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ATTITUDES OF LIBRARIANS TOWARDS

APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN


ACADEMIC LIBRARIES IN PAKISTAN

MUHAMMAD RAMZAN

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN FULLFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS


FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

FACULTY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA
KUALA LUMPUR

2010
DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to my mother (Ahamadan Bibi), who took care of my studies
until the last breath of her life.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First, I wish to express my gratitude to almighty Allah for giving me the strength

to complete this work. I would like to thank my thesis supervisor Associate Professor

Dr. Diljit Singh, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology (FCSIT),

University of Malaya, for his guidance, supervision and patience. He has been

supportive, positive and encouraging. I am also indebted to Dr. Noor Harun, the Dean,

and staff of FCSIT for their kind cooperation and consideration towards me as an

overseas student. I specially acknowledge the intellectual contribution, sustained effort,

guidance and magnanimity of Professor Irfan Amir, Lahore University of Management

Sciences (LUMS), in helping me in all aspects and phases of this study. Special thanks

are due to Prof. Arif Zaman for his academic guidance. My thanks are also due to the

management, faculty and staff of LUMS, especially Asif Ch, Ashraf Sharif, Nadeem

Bashir, Musood Ishfaq, Farrah Arif, Nadia Kanwal and Aqila Zaman for their help in

literature search, questionnaire design, survey, pilot test, data analysis, citation styles,

formatting, editing of the text and other aspects of my research. My father, Chaudhry

Faqir Muhammad, brother, Altaf Hussain, wife, Nasim Akhtar; beloved daughters,

Afshan, Saadia, Naila, Javeria, Sara, Eman and sons, Muhammad Irfan and Usman

Chaudhry, deserve my special thanks and gratitude for their prayers, patience and

support and for bearing my absence. My friends Essa Khan, Sajid Mahruf, Iqbal

Cheema, Rao Shakeel, Aamir Rasul and Shahbaz Ahmad were a source of moral

support and encouragement. I would also like to acknowledge the authors whose works

this study has drawn from, particularly in the literature review and questionnaire design.

Lastly, I am grateful to the librarians of academic libraries in Pakistan who took time

from their busy schedules to complete my questionnaire.

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ABSTRACT

Librarians, being key stakeholders in the development of libraries, play a strategic role

in application of IT in libraries. Their attitudes are critical in determining the levels of

IT application. However, there is a lack of studies on librarians’ attitudes towards IT

application. This study investigated the attitudes of librarians towards application of IT

in academic libraries in Pakistan. Data was collected from 288 head librarians of

sampled libraries through a questionnaire survey, and 219 (76%) valid questionnaires

were used for analysis. Findings revealed a good state of development in IT applications

as 69.3% respondents had two or more PCs, 91.3% had e-mail and Internet, and 87.6%

had some degree of automation. A majority, 75.8% of the respondents had access to

online journals and e-books through the National Digital Library. However, 4.6%

respondents were without PCs, 8.7% had no email and Internet, 11% had not started

automation, and only 8.2% were 100% automated. The majority of the respondents

were not using state-of-the-art integrated library systems for automation. Respondents

overall showed positive attitudes toward IT with a mean of 3.71 measured on a 5-point

Likert scale through 42 IT attitude statements. They generally had positive attitudes

towards impact of IT (mean= 3.43), IT costs and resource allocation (mean= 3.59), IT

training for staff and users (mean= 4.19), and for general statements on IT (mean=

3.64). However, respondents showed negative attitudes on statements concerning job

fears because of IT, maintaining automated library inventory, data storage on

computers, cost of IT tools vs. their worth for Pakistani libraries, and need to abandon

rules developed to handle print resources in favour of new rules to manage e-resources.

Results revealed perceives confidence in IT application, perceived capabilities of IT and

perceived usefulness of IT as important dimensions of librarians’ attitudes toward IT

application in academic libraries in Pakistan. Libraries’ level of IT availability (r=.210,

p<.05) and level of IT use (r=.281, p<.05) and staff size (r=.145, p<.05) were positively

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correlated with librarians IT attitudes. While no significant relationship existed between

size of library and librarians IT attitude. No difference existed in librarians IT attitudes

based on location of libraries, gender, and librarians’ professional qualification.

Librarians’ age (r=-.174, p<.05) experiences as a librarian (r=-.172, p<.05) and as a

head librarian (r=-.239, p<.05) were negatively correlated with their IT attitudes. A

significant positive relationship was determined between librarians’ IT attitudes and

their experience in computer usage (r=.190, p<.05), level of technology knowledge

(r=.175, p<.05), awareness about new technologies (r=.275, p<.05). Findings indicated

that confidence in IT application, ownership of IT application, level of IT knowledge,

fears of IT, IT training, IT-based rules and regulations, librarians’ dynamism and

potential as an innovation enabler were key determinants of librarians’ attitudes.

Librarians were not fully involved in IT related decision-making processes. Given that

91.8% libraries were not fully automated, it is imperative that the librarians’ overall

positive attitudes be leveraged to further increase the libraries’ potential to acquire and

use new technologies through adequate training, financial resources, effective decision-

making role, and management’s trust. The findings of this study could be used to assess

and address the affects of different variables on librarians’ attitudes, increase the

positiveness of attitudes toward IT and envisage its implications for library

development. This study will also be useful for academic libraries in developing

countries, with similar level of knowledge base.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Acknowledgements…………………………………….……………..………........ iii
Abstract ……………………..…………………………………….………………. iv
Table of Contents ………………………………………..………..………………. vi
List of Figures…….……………………………………………..…………………. x
List of Tables…………………………………………………………..…………… xi

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY


1.0. Background of the Study……………...……………………..……….…. 1
1.1. IT Developments in Pakistani Libraries..………………………..………. 6
1.2. Librarians’ IT Attitudes….………………………………………………. 8
1.3. Assumptions................................................................................................ 12
1.4. Statement of the Problem.……..…………………..………………... …… 12 .

1.5. Objectives of the Study…………………………….....……...….…..….... 14


1.6. Research Questions……….……………….………………….………..… 15
1.7. Hypotheses………….…………………………………..…….………….. 16
1.8. Significance of the Study ....…………………..………………………… 17
1.9. Scope and Delimitations of the Study…...…………….……………...….. 21
1.10. Limitations………………………………………………...……………… 21
1.11. Conceptual Definitions of Variables…………………………….…...…… 22
1.12. Organization of the Thesis………………….………………………...…... 26

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE


2.0. Purpose of Review…………………………..…………..………………… 28
2.1. Higher Education and Academic Libraries Scenario of Pakistan…….…… 29
2.2. Information Technology Infrastructure in Pakistan……………………….. 34
2.3. Libraries in Higher Education………………………………………........... 40
2.4. Application of Information Technology in Libraries .……….………......... 43
2.5. Human Resources in Libraries……………………………………………... 51
2.6. Attitude Theory………………………………………..…………………... 55
2.7. Attitude Measurement Techniques………………………………………… 58
2.8. Attitudes Toward Information Technology.………………………………. 60

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2.9. Organizational Variables Affecting Librarians’ Attitudes Towards IT.…... 63
2.10. Demographic Variables, Professional Characteristics and IT Attitudes….. 68
2.11. Librarians’ IT Education, Training and Competencies…………………… 76
2.12. Problems of Library Automation…….…………………………………… 86
2.13. Technology Acceptance Theories …………...…………………………… 91
2.14. Conceptual Framework of the Study..….………………………………… 97
2.15. Summary……..…………………………………………………………… 98

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


3.0. Introduction…….…...………………………………...…………………... 100
3.1. Research Design...………………………………………………………… 100
3.2. Population and Sampling………………………………...……………….. 102
3.3. The Questionnaire………………………………………………………... 104
3.3.1. Dependent Variable...……………………………………………... 106
3.3.2. Independent Variables…….………………………….…………… 106
3.3.3. Pre-testing and Pilot Study……………………………….……….. 110
3.3.4. Validity and Reliability.………………………………..…………. 111
3.4. Data Collection…………….....…………………………………………... 113
3.5. Data Analysis Procedure.....………………………………………............. 114
3.6. Summary………………………………………………………………….. 117

CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS


4.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………… 118
4.1. Profile of Libraries….…........……...………………………………..……... 119
4.1.1. Types of Libraries and Their Location.…………………................. 119
4.1.2. Size of Libraries…………….…….………………………………... 120
4.1.3. Libraries’ Operational Budget…….………….....……...….............. 125
4.1.4. Expenditure on Information Technology………………….….……. 126
4.2. Levels of IT Availability..……...…………….……….………….….….….. 129
4.2.1. Number of Computers ………………….……………...................... 130
4.2.2. Hardware Available in Respondent Libraries..………..…………… 132
4.2.3. Information Access Technologies…………………………….…… 133
4.2.4. Library Management System/Software…………………………….. 137
4.2.5. Levels of Library Automation……………………………………… 140
4.2.6. Availability of Electronic/Online Resources……………..………… 146
4.3. Level of IT Use in Libraries..………….…..……………………………….. 149
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4.4. Demographic Variables…..……………………………..…………..……… 153
4.4.1. Highest Professional Qualification…………………………..……... 154
4.4.2. Recency of Attaining Professional Qualification ..…….…...………. 154
4.4.3. Age…………………………...…..……………………..……….….. 155
4.4.4. Gender……………….………………………..……….………….… 155
4.4.5. Job Experience………………………………..….……....…….…… 156
4.5. Librarians’ Level of Expertise in Information Technology……….……… 157
4.5.1. Computer Use at Home………………………………….……..…… 157
4.5.2. Frequency of Information Technology Use………………………… 158
4.5.3. Experience in Computer Usage…………………………………….. 159
4.5.4. Recency in IT Training……………………………………………... 160
4.5.5. Levels of Information Technology Knowledge…………………..… 161
4.6. Librarians’ Role in IT Related Decision-Making ……...…………............... 163
4.6.1. Librarians’ Level of Satisfaction in IT-Related Decision-Making….. 166
4.7. Attitudes Toward Information Technology……………………..………..... 169
4.7.1. Attitudes About Impact of Information Technology……………...... 169
4.7.2 Attitudes Toward IT Costs and Resource Allocation……………..… 175
4.7.3. Attitudes Toward IT Training for Staff and Users………………...... 178
4.7.4. Attitudes Toward General IT Statements…………………………… 180
4.7.5. Overall IT Attitudes……………………………………………….… 185
4.8. Factor Analysis……………..………………....…………………………… 187
4.9. Statistically Significant Differences ...……..……………….………........... 194
4.9.1. Type of Library and Librarians IT Attitudes………………………... 195
4.9.2. Geographic Location and Librarians IT Attitudes………………….. 196
4.9.3. Gender and Librarians IT Attitudes ………………………………… 198
4.9.4. Computer Use at Home and Librarians IT Attitudes……………..… 199
4.9.5. Highest Professional Qualification and Librarians IT Attitudes…… 201
4.10. Correlation Analysis……………………………………………………… 203
4.10.1. Organizational Variables and Librarians IT Attitudes……………. 203
4.10.2 Demographic Variables and Librarians IT Attitudes…………….… 205
4.10.3. Librarians’ Professional Characteristics and their IT Attitudes…... 206
4.11. Hypotheses Testing….....……………………….………………………… 211
4.12. Problems of Library Automation in Pakistan…………………………..… 215
4.13. Findings from the Documentary Analysis……………………………...… 218
4.14. Summary of Findings…………………………………………………….. 219

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CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0. Introduction.................................................................................................. 225
5.1. Key Findings…....………………………………………………………… 225
5.1.1. RQ 1: Levels of IT Availability and IT Use in Libraries….………... 225
5.1.2 RQ 2: Librarians’ Role in IT Related Decision-Making……………. 226
5.1.3 RQ 3: Librarians’ IT Attitudes………………………………………. 226
5.1.4 RQ 4: Dimensions of Librarians IT Attitudes..………….………....... 227
5.1.5. RQ 5: Statistically Significant Differences……….……….……..... 228
5.1.6. RQs 6, 7 & 8: Correlation Analysis………………………………… 228
5.1.7. RQ 9: Problems in IT Application…………….…………………..... 229
5.1.8. Testing of Hypotheses……………………………………….…........ 230
5.2. Summary of Statistically Significant Differences and Correlation
Analysis………………………………………………………….……….... 232
5.3. Conclusions......……….………………………….……….………..………. 234
5.3.1. IT Availability and Usage.................................................................... 234
5.3.2. Librarians IT Attitudes........................................................................ 237
5.3.3. Interrelationship Between Dependent and Independent Variables…. 240
5.3.4. Problems Hindering Wider Use of IT …………................................ 244
5.4. A Model to Enhance Positiveness of Librarians’ Attitudes Towards IT..... 245
5.5. Recommendations for Practice……...……………………...…………….. 248
5.6. Directions for Future Research…………...………………………………. 252
5.7. Concluding Statement.................................................................................. 253

APPENDICES…………………………………………………….…..………......... 254
Appendix A List of E-Databases Accessible Through HEC
Digital Library…………………………………………….... 255
Appendix B Cover Letter for Questionnaire to Librarians………..……... 258
Appendix C Copy of the Survey Questionnaire ………..……………....... 260
Appendix D Code Book Comprising of Variable Labels and
Value Labels………………………………………………… 271
Appendix E Libraries’ IT Availability Weight Table………………..….. 280

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………............... 283

PUBLICATIONS FROM THIS STUDY…………………………………………... 307

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LIST OF FIGURES
Page
Figure 2.1 Components of Attitudes ……………………………….…………..... 56
Figure 2.2 Conceptual Framework of the Study………………….…………….... 97
Figure 3.1 Normality Test Histogram of Attitude Statements.…………………... 115
Figure 3.2 Normal P-P Plot of Librarians’ IT Attitude……….…………………. 115
Figure 4.1 Libraries’ Geographical Location…………………...……..……........ 120
Figure 4.2 Level of Internet Access ……………………………………............... 135
Figure 4.3 Network Resources Available in Libraries..……………….…….…… 135
Figure 4.4 Scree Plot for of IT Attitude Factors Eigenvalues ……........................ 190
Figure 5.1 A Model to Enhance Positiveness of Librarians’ Attitudes
Towards IT……………………………………………………….…… 247

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LIST OF TABLES
Page
Table 2.1 Growth in Accredited Universities and Degree Awarding Institutes...... 32
Table 2.2 Budget Expenditure on Research and Libraries 2003-2004. ………….. 34
.

Table 2.3 Phone Subscribers in Pakistan……………………………….…………. 35


Table 2.4 Teledensity of Regional Countries…………………….……….……… 37
Table 2.5 Internet Subscribers in Pakistan……………………………….............. 37
Table 2.6 Key Studies on Variables Affecting Librarians IT Attitudes ..………... 96
Table 3.1 Sampling and Population of Academic Libraries…………………….. 104
Table 3.2 Operationalization of Variables…………………...………………….. 107
Table 4.1 Type of Library by Location………………………………….............. 120
Table 4.2 Library Members……………….…………………………………..….. 121
Table 4.3 Size of Library Collections by Type of Library…………………….…. 122
Table 4.4 Number of Subscribed Print Journals by Type of Library.………...…... 123
Table 4.5 Availability of Library Staff…………….…………………………..…. 124
Table 4.6 Libraries Operating Budget in Pakistani Rupee …………….................. 125
Table 4.7 Libraries’ IT Expenditure in Pakistani Rupee…..…….…………..……. 127
Table 4.8 Libraries’ IT Expenditure for 2005 by Type of Library……………….. 128
Table 4.9 Number of Computers Available in Respondent Libraries……............. 131
Table 4.10 Availability of Computers by Type of Library……………….….….…. 131
Table 4.11 Hardware Available in Respondent Libraries…………………...……... 132
Table 4.12 E-mail and Internet Availability in Libraries………………….……….. 134
Table 4.13 Mode of Internet Access……………………………………….............. 134
Table 4.14 Availability of E-mail and Internet by Age……………………..…….... 136
Table 4.15 Availability of Information Retrieval Systems…………..…………….. 137
Table 4.16 Availability of OPAC by Gender…………………….…................…… 138
Table 4.17 Libraries Using Barcode Labels by Type of Library…………….….…. 138
Table 4.18 Acquisition Sources of Library Management System/Software…….…. 139
Table 4.19 Levels of Library Automation………………...……………………...... 141
Table 4.20 Library Automation by Type of Library………………….………..….. 142
Table 4.21 Library Automation by Size of Library (Books)…………………......... 143
Table 4.22 Library Automation by Gender……………………………….….…….. 143
Table 4.23 Library Automation by Age……………………………………….…… 144
Table 4.24 Library Automation by Librarians Highest Qualification………….….. 145
Table 4.25 Library Automation by Librarians’ Level of IT Knowledge..…............ 145

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Table 4.26 Online Resources Available through Higher Education Commission.….. 146
Table 4.27 E-Databases Subscribed by the Respondents..…………………….…… 147
Table 4.28 Access to Online Books and Journals…………………………….......... 148
Table 4.29 IT Availability by Type of Library…………………….…….……..…... 149
Table 4.30 IT Use by Library Staff…………………………….….…………….…. 150
Table 4.31 IT Use by Library Patrons (Users)…………………………….……....... 152
Table 4.32 Librarians Use of Online Databases by Gender……………….….......... 153
Table 4.33 Librarians Use of Online Databases by Age……………………….…... 153
Table 4.34 Librarians’ Highest Professional Qualification…..…………................. 154
Table 4.35 Respondents’ Year of Latest of Professional Qualification ……….….. 155
Table 4.36 Respondents Age Groups……..……….……………………………….. 155
Table 4.37 Gender Distribution…………………………………………………..... 156
Table 4.38 Job Experience………..……………………………………….….......... 156
Table 4.39 Librarians Using Computers at Home by Gender…………………........ 157
Table 4.40 Frequency of IT Use…………………………………………………… 158
Table 4.41 Frequency of E-Mail and Internet Use by Age…………………........... 159
Table 4.42 Experience in Computers Use…............................................................. 160
Table 4.43 Experience in Computers Use by Geographical Location………..…… 160
Table 4.44 Recency of IT Training……………………………………………..…... 161
Table 4.45 Respondents’ Level of IT Knowledge…………………….…..…….…. 162
Table 4.46 Level of Technology Knowledge by Type of Library…..….……..….... 162
Table 4.47 Departments Involved in Different Stages of IT Acquisitions………… 164
Table 4.48 Departments Involved in Library IT Acquisitions by Type of Library… 165
Table 4.49 Librarians’ Level of Satisfaction…………………….………………… 167
Table 4.50 Correlation between Librarians' Role in IT-Related Decision-Making
and Dimensions of their IT Attitudes ..……………………………….. 167
Table 4.51 Attitudes Toward Impact of IT.……………………………………….. 171
Table 4.52 Attitudes Toward IT Cost and Resource Allocation……………..……. 176
Table 4.53 Attitudes Toward IT Training for Staff and Users…………..………… 178
Table 4.54 Attitudes Toward General IT Statements………………………..…….. 181
Table 4.55 Summery of Respondents’ IT Attitudes…..………………………….... 186
Table 4.56 Dimensions of Librarians’ Attitudes Toward IT…………….………... 190
Table 4.57 Rotated Component Matrix…………………………………………..... 191
Table 4.58 Total Variance Explained…………………………….………………... 192

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Table 4.59 Component Matrix of Loaded Variables for Factor Analysis……….... 193
Table 4.60 Type of Library and Perceived Confidence in IT Application………... 195
Table 4.61 Type of Library and Perceived Capabilities of IT…………………….. 196
Table 4.62 Type of Library and Perceived Usefulness of IT……………………... 196
Table 4.63 Location of Library and Perceived Confidence in IT Application….... 197
Table 4.64 Location of Library and Perceived Capabilities of IT………………... 197
Table 4.65 Location of Library and Perceived Usefulness of IT………………..... 197
Table 4.66 Gender and Perceived Confidence in IT Application………………... 198
Table 4.67 Gender and Perceived Capabilities of IT……………………………... 198
Table 4.68 Gender and Perceived Usefulness of IT……………………………..… 199
Table 4.69 Computer Use at Home and Perceived Confidence in
IT Application……………………………………………………….… 199
Table 4.70 Computer Use at Home and Perceived Capabilities of IT………….… 200
Table 4.71 Computer Use at Home and Perceived Usefulness of IT……………… 200
Table 4.72 Highest Professional Qualification and Perceived
Confidence in IT Application……………………….……………….… 201
Table 4.73 Highest Professional Qualification and Perceived
Capabilities of IT………………………………..……………………... 201
Table 4.74 Highest Professional Qualification and Perceived
Usefulness of IT……………………………………………………...… 202
Table 4.75 Organizational Variables and Perceived Confidence in
IT Application…………………………………………………….…… 204
Table 4.76 Organizational Variables and Perceived Capabilities of IT………….... 204
Table 4.77 Organizational Variables and Perceived Usefulness of IT……………. 204
Table 4.78 Demographic Variables and Perceived Confidence in IT
Application……………………………………………………….….… 205
Table 4.79 Demographic Variables and Perceived Capabilities of IT……………. 206
Table 4.80 Demographic Variables and Perceived Usefulness of IT……….…….. 206
Table 4.81 Librarians’ Professional Characteristics and Perceived
Confidence in IT Application………………………….…………..…... 207
Table 4.82 Librarians’ Professional Characteristics and Perceived
Capabilities of IT………………………………………………..……... 208
Table 4.83 Librarians’ Professional Characteristics and Perceived
Usefulness of IT……………………………………………….………. 208
Table 4.84 Correlation Matrix for Dimensions of Librarians IT Attitudes….….…. 212
Table 4.85 Problems in IT Application in Respondent Libraries……………….… 216
Table 5.1 Statistically Significant Differences and Correlation Matrix for
Dimensions of Librarians IT Attitudes ……………………………….. 233

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

1.0. Background of the Study

Information Technology (IT) is widely considered as the most important

revolution humankind has experienced since the Industrial Revolution and the

development of movable-type printing techniques (Ramzan 2004a). A country’s

development depends on the extent of usage, speed of access and the skilful application

of IT systems (Ramzan 2004a, Ehikhamenor 2002). The levels of information

technology application have become an indicator of a country’s wealth level. Countries,

which fail to prepare for IT and do not use it effectively, are likely to lose their global

competitiveness because information technology is pervasive (Berry 2006, Rodriguez

and Wilson 2000, Nkhoma-Wamunza 1997). IT has changed and will continue to

change the way we live, do business, interact and communicate. Information has

become the lifeblood for organizations and is considered as the currency of the 21st

century (Bailey 1997). It is not a coincidence that in the present information age there is

no wealthy or developed country, which is information-poor, and no information-rich

country, which is poor, and undeveloped (Vicziany and Puteh 2004).

Tiene (2002) mentioned that the gap between the rich and poor nations is

widening and one aspect of this disparity in wealth is enormous difference in access to

modern information and communication technologies. Information technologies provide

new opportunities for the faculty, researchers and students in the developed world to

obtain large amount of current information and data on almost any topic, to

communicate their thoughts in dynamic ways, and to work efficiently compared to their

peers with poor IT infrastructure in the less developed countries.

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Information technology has influenced every occupation as such e-banking, e-

business, electronic media, e-commerce, e-marketing, e-governance, tele-medicine,

wired money, virtual universities and digital libraries have become buzzwords these

days (Ramzan 2004a). The inventions in the Internet, intranet, mobile phones, satellite

communication and wireless technology have linked people and information and have

fundamentally changed the way scientific, technical, business, commercial, educational

and cultural information is recorded, organized, transferred and accessed (Ross and

Sennyey 2008, Oso 2007).

Libraries globally have undergone a significant change in the past two decades

due to the application of information technology in automated acquisitions, machine-

readable cataloguing, circulation controls, online information retrieval, selective

dissemination of information (SDI), resource sharing, electronic document delivery,

CD-ROM/DVD databases, online journals and electronic databases (Rowlands and

Nicholas 2008, Dorner 2000). Abbas (1997) visualized that our world is becoming an

interconnected global community and early use of the Internet has changed the

fundamental roles, paradigms, service levels and organizational cultures of libraries and

librarians. The advent of the Internet, digitization and the ability to access a library and

other research materials from remote locations have also created dramatic changes in

the education and information scenario (Dunlap 2008, Ramzan 2004a). A study by

Lavoie et al (2006) revealed that the innovations such as expert systems, virtual

collections, interactive web interfaces, virtual reference services, blogs and personal

web portals indicate greater changes to come in the new millennium. Lynch (2005)

mentioned that in many of the developed countries digital libraries are being established

to complement and, in some cases, to replace the traditional libraries.

Today a wide variety of knowledge and recorded information is available in

both print and electronic formats. However, a number of authors (Lewis 2007,

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Chowdhury et al 2006, Frey 2006, Kibbee 2006, Coyle 2006, Breeding 2005, Bennett

and Landoni 2005 and Moyo 2004) have predicted in their studies that in the future,

many resources would only be available in digital formats. Similarly, Singh (2008),

Ramzan (2008), Suber (2007), Mutula (2007), Prabha (2007), Bell et al (2006) and

Hernon and Calvert (2005) in their studies have discussed the emergence of a new

digital information paradigm. Findings of these studies have identified a clear shift from

print to digital format in journals and reference materials through digitization initiatives

around the globe, such as JSTOR, Questia Digital Library. Similarly, the mass

digitization of books through Open Content Alliance, Google Book Search, World

Digital Library reported by the above studies speak of a complete migration from print

to electronic formats within next decade. In addition, netLibrary, e-Brary and similar

initiatives are becoming popular in academic libraries.

The faculty, researchers and students are becoming more sophisticated in their

information seeking behaviour (Haglund and Olsson 2008). Kebede (2002) highlighted

that physical forms of information recording and dissemination are important factors

influencing the changing information needs of users. Christianson (2005) has reported

slow but steadily increasing use of online books through netLibrary, and Bennett and

Landoni (2005) reported similar findings. A study by El-Sherbini (2007) indicated that

OCLC open WorldCat initiative have significant effect in making the library collections

accessible to the whole world. However, library administrators of Association of

Research Libraries were showing a cautious attitude toward its impact on access to

library collections. Findings of a survey by Rosa (2006) revealed that search engines,

especially the Google have become favourite place for students to begin a search for

electronic resources. Therefore, the library or its OPAC is not the first or only choice

for the information seekers. Schonfeld and Guthrie (2007) noted that information

services needs of faculty are changing with the growing electronic resources and off-

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campus remote access. The availability of e-resources, wireless communication and

provision of off-campus access has enabled faculty, students and researchers to use

information resources any time and from any place. As a result, the library as a physical

place is also undergoing significant changes (Garten and Williams 2006, Freeman

2005).

Radical changes are occurring in displacement of paper, search engine use,

innovations in scholarly communication, emergence of a digital life style and ultimately

in the context of higher education (Smith 2006). Ross and Sennyey (2008) have argued

that the format, speed of information creation, recording and dissemination, and user

needs and expectations have changed fundamentally from physical to virtual. These

changes have challenged the traditional role, purpose, mission, vision and operation of

libraries. Consequently, libraries have started investing a significant amount of their

budgets in technologies to access, organize, disseminate and record a wide range of

information. Association of College and Research Libraries research committee

(Mullins et al 2007) predicted that in near future there will be an increased emphasis on

digitizing collections, preserving digital archives, and improving data storage and

retrieval methods. The skills set for librarian will continue to evolve in response to the

need and expectations of faculty and students. Haglund and Olsson (2008), Rowlands

(2007), Korobili et al (2006) and Nicholas et al (2006) reported impact of e-journals and

e-databases on the faculty and students information seeking behaviour. They found that

e-journals have reduced print use dramatically. It has strong negative impact on print

only titles. Mediated library services are declining in favour of user self-service and

introduction of e-databases have brought major shift from browsing to search

behaviour. Despite of the above situations many users are still not technically proficient

in searching digital resources and print resources are still an important aspect of

academics.

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Information technology has demonstrated its impact on time, accuracy,

efficiency and effectiveness of various library services, so it has become imperative for

libraries to adopt these technologies. To meet the challenges of new technologies,

librarians in developed countries learned and adopted these technologies quickly. They

introduced computers, different software, CD-ROM technology, e-mail, Internet,

networks, digitization of printed resources, online databases, open access to world

literature and similar technological initiatives to perform different library functions and

to provide innovative services to their patrons (Dunlap 2008, Greenstein et al 2007,

Smith 2006 and McCallum 2003). At the same time, library professionals in developed

countries raised their level of knowledge of new information and communication

technologies through workshops, seminars and through the library education and

training programmes. This helped them to get maximum benefits out of these

innovations. Ultimately, their libraries became well equipped with the hardware,

software, Internet and other information access technologies and technology-based

materials (Hardesty and Sugarman 2007, Lewis 2007 and Ramzan 2004a).

