement principles of physical


education 3rd Ed. Lea and Fibiger Phyladelphia 1983, P.16
2) Donald Keys : Synthesis of Nation Graduate'women in American
Association of University women Vo.74, Wo. 4, July/August 1980
PP 12-13.
3) Cowell and France : Philosophy and principle of physical
education. Eagle wood clifts N.J. Preatice Hall 1963, PP 4-5
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organisations in the field of physical education and sports. In

1959 the International Council of Health Physical Education and

Recreation (ICHPER) was formed.

Its function was to look into the teacher preparation

programmes and conduct International conferences for the physical

education teachers. Another organisation. The International

Council of Sports and Physical Education (ICSPE) was founded in

the year 1960 to cater to the interest of physical education and

sports and to improve the cultural values among nations.

Similarly in the year 1961 International Olympic Academy was

established to look into the affairs of Olympic games. A similar

organisation International Olympic Committee (ICC) was also set

up to organize Olympic games and encourage sports competitions in

the world.

There are many other sports organisations which work for the

improvement and promotion of sports in the world. Physical

education ican become one of the most viable factors in cross-

cultural integration as it has its own, language and can provide

a medium for international understanding and goodwill. UNESCO and

other agencies have contributed to a transnationalization of


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physical education and sports and have pioneered the concept that

all people live in an increasingly inter-dependent world.

Sound mind in a sound body is a common saying. Physical

activities involve the whole man, not his body and muscles only.

It is based upon the biological unity of mind and body. As


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J.F.Williams says" It is the plain truth of the matter that no

individual, no community, no nation can depend upon one aspect of


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the life for the whole of living."

Games and sports are important for the development of well-

balanced personalities and for social welfare Sports and

recreation have their physical, mental, emotional, social and

civic benefits.

Thomas Sheehan and Alsop have suggested that sports may be

viewed as a 'Micro Society'and within this structure, social


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value such as co-operation may be learnt.

Sports sociologists caution however that changes in

behaviour will not occur unless such changes are planned and

influenced through attitude-modification-techniques which the

programme would attempt to do. In a sound system of education,

community living and educational practices with the school must

bear a close relationship.

The Greek civilization particularly as represented by the

Athenians was a high point in the history of education. For the

first time education had a balanced goal. This led to the

development of the concept of "whole man" a person who was well

1) J.F.William, Education through the physical in the journal


of Higher Education Vol. I, May 1930 PP 279-282.
2) Thomas Sheehan and Willian L. Alsop "Educational sports in
journal of Health Physical Education Recreation May 1972,
PP 41-45.
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and equally developed in mind and body. However, today sports and

physical education seem to be operative to the tune of

ideologies of two superpowers.

In the Soviet Philosophy sports are apparently conceived as

a tool of propaganda. However, the Americans feel that Sports and

Athletics act as ambassadors of goodwill and democratic values.

1.2 DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS :

Sports andgames being a part and parcel of physical

education are as old as the human race itself and were practiced

even before the existence of modern civilization. Competitions in

sports are not the product of present day. They have been a part

and parcel of human civilization from its inception. Competitions

are the result of the urge for competition with others, the

desire for creative activity and the need for survival.

Recreation was the main aim of sports.Physical education

and sports reached the glorious height by making the game an

integral part of the national policy and education. Slowly the

concept of the sports changed from recreation to competitions.

1.2.1 Olympic games : The birth of the Olympic games is in the

year 776 b.C. The meet moved in a rhythm of 4 years beginning as

one event programme. French noble man Baron Piecre-de-Coubertin is

called the father of modern Olympic games. Olympic means bringing

1) John E. Nixon and Ann E. Jewett : An Introduction to physical


education (8th Ed.) W.B. Sqnnders Company Philadelphila 1974,
P.142.
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people and Nations together in peace and friendliness. Coubertine

mobilized the public opinion and presented his plan to an

International Congress held by French Sports Union on June 16,

1894. The first Modern Olympic was held from 5th to 15th

April,1896.

The important thing in the Olympics is not to win but to

take part. The important thing in life is not the triumph but the

struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but fought

well.

Olympic symbol consists of Five Rings or Circles interlinked

to represent the sporting Friendship of all peoples. This symbol

was devised by Cubertin in 1913. He also suggested that it should

be printed on a white flag which should be become the Olympic

flag. Each ring should be different colour circle, red, green,

yellow, blue, black. Five colours he said, represent the five

continents. This was used in the year 1920 at Antwerp Olympic.

The Olympic Motto is Faster-Higher-Stronger.

1.2.2 ASIAN GAMES :

The Asian games were born on February 13, 1949, when

representation of Afganistan, Burma, India, Pakistan and

Philliphinas signed the constitution at Patiala House, New Delhi

& thus became the founder members of Asian Games Federation. The

representatives adopted "Ever Onward" as the motto of the games.

The games gave rise to the concept of an all Asian Games

though the idea of bringing together the youth of Asia on the


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field of sports lay dormant until March, 1947. The Asian Relation

Conference called by Pandit Nehru in New Delhi presented an

opportunity to bring to the notice of the countries attending 1

the conference the proposal for Asian Games.

The Prime Minister Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru is the

founder of the first Asian Games and they were initially set to

take place in 1950, The Asian games have been held regularly at

four years interval since then.

The Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) has officially decided to

include Kabaddi, Sepak Takraw and Tack-Wondo in the 1994

Hiroshima Assian Game.

A total of 337 events in 34 desciplins of the games were

included in the Hiroshima Asian Games of 1994.

1.2.3 COMMONWEALTH GAME :

Commonwealth Games were previously known as British Empire

Games. The first Commonwealth Games were held in 1930 at

Hamilton, Canada. When the games first began only 11 countries

participated. Subsequently Commonwealth Games were held at

London, Sydney, Auckland, Vancouver, Peric, Jamaica (West Indies)

Endiburgh (UK) Edmonton( Canada) Brisbane (Austriala) Edinburgh

(UK) and 13th Commonwealth Games were held at Auckland (New

Zealand) in 1990. The number of participant teams went up to 50

member Nations in the 1990, Commonwealth Games, 1994 Commonwealth

Game, 1994 had been awarded to Victoria.


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1.3 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS :

Through the description and broader understanding of


Physical education provides a dynamic and clear exposition of
the present day interpretation. It explains the major objectives
of physical education which are relevant to any phase of school
or college progamme. It indicates the necessity of base for the
selection of educational opportunities to the students on a need
assessment. The major curriculum elements which should be
included at each educational level have been described.
1) to train the mind
2) to develop the character
3) to master anatomical and muscular knowledge of the body
4) to learn the basic concepts of selected desciplines,
5) to develop the character,
6) to develop the human potentialities of the individual so he
would become an effective participating member of democratic society,
7) to develop the rational powers and to develop the ability to think,
8) to develop the leadership.
The definition of aim of physical education is as follows :
Organized physical education aims to make the maximum
contribution to the optimum development of the individual's.
Potentialities in all phases of life, by placing him in an
environment which provides the movement and related responses as
activities that best contribute to this purpose.
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1.3.1 Physical education and Health education :

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According to Bucher the value of physical education and

health programmes will depend largely upon how far, they meet

following criteria. The physical education programme includes a

variety of daily movement experiences and instruction in many

basic motor activities, aimed not at making the student a

superior performer in one or two, but stressing a modest

performance in all, consistent with his developmental level. It

also helps each student to achieve physical efficiency according

to desirable standards.

The physical education/health programme provides boys and

girls with accurate and significant health knowledge related to

their individual needs and interest. There is also concern for

health services and healthy physical and emotional environment.

Physical education and health programmes are accorded

educational, respectability, so that students and parents will


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more readily appreciate their value and seek to benefits they

offer.

Physical education aims to make people healthy or to put


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another way "Physical education aims to promote healthy living"

is a claim which in the part has been used frequently to win

support for the physical education programme, but the more we

attempt to define "Health" and the more clearly we understand the

1) Bucher C.A. Foundations of physical education


Sovit Louis c.v. mosby company 1954.
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causes of diseases the more dangerous this claim seems to be the


cause of physical education, when put forth in the usual normal
manner. Health is now thought of, not merely as freedom from
disease but as a condition of all round efficiency of human
organism mentally, socially and physically which enables people
to live fully and completely.
Physical education aims to keep people "healthy". For in this
sense of the word, all aspects of organized education aim at
health.
1.3.2 THE CORRECTION OF PHYSICAL DEFECTS :

In the past the claim has been made frequently that the main
purpose of physical education is to correct physical defects.
Although this notion is seldom heard today, there does not exist
considerable controversy concerning the place of corrective
physical education in the total education programme and the role
of physical education teachers in corrective programme. The most
prevalent physical defect in school children is dental decay.
Defective sight and hearing is also very common. Physical
education keeps the children fit and fine by preventing them from
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such defects. Here is a situation which challenges the whole


social order and is not one to be lightly passed over to a
particular group of educationers.
Physical education should be regarded as a type of education
rather than a thereapeutic agency. We should find it necessary
to qualify ourselves especially for the work and we should
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employ all available help of specialists in this -important

undertaking. It is feasible to work out a plan whereby the

regular physical education teacher can conduct physical activity

regiment for these pupils under the supervision of the physician in charge

1.3.3 PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND BODY BUILDING ;

Many persons in the past believed that the aim of physical

education was "body building". This notion was stimulated by

Charles Atlas Physical culture' advertisements in popular

magazines by Bob Hoffman and other professional weight lifters

have commercialized this activity. This aim was never fully

accepted by the physical education profession, because it did not

have the necessary properties of desirable "educational"

experience and there was no sound scientific basis to support the

claim its advocates.

Now a days it is accepted by physical educators, Athelets

coaches, team-physicians, that weight training is a legitimate

phase of the physical education, Athelet programme weight

training is to be distinguished carefully from weight lifting.

In recent years considerable evidence and experiences have

accumulated and they indicate that weight training can develop

strength and promote general conditioning, which in turn

facilitates improved athletic performance in wide variety of

sports. Also boys and girls in physical education classes and

many adults as well, have come to realize the value of general

conditioning regions properly suited to each person. Individual


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health status and many of these conditioning programmes include

elements of weight training in them or may even consist of weight

training exclusively.

The program of the body building ranks, muscular development

and personal bodily appearance as being of supreme importance.