It is well established that computers, printers and other hardware, software and

Internet and other information and communication technologies have emerged as

indispensable tools for assisting the librarians in serving their users. However,

technology itself does not provide value to library users. It is the librarian who uses

technology as a strategic resource to manage library resources, services and systems and

who assists the users in the effective use of technology that makes the difference

(Wusteman 2008, Genoni et al 2006, McGee 2006, Sierpe 2004, and Latham 2002). An

essential factor in the use of information technology is the realization that technology is

not an end in itself but a means to an end. Weiner (2003) and Al-Zahrani (2000) viewed

technology as a vehicle to offer more efficient and effective delivery of current services

and to add new services to meet future needs of its users. They have further stated that

5
integrating technology into traditional library services requires positive attitudes and

commitment on the part of librarians and properly equipped and trained staff to explore

and exploit the technology to its full potential. Avey et al (2008) determined that

employees with positive attitudes could help organizations implement positive changes.

1.1. IT Developments in Pakistani Libraries

Realizing the importance of information technology, the Government of

Pakistan has since 1998 focused on enhancing the use of latest technologies in its public

and private concerns (Shafique and Mahmood 2008, Ramzan 2004a). There were over

3.5 million subscribers and 17 million email and Internet users by the end of 2007.

Teledensity in Pakistan has been around 45.9% by 2007 (Pakistan Telecommunication

Authority 2007). Toor (2005) and Ramzan (2004a) mentioned that the Government of

Pakistan has established one virtual university in 2002 and plans to open seven IT

universities to produce information and communication professionals. They further

mentioned that the academic institutions were receiving significant funding for IT and

libraries are considered amongst the chief organizations that rely heavily on IT.

Despite this public and private sector focus and the tremendous capabilities of

IT, libraries in Pakistan were lagging behind in the effective use of these technologies

compared to the libraries in the developed countries (Shafique and Mahmood 2008,

Mahmood 2005, Ramzan 2004a). Haider (2004, 1998) and Khalid (1998) found a low

use of information and communication technologies in university libraries of Pakistan.

Mahmood (1999) reviewed literature on computerised services and presented an

historical account of articles on automation. The findings highlighted a slow use of

computers in libraries and lack of cooperation amongst librarians and non-availability

of automation standards for Pakistani libraries. Later, Saeed et al (2000) found that 50%

of university libraries had access to the Internet and the majority of libraries had one

6
terminal for this facility. Only three libraries were equipped with more than one

computer for Internet access. A study by Ramzan (2004a) revealed that out of 244

academic and research libraries in Pakistan, 57 (23%) respondent libraries did not have

computers, 57% had e-mail, 53% had Internet and 80 (33%) respondents were not using

any library software; only 27 (11%) respondent libraries had fully automated library

operations. The above studies reflect a low and slow application of information

technology in libraries of Pakistan. Khan and Bawden (2005) reported a low level of IT

use in Pakistani libraries. Haider (2004) observed that since 1990 libraries in Pakistan

get ‘generous’ financial assistance. However, no significant progress was made in

automation of libraries. He further mentioned that IT application was in its infancy in

university libraries. He mentioned absence of proper planning, lack of competent

human resources, and hardware and software constraints as key reasons for the lack of

IT use in Pakistani libraries. A survey of librarians’ opinions regarding library software

being used in 86 libraries of Lahore (Shafique and Mahmood 2007) identified that a

variety of softwares were in use. The majority of the respondents were using locally

developed free software. They were un-satisfied with their performance. They also

determined that no standard tool or guides regarding technical and practical aspects of

selection and evaluation of software were available in Pakistani literature. Yasmin and

Bokhari (2008) surveyed 52 science and technology libraries and found that 18%

respondents did not have computers, 32% were not automated, 39% were partially

automated, while only 39% were fully automated using WIN/ISIS (mostly) and other

software.

One of the critical reasons of the poor state of IT use in Pakistani libraries

observed by Rehman (1993) is that librarians in Pakistan were not sufficiently prepared

to embrace the changes forced upon them by new technologies. He further mentioned

that most of the librarians in Pakistan were uncertain about IT applications in their

7
libraries and the ultimate benefits to their parent organizations. Findings of a study by

Ramzan (2004b) also confirmed that the same attitude persists especially in the public

sector universities and research libraries. Both studies have further revealed that most

librarians and their management do not know exactly what problems to solve through

IT application, or which information management and retrieval system to acquire and

how much to spend on it. According to these authors, the majority of librarians in

Pakistan were unclear regarding the implementation of these technologies thus

hindering resolution of IT related problems. In most cases, librarians were unable to

explain their specific needs to management, decision-makers and policy planners.

Rehman (1993) and Riaz (1993) mentioned that in many cases the chief executives and

librarians were both relying on computer programmers for the selection, acquisition and

implementation of hardware and software. Hence, the number of unsuccessful IT

applications is on the rise. Resultantly, librarians’ capability to implement library

automation projects has raised doubts in the minds of organizational heads. They further

mentioned that perceptions of most librarians about library automation in Pakistan were

based on fear and confusions. Subjective opinions and perspectives of Pakistani authors

and librarians suggest that there might be substantive reasons behind these attitudes.

1.2. Librarians IT Attitudes

Attitude has been defined by Eagly and Chaiken (1993) as “a psychological

tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour

or disfavour. Librarians’ attitude toward IT refers to their personal opinions and beliefs

about importance, impact, worth and usefulness of computer hardware, software, email,

internet and other information and communication technologies in library operations,

resources, services and systems. Griffiths (1995) and Callahan (1991) have determined

that the librarians’ role in the application of IT has been central as champions of the

8
library technology. Since technology in itself does not bring changes, it is the librarian

who uses technology as a strategic resource to innovate library infrastructure, systems,

services and resources and who assists users in effective use of technology. A number

of studies (Hendrix 2007, Adekunle et al 2007, Genoni et al 2006, Pors 2005, Ramzan

2004b, Spacey et al 2004a, Janes 2002, Finlay and Finlay 1996, Yaacob 1992) have

identified that the attitudes of librarians towards application of IT play a fundamental

role in determining their response toward implementation of these technologies in their

libraries. Nair (2001) has determined that the success or failure of IT application in

libraries depends on the attitudes of the librarians because they are the key responsible

persons for initiating changes, innovations and for planning and implementation of IT

projects in their libraries.

Integrating technology into library services requires positive attitudes and

commitment on the part of librarians to explore and exploit technology to its fullest

potential (Al-Zahrani 2000). Attitudes affect both management and staff; however,

executives’ attitudes have a direct impact upon employees. Kreitner and Kinicki (2007)

mentioned that employees sense their managers’ attitudes and respond accordingly.

Negative attitudes produce low worker morale and low productivity, while positive

attitudes provide increased productivity, high morale and motivated response (Harrell

2000). Findings of a study by Su (1993) determined that the supervisory librarians were

significantly more optimistic about technology application in libraries than non-

supervisory librarians were. There is a consensus in literature that librarians’ attitudes

and perceptions significantly affect the implementation and use of computer-based

library systems (Hayes and Belastock 1989, Koohang and Byrd 1987, Noble and

Connor 1986, Salomon and Burgess 1984). Olsgaard (1989) found that over 85%

failures in system implementation/automation is attributed to the people problem. Smith

(2005) determined that librarians’ ability to respond and adapt to change is critical.

9
They may be either a major obstacle to change or a major factor in achieving successful

change.

A survey of attitudes toward computers by Morrison (1983) indicated that in

1970s people regarded computers as either ‘beneficial tools for mankind’ or as

‘awesome thinking machines.’ However, these perceptions continue to change with the

level of interaction and exposure to new products. Luquire (1983) suggests that

technological change in libraries must be approached from attitudinal or psychological

point of view than the technical view. Resistance to change is natural and inherent in

individuals, librarians and libraries, like other organizations. People react strongly to

change, whether it is seen positive or negative, and tend to resist, even when they know

that the change is good for them.

Nair (2001) mentioned that whenever there is resistance to change, there are also

hidden balancing processes. Resistance is neither capricious nor mysterious; it usually

arises from threats to traditional norms and ways of doing things. There is always fear,

ambiguity and loss of control during the change process. He further stated that librarians

in many cases were not always inclined to welcome new technologies and adopted

negative attitudes toward innovations. Zimmerman (1993) observed that literature often

cites librarians’ attitudes and resistance to change as major obstacles to the acceptance

of change. People have a natural tendency to resist change, such as the change brought

about by the use of information technology. In this clash between the people tendency

to maintain the status quo and changes forced by technology, librarians’ role becomes

central in IT related decision-making. Fine (1986, 1994) stated that people operate at

certain comfort levels; it is very difficult to change the way people regard their work or

the way they solve their problems. However, Aladwani (2001) believes that a tactful

leader can discern the source of resistance by focusing directly on the implicit norms,

the powerful relationships and other factors within the norms of the organization.

10
Studies on organizational change regularly show the importance of promoter or

‘champion’ who is willing and able to own a new idea or product. He is instrumental in

developing ideas into an operational form and getting them accepted and embedded in

the organizational changes (Kreitner and Kinicki 2007). Klein et al (2001) determined

that technology application is more an attitudinal concern than technical. A

multidisciplinary meta-analysis of human barriers to technology implementation by

Rizzuto and Reeves (2007) determined that psychological factors needed to be

considered in IT application in any organizational set up.

A number of authors (Melchionda 2007, Ramzan 2004b, Nair 2001, Griffiths

1995, Yaacob 1992 and Callahan 1991) in their studies have mentioned that he most

important antecedent to a successful implementation of information technology change

and innovation project in a library is the librarian as a champion for the new system.

The positive attitude and actions of a librarian can play an important role in its

successful implementation. Studies on librarians’ attitudes toward the application of IT

in libraries have been conducted in Nigeria (Uwaifo 2007, Idowu 1999), Uganda

(Kinengyere 2007), Denmark (Pors 2005), UK (Spacey et al, 2004a), India (Nair 2001),

Saudi Arabia (Al-Zahrani 2000), United States (Powell 1998, Olsgaard 1989), Thailand

(Phisalphong 1998), China (Su 1993 and Lee 1988), Puerto Rico (Capeles-Roman

1997), Australia (Farajpahlou 1995), Canada (Wilkins 1995) and Malaysia (Yaacob

1990). The findings of these studies indicate that one of the major barriers in

implementing and enhancing the use of IT in libraries is not technical but attitudinal.

They indicate that the attitudes of librarians are an important force that can change the

shape of libraries and information services in a country. Study of attitudes of librarians

is of significance because if people responsible for implementing change respond

poorly to it, the anticipated effectiveness of using IT will not be achieved. The above

researchers have further reported that the attitudes people have towards a proposed

11
technological change determine their response to change. Failure to consider these

attitudes leads to adversities and organizational losses. It is, therefore, imperative to

have an understanding of complex and varied attitudes of librarians towards emerging

technological innovations. It will help to ensure better utilization of a library’s human

resources and technologies.

1.3. Assumptions

It is assumed that librarians in Pakistan are aware of the importance of

application of information technology in libraries. They are also aware of the

information technologies that have been employed in libraries. I assumed that librarian

in Pakistan have particular attitudes toward application of IT in libraries. I also

assumed that there are certain demographic and organizational factors that affect, how

librarians’ feel about application of IT in libraries. I also assumed that librarians will

interpret questions correctly, and they will answer the questions honestly.

1.4. Statement of the Problem

Despite administrative support, Government of Pakistan’s IT Policy and Action

Plan, significant improvements of IT infrastructure in the country, availability of funds,

an array IT application in the whole country and focus by private and public sectors in

introducing electronic environments in governance, business, economy, health and

education, falling costs and tremendous capabilities of information technology, libraries

in Pakistan were trailing behind in its application compared to similar institutions in the

developing world. Many librarians in Pakistan are still using old methods and manual

systems in acquisitions, technical processing, information retrieval, circulation control

and other library activities (Pakistan Ministry of Education 2008, Pakistan

Telecommunication Authority 2008, Shafique and Mahmood 2008, Rizvi 2007,

12
Ramzan 2004a, Haider 2004, Mahmood 1998, Rehman 2000a; 1993). The Government

of Pakistan, through the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan is providing free

full-text access to more than 23,000 online journals and 45,000 e-books, Internet access

through its PERN project and funds to universities against project proposals for IT

applications. However, no significant impact is visible in the libraries’ IT infrastructure

in their technology-based services, use of available resources and on the research

produced by the universities (Pakistan Higher Education Commission 2008, Thomson

Scientific 2007, Said 2006, and Haider 2004).

One of the reasons for the above-mentioned failures seems to be that librarians

have not been able to capitalize on this opportunity to leverage the benefit of the array

of IT applications in the country. It seems that the librarians were not ready to bring

innovations in their libraries forced upon them by the technology revolution in the

country and abroad. Similarly, despite the availability of sufficient funds in parent

institutions, the majority of the librarians in Pakistan have so far failed to present their

cases for obtaining funds and have been waiting for instructions and executive orders to

introduce IT in their libraries. This passive attitude of responsible librarians forced the

chief executives of the academic institutions (who, in any case, wanted to introduce the

latest technologies in their libraries) to rely on computer professionals and vendors for

the selection, purchase and implementation of hardware, software and other information

technologies without due involvement of librarians (Ramzan 2004b, Riaz 1993,

Rehman 1993). This could be an important reason for the failure of most IT projects in

Pakistani libraries. As a result, librarians’ capabilities to implement library automation

projects and other IT initiatives have raised doubts in the minds of vice-chancellors,

heads of institutes, policy-makers, project directors, and other decision-makers and

organizational heads.

13
There are very likely to be genuine reasons for these attitudes, perceptions and

ignorance. Therefore, there is a critical need for a comprehensive study to investigate

attitudes of librarians toward application of IT in libraries of Pakistan. Previous studies

on IT do not report the extent to which these technologies are made available and

utilized in academic libraries of Pakistan. So far, no study has been carried out which

provides comprehensive and authentic data to library planners, administrators and

decision-makers to determine the librarians’ roles in IT application and to act as a basis

for evaluating past and current library policies and for future planning. In the extant

literature as reviewed in preceding paragraphs, IT usage in libraries is considered

heavily dependent on librarians’ attitudes. While several studies have been conducted in

the context of developed world as well as in some developing countries, no

comprehensive study has been conducted in this regard in Pakistan. It is believed that

without thoroughly investigating the attitudes of librarians with regard to application of

IT, not all initiatives and efforts to leverage IT usage will be based on sound theoretical

framework and well-founded recommendations. The current study endeavours to fill

this gap by undertaking a comprehensive study on the attitude-application of IT linkage.

1.5. Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study was to investigate the attitudes of librarians

towards application of information technology in academic libraries of Pakistan and to

determine the factors affecting their attitudes. The specific objectives were as follows:

1. To investigate the levels at which information technology is available and

utilized in academic libraries of Pakistan.

2. To examine the librarians’ role in IT-related decision-making.

3. To assess the attitudes of librarians towards application of IT in academic

libraries in Pakistan.

14
4. To explore the underlying factors affecting attitudes of librarians towards

application of IT in libraries.

5. To determine if there are statistically significant mean differences between

organizational variables, demographic variables and librarians’ attitudes toward

information technology.

6. To determine if there are statistically significant relationships between

organizational variables, demographic variables librarians’ professional

characteristics and their attitudes toward IT.

7. To determine the significance and direction of relationships between a set of

relevant variables and librarians’ attitudes toward IT, using hypothesis testing.

8. To propose a model to enhance positiveness of librarians’ attitudes towards IT.

1.6. Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions to accomplish the

stated purposes and objectives:

RQ1: What are the levels of availability and utilization of information

technology in academic libraries of Pakistan?

RQ2: What is the role of librarians in IT-related decision-making for libraries

as perceived by them?

RQ3: What are the attitudes of the librarians toward application of information

technology in academic libraries in Pakistan?

RQ4: What factors underlie the librarians’ attitudes toward IT application?

RQ5: Are there statistically significant mean differences in different dimensions

of IT attitudes of librarians who are working in public and private academic libraries,

working in city and town libraries, male and female librarians, librarians who use and

15
those who do not use computers at home, and librarians’ highest professional

qualifications?

RQ6: Are there statistically significant relationships between different

dimensions of librarians IT attitudes and libraries of varying collection size, user size,

and staff size and library budget?

RQ7: Are there statistically significant relationships between different

dimensions of librarians IT attitudes and their years of attaining professional

qualification, age, experience as a librarian and experience as a head/chief librarian?

RQ8: Are there statistically significant relationships between different

dimensions of librarians IT attitudes and their experience in computer use, recency in

IT training, level of technology knowledge, level of awareness of new technologies, and

level of written contribution on IT in libraries?

RQ9: What are the problems faced by librarians in the implementation of

information technology in libraries of Pakistan?

1.7. Hypotheses

Librarians’ attitudes toward new technologies are influenced by personality

traits and organizational factors. To test the intensity and direction of relationship

between attitudes of librarians with the levels of IT availability, levels of IT use,

librarians’ level of IT knowledge, librarians’ frequency of IT use and the amount of

expenses on IT, five hypotheses were established for testing. The significance of the

relationship of these variables has not been tested in a Pakistani situation. Therefore, it

is hypothesized that:

H1: There is a statistically significant relationship between libraries’ levels of

IT availability and different dimensions of librarians’ attitudes toward application of IT

in academic libraries of Pakistan

16
H2: There is a statistically significant relationship between libraries’ levels of

IT use and different dimensions of librarians’ attitudes toward application of IT in

academic libraries of Pakistan.

H3: There is a statistically significant relationship between librarians’

frequency of IT use and different dimensions of their attitudes toward application of IT

in academic libraries of Pakistan.

H4: There is a statistically significant relationship between librarians’ level of

IT knowledge and different dimensions of their attitudes toward application of IT in

academic libraries of Pakistan.

H5: There is a statistically significant relationship between libraries’

expenditure on IT and different dimensions of librarians’ attitudes toward IT

application in academic libraries of Pakistan.

1.8. Significance of the Study

The Government of Pakistan is increasing its focus on quality and promotion of

higher education and research in the country. This is evident from the growth in

allocation of financial resources to the higher education sector. Libraries are considered

amongst the important departments in universities that play critical role in promotion of

knowledge and scholarship. These initiatives include establishment of a National

Digital Library in 2004, digitization of theses produce by Pakistani universities,

provision of Internet bandwidth and funds for establishment and development of

laboratories and libraries in universities

However, IT infrastructure and services of libraries including the availability of

PCs and other hardware, automation, use of email, Internet, use of online journals and

e-books and web applications is very low in Pakistani libraries (Haider 2004, Ramzan

2004a). Therefore, the librarians in Pakistan are finding themselves in a situation where

17
management, promotion and use of online resources have become an integral part of

their professional life and their remaining IT infrastructure needs complete revamping.

This requires significant efforts and initiatives on the part of librarians to innovate their

libraries in a balanced manner, so that they can positively influence the higher education

and research in the country. In particular, the current generation of librarians entering

the profession is keener and more willing to take risks. They encourage the

administration to increase budget spending for the purchase of computational

equipments, to provide Internet access and to subscribe online databases. However, no

documented evidence is available about their attitudes toward these technologies and

systems so far. It is important to investigate the attitudes of librarians toward application

of IT in our libraries and to determine the factors that can affect their attitudes. The

extracted variables will help in addressing issue of attitude and will help in making

strategies and plans to improve the librarians’ attitudes. This will help achieve the

ultimate goal of libraries positive contribution in the development and generation of

knowledge and scholarship in Pakistan. Findings of this study will also help identify

gaps and address the issues in application of IT in different types, size and geographical

location of academic libraries.

Research in this area was considered important because it could provide

evidence regarding the extent to which information technology existed and was applied

in academic libraries in Pakistan. This is the first thesis level comprehensive study to

provide an account of librarians’ attitudes towards the application of IT in academic

libraries of Pakistan. Previous studies mainly focussed on technology part ignoring the

issue of librarians’ attitudes. No valid recommendations could be offered for different

stakeholders such as policy-makers, heads of academic institutions, government

functionaries, MIS/IT people and librarians without a solid baseline study. It is

imperative that a wholesome stream of body of literature develops in this important area

18
within the overall discipline of librarianship. This study hopes to fill the necessary gap

in this area of library research and inquiry. This study will also be useful for academic

libraries in the developing countries, which might be at a similar level of knowledge

base with regard to understanding of librarians’ attitudes and their relationship with IT

and other innovations in libraries.

The review of studies conducted in different countries as reported in preceding

sections, reveals that the librarians’ attitude studies and library automation

implementation has a chronological link. For example, library automation in developed

countries (US, UK, Australia, Canada, and China) was carried during 1970s and 1980s

and in early 1990s, and coincidently the computer attitude studies were conducted

during the same period. Similarly, library automation and librarians’ attitude studies

were conducted in developing countries such as Malaysia, Korea, Iran, Saudi Arabia,

India and Thailand in the 1990s. While countries like Pakistan, Nigeria, Ghana and

some other African countries have still not made any significant endeavour in the

library automation in their libraries. Consequently, the need to determine librarians’ role

in library automation and other IT initiatives has arisen relatively recently. There have

been studies on librarians’ attitudes towards IT in different regions of the world.

Findings from this study will fill the gap and allow the researchers world over to have

an opportunity to examine the state of librarians’ attitudes and its relationship with IT

and other variables thus providing them a credible source of study in the context of

Pakistan. This study will also serve as an instrument in assessing the librarians’ attitudes

in the regional, global and cross-cultural context.

It was hoped that data collected through this research could be useful for library

administrations to prepare planes, feasibilities, guidelines and strategies regarding

application and promotion of different hardware, software, databases, electronic

resources and other technologies in the target libraries. This would help library

19
managements to benefit from the experiences of other libraries. Information regarding

library budgets and expenditures for the purchase of hardware, software and electronic

products was crucial in highlighting the extent of allocations made for private and

public sector academic libraries so far. Findings of this study might prove useful for

managers to provide sufficient funds for the purchase of these technologies, to provide

incentives to improve efficiencies and to assess the values of these technologies in their

organizations.

The role of librarian as champion for introducing information technology in an

ever-changing environment has an important bearing on the future of library

development. Application of new technologies or innovations in current systems

depends on the timely decision of librarians and their ability to convince the heads of

the organizations about the viability and usefulness of information technology vis-à-vis

the cost. The positive attitudes of librarians will help heads of institutions to plan

effective technological applications in individual libraries. A survey of library literature

revealed that little attention has been paid to investigate attitudes of librarians towards

application of information technology in libraries. Most of these studies were reported

from developed countries, which are already ahead in application of state-of-the-art

information technologies in their libraries. It is observed that researchers often overlook

human factor aspects and attitudinal issues of information technology in libraries of

developing countries, especially of Pakistan.

It is hoped that this study would add to the library literature by providing

insights into the librarians’ attitudes toward IT application in libraries of Pakistan.

Moreover, the study would serve as a prelude to further studies in this area. This study

would provide the data needed to assess the influence of attitudes of librarians

concerning information technology and its future implications for effective library

development.

20
1.9. Scope and Delimitations of the Study

The librarians working in the academic libraries of Pakistan were the subjects of

this study, because they are the most responsible and influential library personnel

involved in introducing and upgrading information technology in libraries. Library

literature in Pakistan does not report the exact number and location of all types of

libraries currently functioning in Pakistan. Haider (1998) and Khurshid (1990) have also

identified the need for a comprehensive study to investigate the exact numbers, kinds

and locations of libraries functioning in Pakistan. However, the number and locations of

academic libraries is documented in the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan

documents and website and is available in other publications. These libraries are also

more effective in introducing changes and innovations, as they influence at the national

level. The author has been working in academic libraries and has been involved in

library automation projects in some leading libraries, since 1992. Keeping in view the

above facts, this study covered only the librarians of academic libraries of Pakistan.

Moreover, the study has limitations to the information technologies that were common

in Pakistan by June 2006. It does not cover the Library 2.0, Web 2.0, RSS, Wiki,

institutional repositories, open access initiatives and other latest advancements that were

not common use in Pakistan at the time of data collection.

1.10. Limitations

The subjects of the study were only the librarians because of their key role in IT

application in libraries, while other stakeholders such as deputy librarians, system

librarians, MIS/Information technology department, members of the library committees,

Dean and Heads of institutions were not covered due to cost and other

resource/methodological constraints, such as geographical dispersion and large

population.

21
1.11. Conceptual Definitions of Variables

According to the context of the thesis, the conceptual definitions of variables used in

this study are as follows:

• Librarian: A full-time employee with library degree, who is responsible for

decision-making regarding application of IT in libraries, and who runs the

affairs of a library as in-charge, solo librarian, head librarian, chief librarian,

library manager, library director or a senior librarian (Souza 2007).

• Attitudes: It is defined as “a psychological tendency that is expressed by

evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor (Eagly and

Chaiken, 1993).” In this study, attitude corresponds to the respondent librarians’

personal beliefs, opinions and perceptions concerning application of information

technologies, such as hardware, software, email, Internet, library automation,

web applications, and electronic and online databases in academic libraries in

Pakistan. It refers to librarians’ perceptions regarding impact of IT, resources

allocation on IT, IT training, their confidence in IT, capabilities of IT, and

usefulness and worth of IT for academic libraries of Pakistan. Detailed

definition and background theory regarding attitudes is given in chapter 2.

• Information Technology: It is the technology involved in the recording,

storage and dissemination of information. Simply, we can say the use of

computers and communication technologies for the processing and distribution

of information in textual, digital, audio, video and other forms. It involves

computer-based hardware and software systems and communication methods to

enable the acquisition, representation, storage, transmission and use of

information. Information technology can be defined as “the acquisition,

processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical

information by a microelectronic-based combination of computing and

22
telecommunications” (Khosrowpour 2006). In fact, these various technologies

are used in the creation, acquisition, storage, dissemination, retrieval,

manipulation and transmission of information. Throughout this study, the term

‘Information Technology’ (IT) refers to computer and other hardware, software,

multimedia applications, email, Internet, web applications, digital materials,

electronic databases, virtual collections, remote access and other

telecommunications. However, this definition is limited to the developments and

commonly used information technology in Pakistan by the end of 2006. It does

not cover Library 2.0, Web 2.0, Wiki, institutional repositories, open access

initiatives, and other latest information technologies and applications. The term

ICTs (information and communication technologies) or IT is used inter-

changeably to represent the earlier mentioned technologies.

• Information Technology Applications: The use of IT tools to perform

different library functions and activities is generally termed as information

technology (IT) applications. In this study, the use of IT for the purposes of

acquisition, cataloguing, classification, circulation, information retrieval,

preservation, copying, scanning and other processing of library books, journals,

index, reports, documents and other library materials is taken as information

technology applications (Dery and Samson 2005). This term has been

interchangeably used with information technology or information and

communication technologies, IT, ICT, new technologies, innovative

technologies, library technologies and application of information technology. In

simple terms, it represents use of computer hardware PC, printers, photocopiers,

barcode technology, audio-visual materials, e-mail, Internet, intranet, library

automation, library software, OPAC, web application, electronic journals and

databases available in respondent libraries.

23
• Academic Libraries: Libraries associated with educational institutions,

universities, colleges and other institutions forming part (Souza 2007). In this

study central and departmental/seminar libraries functioning in private and

public sector universities, degree awarding institutions and postgraduate

colleges.

• Type of Library: It refers to the academic libraries of public sector

(government/Semi Government) and private sector academic institutions.

• Geographic Location: It refers to the libraries of academic institutions locates

in cities or town.

• Collection Size: It refers to the number of books (in print format) available in

target libraries.

• User Size: It refers to the number of library users (faculty, students, staff of the

institutes and the external members).

• Staff Size: It refers to the number of librarians working in the target libraries.

• Library Budget: It refers to the amount allocated (in Pakistani Rupee) to the

library for a particular (2003, 2004 and 2005) financial year.

• Expenditure on IT: It refers to the amount allocated for purchase of hardware,

software, communication technologies and services and for purchase and

subscription of online resources and services during 2003, 2004 and 2005

financial year.

• Highest Professional Qualifications. It refers to respondent librarians’ latest

library science qualification (certificate, diploma, bachelor, masters, MS/M.Phil.

or doctorate).

• Year of Attaining Professional Qualification: It refers to the year of passing in

library science qualification.

• Age: It refers to the number of years since their birth.

24
• Gender: It refers to male or female academic librarians.

• Job Experience: It refers to the number of years respondents has served as a

librarian, and as a head librarian.

• Computer Use at Home: It refers to respondents who use and those who do not

use computers at their home.

• Recency in IT Training: It refers the number of year (s) librarians received

his/her latest training in information technology.

• Experience in Computer Use: It refers to the number of years since each

respondent started using computer.

• Level of Technology Knowledge: It refers to the librarians’ level of knowledge

of new technologies, new inventions relevant to information, research, education

and knowledge (none or negligible, little, moderate, substantial and in-depth) as

perceived by them.

• Awareness of New Technologies : It refers to the librarians’ level of keeping

themselves abreast of new technologies through reading professional literature,

attending conference, seminars, workshops or getting training (none or

negligible, little, moderate, substantial and in-depth) as perceived by them.

• Level of Written Contribution on IT in Libraries: It refers to the librarians’

level of contribution in terms of conference papers, articles, and books on any

aspect of IT application in libraries.

• Libraries’ Levels of IT Availability. It refers to a total score respondents

library regarding availability of number of computers, availability of different

kinds of hardware, software, availability of e-mail, Internet, network access

levels, library management system, web applications, percentage of library

operations automated and the number of online books, e-journals and databases.

In order to obtain a numerical value of the responses on IT availability in

25
libraries, key variables were assigned weights, keeping in view their importance

for libraries. Because of weighing, total scores of IT availability for each

respondent was obtained on a ratio scale and labelled as libraries IT availability.

• Libraries’ Levels of IT Use: It refers the levels of commonly used information

technologies (Computers, CD-ROM/DVDs, photocopiers/printers, audio-visual

materials, online catalogues, email, Internet and online databases) by library

users, measured on a 5-point Likert scale.

• Frequency of IT Use: It refers to average use for common IT tools by

respondents, such as word processing, CD-ROM, email and Internet, on a never,

monthly, weekly and daily basis..

• Level of IT knowledge: It refers to respondents average score comprising of

three variables namely, librarians’ level of technology knowledge, their

awareness of new technologies and written contribution on IT in libraries,

measured on a scale of none, little, moderate, substantial and in-depth level of IT

knowledge.

1.12. Organization of the Thesis

This thesis is organized into five chapters. In Chapter 1, the researcher has

provided background of the current research, stated the problem, established the

rationale, need and significance of the study, mentioned the objectives and formulated

the research questions and hypotheses to accomplish the purposes of the study. It is

evident from the views, observations and facts stated in this chapter that attitudes of

librarians play a key role in application of information technology in libraries.

Therefore, it is imperative to investigate and understand the librarians’ attitudes towards

application of information technology in libraries. Chapter 2 provides a comprehensive

review of the literature relevant to the Pakistan’s higher education, academic library and

26
information technology, libraries role in higher education, human resources in libraries,

the benefits of applying IT in libraries’, studies on librarians’ attitudes, and its

relationship with the respondents’ personal and professional characteristics and

organizational variables. It also includes review of studies on problems that librarians

faced in library automation and presents a conceptual framework of the study. Chapter 3

covers research design and methodology including the population and sampling

operational definitions of dependent variable and independent variables and instrument

used for data collection, reliability and validity of the data and data analysis procedures

used in the study. Chapter 4 presents a comprehensive analysis of the primary data and

findings to answer stated research questions and hypotheses. The final chapter (5)

provides a summary of research findings, detailed discussion on the findings,

conclusion of the study, and presents a model to enhance the positiveness of librarians’

attitudes towards application of IT in libraries and recommendations for practice and

future research.

27
CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.0. Purpose of Review

Information technology has proliferated at an amazing rate in libraries of the

developed world and so has the literature assessing and discussing its impact on

librarians' attitudes towards its application. However, no comprehensive study has been

carried out so far to investigate the attitudes of librarians towards application of

information technology in libraries in Pakistan. This chapter focuses on understanding,

reviewing and synthesizing previously published scholarly literature pertinent to this

study. It will help in understanding the problem statement with more clarity. The

literature review will also help in formulating research questions, establishing

hypotheses, developing the research instrument and in understanding different research

methodologies and approaches used by previous researchers. Specifically, this chapter

attempts to examine the literature on the following topics:

1. Higher Education and Academic Library Scenario of Pakistan

2. Information Technology Infrastructure in Pakistan

3. Libraries in Higher Education

4. Application of Information Technology in Libraries

5. Human Resources in Libraries

6. Attitude Theory

7. Attitude Measurement Techniques

8. Attitudes Toward Information Technology

9. Organizational Variables Affecting Librarians’ Attitudes Toward IT

10. Demographic Variables, Professional Characteristics and IT Attitudes

11. Librarians’ IT Education, Training and Competencies

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12. Problems of Library Automation

13. Technology Acceptance Theories

14. Conceptual Framework of the Study

Literature was searched from published and unpublished materials, such as

journal articles, theses, research reports, conference proceedings, books, library indexes

(LISA, LISTA, Pakistan Periodical Index, etc.), Government of Pakistan documents,

handbooks and directories on relevant topics available in libraries and online databases

(Emerald Insight, ScienceDirect, EbscoHost, National Digital Library, etc.) and the

Internet. The literature described in this chapter builds upon the key concepts, which

constitutes the conceptual framework underlying application of IT in libraries,

librarians’ attitudes towards IT, demographic variables (age, gender…), and librarians’

expertise in IT (computer experience, IT training…), and institutional characteristics

(type, size of libraries…). First few sections help in understanding the higher education,

academic libraries and IT infrastructure of Pakistan.

2.1. Higher Education and Academic Libraries Scenario of Pakistan

The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan accepts education as one of

the fundamental rights of every citizen. However, like many other developing countries,

the condition of the education sector in Pakistan has not been very encouraging. Out of

a total population of 160.9 million people, the overall literacy rate is 55%, while adult

literacy rate was only 52% by June 2007 (Pakistan Ministry of Finance 2009). Pakistan

is ranked amongst the lowest in the world in higher education enrolment rates at 2.9%.

Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is the lowest in Pakistan

compared to other countries of the South Asian region. Pakistan spends 2.1% of its

GDP on education compared to India, which spends 4.1%, Bangladesh 2.4% and Nepal

3.4%. Realizing the importance of education in the socio economic development of the

29
country and its obligations to the global agenda “Education for All,” the Government of

Pakistan has started investing in the education sector. Public sector expenditure on

education as a percentage of GDP has marginally increased from 1.8% in 2000-2001 to

2.1% in 2003-2004. However, it stagnated at approximately 2.0% during 2003-2006.

The increase in the education sector allocations shows that more emphasis was placed

to consolidate and accelerate the development of education (Pakistan Ministry of

Education 2008).

In 2002, as a part of its educational reforms the Government of Pakistan focused

on expanding and improving higher education in the country. To fulfil its agenda of

higher education, the Government established the Higher Education Commission (HEC)

with the mandate to evaluate, improve and promote the higher education and research

sector. The reform agenda has been supported through vast powers granted to the

Commission to fulfil its mandate and significant increases in financial resources by the

Government to support this process. During 2003-2004, the Government allocated Rs.

9,783.260 (US$150.5) million. In 2004-2005, the allocation was raised to Rs.

16,150.044 (US$248.5) million and this rising trend continued during 2005-2006 and

went up to Rs 22193.412 (US$341.4) million. The growth in allocation of financial

resources to the Higher Education Commission shows that the Government of Pakistan

has finally realized the importance of quality higher education for the people of

Pakistan (Pakistan Ministry of Education 2008).

The Higher Education Commission undertook implementation of its five-year

agenda for reform in which access, quality and relevance were identified as the key

challenges. To meet these challenges, the Higher Education Commission implemented

its strategy of reforms through (i) Faculty development, (ii) improving access, (iii)

excellence in learning and research and (iv) relevance to national priorities. These

strategic aims have been supported by well-integrated crosscutting themes for

30
developing leadership, governance and management, enhancing quality assessment and

accreditation and physical and technological infrastructure development. HEC has taken

practical steps in moving towards establishing a knowledge-based economy through its

e-Reforms programs. These initiatives include establishment of a National Digital

Library, Pakistan Educational Research Network, and Pakistan Research Repository

(Pakistan Higher Education Commission 2008). National Digital Library now provides

access to 23,000 journals and access to 45,000 online books to 124 public and private

sector universities and 161 research institutions. The Pakistan Research Repository is an

ongoing project of the Higher Education Commission to promote the international

visibility of research originating out of institutes of higher education in Pakistan through

digitization and making available online. Currently more than 1600 PhD theses

published in Pakistan’s universities are made available with full text downloadable

functionality. The repository is being uploaded with new theses continuously and is

estimated to hold more than 3200 theses by the end of 2008. Digitization of M. Phil as

well as Master level theses has also been initiated.

Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) is a nationwide educational

intranet connecting premiere educational and research institutions of the country to

provide integration of data banks, collaboration for research and development activities

and enhancing the quality of teaching and learning skills among these

universities/institutes. In the first phase, Internet facility to 56 public and private sector

universities and institutes have been provided for sharing of library resources, data

banks, video lecturing, video conferencing. HEC is now working to redesign PERN and

establish a high speed dedicated that will interlink all (including remaining 59) public

and private sectors academic and research institutes of the country over an IP based

infrastructure through metro fibre ring (Gigabit Ethernet) in the cities where facilities

are available. The remaining universities/institutes will be interlinked via leased dark

31
fibre or legacy TDM communication system (Pakistan Higher Education Commission

2008).

Though it is too early to measure the impact of these reforms; developments in

the infrastructure of universities/institutions, quality of faculty, laboratories, research

publications, libraries and access to knowledge have started showing signs of

improvement in the higher education sector (Pakistan Higher Education Commission

2008).

The Government of Pakistan’s focus on establishing the universities and degree

granting institutions in the public and private sector has influenced the growth of seats

of higher learning in the country. The data in Table 2.1 indicates an exponential growth

in the universities and institutions after 2000. The number of universities and institutes,

which was 62 in 2000-01 increased to 124 by 2008. The private sector also contributed

significantly after the 1990s to the higher education sector of Pakistan

Table 2.1
Growth in Accredited Universities and Degree Awarding Institutes
Category /Year of 1947- 1960- 1970- 1980- 1990- 2000- 2006-
Establishment 1948 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2008
Accredited Public Sector
Universities 2 5 8 19 20 34 58
Accredited Private Sector
Universities - - - - 2 15 39
Chartered/Degree Awarding
Institutions in Public Sector - 1 2 2 3 5 9
Chartered/Degree Awarding
Institutions in Private Sector - - - - - 8 18
Total 2 6 10 21 25 62 124
(Source: Pakistan Higher Education Commission 2008)

There were only two university libraries and a few college libraries in the public

sector at the time of Pakistan’s creation in 1947. The first university library in the

private sector was established in 1983 at the Aga Khan University in Karachi, followed

by the Lahore University of Management Sciences library, in 1986.

32
Research and education activities are dependent on the availability of a reliable

body of information for users and scholars. Until the mid sixties, libraries were poorly

stocked and there was a serious shortage of scientific journals and trained librarians in

Pakistan. There were only 2,500 libraries and about 1,200 qualified librarians in the

country. The Government of Pakistan did not take any initiative to establish new

libraries after independence due to other priorities like rehabilitation and welfare of

refugees. Some of the other factors that stood in the way of initial library promotion in

Pakistan were lack of consciousness of the importance of libraries in national

development, lack of interest of decision makers in information and knowledge and

non-existence of library education and training facilities. By 1989, the number of

libraries in Pakistan increased to 6,034. This included 22 university libraries, 435

college libraries, 464 school libraries, 331 special libraries, 281 public libraries, 1

national library, 7 polytechnic libraries, 4,373 box libraries and the rest were

miscellaneous types of libraries (Khurshid 1990).

Since establishing a library is an integral part of any academic institution, we

have seen a reasonable growth in the establishment of academic libraries in Pakistan,

especially after 1995 when the private sector started investing in education. The number

of main or central libraries of accredited universities and degree awarding institutions

reached 124 as of May 2008 (Pakistan Higher Education Commission 2008). The major

universities, such as University of the Punjab, Karachi University, Quaid-e-Azam

University, University of Sindh, University of Peshawar, University of Baluchistan and

other universities have established libraries for their departments, centres of excellence

and research centres in addition to their central or main libraries. The total number of

central or main libraries, departmental libraries, the libraries of research centres and

centres of excellence of universities and degree granting institutes and postgraduate

33
colleges in Pakistan is estimated at over 684 (Pakistan Ministry of Education 2008,

Pakistan Academy of Education Planning and Management 2005).

Academic libraries, especially in the public sector, along with their parent

institutions, were poorly funded and managed before 2000. The changed focus of the

Government of Pakistan toward higher education has resulted in some improved

funding of the public sector academic libraries. The data in Table 2.2 indicates that in

2003-2004 public and private sector institutes of Pakistan spent only Rs 246.202

(US$3.78) million on libraries, which is 1.25% of their total budget of Rs 19,708.286

(US$303.2) million. Private sector universities and institutes spent 2.50% of their total

budget on libraries while public sector universities and institutions spent only 1.04% of

their total budget on libraries, which is half of the budget allocation of the libraries in

the private sector institutions. No such statistics were available for the latest years.

Table 2.2
Budget Expenditure on Research and Libraries 2003-2004 (Million Rs)
Total Research Library Non-Devel. Develop. Income From
Sector
Budget Expend. Expend. Expend. Expend. Own Sources
Public 13,356 202 139 11,312 1,568 5,801
Private 6,352 159 106 4,875 1,098 5,574
Overall 19,708 361 246 16,187 2,666 11,375
(Source: Pakistan Higher Education Commission 2008)

2.2. Information Technology Infrastructure in Pakistan

Pakistan has been lagging behind the world community in application of

information technology. Until 1990, only a few multinationals from the airline industry,

foreign missions and IBM were using information technology for their specific

functions. The IT sector started showing its presence in 1992 after some investment was

made in the development of telecommunication infrastructure. Saeed et al (2000)

mentioned that by 1993, only 200 cities and towns were connected to the nation-wide

system with access to 70 countries through international subscribers system. The

34
number of telephone lines nearly doubled between 1992 and 1994. This was in 1995,

when the Government of Pakistan established electronic mail service and issued forty

licenses to individual companies. The Lahore University of Management Sciences

(LUMS) was the first non-commercial institution in Pakistan, which launched its

Internet service with 64-bit bandwidth and provided a node to a local ISP in Lahore, in

1995, while Digicom was the first commercial sector Internet market leader.

The data in Table 2.3 shows that Pakistan has been very slow in developing its

telecom infrastructure. It was only after the deregulation and liberalization policy of the

Government that the mobile phone industry gave a sharp boost to phone users in

Pakistan. In March 2008, there were 4.5 million fixed line subscribers, 2.3 million

wireless local loop subscribers and cellular connections were more than 84.4 million,

making 89.3 million telephone subscribers in the country (Pakistan Telecommunication

Authority 2008). These figures indicate a fast growing IT industry in Pakistan.

Table 2.3
Phone Subscribers in Pakistan
Cellular Growth % Fixed Wireless Total Phone
Year
Phone Cellular Line Local Loop Subscribers
2000 306,493 15.39 3,056,460 3,362,953
2001 742,606 142.29 3,252,518 3,995,124
2002 1,698,536 128.73 3,655,474 5,354,010
2003 2,404,400 41.56 4,107,398 6,511,798
2004 5,022,908 108.90 4,580,000 2,364 9,605,272
2005 12,771,203 154.26 5,372,395 265,028 18,408,626
2006 34,506,557 170.2 5,273,980 1,027,868 40,808,405
2007 63,159,857 80.70 4,543,943 2,127,279 69,831,079
Mar 2008 82,482,499 30.6 4,543,943 2,356,081 89,382,523
(Source: Pakistan Telecommunication Authority 2008)

Continuation of this rising trend in phone subscribers will ensure that Pakistan

will soon be at par with other developing countries of the region. This will ultimately

help improve the libraries IT infrastructure.

35
Realizing the importance of information technology in the country’s overall

development, the Government of Pakistan launched its first IT Policy and Action Plan

in 2000 with a focus on:

1. Introducing compulsory, modern and up-to-date computer literacy module at

the school level.

2. Starting a scheme to provide low-priced computers and Internet connectivity

to universities, colleges and schools through public-private sector initiative.

3. Removing barriers to encourage the private sector to spread new

technologies and communication to all segments of society.

4. Eliminating import duty on computer equipment and accessories.

5. De-regularizing and liberalizing policies to increase and spread Internet

through international satellite operators.

6. Developing new ways to use IT for solving problems in human

development, economy, education, and health and poverty alleviation.

Investor friendly policies and environment provided by the Government

attracted Foreign Direct Investment in the telecommunication sector of Pakistan, which

ultimately improved the infrastructure. Data revealed that telecom sector in Pakistan has

attracted a significant amount (2% of GDP) of foreign direct investment during the last

three years (Khanzada 2007, Pakistan Telecommunication Authority 2008).

Teledensity is a crude method to gauge the level of telecom access of a country.

Pakistan’s teledensity was as low as 2.8% at the end of 2000. The teledensity data in

Table 2.4 indicates significant improvement in the telecom sector through the

Government of Pakistan’s deregulation and liberalization of telecom policies, initiated

in 2003. The telecom access, which was only 4% (teledensity) in 2002, reached 49% by

June 2007. Teledensity in increasing at a good pace, compared to regional countries,

36
and Pakistan plans to have 90% teledensity by 2015. This is vital for economic,

education and social development of the country.

Table 2.4
Teledensity of Regional Countries (%)
Country 2003 2004 2005 2006 June 2007
Sri Lanka 12.17 16.6 23.4 27 37
Pakistan 4.3 6.3 11.9 26.26 49
India 7.1 8.9 11.5 12.8 17.1
Bangladesh 1.64 2 4.5 9 15
Nepal 1.8 2 3 3 6.5
(Source: Pakistan Telecommunication Authority 2008)

Internet service is now becoming an integral part of life in Pakistan specially the

urban areas where people are using it for their education, business, and communication

and in libraries for searching data and information.

Table 2.5
Internet Subscribers in Pakistan
Year Dial-Up Users DSL
(Millions) Subscribers
2000 0.50
2001 0.80
2002 1.00
2003 1.60
2004 2.00
2005 2.10 14,600
2006 2.40 26,611
2007 June 3.50 45,153
(Source: Pakistan Telecommunication Authority 2008)

Over the years, the Internet penetration in the country was very slow. In 1995,

Pakistan had 1500 subscribers, in 1997, it had 10,000 subscribers, in 2002, it had one

million Internet subscribers and by June 2007, it has 3.5 million Internet subscribers and

17 million Internet users spread over 2,419 cities and towns. Around 80% of Internet

subscribers were in the three big cities of Pakistan (Pakistan Telecommunication

Authority 2008, Rizvi 2007). Internet serves as a backbone for libraries online services,

web applications and for remote access to libraries resources.

37
Personal Computers (PCs) are rapidly becoming a household item in the big

cities of Pakistan. Most professionals and students possess a PC either in their

institutions, workplaces or in their homes. The number of PCs in Pakistan by 2005 was

believed to be some 700,000 and their number was increasing at about 100,000 per year

(Mahmood 2005). Rizvi (2007) mentioned that by September 2007 total computers in

Pakistan were estimated at about 8 million. Though prices have significantly decreased,

PCs are still expensive for majority of people, especially those living in rural areas.

The Government of Pakistan has established one virtual university and plans to

open seven IT universities in order to prepare information technology professionals.

The government has established 50 IT centres for awareness in villages and planned to

establish 800 more centres by 2006. In addition, the Government has established IT

parks in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad and allocated 200 acres land for an Internet

City in Karachi. The Government projected that the existing and planned academic

setup would enable Pakistan to produce 30,000 IT graduates annually (Pakistan

Ministry of Education 2008). Hussain (2007) found that virtual education has offered an

alternative to formal education in Pakistan through use of technology based

instructional methodology. A large number of students from across the country are

getting virtual education. However, they face problems of computer vision syndrome,

fingers joint pain, backache, electricity failure and lack of face-to-face interaction with

the teachers.

As part of the overall mission and objective of IT Policy and Action Plan, the

Higher Education Commission, with the help of the Pakistan Telecommunication

Authority, implemented the Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) project,

which was launched by the President of Pakistan in 2004. It provided nationwide

educational intranet, connecting educational and research institutes and providing high-

speed Internet bandwidth across a national network. By June 2006, it connected 60

38
public and private sector universities by providing 155 Mbps International Internet

Bandwidth, 50 Mbps Internet bandwidth and 2 Mbps-5 Mbps across campus bandwidth,

allowing real-time transfer of audio and video, multimedia enabled lectures, video

conferencing, Voice-over-IP and other communication services between PERN

connected universities (Said 2006). The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan now

aims to re-design PERN project to establish a high speed dedicated National Research

and Education Network to link all the universities and institutes of the country through

IP based infrastructure (Gigabit Ethernet). These developments speak of Government of

Pakistan’s initiatives to provide high-speed communication infrastructure to the

academic and research institutes for sharing of data, knowledge and to provide access to

scholarly research and knowledge (Pakistan Higher Education Commission 2008).

It is discouraging to find that Pakistan’s literacy rate (55%) is far below the

developing countries. According to UNESCOs’ Education For All, Global Monitoring

Report (2008) the literacy rate of developing countries reached to 77%, and Pakistan is

placed at 120 out of 129 countries, while global literacy rate is 82%. The funding of

higher education as reviewed in this section indicates that Pakistan has been slow in

realizing the importance of higher education. However, the current focus on higher

education is better than the situation before 2002, which need to be improved

consistently. The situation in IT infrastructure in the country has improved significantly;

and if this trend continued, Pakistan will be soon rated amongst the high teledensity

countries in the developing world. Since libraries are affected with the overall IT

infrastructure of a country this is a good sign for academic libraries in Pakistan to

leverage the benefit of IT to provide information retrieval, dissemination of knowledge,

current awareness services, remote access, and other user empowered library services.

39
2.3. Libraries in Higher Education

Libraries are regarded heart of an academic institution because of their

significant direct and indirect role in creation of scholarship and knowledge. Brunsdale

(2000) stated that academic libraries are termed as a heart of campus because of the

library collections they provide and the services they render through reference,

information literacy, interlibrary loan, lending, information retrieval and other services

for the faculty and students. Academic libraries exist to support the missions and goal of

the institutions of higher learning through their collections and services. Liu (2001)

mentioned that academic libraries support teaching, learning and research through

selecting, acquiring, organizing, and maintaining books, journals, reference materials

and electronic databases and through providing reference, borrowing, instructional,

interlibrary loan, information retrieval and other information services. He further wrote

that library collections play an important role in production and communication of

knowledge and scholarship amongst scholars’ students and the community at large.

Budd (2007), Livonen and Huotari (2007) and Oppenheim and Stuart (2004)

stated that academic libraries need to continue spending money on buying collections to

raise the intellectual capital and research ratings of the academic institutions. Bundy

(2004) mentioned that with the mass higher education, flexible delivery methods

supported by the use of information and communication technologies and students

centred and problem based learning the academic libraries are undergoing significant

changes. He further mentioned that academic libraries being an integral part of institute

of higher learning must collaborate with the faculty in that change process. Which

requires changes in library collections, operations and services particularly an effective

information literacy programme, and through changes in library missions to go beyond

excellence in information to education? Findings of a study by Sidorko (2008)

emphasised the role of library leadership as fundamental in this changes process and

40
revealed that change is always difficult for libraries and other organizations. However,

given the right model of changes, right leader and the right environment a successful

transformation of libraries to support the changing educational needs is possible.

Frade and Washburn (2006) in their paper also endorsed Liu’s (2001) remarks

that traditionally libraries has been dealing with the acquisition, cataloguing,

classification, organization, circulation, preservation and dissemination of knowledge in

the form of books, journals, reports, reference publications, index and abstracting

services and reference services for the faculty students and researchers. However, with

the rapid advancements in the formats of published materials from print to digital

formats and in the communication infrastructure the user needs have been changing at a

very fast speed. An academic library serves the institution as a focal point for teaching,

learning and research. Anunobi and Okoye (2008) stated that before that advent of

information technologies and the academic libraries were acting as custodians of

information and knowledge. However, the information technology has ended the

monopoly of academic libraries on information, as readers now can have direct access

to information sources through remote access.

Dunlap (2008) mentioned that over the last 15 years academic libraries are in an

information revolution occurring due to the Internet and digitization and online

information and knowledge sources and access. He mentioned that libraries are

responding to the IT challenges through revamping traditional roles, services, and

librarians have demonstrated their commitment, attitudes and skills to cope with this

challenge pro-actively. Singh (2008), Lewis (2007) and Shuler (2007) noted that

academic libraries are in transition from print to digital, from ownership to access and

sharing, and learning beyond walls of the library through remote access to resources and

services. Campbell (2006) and Wand (2005) observed that academic library is fast

becoming a virtual destination for students, researcher and the faculty. Although the

41
basic function of academic libraries remained almost same, the operations and mode of

services have changed drastically; because an academic library is not an end in itself,

but a means to an end. As noted by Smith (2006) libraries are to fulfil the mission of

academic institutions. Although the mission of the educational institutions has not

changed as they are still focussing to develop human intellect through teaching and

learning and to contribute through research to the expanding body of human knowledge.

Their modes and operations are continuously changing because new educational and

information technologies. Consequently, in libraries electronic resources particularly

journals and reference materials are increasing and print publications are decreasing at

an unexpected speed. The mode of teaching and learning has changed. Faculty and

students are using email and Internet for course materials, readings and for preparation

and submission of assignments. Google has now become the first choice for searching

information instead of library OPACs (Mann 2005).

Libraries as a physical space are also undergoing significant changes. Instead of

quiet serious study, students now prefer to use library for discussions, socializing and

light reading. The concept of a serious, quiet place to study is diminishing from

academic libraries. Both the students and faculty like to take tea and snacks while study

in the library. Library scholars like Singh (2008), Lewis (2007), Smith (2006), Lynch

(2005) and Moyo (2004) have predicted that within a decade a major shift will take

place from print to digital formats and from ownership to access and partnership and

from sharing to collaborative learning. The use of short text and graphics such as

multimedia presentations will become popular in academic libraries. Libraries will soon

have digital librarians, web librarians, copyright librarians, multimedia librarians and

information literacy librarians. Moreover, Becker (2006) noted that the higher education

is being internationalized. This has an impact on academic librarians to get international

42
exposure and to develop their language, communication and cultural skills to handle

international faculty and students.

Findings of studies by Frade and Washburn (2006) and Stoffle et al (2003)

revealed that despite numerous online resources and easy accessibility, the students and

faculty were using the physical facilities, and circulation of materials was increasing

along with the use of electronic and online resources and services. They mentioned that

the continuous changes in the landscape of academia such as course management

systems, hybrid course development, and increased digitization of library materials,

changes in scholarly communication patterns, distance education programs, and new

use of personal assistance devices are occurring. Different scholars (Frade and

Washburn 2006, Bundy 2004, Bundy 2003 and Marcum 2003) have noted that changes

in the missions, visions and operations in academic institutions, and in the creation and

recoding of knowledge and access, have compelled the libraries to develop new ways of

meeting the changing needs of the faculty and students in order to remain the heart of

academic institutions. Librarians’ role as a change agent has bearings on the success of

libraries in the new emerging digital information paradigm. Their role, attitudes and

skills are critical for the success of the library in the changing academic scenario

(Wusteman 2008, Lewis 2007, McGee 2006, Griffiths 1995, Callahan 1991).

2.4. Application of Information Technology in Libraries

The global society agrees that people have a fundamental right to access,

produce, record, process, disseminate and utilize information and knowledge for their

development. World leaders recognized in the Declaration of Principles for ‘Building

the Information Society: a Global Challenge in the New Millennium’ and in the Tunis

Agenda for the Information Society conferences (WSIS Geneva 2003 – Tunis 2005)

that the digital divide between the information rich and information poor countries was

43
increasing which needed to be eliminated. They acknowledged that information

technology could help the poorest in the world gain access to information, education

and markets and committed to provide universal access to information through

affordable information and communication technologies infrastructure and services.