Its particular appeal lies in the case with which this type of

development can be observed and measured and in the fallacious

concept that strength and muscular development are somehow

certain indices of health and efficiency. Weight training is

beneficial for girls and women as well as for boys and men, when

properly adopted to each individual and when conducted under

instructions of highly qualified physical educators. The cultural

bias against this activity for females gradually is being

overcome as its potential benefits become more fully recognised.

So with the above consideration in mind, we conclude that while

body building porse is not a legimate objective of physical

education, weight training when properly prescribed and

administered is an acceptable place of proramme but should not be

regarded as the broad aim of physical education.

1.3.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND NEUROMUSCULAR CO-ORDINATION :

The cultivation of a general quality of neuromusclar co­

ordination sometimes designated as "gracefulness" or "physical

efficiency" has often been advocated as the main purpose of

physical education. Unquestionably, physical education experience

should result in the improvement of skills.


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Recent evidence from the investigations of Henry & Cratty

Fisherman and others significantly altered the old view of a

unitary trait or general quality of co-ordination. A concept

which previously was thought to be the basis for the success of

highly skilled decathlon performer could score well in the

tiveree type of track and field events.

New theories are being developed which place more emphasis

on task speciality. The individual who appears to have what was

popularly called "general motor ability" is now believed to

possess, many specific abilities in the upper ranges of skilled

performance. This view represents a significant change of

theoretical insight into the problem of physical co-ordination.

In addition to the current belief that the co-ordinations are

quite specific, recent evidence also indicates that there may be

several abilities which underlie motor performance such as :

1) Ability to utilize space efficiently during accurate

movements.

2) Ability to mobilize & produce full speed and maximum force

at the precise crucial movement during a skilled movement.

3) Ability to relax while performing.

4J Ability to think about and logically analyse a complex motor

task to be performed. It seems probable that these general

abilities can be explained as relatively stable

constitutional factors which are determined by hereditary

predispositions, basic organic structure and physiological


functioning.
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Cratty proposes a four-part-theory of perceptual behaviour


which includes the two parts just discussed. The third part of
the theory postulates the presence of ability traits which seems
to operate when optimum effort is exerted relative to a motor
performance.
Mccloy, Guilford, Fleishman and other investigators have
identified abilities which could be appended to this list.
The fourth part of theory also indicates that personal
pefformances or personal equation is variable which influences
performances. Examples are of the individuals ability to persist
with a task even though it is painful or uncomfortable, an
individualized sense of rhythm and tempo at which the movement
is performed. The presence of the individual for the use of space
to accomplish the purpose of the performance and the unique way
the person employs force efficiently.
Fleishmen adds to the controvercy by reporting careful
research which identified nine components of what he calls
"Physical proficiency" These nine components are as follows :
1) extant flexibility 2) dynamic flexiblity
3) explosive strength 4) static strength
5) dynamic strength 6) trunk strength
7) gross body coordination a) gross body equilibrium
9) stamina.
Fleishman concludes from his studies that physical
proficiency is not a single general ability but it consists of
several relatively independent factors.
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One of the primary objectives of physical education is to

teach skill development in a wide variety of interesting physical

activities. The individual who improves his skill in a certain

activity is more likely to have the motivation and interest to

continue active participation in that activity over an extended

period of time. Thus while it is appropriate to regard the

development of a variety of skills as a highly desirable

objective of physical education, this development should not be

considered as its ultimate aim.

1.3.5 PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND GOOD CITIZENSHIP :

It is the claimed that the chief purpose of physical

education is the promotion of good citizenship. This aim may be

regarded as the aim of all education. If we think a "good"

citizen as one who attains and maintains a full measure of

development and efficiency, physically, mentally and socially,

but according to the statement of the aim of physical education,

the expression "good citizenship" is too vague and needs to much

explanation. Furthermore the physical education cannot have

scientific evidence that such an aim is in fact promoted by

physical education experiences. He can only asset his subjective

judgement to support his contention.

In a similar Vein an author has challenged the "Sportsman­

ship Myth". He points out that even if a teacher or coach can

educate his pupils to act in sportsman-like ways during an

athletics contest, there is no assurance or evidence that the


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same individuals will behave honestly or ethically in a business

transaction in later years. In other words, he cast serious

doubts on the assumption of "Transfer of Learning" from physical

education experience to other areas of life experiences in the

future with respect, to desirable qualities of "Citizenship".

1.3.6 BEHAVIOURAL AND PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES :

The two terms behavioural objective and performance


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objective have become interchangeable. Although critics of the

term "behavioural" read into it a set towards the dehumanization

of the pupil, a forced shaping of behavour and a mechanized form

of learning perhaps “behaviourial" skill has the most wide spread

usage in thip country. Whatever lable is applied, these

objectives are stated as specific description of actual stable

behavioural changes which are thought to be desirable by the end

of the learning experience. These learned behaviours are described

with an emphasis on action verbs which peimiit direct observation

and objectified evaluation in terms of specific expectations

inherent in each objective. From this process comes the common

expression "stating objectives in behavioral terms" describing

them "operationally" and formulating "performance objectives".

Obviously objectives of this kind can be stated at varying

levels of speciality one hierarchical model is the following :

1) Ultimate behavioural objective 2) terminal behavioural

3) terminal intermediate behaviour objective,

4) Intermediate behavioural objective, 5) Sub-behavioural objective


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2.4 DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS & PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN ADVANCED ECONOMY

It is generally thought that the first nation of Europe is

Greece who bridges over the Yawing Gulf between the East & the

West. Greece led Europe in many fields of knowledge. This was


the first nation to give serious thinking & direction to

education & physical education.


In the Greek civilization there were two "important city

states known as Athens and Sparta." These two city states though

similar in many respects were in marked contrast in their method


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of government and in their philosophies of education.
The History of physical education in Greece can be divided

into four parts :

1) Homeric period
2) Sprtan Period
3) Early Athenian Period
4) Later or Golden period

1.4.1 HOMERIC AGE : Homer the blind poet wrote "I Had" and

Odyssey" the world famous epic recording the early Greecian life.
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During this period the Greeks lived an agricultural and pastorial


life. It was almost a premitive society. The aim of physical

education was to produce man of action apparently the idea was to

keep physically sound so as to live the life to the fullest.

"Homer" described, physical education programme in ancient


Athens and emphasized such physical activities as hunting

William h. Freeman : Physical education and sports in a


changing society (2nd Ed.) Surjeet Publication Delhi, 1982 PP 20-31.
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fishing, swimming, running, throwing the discus and Javeline,

boxing and wrestling dancing and Military manoeuvre. The spirit

of competition and rivaler was not only confined to individual

but even to the cities.

1.4.2 SPARTA : Sparta was absolutely a totalitarian state and

as such all the activities of the individual were regulated by

strict military regimentation.

Spartan boys were raised to become healthy and strong

warriors and girls were trained to become physically fit mothers.

Sick children were weeded out shortly after birth by the elders
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and often left to die on monut Taygetus. All the spartans were

called city soldiers and their self was subservient and

subordinate to the state. Spartan succeeded in developing strong

and healthy young men and women. Spartan athlets were dominant in

the Olympic games. The training of the spartan youth was

composed of a military conditioning programme of gymnastics,

swimming, wrestling,boxing running events and the throwing of

discus and Javelins. Physical exercise was an impardonable feature

of spartan soldier. The education of spartan women was similar to

that of men. The mothers in whom state love had been bred more

strongly encouraged the youth to aspire to be good soldiers.

There were more teachers and pupils teacher in Sparta than in any

other state or nation.

1) Anthr Weston : The making of American physical education


Meredith Publishing Company, New York, 1962 PP 2-3.
2) John E. Nixon and Ann E Jeweth Op. Cit. PP 121-122.
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1.4.3 EARLY ATHENIAN PERIOD :

Athenians in many respects were similar to Spartans, yet they

had their distinction more marked in their political aim. They

were soldiers and warlike but not undemocratic. The aim of

Athenian education was to develop the mental, aesthetic, moral and

physical abilities of man to better enable him to serve the

state. The Athenians and other Greeks held many festivals but

Olympic games was the biggest festival, it was celebrated in honour


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of Zeus, Chief god of the Greece. The first Olympic games took

place in 776 B.C. and were held after every four years until 394

A.D. A month long peace was declared around at the time of Gaines.

Physical education was at its Zenith in Athens where it

flourished as an integral function of national life. Physical

education cannot be analysed apart from the general ideal of

Athenian education. Through physical education the youngsters

were expected to develop self discipline and courage, humility

determination and sportmanship. Yet much more emphasis was given

on the formation of character than to the development of strength

and Athletic power. Modern physical education owes little to the

Romans. Their interest in sports was largely of spectators

interest Gladiatarial games and professional exhibition occupied


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a prominant place for the exclusion of other sporting contest

1) Deobold B. Van Dalan et al. A world history of physical education


(2nd Ed.) Prentice Hall Englewood cliff N.T. 1971 PP 51-56.
2) John N. Nixon & Aon E. Jewett Op Cit PP 124-25.
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The educattion of the child in Athens was much less

prescribed and regulated than in Sparta from about the age of

sixteen and continuning throughout most of their adult life. Male

citizen with sufficient leisure practised physical exercise in

the gymnasium. These institutions were financed by the state and

administered by public officials. All of the city states

participated in the four great "National" athletics contests

known as the Panhellenic Games that included Olympics, Isthmian,

Pyhian & Nemean festivals. Methods of teaching and learning

physical education were not so harsh as we find with Spartans .

Athenian youth learnt by imitation, emulation and by

participation both in Palestre and music school. Motivation was

over present in the Athemian youth.

1.4.4 LATER ATHENIAN OR GOLDEN PERIOD :

In this period individualism became the order of the day and

the center of social phylosophy and is called Golden period.

Socrates held that seeking true knowledge rather than

traditional knowledge was the chief aim of education.