Cullen (2003) suggested addressing the barriers to Internet use, such as lack of physical

access, lack of skills for usage and support, negative attitudes and lack of relevant

contents to reduce the digital divide. Berry (2006) reported that the library community

and world leaders who participated in the World Summit on the Information Society

Geneva 2003–Tunis 2005 believed that villages, community centres, schools and

universities, libraries, research centres, health centres and government departments

linked through affordable information technologies could help reduce the digital divide

between developed and developing nations.

Information technology emerged after the convergence of data processing

techniques and telecommunications, the former providing the capability for processing

and storing information, the latter serving as a vehicle for communicating it. Advances

in IT have touched every aspect of academic institutions from business operations and

administrative functions to teaching and research. Vaughan (2007) indentified that

faculty in educational institutions in not limited to lectures and use of chalkboards and

overhead projectors. Multimedia presentations, CD-ROM materials, World Wide Web,

e-mail and DVDs are transforming conventional classrooms. Satellite communications,

Internet and video technology facilitate the remote instructions eliminating the distance

constraints. The application of computers and communication technology has provided

one of the best innovations in the history of libraries and is changing the shape of

libraries and the role of librarians at an unprecedented pace (Dunlap 2008).

Automation in libraries first began in the 1960s. In the 1970s, libraries started

adopting software applications and Machine Readable Cataloguing (MARC). In the

44
1980s, networking technologies, optical discs, CD-ROMs and communications

technologies were introduced. The primary objective of the early technology

applications was to automate circulation, acquisitions and the catalogue to bring

efficiency and effectiveness in library operations and services. The 1990s witnessed

revolutionary changes in the application of information and communication

technologies in libraries such as the Internet, World Wide Web protocols, information

retrieval standards, integrated library systems and online databases. The 2000s is an era

of digital libraries, virtual collections, paperless environment and 24/7 instant remote

access to unlimited resources. The rapid advancements in computers and

telecommunications, exponential growth of information and media, availability of

online databases, reduction in hardware and software costs, passion of using Internet,

provision of cost effective communication mechanism and growing user demands are

the major factors responsible for the increasing use of IT in libraries around the world

(Melchionda 2007, Weiner 2003, McCallum 2003 and Wilkins 1995). Information

technology provides the most effective ways for efficient resource sharing and makes

the information retrieval much faster and more comprehensive. Murray and Tschernitz

(2005) reported that the statistics revealed that queries through reference librarians were

on the decline because of the access to Internet. However, the reference librarians

identified an increase in the reference queries. This indicates overall increase in the

reference queries attributed to the use of the Internet directly by the users and through

the reference librarians.

Cochrane (1992) summarized the advantages of information technology to

libraries as follows:

1. Allows easy integration of various library activities

2. Helps to increase the range of services offered

3. Provides marketing opportunity of its services

45
4. Facilitates cooperation and the formulation of networks

5. Eliminates uninteresting and repetitive work

6. Helps to avoid duplication of efforts in libraries

7. Increases efficiency

8. May save and generate money

Similarly, Siddiqui (1997) and Robinson (1991) identified the following benefits

of using information technology for library users:

1. Users enjoy remote access from a variety of places

2. Provides more up-to-date information

3. Provides speedy and easy access to information

4. Users are able to see if an item is checked out or gone to bindery, etc.

5. Provides information flexibility as per individual requirements

6. Circulation of materials is increased

7. Provides around the clock access to users

8. Provides unlimited information from different sources

9. Facilitates the reformatting and combining of data from different sources

Despite tremendous developments over the years, the basic components of

libraries i.e., collections, access to collections and assistance in use remain unchanged.

However, the formats for recording, storing and disseminating knowledge, 24/7 access

to a wide variety of information from remote locations and the paradigm of assistance to

users have fundamentally changed and will keep on changing. Frey (2006) predicted

that in the future, new trends would emerge in communications, storage, archive of data

and records, fast replacement of hardware, software, other information technologies,

changing user information habits and lifestyle, pressure for instant access, globalization

of knowledge and the transition of libraries from information centres into centre of

culture. To meet these growing technology challenges, El-Sherbini and Wilson (2007)

46
proposed to find-out-of-the-box solutions. They advised that librarians’ need to come

out of OPAC, WebOPAC and OCLC paradigm and move toward using Internet search

engines for provision of full-text resources and bibliographic information where

electronic resources are not available.

Academic and research institute librarians in Kuwait were found optimistic

about the benefits of IT use in information provision through libraries. However, they

feel stressed because of insufficient staff training, technology breakdowns and lack of

acknowledgement from the management (Al-Qallaf 2006). A survey by Ahmed (2002)

revealed that almost all Arabian Gulf university libraries were providing web-based

library services to users. Academic libraries in Iran have also witnessed a great deal of

change in IT applications, especially in provision of e-resources (Hayati and Jowkar

2008). Shuva (2005) noted that technology use in Bangladesh libraries was slow.

Findings of a research regarding Internet usage by Alese and Owoyemi (2004)

identified that web development and real-time communication was the major factor

affecting Internet use in Nigeria. The findings also revealed that Internet use for

religious information, hacking, watching pornographic films, gambling and other crimes

was high, but the use of Internet was low for research and teaching purposes in Nigeria.

Findings of two studies by Adetunji (2007) and Kari (2006) revealed that not a single

university library in Nigeria was fully automated. They mentioned that most university

IT centres were connected to the Internet. However, only a few libraries were connected

to the Internet. Findings of Kari (2006) found that out of a total of 84 respondent

librarians only 3% believed that they were keeping them up-to-date with the rapid

changes occurring because of IT innovation, while 86% reported that they were being

left behind, while 11 % respondent were not sure.

India has been able to achieve a big success in IT initiatives for libraries. A

number of initiatives taken by the University Grant Commission through provision of

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access to e-journals and documents to academic and research libraries through

consortiums. Similarly, digitization of archives initiatives is also impressive. However,

these initiatives as per Das (2008), Raza and Nath (2007), Jain and Babbar (2006) and

Gulati (2004) were limited to big cities and universities. A large proportion of the rural

community was lagging behind in access to these modern technologies.

Regarding information technology usage in libraries of Pakistan, Haider (1998)

traced that computers were first used in Pakistan Scientific and Technological

Information Centre (PASTIC) in 1968 to produce the country’s first Union Catalogue of

Scientific Periodicals and to produce profiles of 100 scientists to start selective

dissemination of information (SDI) service. After a span of ten years, Agriculture

Universities and research centre libraries started using computers, with foreign funding.

The 1980s saw a shift towards automation in Pakistani libraries. In the beginning,

computers intimidated librarians but later, some of them cautiously started adopting this

state-of-the-art technology. That was the beginning of library automation in the country

using database management systems, mostly for cataloguing and inventory purposes.

Only a few academic libraries were able to start automated circulation.

Review of literature revealed significant contribution from the United States

Agency for International Development (USAID), Netherlands Library Development

Project (NLDP), Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the American

Centre and the British Council (Pakistan) libraries in library automation in Pakistan

until the late 1990s. The Netherlands Library Development Project (NLDP) for

Pakistan, which was started during the 1990s, influenced the library automation

scenario significantly, introducing information technology in librarians’ training,

provision of hardware, software development, networking and curriculum development.

It helped to accelerate the overall IT environment in libraries, created awareness

amongst librarians and removed their hesitation. In addition, it provided a platform for

48
further automation of libraries (Mahmood 1998). However, the Government of Pakistan

did not take any initiative to introduce automation in the libraries.

The year 1992 was important in the history of library automation in Pakistan

when the country’s telecommunication sector started expanding its services and the

Netherlands Library Development Project established computer-training centres for

working librarians in the four provincial capitals and in Islamabad. The same year, the

Department of Library and Information Science, University of Peshawar organized a

conference on ‘Challenges in Automating the Library Services,’ at Baragali, NWFP

Pakistan, which helped to produce Pakistan’s library automation literature. In addition,

Punjab University Library Science Alumni Association (PULSAA) contributed two

publications on library education, automation and other issues (Ramzan 2004a).

Idrees (1995) investigated the status of library automation in 40 libraries of

Lahore and found that automation of cataloguing was the dominant activity and

CDS/ISIS was the most commonly used software. Sixty percent of the target libraries

had one computer, 40% were using CD-ROM technology, 32.5% had e-mail facility

and only 2 out of 40 libraries were using Barcode Readers for circulation. Thirty

percent of the respondent libraries had a network environment and only one library had

an Internet facility. Mahmood (1998) surveyed 19 university libraries in Pakistan and

reported that only 16% (3) libraries were using automated cataloguing and serials

control and 10% (2) were using automated acquisition while only 6% (1) library was

using computers for circulation, interlibrary loan and library management. Results of a

study by Saeed et al (2000) revealed that by 2000, only 50% of university libraries had

access to the Internet and the majority of the libraries had one terminal for this facility.

Only three libraries were equipped with more than one computer for Internet access.

Four years later a study by Ramzan (2004a) revealed a low and slow application of

information technology in libraries of Pakistan, as by 2002, out of 244 academic and

49
research libraries in Pakistan, 57 (23%) respondent libraries did not have computers in

their libraries and 91 (37%) respondents did not have any CD-ROM in their libraries.

Only 12% of the respondents had barcode readers while a sizeable number of

respondents (37%) were even without a photocopying facility. A total of 57% of

respondent libraries had e-mail, 53% had Internet and 20% of the respondent libraries

had intranet facility in their libraries. Regarding the status of library software, the data

revealed that 80 (33%) respondents were not using any library software; only 27 (11%)

respondent libraries had fully automated library operations. In 2004, the Higher

Education Commission of Pakistan launched a National Digital Library that now

provides free online access to more than 23,000 full-text journals available through over

30 online databases and 45,000 e-Books to 150 public and private universities, institutes

and research organizations. A list of electronic databases accessible through the Higher

Education Commission National Digital Library is attached as Appendix-A. The

government is spending a significant amount of money to subscribe to these databases;

however, its relevance and effectiveness to the study and research and development in

the country has to be measured. The Higher Education Commission has also initiated a

project for digitization of PhD theses being produced by Pakistani universities (Pakistan

Higher Education Commission 2008, Said 2006).

In the early days of implementation of information technology in libraries,

predictions for its successful adaptation were bleak. Some librarians were wondering

whether to automate or not, but now their concern, according to Wright (1995) is when,

how and at what cost, because the world around them is busy using computers and

communication technology to run their operations. Librarians play a key role in

introducing technologies in their libraries. Their attitudes toward IT innovations are an

important factor in determining the rate of its adoption in libraries.

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2.5. Human Resources in Libraries

Library is a place where most of the learning and research takes place in the

institutes of higher learning. Books, journals, indexes, databases and other collections,

information management and retrievals systems and facilities are made available to

support the faculty, researchers and students in their teaching, learning and research

endeavours. However, these collections, systems and services are planned, designed,

developed, managed and run by the library staff. Therefore, the effectiveness of library

collections, resources and systems depends on the competencies, skills, knowledge,

commitments and attitudes of the libraries’ human resources (Ugah 2008). In academic

institutions library staff comprises of librarians, assistants, IT people, clerical and other

support staff. Librarians being the highly qualified personnel in the libraries play a

leading role in the management, development and innovation of libraries. A qualified

librarian understands the complexity and nature of library operations, the need for

coordinated library policies and procedures. He/she can provide effective support for

teaching; learning and research programs through devising a service culture of the

library (Cohn and Kelsey 2005). The librarians initiate and execute all managerial

functions and processes in libraries. They are the major source to help achieve academic

institutions their goals, get excellence in quality education and research, and can

provide competitive edge to their institutions over other competitor in the field by

rendering high quality service (Paterson 1999). People are all different and they have

different profiles. MacLean (2006) mentioned that head librarians need to know

potential, competencies, work experience, interests, qualifications, weaknesses and

distinctive skills of their staff and utilize them to the optimum level output.

There may be limitations on the extent to which other resources like money,

materials and machinery can be utilized, but according to Paterson (1999) the human

resources have almost unlimited potential. Being the key resource in academic

51
institutions librarians can make their organizations dynamic and grow faster.

Roknuzzaman (2007) wrote that no resource in the world is more important than the

human resources. He further mentioned that the success of a university library largely

depends on the intellectual infrastructure of the library. For instance, information

technology can enhance efficiency of the library staff and consequently the provision of

innovative information services. However, IT tools and infrastructure will not work

automatically without skilled human resources. It is always people behind the machines,

who utilize these tools, technologies and techniques to provide optimum level of

productivity in terms of high quality services in libraries. On the other hand, good state-

of-the-art systems will not serve the purpose if managed by incompetent and de-

motivated people. Therefore, the performance of the existing information technologies

and systems depends on the attitudes, aptitudes and capabilities of the staff. Similarly,

innovations in the existing systems solely depends on the innovativeness of the people

not the technologies itself.

Youngman (1999) mentioned that new technologies have forever changed and

will continue to change the way librarians have been serving their patrons. The human

resources are essential element to the success of any technology-based system.

Therefore, libraries need to meet this challenge by developing new skills of librarians to

handle information and communication technologies. Youngman (1999) further wrote

that each library should develop individual solutions for human resources development.

However, benefiting the experiences of senior librarians in managing this change can be

a useful approach. Senior librarians with their experience and knowledge of

organizational history can serve an important role in placing technology in perspective.

Experienced librarians may be viewed as being inflexible, however having spent an

extended period in a position may respond positively to avoid stagnation and through

their mentoring role for new librarians in adopting the information technologies.

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Academic librarians strive to make their libraries hub of learning and research

through becoming active partners in course planning, in provision of course related

books, teaching materials, reference resources, current and archive literature,

information literature, and reference and research assistance. Robinson (2008)

highlighted the new phenomena of net generation students coming to universities and

using libraries. He mentioned that instead of trying to compete Google or other search

engines for information searching, librarians should focus on creating the services

aligned to students’ preferences in their access to and use of information.

Technology incorporates two cultures of change; the innovation, where

application of technology improves the existing practices, and the transformation, where

technology changes fundamentally what is done or is applied to new things. Kochtanek

and Mathews (2004) mentioned that information technology has influenced all levels of

library staff. Their workload has increased and contrary to management’s expectations

library staff is not being reduced. All level of library staff has to handle computer

equipments so they continuously need to upgrade skills to handle new versions of

hardware, software and other applications. Consequently, their jobs have become IT

dependent. They have further mentioned that IT has had a clear and persuasive impact

on online catalogue use, in technical processing and in administrative services.

Yamazaki (2007) reviewed key aspects of environmental changes occurring around

libraries that need to be managed by library professionals. They are advances in IT, the

variety and volume of information being produced and accessible through the Web,

changes in the end-user information seeking behaviours (search engines, libraries), and

the value of information in our daily life, business and education. Yamazaki indicated

that librarians have the background and training to handle changes occurring in the

information field.

53
Continuous, fast and radical changes brought by the information technologies

have created a shift away from traditional conservative mindsets of librarians, which

requires not just minor alterations in attitudes and ways of working but an acceptance

and adoption of wholly new perspectives and mindsets. Findings of two studies by

Williamson (2008, 2006) revealed that greatest challenge to cope with ever-changing

information and communication technologies is to transform library resources, systems

and services at the same speed. This requires thorough transformation of attitudes,

mindsets, knowledge, and skills of librarians. Smith (2005) also argued that by

developing the capabilities of librarians bring innovations in libraries; the possible

threat of being irrelevant could be transformed into an opportunity. Findings of another

study by Smith (2006) found human resources development is widely recognized as a

strategic organizational resource; especially in library and information science field

where rapid pace of development and change necessitates expending the knowledge,

skills and attitudes of library staff. His study determined that benchmarking best

practices in human resource development has been proved successful in libraries.

It is believed that the management culture and attitudes required for digital

libraries are quite different from those appropriate for print-based libraries. Prentice

(2005) wrote that library managers must understand, anticipate and adapt rapidly

changing factors influencing the management of libraries and information centres in this

information age. It is important for successful management of libraries that library

leaders react positively and make timely decisions to integrate changes in the

information provision into library operations. Prentice (2005) further wrote that library

and information professional have edge on other professional as they are trained to

gather and organize data and use the same for well-being of their libraries and parent

organization.

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The role of new librarians has transformed from book providers to multi-tasking

information managers, part of teaching process and technologists to serve the academic

community in the changing education scenarios (Starkman 2007). Jennerich (2006)

stressed the need for staff development programs to implement innovative solutions in

the libraries. It is important for the success of library professional in this information

driven society to develop their core competencies to manage information organizations,

resources, services, to apply information tools and technologies and to keep positive and

challenging attitude to work (Abels et al 2003). Rehman (2008, 2006) advocated library

educators to help develop librarians to new age competencies to remain relevant

according to the job market, especially counting for the knowledge management,

information management, entrepreneurship, and IT management.

2.6. Attitude Theory

Librarians’ attitudes are crucial in rejecting, adopting and implementing

information technology in libraries. Everyone has an attitude. Some individuals’

attitudes propel them along, helping them to deal with new challenges, overcome

obstacles and accomplish their objectives. Others have attitudes that are anchors,

slowing them down or stopping them in accepting the innovation and changes in their

life and workplaces. Renowned library scholars and authors Griffiths and King (1986)

have defined knowledge, skills and attitude as:

Knowledge is having information about, knowing, understanding,


being acquainted with, being aware of, having experience of, or being
familiar with something, someone or how to do something, skills are
the ability to use one’s knowledge effectively and attitude is a mental
or emotional approach to something or someone (Griffiths and King,
1986, pp. 31-33).

Attitude has been defined as an important concept that helps people to

understand the social world. It helps us to define how we perceive and think about

55
others, as well as how we behave towards them. Attitude is also defined as a relatively

enduring organization of beliefs around an object or situation predisposing one to

respond in some preferential manner (Ajzen 2001). Attitudes represent our covert

feelings of favourability or unfavourability toward an object, person, issue or behaviour

(Schwarz 2007). Formally, an attitude is defined as “a learned predisposition to

response in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to a given

object” (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975, p.6). People learn these attitudes over time by being

exposed to the object directly (experience) or through receiving information about the

object from peers and colleagues. Our learned attitudes serve as general guides to our

overt behaviour with respect to the attitudes’ object, giving rise to a consistently

favourable or unfavourable pattern of response.

(Source: Spooncer 1992)

Figure 2.1.
Components of Attitudes

Tormala and DeSensi (2008) determined that when people receive persuasive

messages, their perceptions of the information on which they base their attitudes could

determine feelings of subjective ambivalence. Their subjective ambivalence is more


high when they perceive that they have based their attitudes on the source of a message

rather than the arguments contained in the message.

According to Fishbein and Ajzen (1975), an attitude toward an object is more or

less automatically learned as one learns about the object itself. That is, when one learns

about a new technology, that leaning occurs in the form of beliefs about the impact of

that technology. It is generally accepted that attitudes are composed of affective

(feeling) component, cognitive (belief) component and behavioural (actual actions)

component. As shown in Figure 2.1, attitudes are relatively lasting clusters of feelings,

beliefs and behaviour tendencies directed towards specific persons, ideas, objects or

groups (Spooncer 1992). However, some researchers add evaluation as the fourth

component of attitudes, which consists of the imputation of some degree of goodness or

badness to an object. When we speak of positive or negative attitudes toward an object

or technology, we refer to the evaluative component of the attitudes.

Review of literature by Gawronski (2007), Fazio (2007), Schwarz (2007) and

Eagly and Chaiken (2007) indicates that in social psychology the attitude is most

distinctive and indispensible concept. Attitude has been defined in social psychology as

“a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some

degree of favour or disfavour (Eagly and Chaiken 1993).” Accordingly, an attitude is

focussed on a particular object, rather than all objects. Additionally, an attitude is a pre-

disposition to favour or disfavour that object, presumable with approach or avoidance

consequences (Krosnick et al 2005). The key features of the attitude highlighted in this

definition are tendency, entity or object and evaluation. This conception of attitude as

mentioned by Eagly and Chaiken (2007) distinguishes between the inner tendency that

is attitude and the evaluative response that express attitudes. In social psychology, the

entity that is evaluated is known as attitude object. This attitude object aspect of

definition of attitude is important because it distinguishes the concept of attitude from

57
other psychological constructs such as mood. It is further mentioned that an attitude

does not exist until an individual perceives an attitude object. It is inside the person, not

directly observable, and is manifested by cover and over responses.

A meta-analysis of attitude-behaviour relation (Glasman and Albarracin 2006)

has indicated that attitudes are correlated with a future behaviour. They also found that

attitudes are strongly correlated with future behaviour when they are easy to recall.

Because increased accessibility to attitudes help strongly predict future behaviour when

participants have direct experience with the attitude object. Findings of these studies

indicate that individuals attitudes about object(s) (say IT in the present study’s context)

are significantly correlated with the future behaviour about the attitude objects (IT).

In this study attitude has been used to represent librarians' perceptions’ personal

beliefs and opinions on the value attached to the usefulness of computer hardware,

library software, CD-ROM technology, e-mail, Internet, digitization, web applications

and other technologies in libraries technical processing, collection organization and user

services. It represents the conceptual value of these technologies in the minds of the

librarians, not the values of these technologies. Harrell (2000) mentioned that

individuals with positive attitudes are more successful in adopting innovations and

changes compared to similarly talented people with negative attitudes.

2.7. Attitude Measurement Techniques

Attitudes can be measured by using conventional attitude scales. Krosnick et al

(2005) determined that attitude measurement is done to study the causes of attitudes,

how they change, and their impact on cognition and behaviour. They mentioned that

Thurstone and Likert did pioneering work in this regard when they first developed

attitude measurement scales. Their techniques represent an individual’s attitude toward

an object using one preference score on a continuum positions ranging from highly

58
favourable to unfavourable. This requires administration of a large set of questions to

measure a single attitude. These methods have at least two advantages. First,

administering many items yields a final score that contains less random error. Second,

these procedures have the advantage of being built using empirical evidence of

convergence of interpretations across people and of correlation validity of the

statements (Krosnick et al 2005). Thurstone’s method involved seven steps in final

material preparation. The first stage starts from 100-150 statements of favourable or

unfavourable evaluations of an object. In the next stage, these statements are reduced

between 80-100 after editing. Then a number of judges are involved to place each

statement in one of the eleven piles. Their means and variances of the numbers assigned

to each statement are calculated. Statements with large variance are interpreted in

different ways by different judges. Then two or three statements with very close means

are selected thus yielding a final battery of statement that is equally spaced from one

another. Participants are asked to read all the statements and to indicate with which they

agree. Each participant is assigned an attitude score by averaging the mean scale values

of the statements they endorsed.

Krosnick et al (2005) further described that Rensis Likert’s summated rating

method is less labour intensive. In this method researcher first prepares about 100

statements expressing either strongly favourable or unfavourable toward an object. A

set of participants are then given a five response options and are asked to choose one

response to express their views on statements. Each participant is then assigned a total

score by summing his/her score on all items. Finally, for each item, each person’s score

is correlated with his/her total score and items with low item-to-total correlations are

dropped. Approximately 20-40 statements with strongest correlations are selected for

administration to the sample. An arbitrary value is assigned to respective responses of

the scale from one to five, summing the score on all items representing the total score

59
(Krosnick et al 2005). Likert’s attitudinal score is thus sum of scores the respondents

received on each item.

Krosnick et al (2005) mentioned that these days’ attitudes are often assessed

using single questions with relatively simple wording and structures. They have further

concluded that the attitudes could be measured through both self-report and more

indirect responses from individuals about an object or an entity. Krosnick et al (2005),

Albarracin et al (2005), Mitchell and Jolley (2004) and Yaacob (1992) have agreed that

the classical method of assessment of attitudes by direct reporting of the respondents

using Likert’s attitude measurement technique is one of the popular, simple and reliable

methods of attitude measurement.

2.8. Attitudes Toward Information Technology

An innovation creates a new achievable goal because it provides opportunities to

do something previously unattainable, or at least to improve upon the processes or

products. Therefore, an individual or a group with positive attitudes will be motivated to

capitalize these opportunities. Information technology has been changing our

environment at an ever-increasing rate. There is little doubt that such technology

provides improved opportunities for accessing information, but realizing these

opportunities requires positive attitudes, new knowledge and skills that are difficult to

acquire and update. Since information is being generated faster than libraries are able to

acquire, organize, disseminate and store it (Hallman 1990). The effects of rapid

technological change are more positive in libraries that have adopted new technologies.

Attitudes affect both management and staff; however, the executives’ attitudes

have a direct impact upon employees. Employees sense their leaders’ attitudes and they,

in turn, respond. Negative attitudes produce low worker morale and low productivity

standards while positive attitudes provide increased productivity, high morale and

60
motivated response (Kreitner and Kinicki 2007). The importance of beliefs and attitudes

towards computers and other information technologies is widely acknowledged.

Findings of studies by Jiao and Onwuegbuzie (2004) and Al-Khaldi and Al-Jabri (1998)

revealed that attitudes towards computers are strong determinants of computer

utilization. Jiao and Onwuegbuzie (2004) found a statically significant relationship

(r=.63, p<.05) between library anxiety subscales and computer attitude subscales. The

results of a study by Cavas et al (2009) indicate that teachers’ attitudes toward use of

information and communication technologies influence instruction to science students.

Their attitudes differ by variables like age, computer ownership at home and computer

experience. The data revealed that overall science teachers have a favourable attitude

toward ICT. The teachers agreed with the 20 positively statement about effect of ICT on

teaching and learning statements. They disagreed with all the 11 negative value

statements such as the usage of ICT in teaching and learning brings overload. A study

by Zhang et al (2008) demonstrates that conceptually and empirically attitude toward a

system and attitude toward using the system are two different concepts that have very

different effects in information technology acceptance and intentions. Findings revealed

that attitude toward using IT have a positive impact on behavioural intentions of using

IT and a direct positive impact on using IT. Findings show that attitudes related to a

similar, previously used ICT can influence intentions through current attitudes.

Empirical examination of research hypotheses by Kim et al (2009) indicate that attitude

toward system use fully mediate the effects of salient beliefs on behavioural intention

when attitude is strong, whereas it partially mediates the effects when attitude is weak.

This implies attitude strength in acceptance of information technology by individuals or

organizations. Findings of a study by Spacey et al (2004b) revealed that attitudes

towards use of Internet were strongly related to usefulness, intention and actual usage.

Findings of a study by Aharony (2009) suggest that librarians who perceive themselves

61
as technology oriented will find it easy to implement and integrate new technologies in

their libraries. Their positive attitudes toward Web 2.0 and other technologies play an

important role in successful application of new technologies and library directors will

hire people with positive attitudes. A study on leader’s ICT usage by Borekci (2009)

revealed that ICT usage by leader affects follower’s attitudes related to his or her

relation with his or her leader, which in turn influence follower’s positive work attitudes

such as loyalty, trust, satisfaction, and perceived distributive justice. Adeyinka (2008)

concluded that librarians’ positive attitudes are key attributes in successful adoption and

use of information technology in Nigerian libraries. Their attitudes are significantly

influenced by prior IT experience and level of knowledge in IT. Based on findings he

advised that libraries in developing countries should consider sending their librarians,

who do not have sufficient IT knowledge, to IT training in order to remove fear and

anxiety hindering them from developing a better attitude to use IT in their libraries.

According to Spacey et al (2004a) positive attitudes are assumed fundamental in the

acceptance, implementation and success of new technologies. The successful design,

implementation require careful attention to the psychological needs of the people

involved in it application. Based on findings of a study Luquire (1983) recommended

that application of IT in libraries must be approached from the attitude and

psychological perspectives more than the technical perspective. Review of library and

information literature reveals that positive attitudes of library staff have been important

for the implementation and use of information and communication technologies.

Analysis of information technology and library literature suggested that the attitudes of

librarians were fundamental in determining the impact of information and

communication technologies on libraries. The attitudes of librarians were crucial in

determining the success or failure of library automation projects in libraries. If the

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library staff developed negative attitudes towards technology, library services will not

meet the user expectations offered by the latest technologies (Sandore and Baker, 1986).