ROM :

The story of Roman physical education can be divided into

two parts. The first era originates in the folkways of the

ancient times and extends through the great period of Roman

expansion under the early republic and comes to an end when in

146 Corinth fell. It was an occasion when Hollanse were defeated

and Gracian civilization was overpowered by Romans. The later


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period of Roman education includes the assimilation of greek


culture, the downfall of the republic the rise of the empire and
finally the gradual deterioration and eventual destruction of
the great Roman civiliazation.
Chinese history extends more than two thousand years before
the Christian era. The combined nature of the various aspects of
Chinese life made vigorous physical exercises as an idea of
little interest to the society. However such recreational games
and sports as early versions of soccer polo, chess & competitions
in archery and wrestling were practised by the people. Dancing
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was also popular.
It is apparent that china, like most other clviliazations
had a heritage of games and physical activities. Wen-Chung Wu
points out that inthe earlycenturies, life in China was
characterized by dancing, wrestling, bow and arrow shooting,
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hygiene and various physical activities.
A physical education law was passed in 1929 and a National
Physical Education Committee was organized in the ministry of
education. The new law made a physical education compulsory
subject.
There are three men who made tremendous contribution to the
cause of physical education in Europe and in America. They were

1) William H. Fieeman Op. Cit. PP 22-23.


2) Wen-Chung Wu - Selection of Historical Literature and
Illustration of Physical activities in Chinese Culture
Normal University Taiwan 1975 P. 16
24

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John from Germany, Ling from Sweden, and Nochtegail of Denmark

German gymnastics spread throughout Germany and later the entire

world. Modern gymnastic appartus as the vaulting boxes, parallel

bars and horizontal bars were introduced by John. It was also

stressed that "bodily exercises -- as a necessary and

indispensable integral part of male education -- should be


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adopted as an agency in the education of the people.

End of the wars and revolutions in the middle of the 19th

century,caused the development of sports.Some sports

organisations came into being for giving sports an organized

shape. At the end of 19th Century. National and International

sports competitions started all over Europe. These International

Competitions gave birth to the modern dynamic games, While

Denmark, Germany and Sweden were developing system of gymnastics,

England was engaged in games and sports. It was said that the
*

battle of Waterloo was won on the playing field of Eton. Games

such as Golf, tennis. Cricket, hockey, Football, track and field

events and many other sports became a way of life with the

British.

1) David o. matheus : A historical study of the aims contents


and methods of Swedish Danish andGerman, Gyminatstics
Proceedings of the National College Physical Education
Association for Men January, 1969.
2) James C Boykin : Physical Training, Report of the
Commissioner of Education for 1891-92 Washington D.C.
Government Primiting officer 1984 P. 489.
25

Today, sports are an integral part of all the physical Education

Programmes. The objectives of physical education programme in

England may be listed as the attainment of social qualities,

physical fitness, leadership ability,sound character and graceful

body movements.

The British were fond of Amature Sports. They eleminated

professionalism in favour of amateurism and it gave an amature

sports to all the countries of the world. To strengthen this idea


1
Haward J. Savage said "It is still one of the fortunate aspects

of the persistance of the sports tradition of the English public

school that is strengthened and seasoned.The British Government

issued a white paper of physical training and recreation,

accompanied by plans for establishing a National Advisery council

in physical training and recreation with more than thirty sub

committees. In 1938 the Physical Training Recreation Act was

implemented and in the first three years eight million dollars

were spent for the development of physical education and


2
recreation in the United Kingdom.

Another Act, the Education Act of 1944 made the optional

provisions of the Fisher Education Act of 1918 mandatory and was

also passed. This Act required local authorities to provide


3
facilities for physical education and recreation in the School.

1) Haired J. Savage : Games & Sports in British Schools and


Universities Bulletin No. 18, The Carnegie foundation.
New York, 1928 P.198.
2) Peter C. Mctntosh Physical education in Enland since 1800 G.
Bell and Son Ltd. (London) 1952 PP 142-43.
3) Ibid PP 142- 43.
26

In Germany during the days of Hitler, physiologists

therapists, physicians and sports authorities emphasized on

scientific and other best training methods for the athelates.

After World war I almost all the German cities like

Frankfurt. Hamburg and Leipzg started constructing play grounds

and swimming pools to provide sports facilities to the people.

Now both the Germany have National Federations of sports and also

sports association in operation. This country have emerged as the

topmost sport lovers. Physical education is a compulsory subject

in all the schools of Scandinavia, Norwagian sports confederation

in Norway State Athletic Board in Finland. Danish Sports

Federation in Denmark and Swedish sports federation Sweden.

Control and promote amature sports in these countries.

By the close of the 19th century Gymnastic and Military

training was emphasized in Japan. In 1945 sports and games

programmes were recognised, and physical education was made a

compulsory subject in all the schools. In 1949 physical education


1
was required in both the old and newly created Universities.

Popular sports in Japan include Football, Rugby, Hockey,

Volleyball,Basketball,Swimming, Judo, badminton, soft ball,


2
tennis,sailing, golf,mountain climbing, skiing and Athletics.

1) Education in New Japan General Headquarter supreme commandor


for Allied powers civil information and education
section. Education Division, Tokyo, May 1948 PP 118-120, 324.
2) Herbert Warren Wind The Burning Ball sports Ilustrated 8:7
February 1958 PP 57-59. Herbart Warren wind " Around the
Mulberry Bush" Sports Illustriated 8:8 March, 1958, PP 61.
57-58
27

Like Britian, Russia also adopted amature sports ideology in

the year 1924.The first congress on physical education was held in

Moscow. The congress recommended that hygiene institution be

provided to the general public and physical education be required

in all medical schools, higher institutions and Industrial plants,

U.S.S.R. created a Supreme Council of physical culture to

popularise physical education among schools, colleges and common

masses. Compulsory physical examinations were required for all the


1
pupils at the beginning of the school year. Soviet society was

the first in history constitutionally guaranteeing every one of

its members an opportunity for unlimited development and health


2
protection. It is said that in 1934 about 61 million Athelets

were registered with the Supreme Council on physical culture in

Soviet Union By the year 1945 Russia had 650 stadia,43500

gymnaciums and 10,000 play fields. In 1955 the Soviet Union

established 820 special sports schools for athletically talented

boys and girls with an enrollment of 190,000 children. Five years


i

later the number of such school reached 1000, with 25000000

children enrolled and a staff of 7000 coaches was engaged.

1) Arthur A Essyingor Health Physical Education and recreation


promotion 29' 6 September 1958, 33-35, 68. John B. Melendom
Jr. the Soviet Unions.
2) G.I. Kukushkin. The system of physical education in the USSR
Raduga publication Moscow, 1983 P. 230. •
28

In his speech Brezhneve said " We must continue to raise the

international class of our sports, but the main thing is the mass

character of the sports movement, the development of physical

culture, embracing the entire youth, conditioning of well

qualities, physical preparedness of the young men and women for


1
labour and defence." It was meant for health building and

physical fitness of the masses. The movement received support

from party. Government and various public organisations. There is

a noticeable increase in facilities.In all 2300 swimming pools,

7800 gymnasiums, 800,000 play fields could be used by a

population of 30 million people a day. People were allowed to use


2
these facilities free of charge.

Russia took part in Olympic games for the first time in the
3
year 1952 and stood second over all. They have always attained

first place since 1960 Olympics except in 1968 when they stood
4
second. However Russia did not take part in Los Angeles Olympics

in 1984.
i
Physical education movements in Canada started seriously; in

1943 with the passing of National Physical Fitness Act by the

parliament. In the year 1954 National Council of Health and

Safety took over the responsibility of National Council on

1) L.I. Brezhnev : On communist Education of the working people


(Speeches and articles) Moscow, Politizdat, 1975, P. 197.
2) Baris Goncharow for the millions and for each of us in
sports in the USSR in illustrated monthaly March, 1986 PP 2-3
3) C.W.Hackensmith : History of physical education. Harper &
Row New York, 1966 PP 218-24.
4) L.Motveyer : Fundamentals of Sports Training Progress
Publishers, Moscow, 1981 P.13.
29

physical fitness, Canadian coaches adopted many of the training

techniques of their American counterparts.

The present stage of evolution and the expressed commitment

to excellence in sports by the Canadian government provides a

suitable climate for sports development centers, or National

Sports Training centres or sports institutes. Such centers

provide training facilities and support services for athletics,

coaches, officials and sports planners, and researchers. In the

year 1922 a Torento District Physical Education Clubs was formed

and in 1923 the Quebec Physical Education Association was

established with 28 members. Through the combined efforts of the

parents societies the Canadian physical education association was

organised in 1933. The Canadian Inter Collegiate Athletic Union

was organised in 1906. Football, Cricket, Hockey and many other


1
clubs were in existence in Canada.

During the colonial period, physical education in America

was not very popular but it started developing with the

establishment of new cities. Physical education in the United

States can be divided into three phases. The first phase (1636-

1918) was dominated by medical professionals. The second

phase(1918-1960) was dominated by educational professionals. The

third phase (1960-onwards) started an humanist perspectives and

became as established discipline.

1) Canadian Inter college football Rule book 1962. Canadian


Association for Health Physical education and recreation 515,
Jarris sheet toranto 5 Canada.
30

The Chio Law of 1882 requires physical culture to be tought

in the longer schools throughout the state and in 1904 the law

was amended to include all schools, Winconsin period a

peramissive law in 1897 and two years later North Dakota required

physical education in all common schools to develop and

discipline the body and promote health through systematic


1
exercises.

Strong efforts during the 1890's for a state law in

Pennsylvania finally met with sucess in 1901. A mandatory clause

in the California school law of 1866 provided that regular

instruction and attention be given to such physical exercises for

the pupil as may be conductive to health and vigour of the body


2
as well as the mind. A few new states passed legislation

regarding physical education and by 1945 a total of 45 states had

a physical education law.

Benjamin Franklin was the first American to propose that

physical training be made part of the curriculum of an

educational institution. President Eisenhower formed President

1) Inn S. Aller : The rise of state provisions for physical


education in the public secondary schools of the United
States (Docteral dissertation) University of California
1935, P.97.

2) Dudley S. Degoat : Physical Education in California 1854-


1900 Journal of health and physical education 10:2 (February
1939) PP 67-68.
31

Council on youth fitness in 1956 to develop a programme for the


1
fitness of the youth of the country. Many schools and

universities followed this programme and introduced physical

education in their curriculum. The first teacher's training

institute for physical education was established in 1861 by the

North American Turnerbunal at Rochester, New York. By the year

1953, there were more than 70 institution offering master's

Degree and around 20 institutions started research work for


2
doctorate degress.

In 1885 YMCA started a Department of physical education in

the Springfield College. YMCA played a significant role in the


3
promotion of physical education in U.S.A. Two other important

organisations Amature Athletics Union (AAU) and National

Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) were established in the

ninties and these two organisations dominated sports in United

States. In the year 1938 American Association for Health,

Physical Education and Recreation (ASHPER) was formed. Its name

was changed twice and now it is known as American Alliance for

Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.(AAHPERD).