Rabina and Walczky (2007) and Ramzan (2004b) found that the acceptance or

rejection of any major change, regardless of the potential efficacy of the efforts is

impacted by the interrelationship of a large number of factors. Success or failure of an

innovative project could be determined by the interaction of the specific characteristics

of the organizations, its members’ characteristics and external factors. There is a general

agreement amongst library scholars that librarians’ attitudes and their perceptions

towards information technology and library computer based systems do affect the

implementation and usage of new technologies in libraries and ultimately the services

offered to the users (Adeyinka (2008, El-Sherbini and Wilson 2007, Melchionda 2007,

Janes 2002, Nair 1999, Yaacob 1992 and Koohang 1989).

2.9. Organizational Variables Affecting Librarians’ Attitudes Toward IT

This section reviews literature on impact of size of libraries, their location,

budget; IT related decision-making processes and type of library on librarians’ attitudes

toward information technology. Results of a study by Shani and Sena (1994) indicated

that employees with greater control on implementation and application of technological

innovations felt a sense of ownership and showed more positive attitudes toward IT

innovations than those who did not have control on implementation of information

technologies.

Regarding the relationship between the library director, the university

administration and faculty, Dougherty and White (1998) mentioned that a significant

amount of time and energy of library directors is consumed in making the faculty and

provosts understands the important role that librarians play in managing their libraries.

The faculty, especially those who are ignorant of the true role of librarians treat them as

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clerks and try to impose their personal ideas and experiences rather than appreciating

the role of librarians in implementing the innovative, IT based systems and services.

They further mentioned that the attitudes of outsiders such as Trustees, Vice-

Chancellor, Rector, Provost, Faculty and Head of Finance and Technology departments

at universities and institutes play a key role in determining the attitudes of librarian

toward innovations. It is important for the success of the librarians and the development

of the libraries that the academics, trustees and librarians understand and play their roles

as all of them work for the university. Similarly, Burkhardt (1994) in a study of

formation of attitudes toward computers found that individuals developed their attitudes

through interaction with peers and colleagues and these findings are in line with Rogers

(2003) diffusion of innovation theory.

A significant difference (χ = 7.368, p<.05) was found in librarians’ attitudes

toward application of technology in academic and research libraries in Kuwait as

librarians’ working in managerial positions showed pore positive attitudes compared to

librarians working on other positions. Similarly, librarians working in private sector

showed more positive attitudes (χ = 10.056, p<.05) while implementing technology in

their libraries than did librarians working in public (government) supported libraries

(Al-Qallaf 2006).

Libraries, being hierarchical organizations, are particularly resistant to change

and try to maintain the status quo (Martin 1996). Contrary to this version, Buch (1997)

reported that constant change and restructuring are not unique to libraries and librarians

have demonstrated intentions and capabilities to manage changes when introducing

innovations. He advised library planners to pay attention to the human side of the

change, as well as to the technical side. Similarly, Tower (1997) acknowledged that

librarians worked in a world that was in constant change, so historically they are

familiar with the changing situations in libraries.

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Good working relationships between library and other department, especially

with the MIS/Information technology department, are important for the successful

implementation of IT in their organization’s libraries (Lee 1988). Pitkin (1991) stated

that the roles of a library and a computing centre were in many ways parallel, but not

identical. Both wanted to enhance the organization and accessibility of information

available on campus. Schwartz (1997) argued that an academic library in many ways

outstripped the rest of the university through designing scholarly electronic services and

had established a recent history of initiating changes of the most fundamental kind.

Among new services and protocols, good working relationships with computer centres

are vital for the overall success of the university innovations.

Hardesty (1997) mentioned the differences between the attitudes of librarians

and computer professionals towards to their users while making choices in IT tools and

in offering level of services. He observed that librarians use to help their users pro-

actively and aggressively while computer professionals do not reach out or care for their

customers. Similarly, librarians were more concerned with the provision of easy and

instant access to contents (intellectual side) while computer professionals were more

concerned to (technical side) ensure that the connections work, but they do not care for

the information provision. In many academic institutions in the developed countries,

libraries and computer centres are merged or administratively aligned into information

centres, as both the departments deal with the information provision (Bolin 2005,

Samson and Oelz 2005). However, these mergers are viewed as imposed by the top

management. Therefore, they have not fully served the purpose of efficiency in

information services. Rather, there are growing conflicts of interest between librarians

and computer people in taking over charge of technology and in user services. Hwang

(2007) and Heyman (2000) have advised that good coordination and cooperation

between librarians and the computer professionals was important for the effective

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implementation and use of information technology in academic institutions, while

keeping their professional entities intact.

Findings of a study of academic library professionals attitudes toward computer-

based systems in Taiwan by Su (1993) revealed that there was no significant difference

[t (66) = -0.91, p>.05, Taiwan M=3.54, and USA M=3.67)] between the attitudes of

librarians in Taiwan and USA. She compared findings of her study with a similar study

conducted by Olsgaard (1989) in USA. The study also found no significant difference

between the attitudes towards automation of managers and other library professionals.

Similarly, no significant difference was determined between the librarians’ attitude

towards automation and their library job experience.

Results of a study by Yaacob (1992) revealed a statistically significant

relationship between the amount of technology available in libraries (r=-0.117, p<.05),

the libraries’ budget (r=.21, p<.05), expenditure on IT (χ=33.85, p<.05), size of the

library (r=.24, p<.05) and staff size (r=.29, p<.05) with the librarians’ attitudes towards

information technology. The study revealed that knowledge in technology (β=1.0605,

p<.05), library budget (β=1.0521, p<.05); the size of the library collection (β=0.9174,

p<.05) and staff size (β=0.9791, p<.05) were good predictors of librarians’ IT attitudes.

A study by Ostrow (1998) found that librarians’ role in the hierarchy of the university,

overall culture of the university in terms of technology use and librarians’ role in

technology-related decision-making and financial resources of the university are key

factors influencing librarians’ attitude toward IT application in libraries. Tenopir and

Read (2000) found that in addition to the value of contents, user-friendliness features,

access features, the price of the databases and expected use by library patterns are

important factors that influence the librarians’ decision for subscription to electronic

databases. Many factors influence the decision to decide what number of computers an

academic library should have. They include expansion of the library, growing e-

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resources, replacement of print reference sources with online resources, wireless

network, students owning laptops, the number of computer labs, campus-wide access to

users and use of PDAs, and Internet accessible cell phones (Malone et al 2007).

Findings of a study by Kim (2006) revealed that terminology clarity and

accessibility were important determinants for ease of use of web-based electronic

databases. The results further suggest that user training is not significantly effective in

this context; rather the belief of the users regarding value and utility of the web-based

databases determines the user-acceptance of these databases. Findings of a study by

Heinrichs et al (2007) found a direct positive impact (χ2 =13.73, p<.05) of perceived

usefulness of academic library Website on students’ intentions to use library Website.

Therefore, if academic libraries Websites are made more useful, users will have greater

confidence in using library Website, which consequently would lead to actual enhanced

use of library Website and other online resources.

Findings of a study by Nair (1999) revealed a significant relationship between

type of library [F (85, 195) =14.783, p<.05], staff size (librarians), [F (101, 62) =

11.817, p<.05], librarians involvement in IT application [t (284) =3.40, p<.05] and

librarians’ attitudes toward IT application in university libraries of Kerala, India.

Adesope et al (2007) determined that adequate access to technology [t (87) = 4.378, p

<.05], age [t (87) = 2.447, p<.05] and experience [t (87) = -2.888, p<.05] were

significant determinants of attitudes toward IT among respondents.

The above reviewed studies were carried out by researchers in different

countries in different situations with a variety of characteristics of libraries. The

findings of these studies may not be relevant to Pakistani libraries. However, it has

helped understanding the interrelationship between the characteristics of libraries and

librarians’ attitudes toward new technologies and trends of attitude studies in other

countries.

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2.10. Demographic Variables, Professional Characteristics and IT Attitudes

This section presents a review of literature concerning the relationship between

librarians’ attitudes towards information technology and their age, gender, job

experience, education, training, computer experience, IT knowledge and computer

usage. Researchers have investigated the impact of librarians’ personality characteristics

on their attitudes towards technological innovations in different geographical areas,

institutions and situations. Powell (1998) found that age was a factor related to comfort

level, as library media specialists in 26-35 age groups were more comfortable with

technology than the older groups.

Findings of a study by DuMont and DuMont (1989) revealed that academic

librarians motivation to manage technology and their attitudes toward technology were

positively correlated (r=.442, p<.05). No statistically significant mean difference [t

(105) = -.99, p<.05] existed between the IT attitudes of librarians in management

position and non-management position. The study also found that female librarians

were less interested in technology than male. However, no statistically significant mean

difference [t (105) = 1.03, p>.05] existed between male and female librarians attitudes

toward technology application in libraries. Gender remained a significant determinant

of employees’ expectations when other factors were controlled.

Kay (1989) mentioned that in terms of attitudes towards technology, males and

females were mostly alike. However, findings of a study by Mitra et al (2000) revealed

that females were less positive about computers than males and the level of usage of

computers by females were less frequent than for males. Findings of two studies by

Simon (2006) and Harris (1999) revealed that in majority of the cases female librarians

and other workers are exposed to computers and Internet at their workplace. Findings

revealed that the respondents initially showed reluctance to adopt latest information

technologies. Subsequently they felt more positive with the new technologies. However,

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overall females showed less positive attitudes towards information technology

compared to male librarians.

Findings of a study by Kim (1994) revealed that there were no significant

differences between attitudes towards new library technologies and their gender and

groups. Al-Qallaf found statistically significant relationship (χ2 = 7.368, p<.05) in

attitudes of librarians working in information services area and their colleagues working

in technical services and library administration.

Rogers (2003) has mentioned that younger people tend to adopt the innovations

earlier than older people do and are less resistant to changes. However, in some cases it

was the reverse. Findings of a study by Pope-Davis and Twing (1991) showed that there

was no significant difference [F (1, 189) = 2.90, p>.05] in attitudes toward computers

based on gender. This suggests that females were as interested in computers as males.

Surprisingly, their study revealed that older people receive greater computer experience,

which in turn increases positiveness [F (2, 189) = 3.48, p<.05] of their attitudes toward

computers. A significant positive relationship [F (2, 189) = 3.39, p<.05] was also found

in computer experience and attitudes toward computers.

A similar study by Taghavi (2006) revealed an insignificant relationship [F (3,

171) = 2.412, p>.05] between age and attitudes towards computers. However, a

statistically significant difference [F (3, 171) = 3.861, p<.05] existed in access to

computers at home (yes, no) and attitudes toward computers.

Hendrix (2007) examined the attitudes of academic librarians toward the

knowledge and use of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications in the United States. Respondents

showed an average level of knowledge about peer-to-peer technologies. This shows that

librarians are not early adopters of this technology or that they do not like file-sharing

applications because of copyright issue. The youngest librarians were more

knowledgeable and better users of P2P. Librarians earning MLS degree after 1993 were

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slightly more knowledgeable than the older ones, male librarians showed better

knowledge and twice as much usage of P2P technologies than the female respondents.

Internet anxiety is an obstacle in its wider usage. It is affected by user’s

computer anxiety, which one has to reduce with frequent exposure to computers and

training. Findings of a study by Thatcher et al (2007) suggest that organizations cannot

influence Internet anxiety as a personal characteristic of a user. Internet anxiety is also

affected by beliefs and organizations can affect it by providing adequate resources to

support and encouraging trust in technology and appreciating the use of IT.

Freudenthal (2001) conducted two experiments on younger and older

participants to explore the role of age, foreknowledge and complexity in learning to

operate complex devices in information retrieval tasks. The results showed that the

performance of old adults with foreknowledge was poorer than that of young adults

with foreknowledge. The second experiment showed that older participants were slower

than younger participants in information retrieval tasks, no effects of age were found as

functions of presence of foreknowledge.

Results of a study by Birdi and Zapf (1997) stated that older workers adopted

strong negative emotional reactions to errors occurring in computer-based works

compared to younger workers (r = 0.18, p<.05). After controlling other factors such as

amount of computer experience and attitude toward new technology, age remained a

significant predictor of negative emotions (r = 0.17, p<.05).

Findings of a study by Nair (1999) revealed a significant relationship between

librarians’ attitudes towards information technology and participation in IT courses (χ2

= 13.931, p<.05) and gender (χ2 = 6.447, p<.05) while no significant relationship was

found between librarians’ attitudes towards information technology and their age,

educational background, professional experience and on-the-job computer experience.

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Findings of a study by Yaacob (1992) revealed a significant positive relationship

between librarians’ awareness of the potential of IT (r=.160, p<.05) and their attitudes

toward IT application in libraries. Variables like age (r=-0.032, p<.05), recency of

attaining professional qualification (r=-0.011, p<.05) and knowledge in technology (r=-

0.233, p<.05) were significantly but negatively correlated librarians’ attitudes toward IT

application in libraries. However, no significant relationship was found between the

librarians’ attitudes towards IT their gender, educational background, and user size.

Findings of a study by Al-Zahrani (2000) revealed that there was a significant

relationship between librarians’ educational background [F (5, 144) =2.661, p<.05],

experience in computer usage [F (4, 114) =2.85, p<.05] and their attitudes towards IT

application in Saudi libraries. Respondents who had high school degrees believed more

than other educational groups that they were more familiar with IT, but admitted that

they found it very difficult to use. The respondents with doctoral qualification had the

highest level of understanding of information technology and believed that information

technology was easy to use. This indicated that the higher the level of education, the

better the understanding of application of IT. Similarly, the study further revealed a

strong relationship between librarians’ experience in computer usage and their attitudes

towards IT. Respondents with less than one years’ experience in IT use were most

likely to believe that information technology provided the most effective ways of

resource sharing and that information technology hardware and software helped people

make better decisions. Respondents with 10 years of experience had the weakest beliefs

in it. Rehman and Vivian (2004) mentioned that active involvement of librarians in IT

related affairs and formal training of both librarians and users are crucial to enhance the

use of electronic resources.

Mullins et al (2008) mentioned that the role of idea champions (librarians in this

case) is critical in introducing the IT innovations in organizations. The idea champions

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or champions of technology innovation are important individuals who serve as change

agents and help organizations to review their processes and serve as advocates for

innovation. Mullins et al further wrote that these idea champions are more successful

when in addition to convincing peers regarding benefits of IT; they are able to evoke

behavioural changes in favour of IT adoption. Nov and Ye (2008a) found that user’s

personality traits and capabilities of IT systems are significant determinants of

librarians’ attitudes toward application of IT in university libraries.

The outcome of a study by Ostrow (1998) identified the following variables that

often contribute to the receptivity or resistance to organizational changes in libraries.

They are (i) members’ participation in decision-making and implementation, (ii)

perceived availability of training and skills enhancement opportunities, (iii) presence of

champions or entrepreneurs, (iv) gender and age related issues, (v) prior experience

with technology, (vi) specialization within the organization, (vii) degree of

professionalism within the organization, (viii) organizational slack, (ix) fear of

technology in general and computers in particular, (x) fear of change and (xi) perceived

threats to job security or status. The results of his study revealed that librarians overall

showed positive attitudes toward computers.

DeYoung and Spence (2004) found significant relationship between years of

using computers (r=.18, p<.05) computer training (r=.19, p<.05), computer use (r=.46,

p<.05), age (r=-.26, p<.05) and gender [t (313) =5.02, p<.05, male (M=3.67, SD=0.55)

female (M=3.35, SD=0.58)] and attitudes toward IT. Prior knowledge and experience

with information technology may also be related to the acceptance or rejection of

technological innovations. Research by Finlay and Finlay (1996) revealed that a

statistically significant positive relationship exists between librarians’ level of IT

knowledge [F (1, 98) =10.71, p<.05], their innovativeness as a personality trait [F (1,

98) = 4.27, p<.05] and their attitudes toward IT. The study also reported that a

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supportive environment through encouragement by peers influences the attitudes.

Similarly, sufficient opportunity to learn the Internet was also important to enhance the

use of Internet in libraries.

Previous computer experience could influence the acceptance of information

systems. However, too much experience might be as inhibiting as too little, as

experienced users of computer systems may find it difficult to adjust to a new system

and may possess exaggerated criteria for satisfaction. Results of two surveys carried by

Winstead (1994) to investigate the staff reaction to library automation indicated that

more than 98% of librarians welcomed automation. Librarians’ educational level had no

correlation to the acceptance of automation. Librarians identified ergonomic factors of

automation, style of management during implementation of automation projects and

communication skills of library administrators as essential factors in successful

implementation of library automation projects.

Library staff generally felt positive about technological applications. The staff

acceptance of technology application was not directly related to the number of years of

formal training (Dakshinamurti 1985). Results of a study by Sievert et al (1988)

revealed that demographic variables of library staff such as age, gender and education

level were not significantly related to attitudes toward computers. However, situational

or environmental variables such as computer training [F (11, 52) = 6.56, p<.05],

computer use experience [F (11, 52) = 4.06, p<.05] and job experience [F (12, 23) =

5.13, p<.05] were significantly related to attitudes toward computers.

Attitudes towards computers differ between genders. Male respondents tend to

display more positive attitudes towards computers, regardless of the level of familiarity

with computers, while females became more positive as their level of familiarity with

information technology increased. Pearson correlation for females between time 1 and

time 2 computer attitude scores did not show significance (r = .385, p >.05) suggesting

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that females attitudes were not stable across time. While correlation for males attitude

scores was significance (r = .728, p <.05) suggesting males attitude sores remained

stable over time (Sacks et al 1993).

Findings of a study by Aharony (2009) revealed a statistically significant

difference [F (1, 154) =8.71, P<.05] between the librarians’ attitudes toward IT and

their position in the library (library manager vs librarian). Findings further revealed that

library managers showed more positive attitude (M=3.12, SD=1.30) than librarians

(M=2.31, SD=1.26). A positive correlation was found in librarians’ computer

experience (r=.38, p<.05), and library manager’s attitudes (r=.24, p<.05) and their

attitudes toward IT use. Librarians with more computer experience showed more

positive IT attitude compared to library managers. A statistically significant difference

[F (12, 290) =3.83, p<.05] between the librarians’ attitudes toward IT and their level of

computer expertise. Findings analysis revealed that library with higher computer

expertise showed more positive attitude (M=3.22, SD=1.44) than librarians with

medium level computer expertise (M=2.54, SD=1.26) and librarians with low-level

computer expertise (M=1.72, SD=.91). No significant correlation was found in

librarians IT attitudes and their age, job experience gender and academic qualification.

Janes (2002) found a strong correlation [F (3, 494) =3.156, p<.05] between

librarians’ recent experience of providing digital reference service and their attitudes

towards IT.

The results of a study by Idowu (1999) showed a positive relationship (χ2

=13.73, p<.05) between previous training and experience on librarians’ attitudes toward

IT use. It also showed significant positive relationship (χ2 =13.73, p<.05) between

librarians’ level of IT knowledge and their attitudes toward IT use in libraries.

Findings of a study by Spacey et al (2004b) revealed that the gender and age of

the library staff did not prevent Internet usage. However, women and older staff were

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less confident about their skills and their perception was that it was more difficult for

older people to use the Internet than for the younger staff.

Lee (1988) studied the effect of knowledge and attitudes of 75 library directors

and 350 professional librarians towards library automation on automated programmes in

academic libraries in Taiwan. The results revealed that IT knowledge and background

of library directors and librarians was limited. Even then, they regarded library

automation as a necessity and supported it.

Adekunle et al (2007) found a significant positive relationship (r=.447, p<.05)

between librarians’ training/knowledge of ICT and their attitudes toward IT.

Findings of the study carried out by Yoo (1988) to investigate the relationship

between 244 academic librarians’ attitudes towards computers and their backgrounds

revealed that overall, librarians showed positive attitudes towards computers. The

demographic variables including gender, age and the highest degree obtained,

functional areas, formal or informal education and length of experience were not

significantly related to their attitudes towards IT. However, experience with computers

was significantly (r=.28, p<.05) related to positive attitudes towards IT.

Results of a study by Adedeji et al (2005) revealed that librarians’ age [t (7, 8)

=0.886, p>.05], gender [t (7, 8) =0.237, p>.05] and computer experience [t (6, 9)

=1.037, p>.05] had no significant influence on their attitudes to the use of computerized

information systems. Findings of a study by Uwaifo (2007) revealed that an

overwhelming majority of Nigerian librarians registered positive attitudes towards

automation. However, majority of the university libraries in Nigeria were due to be

automated. Age [F (3, 48) = 1.00, p>.05] and exposure to computers [F (2, 49) = 1.05,

p>.05] were not found to be significantly correlated to librarians’ attitudes towards

library automation in Nigeria.

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Findings of a study by Tella and Ayeni (2006) revealed significant differences

[F (2, 49) =12.73, p<.05] between librarians prior computer experience and their ability

to apply new technologies in libraries. Findings of a study by Adeyinka (2008) revealed

that a statically significant positive relationship exists between librarians’ prior

knowledge/experience and training (r =.571, p<.05), educational qualification (r =.561,

p<.05), age (r =.523, p<.05), gender (r = .461, p<.05) and their attitudes toward IT

application in libraries. It was also found that librarians’ prior knowledge and training,

educational qualification, age and gender are significant variables for predicting

librarians’ attitudes toward IT. Among the variables considered for this study librarians’

prior knowledge/experience and training (β = 0.40, p<.05) has the greatest effect on

librarians’ attitudes. This is followed by educational qualification (β = 0.36, p<.05), age

(β = 0.29, p<.05) and gender (β = 0.25, p<.05). Findings of the above studies revealed

that demographic variables and librarians’ professional characteristics influence their

attitude toward IT application in libraries and information resources centres.

2.11. Librarians IT Education, Training and Competencies

This section reports literature on librarians’ education and training in

information technology and required core competencies as mentioned by different

authors. Libraries along with other institutions are passing through an era of

unprecedented changes being introduced through information technology innovations.

Rehman et al (1997) mentioned that a new paradigm of information recording,

acquisition, access, organization and dissemination has emerged. New knowledge, skills

and attitudes are required to cope with this information explosion. Competence

identification and validation processes provides a framework to design education and

training programmes and provide guidelines in determining the education and training

levels for different positions. They identified sets of foundation and operational

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competencies for library professionals of academic libraries of Malaysia. In addition to

other competencies, they identified the usage of computers and other information

technologies as a core competency required for library operations. Bakar (2005)

identified IT competencies needed for information professionals in Malaysia. For this

purpose, 13 key competencies were identified, namely, IT basics, word processing, e-

mail, Internet and intranet, graphics, presentation and publishing, spreadsheet, IT

project management, design, development and administration of databases, system

maintenance, design and development of web applications and system analysis and

programming.

Marmion (1998) stated that the biggest challenge for library schools was to

prepare professionals who can use technology effectively. According to the author,

computers, connectivity and electronic information are playing an important role in

libraries’ activities. He suggested that in order to meet the challenge, more technology

training and computer skills need to be provided to librarians.

Librarians’ roles are continuously evolving from keepers of books to network

navigators and information providers. We have moved from the industrial age to the

information age, which requires fundamental changes in librarians’ roles. An increasing

array of computer and communication technologies is emerging to create new options

and opportunities in information capturing, storing, dissemination and use.

Technological innovations have made this a golden age of libraries. These technologies

have enabled information consumers to obtain direct access to information generation

sources bypassing information intermediaries including librarians. According to Bennett

(2001), Rice-Lively and Racine (1997) and Griffiths (1995) librarians’ need to spend

more time in meeting and interacting with users in-person or virtually leaving behind

the physical library building. They need to develop user-centred and dynamic systems

and continuously upgrade their skills to cope with this ever-changing situation.

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Cullen and Huanwen (1999) reported that the library staffs needs sufficient

competencies in the required technologies and the ability to cope with the pace of

changes in both new technologies and technology-based services. Fourie (2004)

reported that librarians believed that they had the right skills to make changes in the

environment, but somehow they did not convince others of their competency. Similarly,

librarians carried a poor public image and were associated with stereotypical personality

traits of introversion and lack of confidence.

Information is coming at such a fast speed and in such a variety of formats that

libraries would become ‘chaotic’ if we do not prepare IT skilled librarians. Researchers

like Fidishun (2001) Tran and Gorman (1999), Lim (1999), Paterson (1999), Doney

(1998), Clark and Kalin (1996), and Morgan (1996), have mentioned that librarians’

skills, knowledge in technology and IT training influences their attitudes towards

information technology, so it is important for the library staff to acquire necessary skills

and knowledge of new technologies. That will enable them to provide navigational

support to create databases for library materials, information retrieval systems, provide

IT-based services, user orientation, training and management of electronic resources.

Lawes (1996) mentioned that we need training because we do not have all the skills to

perform our jobs or the job itself is changing, technology is changing and is doing so at

a very fast speed.

To develop the required skills, Tran (2000) and Rehman (2000b) suggested

developing basic and advance level IT based information handling, searching,

recording, dissemination, retrieval and usage skills of the librarians. In the past,

technological innovation progressed through learning by doing, whereas in the current

networked environment, people learn technology by doing and end up reconfiguring the

networks and finding new applications. They also mentioned that the extent of training

in the use of technology has been a major factor in determining both the attitudes and

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practices of librarians. Similarly, increasing staff’s knowledge, skills and awareness of

new technologies through continuous professional development is crucial for librarians

to remain relevant and successful.

In two of his studies, Rehman (2008, 2006) stressed the need for library and

information professionals to develop competencies that are more relevant to the market

needs. He mentioned that library schools should train library and information

professionals in knowledge management that has emerged as a potential job market for

information professionals. Rao and Babu (2001) noted that transition of traditional

library collections into digital and virtual collections have provided new opportunities

and challenges to the librarians. They stressed the need to have a digital librarian who

can manage digital or electronic libraries that are fast becoming a reality in every part of

the globe. They mentioned that a digital librarian must possess skills and competencies

to manage digital information systems such as imaging technologies, optical character

recognition (OCR), mark-up languages, cataloguing, metadata, multimedia indexing

and database technology, and user interfaces design programming and web

technologies. They further argued that the role of the librarian in the Internet and Web

environment has changed from custodian of books to intermediary, facilitator, end-user

trainer, Web site builder, researcher, interface designer, knowledge manager and sifter

of information resources.

Anwar and Al-Ansari (2002) conducted a survey to investigate the continuing

professional development practices and perceptions of academic library employers

about skills that needed to be developed in the academic library staff of six Gulf

Cooperation Council countries. The findings regarding information technology skills

revealed that there was a preference to learn automated systems, electronic resources,

networking and multimedia applications. They suggested evolving a common strategy

for continued professional development of academic library staff of the Gulf

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Cooperation Council countries. Mahmood (2003) reviewed the literature concerning

competencies needed for academic librarians in the Asia Pacific region and discussed

the academic library scenario in Pakistan. He presented a list of competencies for entry-

level librarians. Seven out of ten of the most important competencies belonged to the

information technology category, which were e-mail, Internet, intranet, multimedia,

imaging, interconnectivity, full-text databases and in-house CD-ROM publishing. The

author agreed that the library schools in Pakistan have not revised their curricula

regularly and they seriously lack faculty that is competent to teach information and

communication technology to their students. Mahmood and Khan (2007) conducted a

study for need assessment for ICT training of library professional in Pakistan and

mentioned that respondents felt the need for continuing educational training

programmes to develop information technology skills of librarians.

Warnken (2004) have suggested that librarians need to develop their IT related

competencies such as saving, downloading, e-mailing, organizing electronic files and

navigating the Internet for literature search and to effectively handle the electronic

resources. He has further mentioned that the librarians need to polish their information

literacy skills for user education and training and involve them in universities

curriculum development process. Print publications provide a degree of permanence but

electronic information, if not properly managed, can be transient. Information and

communication technologies help provide large, uncontrolled, unregulated collection of

resources. It is becoming impossible to evaluate the contents of ever-growing web sites

and ultimately, to protect the integrity of the information that libraries provide. To cope

with these challenges, it is important that librarians learn to negotiate license

agreements and understand evolving technologies (Orick 2000).

Electronic journals and e-books are becoming essential parts of academic life.