The development of physical education in Japan can be

roughly divided into two major periods.

1) The period preceding the Meeji Era.


2) The period succeeding it (1867 todate)

1) William H. Freeman Op. Cit. P. 70


2) Jack E. hewitt : Status of the Graduate Faculty in research
Quasterly. vol. XVI October 1945 P. 236.
3) Harold M. Barrow Op. Cit. P. 70.
32

With the beginning of Meeji era in 1867 physical education

in Japan especially in the schools came into close relationship

with physical education of western world Meeji period was from

1862 to 1912. The curriculum fromulated for schools in 1913,

included physical exercises, military drills, play, fencing and

judo for men students of normal schools and secondary schools and

it especially featured in Sweedish exercises which were adopted

on a Nationwide scale and formed the core of curriculum. This

continued during Taisho period (1912-26) During the period, inter

-national competitions like Olympic games and consequently track

and field athletics, ball games of various types were adopted as

essential part of the physical education curriculum.

Showa period (1926-33) was marked by an important change in

educational method by the shift from the formal method of

education, in which teachers play such an important part to the

informal methods in which pupils are encouraged to contribute as

much as possible to the programme. Finally the quick introduction


I

of the competitive games into elementary school tended to create

undesirable practices that is regarded as the normal physical

development of children. The second, revised curriculum issued in

1936 shared a great importance over the earlier one and largely

removed the short comings that have been just discussed.


33

1.5 DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN INDIA :

Many of the historians have devoted very little space to the

aspects of Indian history though the India Valley civilization

was its opez when most nations of Europe had not opened their

eyes. The greatest drawback in our civilization without doubt has

been that the people never kept the Western records of their

cultural and political heritage based on traditions and customs,

hearings or legends is whether relly reliable cannot be said

certainty in Roman period where people used to do some exercise

to keep themselves physically fit.

Gambling was one of the most popular sports during the

period of prehistoric reckoning.Children mostly played with birds

and beasts made of clay. They had pet animals also Somadeva's
1
Katha saint Sagara gives a good idea of the physical

competitions which are said to have formed part of life in these

days.

History of physical education in India can be the study of

various periods of political history of India.

The pre-vedic Period :

Archiological excavation at Mohenjo daro (the Hound of the

Dead) in the Larkhara district of the Sind have revealed the

presence of a highly developed civilization around 2500 B.C. The

open guardangle also contains a swimming bath, about 39 feet

1) Somederas' Katha Srit Sagara a the Ocean of story translation


by CH Tolwney notes by N.H. Bonzer M.I. PP 10-20 (Privately
printed by Chas J. Sawyer in 10 vol. London )
34

long, 23 feet wide and 8 feet deep with a flight of steps at


1
either end. In a well organised society of this type, there were

almost certainly leisure pursuits for people of all strata but of

these little is known except that gambling was a favourite pastime

and the children played with Whistles, rattles, and clay models

of men and women, animal birds and even household articles.

Physical fitness was probably maintained by the rigours outdoor

life.

1.5.1 VEDIC AGE : (c. 2000-1000 B.C.)

The Indo Aryans who immigrated to Northen India from Central

Asia or Europe have left as a picture of their way of life in the

Vedas, which were handed down orally for centuries before being

committed to writing. They lived in villages and in course of

time developed states which were ruled by kings. They enjoyed

strong drink and gambling with dice and music poetry and singing

formed part of their control activity. Despite these gentler art

the Indo-Aryans were a strong, warlike race, skilled in the use

of the bow, spear and battleaxe and adapt at riding horses and

driving chariots.

Towards the end of the Vedic period an important development

took place which has affected the course of physical education in

India right down to present day. This was the practice of

1) Mohonjo : Daro and the Indus civilisation edited by Sir


John Marshall P.24, published by.
35

Pranayama or the holding of breath before each prayer. This was

considered beneficial for the lungs & a means of prolonging life


1
and was to develop into yoga asanas. Its significance is that it

recognises that calm control and exertion can promote physical

health. A series of physical exercise known as the

"Suryanamaskar" was also divised to improve the physical

condition of the body and keep the breathing mechanism in good


2
order.

Another feature of Vedic civilisation was training in the

use of lathi, with which a young man was expected to defend

himself in case of emergency. At a special ceremony known as

"danda-pradana" to mark a youth's coming to age,he was presented


3
with a lathi, which then accompanied him wherever he went.

1.5.2 THE EPIC AGE :

The Epic Age is that covered by the period associated with

the Mahabharatha and the Ramayana,the former deals with the great

war between the Kaurawas and the Pandavas, the latter with the

exploits of the hero Rama.

This period was one of great conflict and bloshed and can

deduce the physical training and was directed mainly towards

military training - archary, javalin, spear throwing, fighting

with the sword and battle-axe. These epics do, however, mention

1) The vedic age by R.C.Majundar and A.D. Pusalkar, P.517 George


Allen and Unwin London 1957.
2) Ibid.
3) Education in Ancient India, by A.S.Altekar P. 7 (Nand Kishore
and brothers, Varanasi 1957}.
36

wrestling, swimming and dancing and Bhima, Jarasandha, Krishna and

Balram will be remembered as legendary heroes of the wrestling

arena. At modern Rajgir, there is a wrestling pit known as the

Jarasandha Ka Akhara a survival from ancient times.

The age is principally note-worthy for its fusion of Indo

Aryan and Dravidian cultures and the development of well defined

social classes, according to occupation of wrestlers, are strong

survivals in India today.

Centers of learning were established under Royal patronage

at Taxashila, Patilputra, Kanauj and Mithila. Of these, Taxashila

appears to have enjoyed the highest esteem attracting scholars

from Rajagriha (Modern Rajgir) Banaras and Mithila Vedic

literature formed the basis for general education and there was

no cast restriction for admission or for choice of subject but it

would be wrang to compare 7th century B.C. Taxashila with modern

Universities. Students came at any time of the year and stayed

until they were satisfied that they had learned enough.

Archary at Taxashila was an important special subject

attracting members of Royal families or the nobality. At one

stage, there were 103 students enrolled in this class, divided

into groups of twenty each, under a skilled teacher, and whole was
1
supervised by a senior teacher.

1) Ibid P.109
37

1.5.3 THE HISTORICAL PERIOD (6th Century B.C. onwards)

From about the time of the birth of the Buddha (C.560 B.C.)

events in India can be dated with increasing confidence and for

this reason it may be called the historical period. The ancient

religion (The Hindu Dharma) had the first Jolt in this period.

There was a great revolt and against the existing social

disparities,cast system, rigid Brahmanical attitude and orthodox

acceptance of the scriptural authority, Geographially India was


t

divided into hundred of very tiny states ruled over by kingly

dans that frequenty fought with each other. ;When Budhism and
i

Jainism shot themselves into prominance, there was general

discontentment against the Hinduism among the masses and as such

even many of the good principles of life were thrown away.

Both Jainism and Budhism emphasised the ways of peace and

did not envisage anybody building activities for defence

purposes. However, Magasthenes who visited India during

Chandragupta Mourya's period has referred to a very elaborate

system of physical and weapon training for the army. For sport

purposes, wrestling, running, jumping, javeline throwing, chariot

and horse racing etc. were very common those days. Ashoka had a

very strong army. This shows that war training was both intensive

and extensive.
38

NALANDA :

Nalanda not far from Patna was a famous center of learning.

During the fifth century A.D. more than 5000 students were

provided with accommodation. The whole lay out was much bigger

than what has been discovered so far. Pranayama and


1
Suryanamaskaras were practiced daily. Walking was best exercise

in which all took part. A glance at the exact shows that every

one must have been on the move. Nalanda remained a great center of

learning till the beginning of the thirteenth, century.

THE RAJPUTS :

The Rajputs are quick in temper, sensitive to honour and

ready to quarrel on slightest provoction and were divided into

hundreds of classes and never consolidated under the leadership.

Even a minor chief traced his pedigree as long as his sound and a
2
sword as long as the village street.

There was revival of the Hinduism during this period,and the

period may be known as the age of chivalry. However, they

remained in their full bloom upto 13th century. Rajput call

themselves as the pure Kshatriya or the Warriors and hence their

profession by birth is fighting.

1) Education in Ancient India by Dr. A.S. Altekar P. 123


(Nandkishore & Bros. Varansi 1957).

2) The legacy of India by G.T. Garrer P. 84 (Oxford Clarendon


Press London 1937).
39

The Rajput were devoted to physical training and the

military art. Each prince or chief had his own armoury known as

the "Sileh-Khana" which was a proud possesion. Their outdoor

recreations were meant for hardening the body,improving the mind,

moulding the character and developing warlike skills and the

spirit of chilvary.

Another favourite pastime on horseback was throwing the

javaline for accurate marksmanship. The rider trained themselves

to turn in their saddles, which required great skill in balancing

the body and controlling the reins at the same time.

Another form of Sports was the use of bow and arrow. Since

this was a weapon of war, the Rajputs kept themselves in training

by arranging frequent competitions in which the aim was not only

to hit at a target but to aimed the arrow deep up to its

feathers. Wrestling was a popular sports and received royal

patronge. Every prince and chief maintained a number of renowned

wrestlers who were known as Jaitis and prestige challenge matches

between royal courts attracted large crowds. The arena was called

the AKHARA.

Hunting also helped to cultivate stamina, courage and

Horsemanship. The spring hunt was followed by the great festival

of holi in which people threw coloured water or powder over each

others garments. The most spectacular sight was infront of the

place where the chief played holi on horseback, charging,

retreating, purshuing, joking with their rapid turns, giving a


40

display of horsemanship that might be too much even for the

modern polo pony.

Among the indoor games, chess was popular during the 13th

century A.D. as is shown by the tale of Nawab Mehboob Khan who in

1286 A.D. besieged the garrison of Rawal Jaetsi.

1.5.4 THE MUSLIM PERIOD :

During the Muslim period of Indian history there was

constant conflict which made it necessary for able bodied men to

practice warlike arts. Hence the emphasis on skills such as

horsemenship and use of the spear and sword was given. The Muslim

rulers with their lavish palaces and courts could still find time

to enjoy both indoor and outdoor games. The concept of physical

culture was completely lost sight of and was at its lowest ebb.

(Mohd Bin Kasim First muslim invader of India and Babar in 1525).