This has a significant impact on the working practices, librarians’ electronic resources

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management skills, changes in management style and need for library software that can

provide access to all the electronic journals from a single user interface. Similarly,

librarians need to provide access to both printed and e-books from a single user

interface. Ashcroft and Watts (2004), Ashcroft and McIvor (2001) and Stover (2000)

have mentioned that a new set of skills including technical skills for accessing and

managing electronic resources, instructional skills and strong inter-personal skills are

essential for librarians. Over the past decade (1990-2000), the job announcements for

librarians requiring expertise in electronic and digital technologies have increased

manifold. The findings of a study by Croneis and Henderson (2002) indicated that

technology-oriented and swift changes are occurring in the library profession, which

requires a different type of skill level to meet the emerging challenges.

In the past, libraries and other institutions have been digitising selected

documents for the preservation and access purposes. However, we are now witnessing

mass digitization of books and bound journals and documents. Initially, the Library of

Congress started large-scale digitization to put American records, history and culture

online. Google has started a project for mass digitization of all books available in US

libraries. Another large-scale digitization of public domain books project namely the

Open Content Alliance was announced in late 2005. Microsoft has announced

digitization of 100,000 British Library books. This large-scale digitization has become

possible due to improvements in scanning technology and optical character recognition

(OCR) technologies. Librarians’ need to follow the international standards in

digitization, in creating user-interfaces, in taking care of physical books during scanning

process. It is important that people involved in digitization and librarians in promotion

and marketing of digitalized collections are properly trained to work and to handle

digitization projects (Coyle 2006, Perry 2005).

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The Internet has become an integral part of library services. In addition to many

other benefits, Internet enables libraries to provide networked information services to

their users. This requires investment in network technologies and infrastructure. Bertot

(2004) mentioned that it is important for performance management that we obtain

statistics of networked resources through the library networks using NISO Z39.7 and

other library statistics standards. He argued that before making investments in network

technology infrastructure, librarians need to consider the factors relating to the types

and nature of library desired network-based services and resources, existing and future

network technology infrastructure and libraries abilities to assess the usability and

effectiveness of their networked services. Similarly, librarians need skills and intentions

to address the issues of increasing network-based resources, which are not owned by the

libraries themselves.

Bailin and Grafstein (2005) mentioned that the basic functions of libraries, the

collection, the access to the collection and assistance in accessing and using the

collections have not changed. However, developments of network and other

technologies have resulted in fundamental changes in library organizations, operations

and businesses. They recommended that it requires academic librarians to reconfigure

the way their time and resources are utilized in order to make the best use of available

network resources. Kinengyere (2007) mentioned that the mere availability of

information resources did not necessarily mean actual use. It is important for the

librarian to initiate information literacy programmes for users so that they know what

resources are available and how effectively they can be used. Findings of his study

revealed that information professionals’ attitudes and perceptions also influence the

utilization of electronic information resources.

Librarians generally welcome information seekers, even if they do not qualify in

terms of affiliations and membership. Findings of a study by Kibbee (2006) revealed

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that virtual reference facilities have enabled remote and large numbers of users to

benefit without any classification or affiliation and many academic librarians are

inclined to opening the virtual reference to the world at large. However, he cautioned

librarians to put certain restrictions to control the flow of questions. Otherwise, their

affiliated users may suffer.

There are two types of technologies influencing the changes in libraries and

other organizations. One is sustaining technologies, which helps in improving the

performance of library functions such as automated and electronic libraries, web

applications, portals, WebOPAC and digitalized collections. These technologies are

developed outside libraries and they have established vendors. Sometimes these

technologies are offered directly to library users by the vendors. The second type of

technology described by Lewis (2004) is disruptive technology, which appears like toys

but before you know this technology, it is grown up and is cheaper, faster and better

than other well-established technologies. He advised librarians to survive in the

disruptive technologies era through focusing more on the faculty and student needs and

making economical use of resources. Librarians should be ready to explore resources

for un-planned activities, create a new culture along with innovative projects, take risks

and be the first to use innovative technologies. This can be done by creating a culture

that includes less buying but greater use of books, collaboration among staff,

impatience, which leads to a desire to explore, innovate and change, accountability and

willingness to measure results and make consequences visible and finally, trust that

colleagues will exercise competence and good judgment in doing things differently

(Lewis 2004).

One of the inescapable facts of life is that you cannot escape change.

Williamson (2006) mentioned that we are continuously experiencing changes in

academic institutions and ultimately in the libraries. The most challenging changes he

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mentioned have been occurring in our users’ needs and expectations, systems and

technologies, nature of the scholarly communication process, the learning environment

and librarians’ responses to these changes and challenges. He further mentioned that

these changes are coming with uncertainty as well as opportunities and librarians must

reform the profession through collaborative efforts, thinking of out-of-the-box solutions

and acting quickly to respond to these changes and challenges positively. Continuous,

fast and radical changes have created a shift away from traditional conservative

mindsets of librarians, which requires not just minor alterations in attitudes and ways of

working but an acceptance and adoption of wholly new perspectives and mindsets.

Findings of another study by Williamson (2008) revealed that greatest challenge to

transform library resources, systems and services depends in transforming the

knowledge, skills and potential of library staff that meet and exceed the user

expectations. Smith (2005) argued that by developing the capability to make radical

changes, the possible threat of being irrelevant could be transformed into an

opportunity, hence making libraries and librarians more relevant and effective during

the time of continuous changes. The author concluded that it is the people, who are the

key to brought changes and at times, they can be the biggest obstacle to change.

Therefore, it is all about managing and guiding people to achieve organizational

changes.

Librarianship is experiencing rapid technological change with the development

of information technologies, particularly the Internet and storage devices. Librarians

need constant de-skilling in technical and managerial techniques, processes and

practices. Participation in professional development activities is important in remaining

updated about the latest innovations. Findings of a study by Chan and Auster (2003)

revealed that participation in formal and informal training activities is influenced by a

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supportive manager positively and influence negatively by situational barriers, feeling

old and working part-time.

Keeping abreast of professional literature, new technologies and latest service

trends are critical for the success of academic librarians. However, with the increasing

amount of information available around the clock, it is a challenge to keep current. In

addition, the amount of information available to librarians and their professional

commitments and highly demanding user community make it more challenging for

academic librarians to be on top of others regarding new innovations happening around.

Hardesty and Sugarman (2007) investigated librarians’ attitudes and methods of

keeping up-to-date about new technologies and professional literature. Librarians were

unanimous in reporting the need to remain aware of new happenings around them. The

majority (95%) of the respondents chose group mails as their primary method of

keeping current with professional literature, followed by reading journals and magazine

articles. Respondents also reported that they do not have sufficient time in locating the

information. However, they get enough time to read once it was found.

Results of a survey by Genoni et al (2006) concluded that researchers positively

regarded the usefulness of the Internet, but their attitudes were also marked by

ambivalence of traditional materials. The authors suggested that potential of the Internet

and the attitudes of researchers have offered an opportunity for librarians to develop the

concept of e-literacy as a means of strengthening their engagement with the faculty and

researchers. Anything digital, from any source, at any time has already happened in

many parts of the world and the remaining countries will embrace this situation soon.

Moreover, library and information professionals need to devise such systems and skills

that authenticity and quality information are ensured. For that, they must anticipate the

user needs and help them in consuming the right information (Gorman 2006).

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Electronic resources and remote access have raised user expectations from

librarians to fulfil their needs instantly and it has become possible with the digital

collections. Preston and Allmand (2001) advised that library and information

professionals should make sure that user expectations from print resources are also met

with the digital collection standard. Melchionda (2007) provided an account of

librarians’ attitudes toward changing work environment and explosion of networked

electronic resources. The author opined that in this age of the Internet librarians, the

need to come to the terms of patrons’ new information habits and the changing work

environment. They need to adopt a role of an innovator, educator, facilitator and

collaborator with a very strong customer focus on surviving now and in future.

2.12. Problems of Library Automation

There are hurdles in the acquisition of information technology, along with a

number of barriers that prevent effective implementation of these technologies in

libraries. A number of scholarly studies have identified factors that hinder the effective

implementation of information technology in libraries. Administrators and planners

need sufficient knowledge about information technology to make informed decisions.

Once the technology is in place, there may still be barriers to its effective use.

Earlier studies on problems in library automation by Gabrielle (1986) and

McCarthy (1983) reported a lack of financial resources, lack of skilled human

resources, lack of IT education and training and tensions and confusion between library

and computer professional regarding ownership of IT implementation in libraries as

major problems in library automation. Allen and Williams (1994) mentioned that library

leadership is responsible for managing and implementing technology innovations in

libraries. However, a technology partnership with other departments would be a good

strategy to avoid a clash of interests regarding technology ownership. Financial

86
constraints and lack of IT trained library staff were the most critical obstacles in the

application of information and communication technology in East African government-

owned university libraries (Mulimila 2000). A study by Amekuedee (2005) reported

that university libraries realize the importance of library automation. However, a lack

support in terms of funds, administration support from the university and availability of

skilled staff was hampering the automation of university libraries in Ghana.

University libraries in Nigeria were not using information and communication

technologies effectively for the benefit of their users. The major obstacles in IT

applications in academic libraries of Nigeria identified by Okiy (2005) were inadequate

funding, inadequate electric supply and shortage of IT skilled librarians, ‘lukewarm’

attitudes of Government officials towards information technologies and low level of

literacy among Nigerians. Ani et al (2005) recommended that the government should

increase funding for the development of university libraries and improve the provision

of un-interrupted electricity for sustainable adoption of information and communication

technology in university libraries in Nigeria.

Uddin (2003) mentioned that in Bangladesh government need to invest in the

development of IT infrastructure so that the usage of Internet is enhanced for the

common academics in Bangladeshi universities. Ahmad (2002) reported that university

libraries in the Arabian Gulf were offering web-based services to their users. However,

the usage of these resources was very low and one of the reasons of this low usage of

web-based resources is that users do not feel comfortable in using these resources.

Hence, they need to be trained in the effective use of these online resources and

services.

Younis (2005) reported that although all university libraries in Jordan are linked

through the Internet and provide online services using lower-end software and

hardware. However, the use of online services is not very common and effective. He

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listed that lack of skilled staff, shortage of funds and insufficient hardware were prime

obstacles hindering wider use of innovative information technologies in Jordanian

university libraries.

In the Indian state of Kerala, Suku and Pillai (2005) conducted a study to

examine the status and problems of library automation of university libraries and found

that the library staff lacked necessary skills to plan and carry out automation project.

Similarly, they found that inadequate IT infrastructure and decision to automate the

university libraries were taken too late. The lack of funding was also a problem to carry

out automation with latest software. Findings of a study by Haneefa (2007) revealed

that though special libraries in India had hardware, software and Internet facilities to

some extent, but the resources and services were not reaching end-users as expected.

The common problems identified by her were, (i) lack of proper automation guidelines,

(ii) cumbersome purchase of hardware and software, (iii) lack of un-interrupted power

supply, (iv) use of sub-standard library software, (v) inadequate IT infrastructure, (vi)

insufficient funds for IT and (vii) lack of skilled professional staff.

Regarding the situation in Pakistan, Haider (2004) observed that the absence of

proper library automation planning, software and hardware constraints and lack of

experienced human resources are the major problems hindering the wider use of

information technologies in our libraries. Khan and Bawden (2005) reported that

libraries in Pakistan were providing one or the other kind of community information

services; however, very few of them were using information and communication

technologies for provision of community information services. They reported a lack of

awareness among the masses and lack of funds for purchase of hardware and training in

IT applications. Riaz (1993) outlined some problems that were preventing the wider use

of computers in libraries. The problems identified were lack of computer literacy among

librarians, improper planning, non-availability of standard library software, lack of

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standardization and quality control, librarians’ absence in decision-making and

bureaucratic attitudes of the management. Anwar (1993) reported that libraries of

Pakistan were not being automated according to a proper plan from the automation

point of view and they did not fulfil prerequisites. Therefore, they faced several

problems. The reason was that, first, the librarians were generally computer illiterate

and second, the bureaucracy in public-sector universities worsened the situation.

Another important factor was that libraries were working independent of each other and

there was limited cooperation and exchange of experiences.

Johnson (1991) mentioned that the conversion of manual systems into

automated systems involved some important steps to attain the desired results.

However, in most developing countries, librarians, along with the funding agencies

plan, the automation in a very simple manner. They purchase hardware without

considering future storage needs. Computer professionals who do not know much about

libraries and information centres’ needs recommend software and arrange a few funds

for training. He explained the results of such a project through a scenario like this:

Administration and/or funding agencies purchase personal


computers for the information centre and omit any training. All too
often, the outcome after a year or so is that the hardware sits idle
because no one understands the hardware, software, or system (if
one was established) well enough to keep it running (Johnson,
1991, p. 22).

While analyzing the library automation scenario of Pakistan, Rehman (1993)

observed that the majority of the librarians and library administrators were not clear

about library automation and they carried many ‘myths and misconceptions’ about

automation. He mentioned that the automation of library operations was being carried

out without removing basic faults and deficiencies of manual catalogues. Librarians

were keeping manual records in addition to automated circulation, which was a waste of

resources and time of both staff and users. Computer programmers were assigned to

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develop library systems, which they could not do. No such attempt in Pakistan has been

successful so far. In the presence of hundreds of library automation packages, any

initiative to develop an in-house programme is like reinventing the wheel. He

recommended buying off-the-shelf, tested systems. He further mentioned that

management in Pakistan was mostly concerned with buying hardware through the

lowest quoted bids, without considering system requirements and needs assessment.

Many librarians lacked adequate understanding of the functional requirements of their

libraries and the library software packages. There were no proper training programmes

before the start of library automation. Retrospective conversion of bibliographic records

in large libraries was also considered an impossible task. It was needed to be taken as a

separate activity to be completed in phases.

Sami and Pangannaiah (2006) reviewed literature on technostress created by

improper usage of information technology in libraries. They mentioned that information

is coming in a variety of formats and at an unprecedented speed, software and hardware

versions are changing very fast, hence bringing uncertainty and anxiety for the

librarians to remain current. They further reported that women were comparatively less

comfortable in dealing with technologies than men were. Prior computer exposure,

especially computer use at home and computer experiences, have significantly positive

relationship towards computers. They suggest that in most cases, the decision to use

information technologies is made by executives and information technology/computer

professionals and librarians are not involved in decision-making. Hence, their behaviour

tends toward compliance and not toward taking initiatives. This in turn results in some

resistance and/or possessiveness on part of the librarians. Pors (2005) explored that

political support and respect from the patrons and their perception of libraries have

significant effect on the productivity of the librarians.

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A few studies have been carried out by Haider and Mahmood (2007), Amin

(2006), Mahmood (2003), Khurshid (1992) and Anwar (1993), and to highlight the

issues and problems of library education in Pakistan, its relevance to the market, and

challenges in coping with IT innovations. Ramzan (2004a) have mentioned that like

many other developing countries, library education in Pakistan has failed to prepare

librarians to confidently work in a technology-oriented environment. Rehman (2000a,

1993 and 1992) have been regularly writing that the curricula of library schools in

Pakistan are needed to be changed continuously to meet the demands of IT revolution.

However, this could not be revised due to several reasons. The important reasons he

mentioned include (i) the faculty lacks necessary IT teaching skills, (ii) negative

attitudes of university management mainly because of lack of knowledge, (iii) non-

availability of necessary hardware, software and computer lab facilities. In addition, he

identified basic faults in the examination and teaching system of the country, financial

constraints and teachers’ non-participation in curriculum development.

The above review of literature indicates that the lack of funds for IT

acquisitions, lack of trained librarians and managements’ possessive attitudes towards

library development, lack of electricity and telecommunication infrastructure, outdated

IT education and training and lack of guidance are common problems in the way of IT

application in libraries of Pakistan and other developing countries. However, a scientific

inquiry is needed to identify top priority problems currently being faced by academic

libraries in Pakistan so that a focussed approach is adopted to address those problems.

2.13. Technology Acceptance Theories

This section looks into popular theories and frameworks used to investigate IT

acceptance by individuals and organizations and intends to indentify a framework or

model that is most relevant to the context of this study. A significant amount of

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literature is available on predicting information technology adoption in many

disciplines. Information technology researchers have studied technology acceptance

models using frameworks such as the theory of reasoned action (TRA) developed by

Fishbein and Ajzen (1975), the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) by Ajzen (1991), the

diffusion of innovations theory by Rogers (2003) and the technology acceptance model

(TAM) by Davis (1989) and Davis et al (1989) and other theories and frameworks.

The diffusion of innovations model (Rogers 2003) asserts that one of the major

factors affecting individual’s attitudes toward innovation is the attributes of technology.

These attributes are an individual’s perceptions regarding the relative advantage,

compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observeability of innovation. Therefore, a

new technology will be increasingly diffused if the adopters (librarians in this case)

perceive that the innovation (IT) has an advantage over previous innovations, is in

agreement with existing practices, and it is easy to understand and apply. So people’s

attitude toward a new technology is a key element in its adoption and their attitudes are

influenced by their personal characteristics (Yi et al 2006, Rogers, 2003, Karahanna and

Straub 1999 and Callahan 1991).

Theory of planned behaviour of Ajzen (1991) is used for investigating the

behavioural intentions of individuals in IT adoption. According to Yi et al (2006), this

model posits that behavioural intention is a function of attitude and subjective norm.

Huang and Chuang (2007) found that the theory of planned behaviour is widely

accepted expectancy-value model to investigate attitude-behaviour relationship. Baker

et al (2007) validated TPB as a multicultural model for investigating the impact of

attitudes, beliefs, and subjective norms on technology adoption.

The theory of reasoned action (TRA), which was one of the fundamental and

influential theories of human behaviour (Ma and Liu 2004), asserts that beliefs

influence attitudes, which lead to intentions and therefore generate behaviour. In other

92
words, it asserts that both attitude towards a specific behaviour and subjective norm

have an impact on behavioural intention, which in turn determines actual behaviour. An

individual’s attitude is hypothesized to influence the behavioural intention to use a

technology, finally relating to actual usage (Raaij and Schepers 2008).

The technology acceptance model (TAM) is perhaps one the most widely

applied model in examining underlying factors affecting the acceptance,

implementation and use of information technology in different organizations (Yi et al

2006, Ma and Liu 2004, Venkatesh and Davis 2000, Davis 1989, Davis et al 1989). This

model states that an individual’s IT usage is determined by behavioural intentions,

which in turn, is determined by two beliefs: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of

use. The perceived usefulness represents the extent to which a person believes that

using technology will improve his/her work performance, and perceived ease of use

represents the extent to which a person believes that using technology will be free of

efforts. TAM provides a basis for tracing the impact of external factors on internal

beliefs, attitudes and intentions Pijpers and Montfort 2006, King and He 2006).

Findings of a study by Al-Gahtani and King (1999) confirmed the importance of

individual, organizational and IT characteristics in influencing the technology user’s

perceptions and attitudes for IT adoption. Chakraborty et al (2008) incorporated a

cognitive style model for testing of factors while examining individuals’ acceptance of

new technology and found that cognitive style shows significant direct effects on

perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and subjective norms. They found that

both perceived usefulness and subjective norms affect actual use of technology

significantly, and people with innovative cognitive style are more likely to perceive a

new technology useful and easy to use than those people with adaptive cognitive styles.

The decision to adopt a new technology is influenced by user’s initial perceptions of the

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technology characteristics. Similarly, people with creative thinking styles tend to show

more positive attitudes towards using IT (Zhang 2007).

Amoako-Gyampah (2007) determined that user’s intrinsic involvement in IT

adoption positively affect their adoption of technologies. Schraeder et al (2006) found

that individuals involved in IT related decision-making indicate more positive attitudes

toward IT adoption than individuals with low level of involvement do. Melville and

Ramirez (2008) determined that variations in IT adoption are significantly influenced

by the information use needs of the organizations. Schepers et al (2005) found that

technology support; training and leader behaviour can influence followers’ receptivity

towards technology.

Willingness to adopt new technologies is the key to their successful

implementation in libraries. Librarians’ commitment to information technology has

been led by beliefs that once technologies are adopted, services to the patrons will be

improved and after implementation is completed and potential of new IT has been

achieved the anticipated economic benefits associated with efficiency and productivity

will be realised (Rabina and Walczyk 2007).

Acceptance of new technologies often involves users’ resistance to changes,

therefore in order to understand users intentions to use new technologies it is important

to understand user’s resistance to technological change (Nov and Ye 2008a). Yi et al

(2006) mentioned of a growing interest in personality characteristics of individuals as

an exploratory tool to investigate technology acceptance. Oreg (2006) and Venkatesh et

al (2003) noted that in the social psychology research individuals’ beliefs and attitudes

are influenced by their personality trait of resistance to change. Therefore, it is

important to examine the IT innovators personality characteristics to understand his/her

attitudes and behaviours to technology acceptance.

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Nov and Ye (2008b) determined significant influence of librarians’ personality

characteristics on their attitudes toward enhancing use of digital libraries in universities.

Lee (2008) found that computer training and internal computer support as important

factors influencing IT adoption. Jeyaraj and Sabherwal (2008) examined the literature

on IT adoption and found that individual, technological and organizational factors

influence the levels of IT adoption in organizations.

Ramayah and Afaqi (2004), Hong et al (2002) and Thong et al (2002) in their

studies on user acceptance of digital libraries determined that the role of personal,

system characteristics and organizational variables influence the acceptance of digital

libraries. Table 2.6 further explains key studies on variables affecting technology

acceptance by individuals and organizations. The variables mentioned in the studies in

Table 2.6 are deemed important as they influence librarians’ attitudes toward

application of IT. These variables have shown some degree of influence on the adoption

of information technology by librarians, information professionals, individuals of other

professions and by organizations. The focus of the current study is to assess the

attitudes of librarians toward application of IT in libraries and to investigate the

influence of personal characteristics and professional capabilities of librarians on their

IT attitudes.

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Table 2.6
Key Studies on Variables Affecting Librarians IT Attitudes
Variable Type Variables Empirical Research
Personal Age Baker et al (2007), Kim (1994), Freudenthal (2001), Ostro
Characteristics (1998), Al-Qallaf (2006), Yoo (1988), Taghavi (2006),
Uwaifo (2007), Pope-Davis and Twing (1991)

Gender Baker et al (2007), DuMont and DuMont (1989), Kay


(1989), Mitra et al (2000), Harris (1999), Simon (2006),
Kim (1994), Sacks et al (1993)

Academic Yaacob (1992), Al-Zahrani (2000), Nair (2001),Yoo (1988)


Qualifications
Work Experience Su (1993), Al-Zahrani (2000)

General studies on personal/individual characteristics


include, Jeyaraj and Sabherwal (2008), Hong et al (2002),
Pijpers and Monfort 2006), Oreg (2006), Chakraborty et al
(2008), Nov and Ye (2008b), Lu et al (2005), Thatcher et
al (2007), Yi et al (2006), Venkatesh and Davis (2000)

Professional Computer Use at Taghavi (2006), Kay (1989)


Characteristics Home
Experience in Al-Khalidi and Al-Jabri (1998), Adekunle et al (2007) , Al-
Computer Use Zahrani (2000), Idowu (1999), Pope-Davis and Twing
(1991), Uwaifo (2007), Aharony (2009)

IT Training Al-Zahrani (2000), Nair (2001), Finlay and Finlay (1996),


Doney (1998) Dakshinmurti (1985), Idowu (1999, Teo at al
(2008)

Frequency of IT Use Spacey et al (2004b), Thatcher et al (2007), Uwaifo (2007)

Level of IT Yaacob (1992), Idowu (1999), Al-Zahrani (2000), Ramzan


Knowledge / (2004b), Hendrix (2007), Finlay and Finlay (1996),
Expertise in IT Freudenthal (2001), Lee (1988)

Studies on general IT characteristics include Im et al


(2008), Davis (1993), Jeyaraj and Sabherwal (2008),
Ramaya and Afaqi (2004), Al-Gahtani and King (1999),
Koohang (1989), Hong et al (2002)

Organizational Type of Library Al-Qallaf (2006), Nair (2001)


Variables
Size of Library Ostro (1998), Nair (2001), Yaacob (1992)
(Collections)
Yaacob (1992)
Staff Size
Yaacob (1992), Nair (2001)
Expenses on IT
Hendrix (2007), Kari (2006), Ramzan (2004b), Al-Gahtani
Extent of IT Use and King (1999), Powell (1998)

Lee (2006), Powell (1998) Yaacob (1992), Robinson (1991)


IT Availability
General studies on organizational variables include, Jeyaraj
and Sabherwal (2008), Pijpers and Montfort (2006), Im et
al (2008), (2006)Venketash et al (2003), Oreg (2006),
Schraeder et al (2006), Teo et al (2008), Hsu and Lin
(2008), Thong et al (2002)

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2.14. Conceptual Framework of the Study

The literature on different theoretical models to examine the attitudes of

librarians and to investigate the influence of demographic, organizational and

professional characteristics has helped the researcher understand the suitability of the

models and frameworks for this study. Based on the context of the current study and

literature review, researcher has designed a conceptual framework of the study as

mentioned in Figure 2.2 This model have been intuitively derived from previous

empirical literature as well as other theoretical literature on attitudinal studies as

explained in preceding sections of literature review.

Age Highest
qualification

IT availability Gender Experience as


levels Librarian

Type of library Year of attaining Experience as


(public, private) qualification Head Librarian
Organizational characteristics

Location
(city, town) Librarians’ personal characteristics
Staff size
(librarians)

Collection size Librarians’ attitudes


toward IT
User size

Librarians’ professional characteristics


Library budget

Computer use at Recency in IT


Expense on IT home training

Computer use Awareness about


experience new technologies
IT use levels
Technology Written
knowledge contribution on IT

Figure 2.2.
Conceptual Framework of the Study

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This framework helps in examining the affects of librarians’ personal

characteristics, their technological capabilities and organizational factors on the

positiveness of librarians’ attitudes toward adoption of IT in libraries. The framework

will help identify the significance, intensity and direction of demographic variables like,

librarians’ age, qualification, and year of attaining latest professional qualification, their

experience as a librarian and as a head librarian on their attitudes toward IT application

in libraries. It will also help in identifying the influence of librarians’ professional

characteristics such as experience in computer use, recency in IT training, level of

technology knowledge, awareness about new technologies and their written contribution

on IT in libraries on their attitudes toward IT application. Regarding organizational

variables, the influence of type of libraries (public or private) geographic location (city

or town), library’s collection size, user size, and staff size and libraries budget on their

librarians’ attitudes toward IT will be examined.

The relationships between stated variables and attitude construct are taken from

evidences in literature. Although one might expect that certain variables to be more

important than others. It is assumed in this study that IT availability, IT use, librarians’

level of IT knowledge, their frequency of IT use and expenditure on IT are significantly

correlated with their attitudes toward IT. All other variables may or may not be

correlated with librarians IT attitudes.

2.15. Summary

The review of literature in the preceding sections have evidenced that librarians

are playing a key role as champion of new initiatives and innovations in introducing and

enhancing the use of IT in libraries. A number of studies in different countries have

been carried out to investigate the personal, organizational and environmental factors

that can affect librarians’ attitudes towards information technology. Their attitudes

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towards acceptance or rejection of new technologies in libraries are critical. They can

behave like resistors to IT innovations, if they develop a negative or less positive

attitude to the technological innovations. Similarly, they can become great promoters,

champions and change agents of IT innovations, if they develop positive attitudes

towards these technologies. With regard to the relationship between librarians’ IT

attitudes with other variables, the literature indicated differences in librarians’ attitudes

in different conditions. It was also found that libraries in Pakistan are lagging behind in

application of IT compared to libraries in other developing countries. Review of

different models on IT adoption has helped construct a parsimonious model as a

conceptual framework of the study. The next chapter provides a detailed account of

research methodology, covering the subjects of the study, sampling, instrumentation,

data collection methodology and its treatment and data analysis techniques employed in

this study.

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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.0. Introduction

The purpose of this section is to outline the methodological steps taken to obtain

the data as well as to describe the measures used for both the independent variables and

the dependent variable and the instrumentation. In so doing, the reader is enlightened

about the following methodological components: population and sampling procedures,

the operational definitions of the independent and dependent variables, the development

and main parts of the questionnaire, its pre-test, pilot-study and steps taken to ensure its

validity and reliability. Finally, the reader is also informed of the data collection

procedure used, treatment of data including preparation of the codebook and assigning

of variable labels and a detailed account of data analysis procedures and techniques

used in the study.

3.1. Research Design

The focus of this study is to examine the attitudes of librarians towards IT

application, to determine the interrelationship between different variables, and to

indentify the organizational and demographic variables and professional characteristics

of librarians’ affecting their IT attitudes.

Data was collected from the librarians working in academic libraries of Pakistan.

The questionnaire survey method was used to collect primary data. As noted by Pickard

(2007) and Oppenheim (1992), questionnaires are a useful tool in gathering descriptive

data for attitude measurement, answering the research questions and testing the

hypotheses. Surveys are useful in assessing the attitudes and then making projections

about subsequent behaviour (Bordens and Abbott 2002). Busha and Harter (1980)

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mentioned that survey research methods allow investigators to collect information

regarding knowledge, characteristics, opinions, beliefs and attitudes of a large

population without undertaking a complete enumeration. He further wrote that within

librarianship, survey research methods are the most suitable techniques available to

discern attitudes and opinions of librarians about the degree to which trends,

developments and IT innovations, are anticipated, accepted and utilized by the

librarians. Highlighting the benefits of the questionnaire survey method Pickard (2007),

and Powell and Connaway (2004) mentioned that the questionnaire survey is often used

as the primary data collection instrument. It allows a wider range and distribution of the

sample than the observation and interview methods. It facilitates the collection of large

amount of data with less effort in a short period without sacrificing the efficiency,

accuracy and information adequacy.

Gathering the views of as many people as possible is considered advantageous

and surveys are regarded as the most appropriate method to achieve this since they can

generate a great amount of quantitative data from a large number of respondents. The

questionnaires are also useful in discovering both facts and opinions such as attitudes

(Pickard 2007, Spacey et al 2004a). Furthermore, the questionnaire method is flexible

as it can be used to collect a wide variety of data in different circumstances and it is

relatively economical. This method of data collection was deemed appropriate given the

large sampling frame, geographical dispersion of respondents and cost reasons.

In addition to the primary data regarding librarians and their libraries, the

research also needs documentary evidences of Government of Pakistan and Higher

Education Commission initiatives and IT infrastructure of the country. Therefore, the

Government of Pakistan reports, policy and planning documents, statistical books and

research articles published by local authors regarding higher education and academic

libraries and IT infrastructure of Pakistan were reviewed. Important statistics regarding

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literacy rate, higher education budget, IT infrastructure, internet subscribers, HEC e-

initiatives including the National Digital Library were examined.

3.2. Population and Sampling

The subjects for this study are the librarians working in academic libraries of

Pakistan. The head librarians were chosen to complete the questionnaire because they

were assumed the most influential personnel involved in decision-making, obtaining

funds, devising library innovations, initiating library automation proposals and

implementing IT applications and technology developments in their libraries. Authors

like Wusteman (2008), Sierpe (2004), Ramzan (2004b) and Nair (2001), have also

acknowledged the head librarians’ key role in initiation, getting resources and

implementation of IT in their libraries.

The sampling frame of the study comprised of academic libraries in Pakistan.

These libraries are documented in a number of sources including the Higher Education

Commission of Pakistan documents and website (Pakistan Higher Education

Commission 2008), Handbook of Colleges of Pakistan (Pakistan University Grants

Commission 1999). In addition, the Educational Guide of Pakistan (Imran 2007),

Pakistan Education Statistics 2005-06 (Pakistan Academy of Educational Planning and

Management 2008) and Pakistan Statistical Year Book (Pakistan Federal Bureau of

Statistics 2007) proved useful in getting required information about academic libraries.

The focus on academic libraries was made primarily because of obtaining

consistency in the type of libraries in the country. One could argue that the relationship

with regard to librarians’ attitudes and other variables could be different in different

types of libraries. Another reason to cover only academic libraries was their leading role

in introducing latest information technologies in libraries. Moreover, the author is more

interested in exploring the developments in academic libraries because of his more than

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15 years of work experience in university libraries. Keeping in view the above facts, the

population for this study was comprised of only the librarians working in the academic

libraries. Powell and Connaway (2004) and Busha and Harter (1980) have defined a

population as any set of persons or objects that possesses at least one common

characteristic. To ensure that the sample is representative of academic libraries at the

country level, librarians working in all the four provinces, Azad Jammu and Kashmir

and Federally Administered Tribal Areas, whether urban or rural, have been included in

the sample.

In addition to the above mentioned sources, the researcher used the Higher

Education Commission of Pakistan’s website www.hec.gov.pk/, telephone directories of

universities and institutions of Pakistan and librarians e-mail discussion group lists

(plagpk@yahoo.com, librarianwelfare@yahoo.com) to find names, postal and e-mail

addresses of libraries and librarians and prepared an updated list of academic libraries in

Pakistan. There were 129 main/central libraries of universities/institutes. In addition,

there were 432 libraries of centres of excellence, research centres, faculties/departments

and institutes and of multiple campuses of these universities/institutes. There were 123

postgraduate college libraries. The total number of academic libraries identified through

the above resources reached 684 as of June 2006.

However, the researcher realized through his professional experience, review of

literature and his position in Pakistan Library Association that some libraries were being

run by non-professional degree holders. Keeping in view the key position of the

librarian as an important variable, it was imperative for the validation of the data

collected that only those libraries were included in the population, sampling, data

collection and analysis where there was at least one librarian (having a library degree).

As mentioned in Table 3.1 out of the total 684 libraries, 29 libraries were

dropped because of non-availability of qualified librarians. A simple random sample of

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288 academic libraries was drawn from a frame of 655 libraries that are eligible for

participation in the study. This sample size should be sufficient to get roughly a 4%

sampling error at 95% confidence level, for this population size. Statistical products

Services and Solutions was deployed to obtain random sample of the study. The sample

represented libraries of private and public sector universities, institutes, their

departments, study centres, research centres, and centres of excellence and of

postgraduate colleges across Pakistan.

Table 3.1

Sampling and Population of Academic Libraries

Category No. of
Libraries
Total Academic Libraries as in HEC and Ministry of 684
Education documents
Excluded due to non-availability of professional librarians 29
Sapling frame 655
Sample 288

3.3. The Questionnaire

The researcher reviewed the literature of user surveys for attitudinal studies to

identify a model survey instrument that could be adopted completely. However, such an

instrument could not be found to survey the target sample to achieve the study

objectives. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed to answer the research questions

and to test the stated hypotheses mentioned in subsequent paragraphs. In addition to the

research questions and hypotheses, the researcher learned useful ideas and information

from a number of attitudes instruments, especially those used by Ramzan (2004b), Al-

Zahrani (2000), Powell (1998) and Yaacob (1990) and utilized them in preparing a

preliminary draft of the questionnaire.

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The attitude statement part of the questionnaire used by Yaacob (1990) was very

relevant to the study, so the researcher relied heavily on the attitudes part of Yaacob’s

survey questionnaire. However, a few modifications were made to update and

customize the attitudes statements before execution of the instrument in the current

study. The questionnaire was designed using mostly closed-ended/structured questions,

check boxes and Likert type rating scale. It is easy for respondents to answer the

structured questions and easy for the researchers to analyze and interpret. Factual,

opinions and attitudes, informative and self-perception type questions were used to

obtain the required information.

Questionnaires and attitude rating scales are instruments that present

information to respondents and then require a response: a check, a circle, a word or

sentences. An attitude rating scale yields a single score that indicates both the direction

and intensity of a person’s attitudes. It helps differentiate those respondents with

favourable attitudes from those with unfavourable attitudes. These categories enable the

users to make a choice from a range of possible values in questionnaires (Powell and

Connaway 2004, Henerson et al 1987). Likert’s attitudes measuring technique helps to

represent an individual’s attitude toward an object, using one preference score or

average ‘most acceptable’ position on a continuum of positions, which range from

highly favourable to highly unfavourable. Pickard (2007) and Yaacob (1990) identified

that Likert technique is popular to measure attitudes because it is simple and reliable.

Nair (1998) also developed a Likert type scale to measure the attitudes of librarians

toward information technology. Based on the above discussion and recommendations,

the author decided to use the Likert type scale to measure the attitudes of librarians

toward information technology.

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3.3.1. Dependent Variable

For the purpose of this research, librarians’ attitude toward application of IT in

libraries was taken as a dependent variable. It was operationally defined as the

librarians’ personal beliefs and opinions about the impact of IT, the cost and resources

allocation for libraries and their worth for Pakistani libraries, the resources and need for

IT training for staff and users, and their general opinions and beliefs about IT for

academic libraries in Pakistan. Respondents’ attitudes were assessed on 42 IT attitude

statements asking them to show agreement/disagreement on a 5-ponit Likert scale as

follows:

SA A UD DA SDA

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree

5 4 3 2 1

A score of 5 was allotted to the most favourable (SA), 4 for (A), 3 for UD), 2 for

(DA) and 1for the least favourable response (SDA) in case of positive statement/item.

The scoring was reversed in case of negatively worded statements. The additive index

of the respondents’ attitudes was taken by adding the total score of the values. The

higher score indicates the more favourable attitudes and the lower score indicates the

less favourable attitudes. After computing the values for 219 respondents, a total score

and mean of librarians’ attitudes was obtained which is termed in this study as

‘Librarians’ IT Attitudes’ or ‘IT attitudes’ and taken as a dependent variable.

3.3.2 Independent Variables

Attitudes toward IT were analyzed in relation to the independent variables. An

independent variable is one that is believed to cause some change in the value of

dependent variable. These independent variables were drawn from the libraries’

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characteristics, librarians’ demographic variables and their professional characteristics.

The independent variable and their measurement levels are explained in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2
Operationalization of Variables
Level of
Operational Definitions Measurement
Type of Libraries refers to the academic libraries of public sector Dichotomous
(Government/Semi government) and private sector academic nominal
institutions.
Geographical Location refers to the libraries of academic Dichotomous
institutions located in cities or town. nominal
Gender being a male or female is also important to understand Dichotomous
because there are less opportunities of using technology for nominal
females, as Pakistan is largely a male dominant society.
Computer Use at Home (no, yes) indicates the importance Dichotomous
attached to IT use by librarians and it might have demonstrated nominal
differences with other variables.
Librarians’ Highest Professional Qualification refers to the Polychotomous
respondent latest library science qualification (certificate, diploma, ordinal
bachelor, master, MS/M.Phil. or doctorate).
Collection Size (1,000 – 5,000; 5,001 – 10,000; 10,001 – 30,000 Polychotomous
30,001 – 100,000; over 100,000) refers to the number of books available ordinal
in the respondent’s library at the time of survey.
User Size (1-100; 101-500; 501-3,000; 3,001-10,000; over 10,000) refers to Polychotomous
the number of library users (faculty, students, staff of the institutes ordinal
and the external members) at the time of survey.
Staff Size (1; 2-5; 6-10; 11-50; over 50) refers to the number of Polychotomous
librarians employed in respondents’ library at the time of survey. ordinal
Library Budget refers to the amount allocated (in Pakistani Rupee Polychotomous
less than 50,000; 50,000 - 100,000; 100,000 - 500,000; 500,001 - 1000, 000; ordinal
1000, 001- 5000, 000; 5000,001 - 10,000,000 10,000,001 - 50,000,000; over
50,000,000) to the respondents’ library for the years 2003, 2004 and
2005.
Year of Latest Qualification (1 year; 2-4 years; 5-10 years; 11-15 years; Polychotomous
over 15 years) refers to the respondents’ year (s) of passing latest ordinal
library science qualification.
Age (less than 25 years; 25-34 years; 35-44 years; 45-54 years; over 54 years) Polychotomous
is also an important factor that can influence librarians IT attitudes ordinal
and it refers to the number of years since their birth.
Experience as a Librarian (less than 5 years; 6-10 years; 11-15 years; Polychotomous
16-20 years; 21-25 years; 0ver 25 years) refers to total experience as a ordinal
professional librarian regardless of title designation or rank.
Experience as a Head / Chief Librarian (less than 5 years; 6-10 years; Polychotomous
11-15 years; 16-20 years; 21-25 years; 0ver 25 years) refers to the number ordinal
of years respondents has served as a head / chief librarian.
Experience in Computer Use (less than 1 year; 1-3 years; 4-6 years; 7-9 Polychotomous
years; over 9 years) refers to the number of years since each ordinal
respondent started using computer.
Recency in IT Training (less than 1 year; 1-3 years; 4-6 years; 7-9 years; Polychotomous

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over 9 years) refers to level of freshness of IT training received by ordinal
respondents.
Level of Technology Knowledge (None; Little; Moderate; Substantial; Polychotomous
In depth) refers to the librarian’s level of knowledge of new ordinal
technologies, new inventions relevant to information, research,
education and knowledge as perceived by them.
Level of Awareness of New Technologies (None; Little; Moderate; Polychotomous
Substantial; In depth) refers to the librarians’ level of keeping ordinal
themselves abreast of new technologies (through reading
professional literature, attending conferences, seminars, workshops
or getting training) as perceived by them.
Level of Written Contribution on IT in Libraries (None; Little; Polychotomous
Moderate; Substantial; In depth) refers to the librarians’ level of ordinal
contribution in terms of conference papers, articles, and books on
any aspect of IT application in libraries.
Libraries’ Levels of IT availability refers to a total score of Ratio
respondents’ library regarding availability of number of computers,
different kinds of hardware, software, e-mail, Internet, network
access levels, library management system, web applications,
percentage of library operations automated and the number of
online books, e-journals and databases. In order to obtain a
numerical value of the responses on IT availability in libraries, key
variables were assigned weights, keeping in view their importance
for libraries. Because of weighing, total scores of IT availability
for each respondent was obtained on a ratio scale and labelled as
libraries IT availability.
Libraries’ Levels of IT Use (Never; Seldom; Little; Often; Always) Interval
refers the levels of commonly used information technologies
(computers, CD-ROM/DVDs, photocopiers /printers, audio-visual
materials, online catalogues, email, Internet and online databases)
by library users.
Librarians’ Frequency of IT Use (Never; Monthly; Weekly; Daily) Interval
refers to average use of common IT tools by respondents, such as
word processing, CD-ROM, email and Internet.
Librarians’ Level of IT Knowledge (None; Little; Moderate; Ratio
Substantial; In depth)was assessed through computing total scores on
respondents’ level of technology knowledge, their awareness of
new technologies and written contribution on IT in libraries.
Libraries IT Expenditure (in Pakistani Rupee less than 50,000; Interval
50,000 - 100,000; 100,000 - 500,000; 500,001 - 1000, 000; 1000,
001- 5000, 000; 5000,001 - 10,000,000 10,000,001 - 50,000,000;
over 50,000,000) refers to the amount allocated for purchase of
hardware, software, communication technologies and services and
for purchase and subscription of online resources during the
financial years 2003, 2004 and 2005.

The questionnaire was subjected to extensive comments and revision of the

research supervisor and experts on IT, libraries, attitudes and statistical analysis to

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ensure simplicity, clarity and validity in predicting the effectiveness. A key aspect of

the questionnaire design process was how to incorporate the conceptual framework of

the study into questions in terms of variables. In all cases, efforts were made to

guarantee that the items in the questionnaire were exhaustive and exclusive, and would

encourage consistent interpretations among respondents while remaining clear and easy

to complete. The questionnaire was divided into the following five parts:

Part 1: Availability and Use of IT. The first part was used to answer the

research questions concerning availability and use of IT in respondent libraries.

Respondents were asked to mention the number of computers and to check the

availability of 18 commonly used hardware, e-mail, Internet, intranet, Internet

bandwidth, network resources, availability and type of library software, OPAC,

WebOPAC, library website and use of barcode technology. It was also used to ask the

percentage of library operations automated and the availability of electronic resources.

In addition, respondents were asked to rate the extent of the use of common IT tools by

patrons and library staff on a Likert scale ranging from ‘never used’ to ‘always used.’

Part 2: Librarians’ Role in IT-Related Decision-Making. To answer the

research question concerning librarians’ role in IT-related decision-making this part was

used to ask respondents to check the involvement of different departments in different

stages of IT acquisition for libraries and to check their level of satisfaction in IT-related

decision-making and support from other departments on a Likert scale ranging from

‘highly dissatisfied’ to ‘highly satisfied.’

Part 3: Librarians’ Attitudes Toward Information Technology. This part

was used to answer research questions concerning librarians’ personal opinions, beliefs

and attitudes on 42 IT statements. These statements were selected from previous studies

referred to in the literature review and designed after discussions with IT experts and

behavioural scientists.

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Part 4: Libraries’ Characteristics. This part was used to obtain information

and data regarding variables such as the type and location of libraries, size of libraries in

terms of collections, users, staff, budgetary allocations and budget spent on IT during

2003-2005. This helped in determining the relationship between libraries’

characteristics and librarians’ IT attitudes.

Part 5: Librarians’ Personal and Professional Characteristics. The subjects

of the study were librarians. This part was used to determine the information regarding

their personal characteristics and their professional characteristics. These variables were

used to determine the interrelationship of these variables with the librarians IT attitudes

and testing of hypothesis.

In the end, respondents were asked to list in order of priority the problems they

were facing in IT applications in their libraries, such as budget, standard software,

hardware, skilled human resources, management attitudes, size of library, provision of

Internet, etc. In addition to the structured questions, respondents were encouraged

towards the end to mention their comments, opinions etc, regarding IT application in

libraries.

3.3.3. Pre-testing and Pilot Study

In an effort to find flaws before the questionnaire was distributed with actual

sample, the preliminary draft of the questionnaire was pre-tested on a sample of 23

librarians working in academic libraries from both public and private sectors with equal

representation. Based on pre-testing, the questionnaire was revised twice to remove

various inconsistencies, and to clarify the operational definitions, the intent of questions

and the nature of expected responses. The researcher made amendments to the

questionnaire based on comments and suggestions received from respondents. The

questionnaire was then tested through a pilot study. The pilot test is the replication of an

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actual inquiry and is conducted to collect additional data about the testing operations

environment. The feedback from the pilot study helped refine the questionnaire and the

survey process. The survey questionnaire was finalized in April 2006 that consisted of

eight pages. A cover letter to introduce respondents to the study’s general purpose and

to apprise them of the importance of each person’s response for the successful

completion of the study was included.

3.3.4. Validity and Reliability

Validity is the extent to which a measure or set of measures accurately

represents the concept of the study, or the degree to which it is free from any systematic

error. Hair et al (2006) mentioned that validity is concerned with how well the concept

is defined by the measures, whereas reliability relates to the consistency of the

measures. The validity of a scale refers to the extent to which it measures what was

intended to be measured. There are three types of validity.

One is the content validity that refers to the adequacy


with which a scale has sampled from the intended domain of
contents. Second is the criterion validity, which describes that a
test should closely relate to other measures of the same theoretical
concept. The third is construct validity that is explored by
investigating its relationship with other related of un-related
constructs (Pallant 2007, Hair et al 2006, Robinson et al 1991).

Several steps were taken to ensure the validity of the data collection instrument

of this study. The questionnaire was developed drawing significantly from previous

studies on attitudes toward information technology applications in libraries. The key

sources used in this regard were Ramzan (2004b), Al-Zahrani (2000), Powell (1998)

and Yaacob (1990). Other sources were also consulted. The questionnaire was sent to

librarians through postal service as well as through e-mail in November 2005 for testing

purposes. The questionnaires were delivered personally to local librarians participating

in the pre-test. Librarians were encouraged to give their opinions regarding the clarity,

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length and language of the questionnaire. The researcher discussed the questionnaire

personally and over the phone with notable library researchers, behavioural scientists,

statisticians and selected librarians based in Lahore. The research supervisor then

extensively reviewed the questionnaire. Items in the questionnaire found to be

ambiguous or otherwise inappropriate were revised in the final instrument. This helped

to rephrase the questionnaire to make it more valid, compact and understandable for the

participants. The final questionnaire is appended as Appendix-C.

While the above measures were the researcher’s endeavour to ensure more

validity of the data collection instrument, the issue of reliability was addressed through

statistical test. Hair et al (2006) have defined reliability in statistics as an assessment of

the degree of consistency between multiple measurements of variables. Two frequently

used indicators of a scale’s reliability are (1) test-retest reliability and (2) internal

consistency. The test-retest reliability of a scale is assessed by administering it to the

same sample on two different occasions, and calculating the correlation between the

two scores obtained. High test-retest correlations indicate a more reliable scale. The

second aspect of reliability is internal consistency. This is to ensure that items that make

up the scale are all measuring the same underlying attribute (Hair et al 2006). The most

commonly used method of reliability test in statistics is Cronbach coefficient alpha test

using SPSS. This test provides statistics that are an indication of the average correlation

among all items that make the scale. Values of the test statistics range from 0 to 1, with

higher values indicating greater reliability (Pallant 2007). To test the reliability of this

study’s questionnaire, alpha reliability analysis was deployed on 42 IT attitude

statements using SPSS. The test revealed average correlation coefficient of 42

statements as 0.75 indicating reliability of the instrument. For dimensions of IT attitude

scales, alpha for perceived confidence in IT application (11 statements) was 0.76, for

perceived capabilities (9 statements) alpha was 0.61, and for perceived usefulness of IT

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(8 statements) alpha was 0.60. Pallant (2007) mentioned that Cronbach alpha values are

dependent on the number of items in the scale. Where there are a small number of items

in the scale (fewer than 10), Cronbach alpha values can be quite small. The generally

agreed upon lower limit for Cronbach alpha coefficient is 0.70 and in some cases 0.60 is

acceptable (Hair et al 2006, Robinson et al 1991). Therefore, 0.75 alpha value of the

current study’s main part of the questionnaire demonstrate that current study’s measure

is highly reliable. Moreover, given the current study’s in-depth review of literature,

carefully generated research questions and hypotheses, comprehensive research design

and data analysis and pre-testing and pilot testing of the instrument should lend

respectability to the study with regard to reliability.

3.4. Data Collection

Survey questionnaire was used as an instrument to obtain primary data from the

librarians of 288 sampled libraries. The survey questionnaire method is commonly used

to investigate the status of tools, techniques and applications, changes over a certain

period of time, opinions, attitudes and characteristics of individuals and characteristics

of libraries.

After pre-testing and pilot study in April 2006, the final questionnaire was

prepared and mailed in July 2006 to 288 sampled librarians working in academic

libraries in Pakistan. It accompanied a cover letter as well as a self-addressed return

envelope requesting completion and return of the questionnaire as soon as possible. The

cover letter is appended in Appendix-B.

Given the low response rate in mail surveys, a number of steps were taken to

improve response rate. These steps included:

• Two reminders were made, using email/telephone.

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• The target respondents were also reminded personally as well as through

professional colleagues and friends across major cities including Lahore,

Faisalabad, Karachi, Peshawar and Islamabad.

• Personal visits and follow-up calls were also made to some respondents for

confirmation of some of the information they provided in the questionnaire

and to ensure that the questionnaire was filled by the intended respondents.

Out of 288 questionnaires administered, 236 (82%) completed questionnaires

were received. However, in 17 questionnaires, a major part of the IT attitudes and

demographic information was incomplete. Finally, 219 (76% of the target sample)

questionnaires were used for data analysis and interpretation.

3.5. Data Analysis Procedure

The 219 valid responses were checked-in through a Microsoft Excel data file

and each response was allotted a case number and filed in the numbered order. A

codebook consisting of variable labels and value labels was developed. The data was

interpreted, classified and transferred into coding form according to value labels

designated in the codebook. The codebook comprising variable labels and value labels

is given in Appendix-D. The data entered in the Microsoft Excel was transferred into

Statistical Products Services and Solutions (SPSS) file version 11.5. The titles of

variables and value labels were entered in the SPSS data file. A frequency analysis of

the entire variable list was run in the SPSS for detection of errors and missing numbers

in the data file. Errors and incompleteness in the data set were detected and removed.

The final cleaned and coded information was put into the SPSS data file for analysis.

The final step in examining the data before deploying actual tests involves

testing the normality of the data. In statistics, normality tests are used to determine

whether a variable is normally distributed or not. Normality refers to the shape of the

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data distribution for an individual metric variable and its correspondence to the normal

distribution. If the variation from the normal distribution is sufficiently large, all

resulting statistical tests are invalid, as normality is required to use F and t statistics

(Hair et al 2006, Sheskin 2004).

Histogram
40

30

20

10
Frequency

Std. Dev = .27


Mean = 3.59

0 N = 219.00
2.

3.

3.

3.

3.

3.

3.

3.

3.

4.

4.
88

00

13

25

38

50

63

75

88

00

13
Librarians' IT Attitude

Figure 3.1
Normality Test Histogram of Attitude Statements

Normal P-P Plot of Librarians' IT Attitude


1.00

.75

.50
Expected Cum Prob

.25

0.00
0.00 .25 .50 .75 1.00

Observed Cum Prob

Figure 3.2
Normal P-P Plot of Librarians’ IT Attitudes

115
The dependent variable in the current study ‘librarians IT attitudes’ comprising

of 42 IT attitude statements was tested for normality. Mainly two approaches were used

for testing normality. These were use of statistical tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov,

and Shapiro-Wilk test and statistical plots such as frequency histogram and normal P-P

plot using SPSS. For librarians IT attitudes variable the Shapiro-Wilk statistic was .992

with df 219, and was found insignificant at .267 level, where as Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z

was .951 with df 219 and was also found insignificant at .326 level. The histogram and

P-P plot as mentioned at Figures 3.1 and 3.2 indicate that the sample distribution is

normal to conduct statistical tests such as ANOVA, t-Test, PCA, Spearman’s (rho),

Pearson’s r and cross tabulations.

Initially, descriptive statistics such as frequency, measures of central tendency,

the standard deviation and the total number of responses for each variable was run to

get the overall picture of responses. Moreover, cross-tabulation was employed to

explain the relationship between key independent variables. Principal Components

Analysis (PCA) was deployed on 42-item IT attitude statements to extract the

underlying factors affecting the librarians’ IT attitude score. Factor analysis has been

defined by Pallant (2007) and Hair et al (2006) as a statistical technique used to (i)

estimate factors or latent variables, or (ii) reduce the dimensionality of a large number

of variables to a fewer number of factors. In this study, we used factor analysis to

reduce the 42- IT attitude variables into three underlying factors. The researcher ignored

the statements with less than .35% coefficient values. The reason for this cut-off point

was that statements with less than .35% coefficient values were not conceptually

relevant with the other grouped statements.

Scree plot was also used to determine the importance of loaded factors and to

put a cut-off point on the number of loaded factors. After analysis of statements loaded

under each factor, the researcher labelled the loaded factors. The researcher used his

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judgement and outcome of the analysis of relationship of loaded statements to label the

loaded factors. The three factors were labelled, as (1) perceived confidence in IT

application (1) perceived capabilities of IT and (3) perceived usefulness of IT.

To determine the statistically significant mean differences, t-Test and ANOVA

were deployed. For testing of relationship Spearman’s (rho) and Pearson’s Product

Moment were deployed between independent variables with different dimensions of the

dependent variable (librarians IT attitudes). These tests were obtained at .05 level of

significance because of its common acceptance as a standard in social science research.

New variables were established while combining the Likert type responses to obtain the

overall favourable and unfavourable responses. Responses on availability of IT were re-

coded to obtain the overall picture of the presence of all kinds of IT in respondent

libraries. Similarly, librarians’ frequency of IT use was obtained through computing the

use of word processing, CD-ROM, email and Internet on a ratio scale. Librarians’ level

of IT knowledge was obtained though combining level of technology knowledge, level

of awareness of new technologies and level of written contribution on a ratio scale. In

addition to the questionnaire responses on structured questions, some respondents made

useful comments and remarks regarding different aspects of IT use in their libraries,

which were also reported in the findings.

3.6. Summary

This chapter has provided the methodology and research design and a

framework to carry out analysis of the primary data. The research design covered type

of data collected, population and sampling, data collection instrument, operational

definitions of independent variables and dependent variable, validity and reliability of

the instrument, response rate, test of normality and data analysis procedures. The next

chapter will provide a comprehensive analysis of data and findings.