Hunting seems to be very popular sport of this period for

the purpose of getting pleasure.

Wrestling : This was patronized by the government. Many

wrestlers of repute are mentioned in the Moghul period. There were

Akharas run by teacher-wrestlers. In village the activity caught

a popular image for the purpose of keeping one physically fit.

Chargan : It was another popular sport of this period

Qutubauddin Aibak seems to have died while playing this game for

physical verve and alacrity. This was an effective sport.

Boxing : Boxing was popularised by Govt. The good boxers were

brought from Iran.


41

PIGEONS FLYING COMPETITION :

Through them the messeges were sent from one place to

another. Emperor. Akbar had 2000 pigeons carrying the love

letters.

SWIMMING : Swimming was very popular sport oi that period. It was

compulsory for military training, tiabar himsell 'was a very good

swimmer.

HUNTING, ANIMAL FIGHTING : These were extremely popular games

during the Muslim period.

CHESS :This sport came into being in the Western India. The kings

also patronised this sport. During 8th Century it went to China

via Kashmir. During Jahangir's time it was a very popular sport

of the people.

Emperor Akbar was a famous choper player. He invited 200

people at a time. Every one had to complete 16 times and in the

event of not completing the game, one had to drink a glass of

wine which-was forbidden for Masters.

Pachisi was a sport which originated in ancient India. We can

find its traces on the walls of Ajantha and Ellora. Pachisi was

played on piece of cloth and even today is played in the rural

part of India.

1.5.5 MARATHAS :

Aurangzeb was a fanatic Muslim ruler and had rigid religious

policies that gave birth to the fighting spirit of the Maratha


a

who gathered under the umbrella of Shivaji. History is replete

13489
42

with the valour and the fighting ability of the Marathas and they

were having honest, hard working and perfect disciplined men.They

patronised physical education and laid stress on physical fitness

and games. Shivaji built gymnasiums all over Maharashtra, he

advocated the practice of physical education in its true sense.

Wrestling was one of the very popular activities during this

period. Maratha can be said to have resurrected physical

education which was buried under the debris for centuries

together.

1.5.6 SIKHS :

Repressive policies of the Muslims brought forth another

community. They assumed the definite military character. Guru

Hari Govind singh, the Tenth Guru was the force behind the

warlike attitude of the Sikhs. Their tenth Guru established

KHALSA CULT by which the entire community was brought into war

camps. The cult ■ of KHALSA CULT gave a fillip to the physical

education in Punjab and they bravely fought for their motherland.

They were so physically fit that their opponants in the warfield

had to admit their superiority of physical stamina.

1.5.7 SOUTH INDIA :

South Indians functioned as a repository of the ancient

Indo-Aryan Culture. In support of non-existence of physical

education it will not be out of place to mention that

gladiatorial contests patronised by the kings of Vijayanagara

were obnoxious to the sense of model physical education.


43

South Indian retained some of the oldest play traditions of

the country.Wrestling, hunting, dancing, fencing, swimming and

water sports were some of their favourite sports. One of the

special features of this period was that the women had a place of

honour in the society and also took part in physical activities.

2.6 PRE INDEPENDENCE PERIOD :

This period that is pre independance era or technically

speaking pre-partition period has got its special and salient

characteristics in so far as the physical education is concerned.

Physical education has always existed in the Indian society

in one form or the other, but had never been considered as a part

and parcel of school curriculum. English are(British) the sports

loving people and pioneers in education but while in India as

rulers, they also never paid any attention to the inclusion of

physical education in the school programme.

In 1833 Govt, of India (at the center) shouldered the

responsibility of education and in 1870 the subject of education

was made a state subject.Only the center retained the supervisory

power Surprisingly enough,physical education was given no place

in the school programme. For the first time,it was the Indian

Education Commission in 1882 that recommended " Physical training

be promoted in the interest of the youth by the encouragement of

native games, gymnastics, drills and other exercises suited to

each class of school. This spurred the interest in the school

children to take physical activities as enjoyable activities. In


44

1894 the question of making physical education as a compulsory

subject was considered but no definite policy came out. Western

games, especially cricket was becoming very popular on voluntery

basis.

Indian Princes patronised English games like Cricket,

Badminton, Tennis, Hockey and Football and also supported the

clubs related to those games and sports. Private organisations

for physical education like gymnasia, Vyayam schools, Akhadas and

Kreeda Mandal contributed appreciably to the spread of

traditional interest in developmental and conditioning activities

like wrestling, lathi fight exercises with light apparatus and

indigenous games like Kho-kho, Atyapyatya.

In Pre-independance days, the physical education programme

carries by the ex-military men was re-employed by the school

authorities. They imported military drill and P.T. exercises to

the children and often proposed the children as scouts for school

ceremonies and inspection days. The outstanding development of

scientific physical education in India in pre independence days

goes to Y.M.C.A. (Young Mens Christain Association) college of

physical education, Madras founded in the year 1920 by Mr. H.C.

BUCK. Since its inception, this college has been working

tirelessly and selflessly to promote and systematise physical

education in India. In 1931 the Govt. College of physical

education in Hyderabad and in 1932 Chirstian college of physical

education Lucknow were established.In 1938 came into existence.


45
"Training Institute of Physical education Kandivali (Bombay). In

1914 Vaidya brothers founded Shri Hanuman Vyayam Prasark

Mandalee, Amaravati basically to serve the course of physical ,

education in India. In 1924 this institution started a five weeks

summer course for young men and women in indegenous activities. A

youth completing this course was awarded "Vyayam Visharad". Here

in 1946 at the time of All India Physical Education Conference,

National Association of Physical education and Recreation of

India was formed. The Mandal team gave numerous demonstrations of

activities in Europe and Middle East and in 1936 at Olympic Games

at Britain and in 1949 at the second Lingmid at Stockholm.

1•7 POST INDEPENDENCE PERIOD :

This Land of "Bharata" threw off the yoke of British Empire

in the year 1947. India has long tradition for participating in

physical activities, games and sports. The people have always


i

cherished qualities like strength, courage, valour mental


i

kneeness fairplay etc and have tried to inculcate these qualities

in their youth through a variety of activities. We can take pride

in the fact that we have developed a complete system of physical

education that has conditioning exercises with and without

apparatus individual and team games, rhythmic, combatives etc.

which have roots in our soil. Yogic practices which were designed

by our ancient Rishis to develop the individual personality in an

integrated manner is our contribution to the world.


46

With the attainment of political independance in 1947, a

spirit of National resurgence emerged and while the country was

faced with numerous pressing problems, education and programmes

of physical education in our educational institutions came to

receive the attention of our educators and leaders. The whole

country is indebted to late Prof. G.D. Sandhi, the dyon of

emergence of physical education in the past Independance period

for his forsight and mature understanding in promoting and

developing physical education in India.

The Govt, of India appointed important commissions to reform

education to meet changing needs of the country. The

Radhakrishnan Commission on University education (1949) Dr.

Lakshman Swamy Muddaliar Commission on secondary education (1953)

Dr. Kothari Commission on all levels of education (1966) made

several recommendations for the promotion of physical education.

The Kunzaru Committee (1959) tried to integrate various

youth welfare schemes that were competing for the time and energy

of students in secondary education and gave the country National

fitness crops programme of physical education.

The Deshmukh committee (1967) made excellent recommendations

to organise physical education on a permanent year round basis

for the university students.

The Union Ministry of Education appointed the Central

Advisory Board of Physical Education in 1954 to ensure planned

development of physical education. This Board did commendable


47

work and held great promise for ushering in the golden era of

physical education and recreation in modern India while it was in

existence. Some of the outstanding achievements of the central

Advisory Board of Physical Education and Recreation were :

i) publication of National plan for physical education and

recreation. A blue print for physical education for students

in secondary education.

ii) Scheme of strengthening of colleges of physical education

standardization of curriculam, grants for facilities,

programme for exchange of teachers, Award of Research

Scholarship etc.

Hi) Establishment of the Lakshmibai National college of physical

education (1957) the premier national institution of physical

education having all modern facilities, preparing quality

teachers comparable in training to those in progressive

countries with bachelors and masters degree in physical

education and recreation and with specialization courses for

teaching and coaching in sports.

iv) Introduction of the National Physical efficiency drive

(1959-60) and the National Awards Compititions in physical

efficiency - involving several lakhs of young people for

assessing their physical efficiency and providing incentives

for maintaining and improving their standards by striving to

achieve the one two or three star level of performance and

for qualifying for the National Awards Competitions.


48
v) Schemes for publication of literature on physical education,

sports, health education etc:

vi) Scheme for holding seminars in physical education for :

a) Principal of colleges of physical education.

b) State Inspectors of physical education.

c) Directors of physical education in Universities.

d) Leaders working in Akharas and teaching indegenous

activities of physical education.

vii) Schemes for giving grants to professional journals in

physical education etc.


Physical education programme included instructions in

different sports within the time table in schpols and many of

the Universities. A sound organisation exists today for

conducting competitions in games and sports like the intramurals,

interschool, state and national level championship for school

colleges and Universities.

One of the most heartening developments in introduction of

graded syllabus in physical education in some states as an

examination subject in lower classes and adoption of a syllabus

of physical education as an elective subject for standards XI and

XII for the All India senior secondary school examination of the

Central Board of Secondary education. All over the world

standards in games and sports have been raised rapidly and

consistently only by making physical education as truely integral

part of education both in regard to instruction as per graded


49
syllabus and evaluation in the subject. The steps that have been

taken in this direction augur well for the future of sports in India.

In the area of the competitive sports, mention may be made

of earlier efforts like the Rajkumari coaching schemes, coaching

schemes of some of the federations and of the Union Ministry of

Education. However the decision of the Union Ministry of

Education to establish the National Institute of sports for

training coaches in different games and sports in 1961 marked on

important milestone.

The All India Council Sports was appointed by the Union

Ministry of Education in 1954 to ensure promotion of games and

sports in the country. It has been possible to develop sports

facilities such as gymnasia, stadia, playgrounds etc. on the

recommendation of the All India Council of Sports. Plans for

raising standards to games and sports and proper utilization of

grants for the purpose have also been implemented. Similarly each

state has its own councils of sports.

Our athletics namely Milkhasingh, P.T. Usha, Shiny Abraham,

Sriram Singh, Ajmer Sing, V.S. Chauhan, £ hords of others have

stood the test of time and have hauled, rich harvest of gold and

silver medals. Sport persons of the repute of Sunil Gavaskar,

Kapil Dev, Chuni ,Goswami, P.K. Banarjee, Ramanathan Krishnan,

Vijay Amritraj, Balvir Singh and many others have brought glory

to India by putting up excellent performance in their respective

games and sports. In recognisation of contributions of the


50

sportspersoas and coaches the Government of India

instituted "Arjuna Award and Dronacharya Awards" which are

announced every year. In order to spread the concept of mass

sports and physical fitness for all, the Govt of India sponsored

the programme of synchronised Mass Gymnastic Activities

(Bhartiyam) In order to involve masses in this programme of

fitness, concentrated efforts were made through sports authority

of India and LNCPE, Gwalair to train teachers from different

state and UTS. Efforts are also being made to make Bhartiyam an

integral part of school curriculum of physical education so that

children in school participated in physical fitness activities on

regular basis. As of today about 50,000 /teachers have been

oriented in the country who in turn have involved about 150 lakhs

school going youth in the tender age group of 8 to 14 years in

different mass fitness activities.

Physical education and sports have received greater

attention since Independence. Greater progressr in content, method,

quality of instruction and in organisation has been achieved. If


I
some of the important remaining recommendations of different

Education Commissions,Committees and the earsthwhile Central

Board of Physical Education and Recreation in regard to the staff

students ratio', facilities, programmes and supervisory services

are fully implemented and physical education is further made as a

curricular subject, it will result in the improvement in health

and efficiency of our student.


51

1.7.1 THE AD HOC ENQUIRY COMMITTEE ON GAMES AND SPORTS :

The Credit for bringing to for the Asian games every four

year on Olympic games style, goes to India and the first Asian

Games were held in India in 1951 at New Delhi. India was

fortunate to secure all second position. This participant decline

in the standard of Sports gave a jolt to all concerned with

sports in Indian. The Sports Federation, the Govt.and the like.

In view of this. Govt, of India set up an Ad.Hoc Committee in

1958 to suggest ways and means to improve the present situation.

The chairmanship of the Committee was bestowed upon Late His

Highness Maharaja of Patiala Shri Yadavinder Singh, Dr. K.L.

Shrimali, the then Union Minister for Education in the Inaugural

address to the Committee on 7th July, 1958 referred to the poor

standard of Indian compititions in all games and' sports.

1.7.2 KAUL KAPOOR COMMITTEE :

A Committee consisting of two members of the All India

Council of Sports Shri M.K. Kaul and Shri M.N. Kapoor were

deputed by the Govt, of India to the Olympic Games held in Rome

in 1960 The Committee visited other countries also to study the

organisation of sports and submitted report in 1961 some of the

important recommendations are :

1) Physical education should be considered as a part of general

education in schools and colleges. It may be one of the

subjects in the Universities.

2) Educational Institution should thoroughly organise


department of physical education.
52

3) Play fields la schools and colleges should he developed and

maintained.

4) Outstanding sportsman in schools and colleges should be

provided scholarship.

5) A net work of sports and Recreational clubs should be

formed all over the country starting with district,towns in

the first instance. These clubs should be sponsored by the

Govt. Departments, Universities, Commercial houses and

industrial enterprises etc.

The consnittee also made certain recommendations for the re­

organisation of the work of All India Council of Sports as well

as State Sports Council and Federation.

1-7.3 KUNZRU COMMITTEE :

A committee for co-ordination and Integration of schemes

operating in the field of Physical education, recreation and

youth welfare :

In 1959 Govt, of India appointed a co-ordination Committee


i
under the Chairmanship of Dr. Alirdya Nath Kunzru to examine the

various schemes for physical education, recreation, character

building and diclpline operating in educational institutions and


i

to recommend measures for the proper co-ordination in order to

avoid duplication and wastage of resources and expenditure.

The committee had a detailed survey of the various schemes

operating in the country for the development of youth. The

committee toured different parts of India on the spot study of


53

these schemes. It also interviewed educationists and other

experts in the field and finally submitted the report in 1963.

It recommended that :

1) At the school stage there should bean integrated programme

consisting of basic curriculam compulsory for all and an

optional curriculum. The contents of an integrated programme

should be worked out by a body of experts. One of the

optional subjects such as scouting, mountaineering,sports,

dance, drama, music the choice being left to the students.

2) Once an integrated programme is introduced, the schemes such

as A.C.C., N.D.S. etc. need not continued as seperate

entities Emergency scheme of physical education and National

discipline having basically these activities which came under

the purview of physical education A.C.C. and N.D.S. should

end. Finally, the programme served as a basis to the formation

of N.F.C already envisaged by the Ministry of Education.

3) The service of instruction working under old schemes ^should

be utilized after giving suitable re-orientation training.

4) At the college level N.C.C. should be encouraged.

5) Scouting and guiding should be encouraged as an extra

curricular activity on voluntery basis.

6) School children should have smart uniforms.

7) Students should be encouraged to hold periodic camp fires,

songs and dances, dramatic and play etc.

8) Hobbies should be encouraged.


54

9) The school work should begin with the singing of National


Anthem followed by other community songs.
10) Each student must be taught, how to salute, how to host and
lower national flag.
11) Opportunity should be provided for developing leadership
amongst the students.
12) House system should be provided for developing leadership
amongst the students. House system should be introduced in
schools for various competitions.
13) Youth hostels should be set up.
14) Inter University youth festivals, Interversity sports.
Inter-state sports should be encouraged.
In the light of recommendation of the Kunzru Committee, the
Govt, of India involved the National fitness corps programme
which is compulsory on paper for all students of the age group 9
to 16. A crash programme of the re-orientation was meant for in
service N.D.S., P.T.I's working directly under the control of
i

Ministry of Education. The colleges of Physical education were


asked to conduct orientation courses on a syllabi circulated by
the Ministry. The N.C.C. at the college level is compulsory or
i

alternatives between N.S.O., N.S.S. at least for two years of


degree level. The implementation of the programme is to be done
by the University Grants commission. Directorate of N.C.C.
Ministry of Education and the Universities themselves,it is now
being felt that the response is poor from all sides.
55

1-7.4 NATIONAL EFFICIENCY DRIVE :

The National Physical efficiency Drive was launched by the

Union Ministry of Education in 1959-60. The drive was organised

throughout the country for first two years on an experimental

basis. The response from all quarters exceeded all expectations.

The purpose of National efficiency Drive is to create a

consciousness and enthusiasm amongst the people of country for

physical fitness.

In 1959 too, the test were conducted in 10 states and union

territories at 269 centers. The number of participants was 77109

and that of winners of Merit certificate and medals was 42 357.In

1968-69 the tests were administered in 12 states and 10 union

territories at 5500 centres to 1050000 people out of which 410000

qualified for merit certificates and medals. 12 people also won

National Awards.

1.7.5 NETAJI SUBHASH NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SPORTS : (N.I.S.)

The Advisory committee established in 1958 by the Govt.of

India recommeded that National Institute of sport be established

at Patiyala with expressive ambitious and objective as under:-

1) Stressing to produce coaches of high calibre in various

games.

2) Helping to raise the technical competence of existing

coaches.

3) Serving as a center where greatest possible information

about sports in concentrated.



56 mm

4) Rendering assistar.c to sports bodies in talent hunt and

training of up-coming athletes through its regional coaching

centers.

5) polishing the National teams before their participation in

International competition.

6) Publishing and producing popular literature on games and

sports.

7) Conducting re-orientation courses for physical education

teacher.

8) Carrying out research in issue relating to sports.

9) Organising seminars, conferences clinics and tournaments in

games and sports.

10) Awarding scholarships to students studying at secondary

stage who are proficient in games and sports.

11) Preferring advices to ISI and sports manufacturing agencies

to produce specialized equipments with high quality.

12) helping Neharu Yuvak Kendras in sports development at grass-

root level.

13) Carrying out the rural sports programme of the Govt, of

India.

This institute runs courses in all games and sports of 9

months and condenced certificate for candidate having diploma or

degree in physical education.


57

1.7.6 NATIONAL COACHING SCHEME :

In 1953 Govt, of India introduced the Rajkumari Coaching

Schemes for games and sports with the object of training good

athelets and sportsmen. The Rajkumari Coaching Scheme ceased to

function on 18th Oct. 1961. It has been merged in the National

Institute of Sports.

1.7.7 Rural Sports : The Institute has taken pains to conduct

rural sports annually to encourage rural population to embrace

the message of sports.

1.7.8 NATIONAL DISCIPLINE SCHEME ;

It was in the context that the National Discipline Scheme

took birth on July 24, 1954 at Kaslima Niketan Lajpat Nagar, New

Delhi. In 1957 the scheme was handed over to the Union Education

Ministry for furthering the cause of discipline amongst the

Indian Youth. A directorate was set up for N.D.C. and Gen Bhonsle

was made its Director General.

It was to his initiate, the control training institutes

Sarika (1960) and Barwala (1963) was established to train the

N.D.S. instructors. The N.D.S. instructors were paid by N.D.S.

Directorate but worked with school authorities.

It was in 1965 N.D.S. was merged with A.C.C. and Physical

education on the recommendation of Kunzuru Committee and finally

this scheme came to be Known as National Fitness Crops (N.F.C.)

The Government of India, Ministry of Human Resources

Development established the sports authority of India in 1984


58

with a view to achieve optimum utilization of available sources

and expertise for the promotion of physical education and sports

in the country. The sports authority of India performs the

following functions pertaining to growth and development of

physical education and sports.

1) Optimum utilization management and maintenance of

■ stadia/renovated for the IX Asian Games.

2} Creation of sports consciousness through "Sports for All"

programme and also popularise the concept of physical

fitness through "Bhartiyam" and other fitness promotion schemes.

3) Grant of financial assistance for higher study/research in

the field of physical education and sports.

4) Provisions of facilities for holding National and

International Sports Competition.

5) Maintenance of laision between Government of India and

National Sports Federation and State Associations.

6) Advising to Govt, of India about physical t education and

sports and also grant of financial assistance to federation

and association.

7) Maintenance of sports data bank pertaining to sports persons

Sports records facilities and monitoring of training

programme.

8) Creation of central pool of technical equipment.

9) Monitoring its own schemes for the promotion and

strengthening programmes of physical education and sports in


the country.
59

1.8 FUNCTION OF SPORTS AUTHORITY OF INDIA :

1) Academic Wing pertaining to training of coaches.

2) Teams wing for monitoring training programmes of high

performance sport-persons.

3) Academic wing pertaining to promotion of physical education.

4) Operational wing the monitoring various schemes of sports

authority of India.

Besides sports authority of India, there are few autonomous

organisations which monitor and promote sports at school,

university, national and international levels. They are as follows :

1) The school games of federation of India.

It is a voluntery organisation and this Federation is

responsible for organising games and sports competitions at the

national level for the high schools and higher secondary

schools in the country. The school games are also held every

year. This established in the year 1955.

2) Inter-University :

An important recommendation was made in the seminar that the

Universities should prescribe some physical education


1
activities as compulsory for the degree colleges. The first

Inter-university sports competition was held in 1936 at Aligarh

and now it is conducted every year at different places by the

Association of Indian Universities (AIU).

1) Report of the All India Seminar on Physical Education for


state Inspectors and University Dircators Publications No.
432 Ministry of Education, Govt, of India New Delhi, 1959.
60

3) Indian Olympic Association ;

The Indian Olympic association was formed in the year 1927.

This body which is considered as the opex body in sports in

the country has responsibility to control Mature Sports in

the country through National Federations/Associations. The

main objective of the association is to promote the Olympic

involvement and also enforce the rules and regulations of the

Inter National Olympic Committee. The I.O.A. has its

affiliated units at state and District levels Participation

of India in the Olympic games is also monitered by the

Association.
61

1.9 DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS IN PUNJAB :

From the ancient times people of Punjab have been sports

minded. There were many indigenous games they have been enjoying

during their leisure time. The Punjabis lived a very simple life

with very few needs. They used to play very simple games either

with indigenous apparatus or with no apparatus at all. Some of

the most common games played were, asanchi, gullidanda, mungli,

swimming and tug of war. The impact of central efforts from

schemes for improving standards of sports can be seen in all the

states of the country. In Punjab the impact has been more and

qualitative due to several factors. Being a border state the

Punjabis have always been ready to meet any invansion from

outside rulers from the north. Because of this geographical

situation the people of Punjab have been physically strong and

brave. The Chief occupation of the Punjab is agriculture and the

majority of the population lives in the villages. After finishing

their daily work in the fields, all young people normally gather

at one place in the evening. They have been engaging themselves

in the activities like wrestling weight lifting, Kabbadi,

tantroging. Wristgripping, gatka, folk dances and folk songs. The

women folk had spinning competitions and it was called "Trinjan"

In all important festivals, giddha, a popular women folk dance is

performed. On the other hand, Bhahgra is a popular folk dance of

the men in the state.


62

The economic influence of the punjabis also helps the tempo

of sports in the state. This factor made a great influence on

their living and other pastime activities. They started taking

interest in more expensive games like tennis, badminton,


1
volleyball, football, cricket and hockey.

The state Govt, of Punjab, established a separate director of

sports in 1961. Since then this directorate has been doing its

best to improve the standards of sports through its programmes and

policies. It gives guidance and direction to sportsmen and women


2
on the latest scientific techniques. Another sports body known

as the Punjab State Sports Council came into being in 1972. This

council has a very important role to play in the improvement of

sports and games in the state. It gives financial help to all the

approved and recognised sports associations/bodies in the state.

It also coordinates sports activities of sports bodies,

associations and the government. It is the responsibility of the

council to construct and supervise sports complexs, swimming pools


3
and stadiums in the state. At the district level. District,

Sports supervise, control and direct the activities of all the

sports organisations in the state. The government has set

up a supreme body i.e. the Punjab State Sports Development Board,

1) J.Bhullar "Sports and pastime in punjab (1849-1947) On


unpublished Dissertationfor the degree of master of
education, submitted to Punjab university in 1971 PP.50 to 57.
2) Punjab Government _ Directorate of sports, Ghandigash Annual
Administrative Report of the year 1961-62.
3) Ibid.
63

1) The Department of Sports,

2) Punjab Panchayati Raj Khed parishad.

3) Nehru Yuvak Kendras.

4) Sports cell of the education Dept.

These all are working under the over all superivision of


1
the Sports Board.

The state Govt, has given many incentives like cash awards,

diet money, scholarships, gazetted post and sports outfits to the

players who excelled themselves in national and international

competitions and brought medals for the country and the state. All

medal winners are also given state honours and awards by arranging

special receptions for them. To give further encouragement to the

students, the Government reserves seats in the various

institutions of higher learning for the outstanding student

players. Further more to sport talent at the primary level the

government is introducing a new scheme in the state and planning

to appoint sports scientists and coaches at the primary school


2
level to identify the young talent. To give further boost to

sports in the state an association by the reputed national and

international sportsmen was formed in 1985 to suggest efective

steps for the promotion and improvement of sports in the state.

The association is known as Amature Sportsmen's Welfare

1) Punjab Government Development of Education(Education V.Branch)


Notification No. 47/11/80-5 EDU (s)2650 dt.16-6-82
2) Refer, The Tribune dated 24th February, 1986.
64

Association of Punjab and their objectives are to raise money for

the deserving sportsmen proper coverage and procuring sponsership

from the private sector for sportsmen for international meets


1
abroad

The Punjab Government started at Patiala a college of

Physical Education to train professional teachers of physical

education. This college is affiliated to Punjabi University,

Patiala. Punjab University at Chandigarh, opened a department of

physical education in 1963.

In the year 1976 at Bhago Majra in a village in the Ropar

District another college of Physical Education was opened by the

Punjab University Patiala to meet the demand of the area.

Department of Physical Education was established in the

Gurunanak Dev University at Amritsar on its campus. This is the

first University in India to provide a course of B.Sc. in

Physical Education, Health & Sports from July 1987. On the lines

suggested by the University Grants Commissions. Physical

education has been made a teaching subject in all the schools in

the state. It has also been introduced in colleges in the state

as an academic subject.

A brief description as outlined in the forgoing pages

establishes the fact that the government of India and Govt, of

Punjab have been paying some attention so as to improve the

1) Refer The Tribune dated 15th December, 1985.


« ■
65

standards of sports and physical culture and education. A number

of schemes for providing financial assistance to outstanding

sportsman have also been introduced. Moreover the Punjab

Government has created special sports wings in some selected

schools and colleges for grooming sports talent and preparing the

student for higher level competitions. However a feeling gets

created in the minds of the people that the government has not

paid serious attention for improving standards of sports and

physical education. It is opined that the government has made

only sporadic attempts and these too have many a time been

mischanneled. Though the government has prepared several schemes

and programmes for the development of sports and physical

education, yet much more requires to be done.


66

1.10 DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS IN MAHARASHTRA :

Education Department started in the year 1855 in British

region. The following period shows physical education in Maharastra area

(1) 1855 to 1881. (2) 1882 to 1911. (3) 1912 to 1936 (4) 1937

to 1947. and after independence.

The physical education and sports depend on the Principal and

Headmaster of their college and school respectively. In the year

1862 Cricket team was inaguarated in the Elphiston college. The

Mallakamb and Gymnasiam stared at Pune college in the year 1867.

Atheletic game started in many college in the year

1870. Cricket, Tennis & Rowing facilities started in Deccan college

of Pune. The policy matter about physical education was decided in

the year 1866. by Miss, carpenter and was decided on the

government line. The grant for the contraction of health center

started in the year 1877. The supervisor or inspector of education

should submit the report of physical education. This order was

given in the year 1879.

The government apponinted a committee namely Indian Education

Committee. The committee suggested sports £ games and physical

excercise to be stared in every school. Dr. R.G.Bhandarkar who

gave a speech in the convocation that physical education should

start which from the primery to higher education level.

Sir.Dinshow Mankegi Petit started one Health excercise center and

was granted from the government.


67

In the year 1894, the Indian Education Committee suggested to

make Physical Education curriculum compulsory and should produce a

certificate before giving examination but this proposal was hot

accepted by the school committee and many parents, but the proposal

was accepted by the various schools that sports grounds sports

equipement and Gymnasium room be kept by the education institute,

so that gradual development of sports and physical education was

increased with facilities.

The sports and physical education was started in the

education institute. The classes ware started to teach with

pratical for the teachers. Such type of First class was started by

Mr.P.C. Sen in the year 1913 at Pune Shri. F.Babar was appointed

director of physical education. In the year 1925 in the Mumbai

province Shri G.Norhen continued the system of physical education

coaching center after F.Babar. Due to lack of financial position

the Post of Director of phisical education was discontinued in the

year 1928. Development of physical education and sports was not

improved in the educational institution. Even though in this

situation Bombay University started physical education. The

Principal of three Colleges from Pune started physical education.

They were Prin.Kanitkar, Principal Shaha,, Prin.Rolrlingson and

they framed a plan. Through this plan one thousand students were

engaged in these Physical Education periods. The period of 45

Minutes and a batch of 20 students started daily physical

education period and in this class teaching of Indian games


development of excercise Aty - Patya and western games like

football, basketball and physical excercise, drill, were started.

The coaching and traning for the physical education teachers and

education for the students started regularly in this class.

In the year 1927 a committee was formed by the Bombay

Government for the development of physical education through

education institution. Sir.Kanayyalal, M.Munshi was the Chairman

of that committee. Under the control of the Government agency.

This committee suggested teachers training, compulsory physical

education, to establish advisory council, for the physical

education etc. These were the important suggessions made by this

committee. But due to lack of financial position this proposal

was not implimented. The retired soldier was appointed to teach

physical education but it was not compulsory.

Shri B.G.Kher was the Chief Minister of Bombay province with

education department. Shri B.G.Kher had tremendous knowledge of

education. He had started to look into the development of physical

education. Mr.Kher oppointed a committee under the chairmanship of

Swami Kuvalayanandji who was expert in the physical education and

Yoga.The committee had proposed that shysical education is the part

and parcel of the education and for the good citizenship. This

committee suggested to start a training institute for the physical

education teachers to start short term courses and to appoint

1) Shri D.G.Wakarkar "Maharashaliatil Sharirik Shikshanchi Watchal"


published in the year 1973.
2) Shri. S.A.Jarde "Sharirik Shikshancha Etihas" published in the
year 1988.
69

physical education supervisors. The Government accepted some part

suggested by the Swami Kuvalayanandji committee.

The then Government accepted suggestion given by Swami

Kuvalayanandji committee and started to implment some of the

suggestions.

1) The Advisory committee for the development of physical

education was oppointed. Experts were taken on this committee.

2) The coaching camp of physical education started for the primary

and secondary education teachers. The camp period of the camp

was Eight to Ten weeks.

3) Government started physical education training institute at

Kandivali Mumbai for the graduates to undergo one year course.

4) Started refresher class for the Head Masters.

5) Passed the orders to the school to% check the Health of the
student.

6) Started the grant for the Gymnasium school or center.

7) Oppointed two physical education supervisor on the


Zonal level.

8) Appointed physical education teachers and alloted periods

and supplied sports equipment and also started to sanction

grant for this purpose only.

9) Physical education was made compulsory for first two years of


primary,secondary and college levels.

After II world war the situation of the country was very acute.

Due to British power the door was closed for the development of

physical education. Again in the year 1945-46 a committee was

reappointed under the Chairmanship of Swami Kuvalayanandji. The


70

time he took over, he visited various sports in the other states

and toured all over the country. After two years he submitted his

report with more than 100 suggestions.

The then Government accepted the suggestions and some of these

were implemented. Local sports club, sports institute, Vyayam shala

also developed. Associations like Mumbai physical education

federation (Mumbai Rajya Sharirik Shikshan Mahamandal), Mumbai

physical cultural Association Akhil Maharashtra Sharirik.

Shikshan Mandal,Gujrath Vyayam Pracharak Mandal, Ahmadabad

Vyayam Mandal,Kamatak Sharirik Shikshan Mandal Dharwad. etc. were

established. These associations worked for the development of

physical education in the Mumbai province.

After Independence the attitude of the ministery of the

education changed positively and physical education and recreation

were treated to be one. All India Sports Association was formed in

the year 1954. The advisory council made a committee for the

restructure of education at University level. The convener of the

committee was Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishanan. He also suggested

physical education at the college level. An adhoc committee was

formed under the Chairmanship of King of Patiala. Maharajadhiraj

helped lot of for the development of the sports & physical

education in the year 1958. Again in 1960 Kaul and Kapoor

Committee was formed for the development of physical education and

sport. The committee also suggested the restructure of the

subject. In the year 1952, under the chairmanship of Shri


71

Ramaswami Mudaliyar a committee was appointed for the secondary

school physical education.

Shri Kaul and Kapoor, suggested that physical education should

be considered as a part of general education in schools and

colleges. It may be one of the subjects in the Universities for

the graduates. In 1959 Government of India appointed a co­

ordination committee under the Chairmanship of Dr.Hirdayanath

Kunzuru to examine the various scheme for physical education,

recreation, charecter building and discipline in educational

institution and to recommend measures for the proper co-ordination

in order to avoid duplication and wastage of resources and

expenditure. This committee suggested much more on sports &

physical education.

The organisers in the field of physical education had gone

through the sports and suggetions of the Committee for the

development of Sports in the Maharashtra state.

The physical education is a part and parcel of the ; curriculum

of the education and principaly accepted by the Maharashtra

Government in the year 1970. This was suggested by the then

education minister Shri Madhukarrao Choudhary, He was the Chief of

the committee and further- suggested to find out the development of

the boys and girls from the lower kg standerd through physical

education and sports. He emphasised not only on physical

education and sports but also on good citizenship, good nature,

boldness. The boys and girls should work together on their own
72

foot and they must merge in the work of social activities for the

country. On this pattern the Government of Maharaasbtra state

introduced new department in their ministry namely Sports and

Youth Welfare Department and also introduced Directorate in the

year 1970.

1.11 ROLE OF SPORTS AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN HUMAN RESOURCE

DEVELOPMENT

One word "Organisation" has two popular usages. In one sense

it is used as an association like scout organisation. The other

meaning of the word organisation is setting up of things. "It is

a machine for doing work". It may be composed primarily of

persons, of material, of ideas of concepts, symbols, forms rules,

principles or more often of a combination of these. The machine

may work automatically or its operation may be subjected to human

judgement and will".

The word "Organistion" as "the action of organizing being

Mooney (1947) defines organization in this way organisation is a

ferum of every human association for the attainment of a common


purpose".

In the year 1954 Barnard, defined are an organization is a

system of conscious activities or forces of two or more persons.

In a broad sense organization is defined that group of persons

working together for a common purpose.

According to Lawor (1958) Organisation is a mechanism of

structure that enables living things to work effectively

together.
73

Administration determines whether an organization is going to

progress, operate efficiently, achieve its objective and have a

group of individuals within its framework who are happy, co­

operative and productive. The word "Administer" is derived from

the French word "Administrator" or the Latin word "administrate"

both of which mean to manage, to carry out, to accomplish to

attend. Administration implies the total of the process which

appropriate human and material resources which are made available

and made effective for accomplishing the purpose of an

enterprise.

An organisation has to deal with two main aspects the

technical and the human and this cannot be divorced. Technical

aspect consists of an organisation consists of materials,

machines and men to• produce goods and services. The human aspect

aims at securing the fullest degree of co-operation from the

personnel of organisation.

Human resource is an important area which no organisation

with lay from objectives can afford to ignore if it wants to

achieve the standards of excellence, proper management of human

resource. It is all the more relevant in resut oriented

organisation like banks, insurance, companies, factories and

farms.

The part of development which deals with human element is an

organistiaon which is known as Personnel Development or

Management or Manpower Management. Personnel management has


74

evolved from the interaction of three main groups of ideas and

principles.

1) This is the social responsibility, to a good number of

enlightened employers to take steps to safeguard the welfare

of the employees.

2) The development that has taken place on account of availing

among the workers and they have formed their trade unions for

safeguarding their Interest against unfair practices of

employers.

3) The development of conception of industry is a joint

enerprise in which the principal of the representation of

labour and collective barganing became widely accepted as a

permanent feature of industrial relations.

The most important functions of human resources are Men,

Materials, Machines and Money (Four M) regarded as the only

dynamic factors of production. No management can ignore the human

resources because it is human being who have their feelings

desires and are affected by socio-economic and political factors.

Human resource management is very important in modern

organisation. The objectives of an organisation can be attained

when an active co-operation of the people working in the

organisation is sought by the management. The desire and ability

of the people working in the organisation make a success of an

organisation solved by the management.


75

The concept of human resources development thus aims at a

better understanding of the player, their needs and hopes. It

also, seeks to generate an awareness among players of their role

as a resource to the sports organisation for attainment of its

goals and objectives, thus minimising the areas of conflicts

between the two and promoting an integrated approach.

Human resources as an important vehicle of practice and

coaching process contribute more with the combination of other

players. They are to be dealt with as human beings and not as a

commodity of commorce. After a player has been selected he msut

be trained. Training is a process of increasing the knowledge and

skill of a player for doing particular game. The importance of

training to a player should be readily apparent. Training leads

to increased ability skills and flexibility high moral reduced

injuries.

There are several methods of training, these are on the field

of coaching and off the field of coaching available for training

purpose. A good training programme should include a mixture of

both types of methods.

In every sports modern coaching system is adopted by way of

personnel department. This department should arrange a training

camps regularly for new players as well as old players also to

their knowledge in the use of latest techniques of the game and

sports.
76

The coaching and training should be meaningful and need

based, effective, broad based and result oriented. Training and

placements must find a direct and close relationship as par as

possible for optimum utilisation of both human and material

resources.

MEANING OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT :

Human resource development's management involves all

management cisions and practices that directly affect or

influence the people who work for the organisation. The number of

functions and activities include as part of human resources

management (HRH) is potentially large depending on the

organisation and its needs.

The various issues involved in human resource management like

planning, organisation, direction and control which are personnel

management functions. They are well co-oriented with the

operative functions of management such as inocurement,

development, compensation, integration and maintenance of the

organisation. We will not only attain its short-term objectives

but also its long term objectives.

HRD is an organisation-wide activity and while there may be a

need for external or internal expertise to facilitate HRD

processes, it must be remembered that HRD endeavours can succeed

only if all the members at different level of the organisation

look at themselves as instrument of change and development and

hence as HRD functionaries. The challenge of HRD primirily is


77

that its demands from the individual first to work with hiself

without being charitable to his weaknesses and by being open and

receptive to the feed back to the others. One has to be sincere

and authentic with an express concern for the development of

those who look to him for this purpose.

The principles that may guide sports personnel programme give

due consideration to the attitudes and behaviorial patterns of

people. The sports personal management should be able to utilize

the talents. They must give complete opportunities to personal

feeling of accomplishment, cordial relations with the players and

coaches and office bearers. These are important factor to borne

in mind during the programme.

The management personnel should see that the trainees get

adequate allowances for their sports accessories, daily allowance

boarding and lodging and travelling allowances. This would

stimulate confidence among the trainees. Trainees must be

encouraged to perform well to earn awards. Gifts and rewards

motivate them to improve their performance.

The sports HRD personnel should not only be a coach but also

a good teacher. He should have a high command over the language,

bad communication is the root cause of many problems, policies,

programmes. Objective should be carefully prepared and clearly

communicated to all.

In sports HRD personnel should develop a sense of

participation in contribution the growth of the institution


78

during the programme Athletics reaction must be duly considered

by the managing personnel. Policies and programmes must be

formulated that the personnel function together as a group to

attain the predetermined goals.

Director should manage the entire sports programme including

inter colliate, inter school, interamural and instructional

components.
79

The present research work highlights on the comparative study

of economics of sports and physical education in Maharashtra and

Punjab. The main purpose of selecting this topic is to compare the

sports and physical education activities in these two states.

Maharashtra is economically, industrially, educationally well

developed state in India. But sports and physical activities are

not developed as compared to Punjab. The present research is

concentrating to find out what are the factors responsible for the

comparatively less development of Maharashtra in sports and

physical education. The comparison of sports and physical education

in Maharashtra and Punjab is made on different grounds such as

Administration set up, Implementation of sports and physical

education. Mobilization of resources and utilization of funds,

sports and physical education scheme. This comparison is made at

state level, university, college and at school level.

With this intention we selected, economics of physical

education and sports. A comparative study of Maharashtra and

Punjab state. The study is divided into following chapters.

1. Introduction

2. Concept and Methodology

3. Review of related literature

DATA COLLECTION AND INTERPRETATION :


4. Administrative or organisation set up.

5. Mobilisation and Utilisation resources

6. Implementation of sports schems

7. Summary, Conclusion and Suggestions.