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CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

4.0. Introduction

The purpose of this study has been to investigate the attitudes of librarians

towards application of information technology in academic libraries of Pakistan. The

primary data was obtained through analyzing and interpreting 219 valid questionnaires

returned by the librarians working in academic libraries of Pakistan. The Statistical

Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) Version 11.5 and Microsoft Excel software were

used to do the computation of the data and all appropriate analysis. This chapter

presents analysis and findings of the primary data collected through the questionnaire

survey and findings from the literature review in the following sections:

1. Profile of Libraries

2. Levels of IT Availability

3. Levels of IT Use

4. Demographic Variables

5. Librarians’ Expertise in IT

6. Librarians’ Role in IT-Related Decision- Making

7. Attitudes Toward Information Technology

Attitudes Toward Impact of IT

Attitudes Toward IT Cost and Resource Allocation

Attitudes Toward Staff and User’s IT Training

Attitudes Toward General IT Statements

Overall IT Attitudes

8. Factor Analysis

9. Statistically Significant Differences

10. Correlation Analysis

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11. Hypotheses Testing

12. Problems in IT Applications in Pakistani Libraries

13. Findings from the Documentary Analysis

14. Summary of Findings

4.1. Profile of Libraries

The following factors were examined to elicit information regarding type of

library (public or private), geographic location (city or town) size of libraries (by

number of users, collections, library staff size and budget) and expenditure on

information technology, to understand the libraries’ characteristics and to use variables

to examine to what extent they affect librarians’ attitudes toward information

technology.

4.1.1. Type of Libraries and Their Location

The respondents were asked to check the type of library they belonged to and

the location of their libraries. Data in Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1 reflects that out of 219

libraries, 170 (77.6%) were in the public sector and 49 (22.4%) were in the private

sector. From the public sector, 147 (67.1%) were in cities and 23 (10.5%) were in

towns. From the private sector, 44 (20.1%) were in cities and only 5 (2.3%) were in

towns. Similarly, the data indicates that 191 (87.2%) libraries are in cities and only 28

(12.8%) are located in towns. Over 70% of population of the country lives in the rural

areas. Whereas the data indicates, access to higher education is available more to the

urban population of Pakistan compared to rural population. Data also indicates that the

private sector has focused more on urban areas as compared to rural areas.

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Table 4.1
Type of Library by Location
(n=219)
Type of Library/ location Geographical Location
City Town Total
Public N 147 23 170
% 67.1 10.5 77.6
Private N 44 5 49
% 20.1 2.3 22.4
Total N 191 28 219
% 87.2 12.8 100

12.79% Geogra phical Location


n=28 City
Town

87.21%
n=191

(n=219)
Figure 4.1
Libraries Geographical Location

4.1.2. Size of Libraries

To determine the size of the libraries, respondents were asked to mention the

number of internal and external library members, availability of number of books,

documents and reports and number of subscribed journals, staff size and libraries

operating and IT budget.

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Respondents were asked to mention the number of internal and external library

members in two separate questions. These numbers were divided into 5 categories: very

small (less than 100), small (101 to 500), medium (501 to 3,000), large (3,001 to

10,000) and very large (more than 10,000). Data in Table 4.2 indicates that over 147

(67.1%) libraries had no external members and small libraries (less than 100) had

11.9% internal and 13.2 % external members. The majority, 146 (66.6%) libraries, had

between very small and small size of internal members while 30 (13.7%) respondents

had between large sizes of internal members. Only 3 respondents had very large size

internal members and 2 had more than 10,000 external members.

Table 4.2
Library Members
(n=219)
Internal Lib. External Lib.
Range Members N (%) Members N (%)
0 2 (.9) 147 (67.1)
Very Small (100) 26 (11.9) 29 (13.2)
Small (101-500) 80 (36.5) 18 (8.2)
Medium (501-3,000) 66 (30.1) 9 (4.1)
Large (3,001-10,000) 30 (13.7) 3 (1.4)
Very Large 10,000 + 3 (1.4) 2 (.9)
Not Responded 12 (5.5) 11 (5)

The sizes of collections are categorized into very small (1,000 to 5,000), small

(5,001 to 10,000), medium (10,001 to 30,000), large (30,001 to 100,000) and very large

(more than 100,000) books, bound periodicals and documents. Table 4.3 shows those 65

(38.2%) respondents from the public sector and 21 (42.9%) respondents from the

private sector had no documents/bound volumes of journals.

Amongst the public sector, different categories of respondents were almost

equally divided regarding the number of books as 33 (19.4%) had very small sized, 34

(20%) had mall sized 41 (24.1%) had medium sized 38 (22.4%) had large sized while

22 (12.9%) respondents had very large size book collections. From the private sector,

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13 (26.5%) respondents had very small sized, majority 20 (40.8%) had small sized 11

(22.4%) had medium sized and only 3 (6.1%) respondents had very large size book

collections. The majority, 65 (38.2%) respondents from the public sector had no

document collections, 32 (18.8%) had very small sized, 47 (27.6%) had small sized, 12

(7.1%) had medium sized, 5 (2.9%) had large sized and only 1 (.6%) library had very

large sized document collection.

Table 4.3
Size of Library Collections by Type of Library
(n=219)
Size (Range) Type of Library
Public Private
Size of Library Collections Books Documents Books Documents
(Range) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Zero - 65 (38.2) - 21 (42.9)
Very Small (1,000-5,000) 33 (19.4) 32 (18.8) 13 (26.5) 19 (38.8)
Small (5,001-10,000) 34 (20.0) 47 (27.6) 20 (40.8) 5 (10.2)
Medium (10,001-30,000) 41 (24.1) 12 (7.1) 11 (22.4) 1 (2)
Large (30,001-100,000) 38 (22.4) 5 (2.9) - -
Very Large (100,000+) 22 (12.9) 1 (.6) 3 (6.1) -
Not Responded 2 (1.2) 8 (4.7) 2 (4.1) 3 (6.1)
Total 170 (100) 170 (100) 49 (100) 49 (100)

From the private sector libraries 21 (42.9%) had no document collections, 19

(38.8%) had very small sized, 5 (10.2%) had small sized and only 1 (2%) private sector

respondent had very large sized document collections.

A total of 24 (49%) respondents from the private sector had small and very

small size of document/bound journals collections. Data indicates that generally,

academic libraries in Pakistan are short of books and documents. Cross-tabulation

between size of libraries (books) and type of libraries indicates that public sector

academic libraries were large in collections compared to private sector academic

libraries. One of the reasons is that most public sector libraries are older than the private

sector libraries.

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Journals are the most expensive source of knowledge. Libraries in developing

countries find it difficult to subscribe to core journals and they mostly rely on popular

magazines and document delivery services for getting copies of articles from research

journals. For the last couple of years, academic libraries in Pakistan had been fortunate

enough to get free access to thousands of full-text online journals through the Higher

Education Commission of Pakistan National Digital Library. It was thought important

to investigate the number of print journals’ subscriptions as one of the indicators of the

size of libraries. Table 4.4 indicates that 27 (15.9%) respondents from the public sector

and 2 (4.1%) respondents from the private sector were not subscribing to any print

journal. Forty-six (27.1%) respondents from the public sector and 13 (26.5%)

respondents from the private sector were subscribing to less than 100 journals for each

of their libraries. The majority, 57 (33.5%) respondents from the public sector and 20

(40.8%) respondents from the private sector were subscribing to between 101-500

journals for each of their libraries.

Table 4.4
Number of Subscribed Print Journals by Type of Library
(n=219)
Subscribed Print Journals Type of Library
Public Private
Range N (%) N (%)
Zero 27 (15.9) 2 (4.1)
Very Small (100) 46 (27.1) 13 (26.5)
Small (101-500) 57 (33.5) 20 (40.8)
Medium (501-3,000) 30 (17.6) 4 (8.2)
Large (3,001-10,000) 6 (3.5) 6 (12.2)
Very Large (Over 10,000) 1 (.6) 1 (2.0)
Not Responded 3 (1.8) 3 (6.1)
Total 170 100) 49 (100)

A total of 30 (17.6%) respondents from the public sector and 4 (8.2%)

respondents from the private sector were subscribing to between 501-3,000 print

journals for each of their libraries. Six each from the public and private sector

respondents were in the very large size category in terms of subscription of print

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journals. Similarly, one respondent each from the private and public sector institutions

were in over 10,000 journals subscription category. Cross-tabulation of number of

subscribed print journals and type of libraries revealed that private sector libraries were

subscribing to more journals than the public sector academic libraries.

Library staff is considered the backbone and most important resource in the

libraries. The strength of library staff was measured by asking the respondents to

indicate the total number of people in various categories, such as professional librarians,

library assistant, computer professionals and other clerical and administrative staff in

five different ranges. The Table 4.5 shows that the majority, 122 (55.7%) respondent

libraries were headed by solo (one) librarian, 68 (31.1%) respondent libraries had

between 2 to 5 librarians, 18 had between 6 to 10 librarians, 7 (3.2%) respondents had

between 11 to 50 librarians and only one respondent had more than 50 librarians in their

library. A significant number, 54 (24.7%) respondents had no library assistant, 72

(32.9%) had 1, 73 (33.3%) had 2 to 5 library assistants, 16 (7.3%) had 6 to10 and only 2

respondents had 11 to 50 library assistants in each of their libraries.

Table 4.5
Availability of Library Staff
(n=219)

Staff Category/Range 0 1 2-5 6-10 11-50 50+ NR


Librarians N 122 68 18 7 1 3
% -
55.7 31.1 8.2 3.2 .5 1.4
Library Assistants N 54 72 73 16 2 2
% -
24.7 32.9 33.3 7.3 .9 .9
Computer N 139 49 26 2 3
Professionals % - -
63.5 22.4 11.9 .9 1.4
Other (Clerical N 36 37 72 50 12 7 5
Staff) % 16.4 16.9 32.9 22.8 5.5 3.2 2.3

Regarding computer professionals employed exclusively in libraries, the data

revealed that the majority, 139 (63.5%) respondents were without a computer

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professional, 49 (22.4%) had 1, 26 (11.9%) had 2 to 5 and only 2 respondents had 6 to

10 computer professionals working in their libraries.

Thirty-six (16.4%) respondents were without any clerical or administrative staff,

37 (16.9%), had one each in their libraries, a majority, 122 (55.7%) had 2 to 10 and 19

(8.7%) respondents had more than 11 clerical and administrative staff each in their

libraries.

4.1.3. Libraries’ Operational Budget

Library budget is one of the important variables that help to investigate the

availability of financial resources to meet IT expenses. Respondents were asked to

mention the operational library budget and expenses on IT during 2003-2005.

Respondents were asked to check the amount of libraries’ operational budgets in local

currency, the Pakistan rupee, usually written as Rs on a range from less than Rs 50,000

to over Rs 50,000,000. Data in Table 4.6 represents the size of the libraries’ budgets for

the fiscal years 2003, 2004 and 2005. The responses regarding libraries operational

budget remained discouraging despite the researcher’s telephonic calls, as 10% of

librarians did not share their budgets statistics.

Table 4.6
Libraries Operating Budget in Pakistani Rupee (1US$ =65 Rupee)
(n=219)
Operating Operating Operating
Budget Range Budget 2003 Budget 2004 Budget 2005
Pak Rs N % N % N %
Zero 18 8.2 8 3.7 9 4.1
Less than 50,000 12 5.5 7 3.2 9 4.1
50,001-100,000 15 6.8 7 3.2 5 2.3
100,001-500,000 24 11 30 13.7 22 10
500,001-1,000,000 37 16.9 43 19.6 46 21
1,000,001-5,000,000 34 15.5 37 16.9 42 19.2
5,000,001-10,000,000 32 14.6 33 15.1 31 14.2
10,000,001-50,000,000 11 5 18 8.2 15 6.8
Over 50,000,000 13 5.9 14 6.4 19 8.7
Not Responded 23 10.5 22 10 21 9.6

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In 2003, 27 (12.3%) respondent were in less than Rs 100,000 category. In 2004

and 2005, it decreased gradually as 14 (6.4%) respondents were in this category. In

2003, 61 (27.9%), in 2004 73 (33.3%) and in 2005, 68 (31%) respondents were between

the Rs 100,001 to Rs 1,000,000 category. For the next two categories, in 2003, 66

(30.1%) respondents, in 2004, 70 (32%) respondents and in 2005, 73 (33.4%)

respondents were in Rs 100,001 to Rs 1,000,000 range. It also indicates a gradual

increase in the level of categories. For the last two categories, the data revealed that in

2003, 24 (19.6%) respondents, in 2004, 32 (14.6%) respondents and in 2005, 34

(15.5%) respondents were in the categories having more than Rs 1,000,000 operating

budgets for each of their libraries.

The data indicates that in a number of categories, respondents gradually started

increasing their libraries operating budgets for the three reported years. One of the

reasons for the increase in academic libraries budget was generous grants from the

Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and their focus on quality of education and

research in the country. Provision of funds for the public sector libraries is one of the

priority areas of finances for the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. However,

still a small number, 34 (15.5%) respondents had over Rs 10,000,000 library budget.

4.1.4. Expenditure on Information Technology

In order to examine the trend of libraries’ expenditure on information

technology, respondents were asked to check the most appropriate answer from a given

range of amounts. The data in Table 4.7 reflected that 60 (27.4%) respondents in 2003,

52 (23.7%) in 2004 and 40 (18.3%) respondents in 2005 did not had any expenditure on

information technology. Many librarians commented that they did not receive any

separate budget for information technology. Data shows that, 91 (41.5%) respondents in

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2003, 87 (39.7%) respondents in 2004 and 77 (35.1%) respondents in 2005 had less

than Rs 100,000 for expenditure on information technology.

Table 4.7
Libraries’ IT Expenditure in Pakistani Rupee (1US$ =65 Rupee)
(n=219)
Libraries’ IT Libraries’ IT Libraries’ IT
Budget Range Expenditure 2003 Expenditure 2004 Expenditure 2005
Pak Rs N % N % N %
Zero 60 27.4 52 23.7 40 18.3
Less than 50,000 50 22.8 41 18.7 45 20.5
50,001-100,000 41 18.7 46 21 32 14.6
100,001-500,000 14 6.4 22 10 37 16.9
500,001-1,000,000 19 8.7 24 11 26 11.9
1,000,001-5,000,000 10 4.6 11 5 16 7.3
5,000,001-10,000,000 4 1.8 4 1.8 9 4.1
10,000,001-50,000,000 1 .5 - - - -
Over 50,000,000 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5
Not Responded 19 8.7 18 8.2 13 5.9

For the next two categories, 33 (15.1%) respondents in 2003, 46 (21%) in 2004

and 63 (28.8%) respondents in 2005 had from Rs 100,000 to Rs 1,000,000 for

expenditure on information technology while the trend for the next categories remained

upward, showing a gradual increase in the IT spending for respondent libraries.

However, only 6 (2.8%) respondents in 2003, 5 (2.3%) in 2004 and 10 (4.6%)

respondents in 2005 had over Rs 5,000,000 for IT expenditure.

The data in Table 4.8 indicates that 35 (20.3%) respondents from the public

sector and 5 (10.2%) respondents from the private sector had no budget for IT

expenditure in 2005. The researcher asked through telephones to 20 out of 40

respondents who did not mention any expenses on IT that how they were running their

libraries. Half of the respondents informed that although they asked for budget for IT

expenditure but the heads of the departments did not respond positively, so they had to

live with. Eight respondents informed that they do not have any budgeted amount for IT

or the libraries; the heads of the institutes at their own some time make expenditure. For

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example, they buy a computer for the library or ask their computer departments to

provide used PCs for the library. So no proper budget for IT expenditure was allocated.

Data in Table 4.8 indicates that private sector libraries were performing better than the

public sector libraries in getting budgets for IT expenditures.

Table 4.8
Libraries’ IT Expenditure for 2005 by Type of Library
n=219
Libraries IT Expenditure Type of Libraries Total
Public Private
NR N 10 3 13
% 6.2% 6.1%
Zero N 35 5 40
% 20.3% 10.2% 24.2%
Less than 50,000 N 33 12 45
% 19.4% 24.5% 20.5%
50,001-100,000 N 26 6 32
% 15.3% 12.2% 14.6%
100,001-500,000 N 31 6 37
% 18.2% 12.2% 16.9%
500,001-1,000,000 N 17 9 26
% 10.0% 18.4% 11.9%
1,000,001-5,000,000 N 12 4 16
% 7.1% 8.2% 7.3%
5,000,001-10,000,000 N 6 3 9
% 3.5% 6.1% 4.1%
More than 50,000,000 N 0 1 1
% .0% 2.0% .5%
Total N 170 49 219

Summarizing the key findings for general library characteristics, the researcher

found that the majority, 87.6% academic libraries, were in the cities of Lahore, Karachi,

Islamabad, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Rawalpindi, Quetta and Peshawar. Since libraries

are an integral part of educational institutions, the findings revealed the establishment of

a significant number of academic libraries in the private sector after 1990. As far as the

collection is concerned, 108 (63.5%) public sector and 44 (89.7%) private sector

respondent libraries had less than 30,000 book collections. Only 22 (12.9%) public and

3 (6.1%) private sector respondent libraries had over 100,000 books each in their

128
libraries. Even the very old libraries had less than 300,000 books. Findings revealed that

academic libraries were understaffed as solo (one) librarians were running 122 (55.7%)

of the respondent libraries. This number may be affected by the departmental and

postgraduate libraries. Even then, it is hard for one librarian to run all affairs of a library

and introduce IT-based innovations.

The libraries’ operating and IT budgets are considered important factors with

regard to attitudes of librarians in this study. The findings revealed a gradual increase in

libraries’ operating budget, indicating the increasing realization of the importance of

libraries as an integral part of education and research in the country. Data revealed that

the percentage of libraries with Rs .5 million in operating budget to Rs 5 million range

increased 36% in 2004 to 40% in 2005 from 32% in 2003. Similarly, the percentage of

libraries with over Rs 10 million in operating budget ranges increased from 11% in

2003 to 15% in 2004 and 16% in 2005. Libraries with over Rs 1 million IT budget saw

12% increase in their budgets in 2005. This reflects a gradual increase in libraries’ IT

expenditure. However, keeping in view the cost of hardware, software and electronic

databases, the libraries’ current state of IT expenditure is insufficient. Data mentioned

in Table 4.8 indicates that private sector libraries were spending more on IT compared

to the public sector. However, cross-tabulation of libraries’ IT expenditure and type of

libraries revealed no significant difference.

4.2. Levels of IT Availability

Information technology has become pervasive in academic institutions around

the globe and is now a major part of the libraries and information centres. If we are to

understand the impact of IT on libraries in Pakistan, it is important to determine the

status of information technology and assess the attitudes of librarians toward technology

innovations. To accomplish this, it was deemed necessary to evaluate the levels at

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which information technology is being provided and used in libraries. Measuring the

exact amount and type of information technology being used in academic institutions is

an important but difficult task (Powell 1998). One of the problems in accurate

information technology measurement is the ever-changing nature of technology as

observed by Anderson (1996). It is difficult to measure the difference between the

presence of information technology and its actual use. Keeping in view the above stated

difficulties, the researcher adopted two different approaches to determine the levels of

IT applications namely the levels of IT availability and the levels of IT use. To measure

the IT availability levels, the respondents were asked to mention the number of

computers (PCs), laptops and palm PCs available in their libraries. Next, they were

asked to respond regarding the availability of different kinds of hardware, availability of

e-mail, Internet, network access levels, library management system, web applications,

library operations automated and number of e-books, journals and databases.

4.2.1. Number of Computers

Since computer is considered the most important IT tool, respondents were

asked to mention the number of PCs, laptops and palm PCs available in their libraries.

Table 4.9 reflects that 10 (4.6%) respondents did not had PCs, 197 (90%) did not had

laptops and 211 (96.3%) did not had palm PCs in their libraries. Fifty-seven (26%)

respondents had one PC, 18 (8.2%) had one laptop and only two respondents had one

palm PC each in their libraries.

The data suggests good state of development as 152 (69.3%) respondents had 2

or more PCs in their libraries. However, 57 (26%) libraries that had one PC each in their

libraries may find it difficult to provide information retrieval services to their users, at

the same time using the same PC for technical processing, email and Internet for

themselves and facilitating their users. Computer use is common now in Pakistan in

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departments, ministries and businesses and PCs had become now basic tool to access,

store, retrieve and disseminate information in libraries.

Table 4.9
Number of Computers Available in Respondent Libraries
(n=219)
Range PCs Laptops Palm PCs
N % N % N %
0 10 (4.6) 197 (90) 211 (96.3)
1 57 (26) 18 (8.2) 2 (.9)
2-4 66 (30.1) 1 (.5) 6 (2.7)
5-10 45 (20.5) 3 (1.4) 0 (.0)
11-20 21 (9.6) 0 (0) 0 (.0)
Over 20 20 (9.1) 0 (0) 0 (.0)

Table 4.10
Availability of Computers by Type of Library
(n=219)
Type of Academic
Libraries Range of Computers (PC) Total
0 1 2-4 5-10 11-20 Over 20
Public N 9 48 52 30 16 15 170
% 5.3 28.2 30.6 17.6 9.4 8.8 100
Private N 1 9 14 15 5 5 49
% 2.0 18.4 28.6 30.6 10.2 10.2 100
Total N 10 57 66 45 21 20 219
% 4.6 26 30.1 20.5 9.6 9.1 100

Further analysis of the data as mentioned in the Table 4.10 revealed no

significant difference in the availability of computers (PC) by type of libraries.

However, private sector libraries are better equipped with computers (PC) compared to

the public sector academic libraries, as 51% private sector while only 35.8% public

sector institutions had more than 5 computers in each of their libraries. A deeper

analysis of the libraries without computers indicted that 6 out of these 10 libraries are of

postgraduate colleges. The remaining 4 libraries serve the departments and institutes of

the universities. Nine out of these 10 libraries are in the public sector, while one serves

a private sector postgraduate college. Interestingly three of these libraries are situated in

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the big cities of Lahore and Peshawar, and remaining is located in remote areas. In

response to telephonic inquiry, it was found that these libraries are using the old printed

card catalogues and providing circulation services through manual systems. A

respondent from one of these libraries, who is in a postgraduate college library informed

that they had computers in adjacent office and use the same occasionally for word

processing and for emailing. The remaining libraries were also in the process of getting

computer at the time of survey.

4.2.2. Hardware Available in Respondent Libraries

Respondents were asked to check the hardware available in their libraries. Table

4.11 indicates that 86 (39.3%) respondents had audio players, 62 (28.3%) respondents

had backup drives, and 55 (25.1%) respondents had barcode readers in their libraries.

Table 4.11
Hardware Available in Respondent Libraries
(n=219)
Category Yes No *NR
N % N % N
Audio Players 86 (39.3) 132 (60.3) 1
Backup Drives 62 (28.3) 153 (69.9) 4
Barcode Readers 55 (25.1) 164 (74.9) 0
CCTV Camera 16 (7.3) 203 (92.7) 0
CD/DVD Players 116 (53) 102 (46.6) 1
Digital Camera 24 (11) 194 (88.6) 1
Fax Machines 44 (20.1) 175 (79.9) 0
Microfilm Readers 47 (21.5) 166 (75.8) 6
Multimedia Projectors 32 (14.6) 187 (85.4) 0
Photocopiers 136 (62.1) 83 (37.9) 0
Printers 161 (73.5) 57 (26) 1
Scanners (Digital) 92 (42.0) 125 (57.1) 2
Slide Projectors 23 (10.5) 196 (89.5) 0
Television 66 (30.1) 146 (66.7) 7
UPS (Power Supply) 99 (45.2) 120 (54.8) 0
USB Pen Drive 67 (30.6) 152 (69.4) 0
VCR/VCP 55 (25.1) 164 (74.9) 0
Wireless LAN (Wi Fi) 30 (13.7) 188 (85.8) 1
Other Hardware 32 (14.6) 182 (83.1) 5
* NR=Not Responded

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A majority, 116 (53%) respondents had CD/DVD players, 24 (11%) had digital

cameras, 44 (20.1%) had fax machines, 47 (21.5%) respondents had microfilm readers

and 32 (14.6%) respondents had multimedia projectors in their libraries.

The most commonly used hardware available in respondent libraries was

photocopiers and printers, as 136 (62.1%) respondents had photocopiers, 161 (73.5%)

respondents had printers in their libraries. Ninety-nine (45.2%) libraries had

uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units, 55 (25.1%) had VCR/VCP (video cassette

players and recorders) and 30 (13.7%) respondents had introduced wireless LAN

facility in their libraries. This indicates that the key hardware tools such as audio

players, CD/DVD players, Television, multimedia projectors and scanners were

available only in a very small number of cases. Even a sizeable number of respondents

(37.9%) were without photocopying facility and (26%) were without printers.

Power failures is one major problem for libraries in Pakistan as mentioned by a

number of librarians in their general comments on problems they are facing in IT

application of libraries. Since more and more computers and web-based systems are

being introduced in libraries, uninterrupted power supply (UPS) is necessary for normal

functioning of IT tools. Similarly, non-availability of photocopiers (37.9%) and printers

(26%) in the respondent libraries could become a bottleneck in use of library facilities.

As many of the faculty, students and even library staff need hard copies of articles and

from reference materials. It was good to notice that 13.7% respondents had introduced

wireless LAN facility in their libraries.

4.2.3. Information Access Technologies

Respondents were asked to indicate the availability of information access

technologies in their libraries. Table 4.12 shows that the majority, 200 (91.3%)

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respondents had e-mail and Internet facilities in their libraries and 155 (70.8%)

respondents had intranet available in their libraries.

Table 4.12
E-mail and Internet Availability in Libraries
(n=219)
Category Yes No NR
N % N % N
E-Mail 200 (91.3) 19 (8.7) 0
Internet 200 (91.3) 19 (8.7) 0
Intranet 155 (70.8) 54 (24.7) 10
Internet Access through
94 (42.9) 125 (57.1) 0
HEC PERN Project

Data in Table 4.13 shows that 36 (16.4%) respondents had Internet access

through domain control while a majority, 133 (60.7%), had access through a proxy

server, 10 (4.6%) respondents had Internet through individual connections and the same

number, 10 (4.6%) respondents had access through dial-up lines.

Table 4.13
Mode of Internet Access
(n=219)
Mode of Access Frequency
N %
Domain Control 36 (16.4)
Proxy Servers 133 (60.7)
Individual Dedicated
10 (4.6)
Connections
Dial Up Lines 10 (4.6)
Not Responded 30 (13.7)

Thirty (13.7%) respondents did not respond to this question. In addition to their

own resources, 43% of the respondent libraries had Internet access through the Higher

Education Commission’s PERN (Pakistan Education and Research Network) project by

June 2008. The Higher Education Commission has planned to provide Internet access to

all the academic institutions through its PERN project.

134
Level of Internet Access (Bandwidth)
60

50

40

30

20

Frequency
10

0
0 512Mbps 2Mbps
256Kbps 1Mbps 4Mbps and More

Level of Internet Access (Bandwidth)

(n=219)
Figure 4.2
Level of Internet Access

10.50%
n = 23
19.18%
n = 42 Not Responded
11.42% Shared Folders
n = 25
Mapped Drives
Network Printing

Shared Folders

58.90%
n = 129

(n=219)
Figure 4.3
Network Resources Available in Libraries

Regarding the level of Internet access (bandwidth), Figure 4.2 shows that 32

respondents had 256Kbps, 26 had 512Kbps, a good number (41) had IMbps, a majority

135
(50) respondents had 2Mbps and 29 respondents had more than 4Mbps Internet

bandwidth in their libraries while 38 respondents did not respond to this question.

Figure 4.3 shows the network resources available in respondent libraries. The

majority 129 (58.9%) respondents could share folders, 25 (11.42%) respondents had

mapped drives and 23 (10.5%) respondents had network-printing resources available in

their libraries while 42 (19.18%) respondents did not respond to this question.

Table 4.14
Availability of E-Mail and Internet by Age
(n=219)
Age Groups E-Mail and Internet Total
No Yes
Less Than 25 Years N 1 34 35
% 5.3% 17% 16%
25-34 Years N 5 58 63
% 26.3% 29% 28.8%
35-44 Years N 4 48 52
% 21.1% 24% 23.7%
45-54 Years N 6 34 40
% 31.6% 17% 18.3%
Over 54 Years N 3 26 29
% 15.8% 13% 13.2%
Total N 19 200 219

Cross-tabulation between availability of email and Internet by age of

respondents as mentioned in Table 4.14 reflects libraries with head librarians within age

group of 25-34 years were better equipped with email and Internet compared

respondents with other age groups.

A case to case level analysis of the 19 academic libraries who did not had access

to email and Internet in their libraries was persuade through telephonic conversation

with the relevant librarians. The two private sector academic libraries that did not have

access to email and Internet informed that they were using manual system for

acquisition, information retrieval and issue receipt of books. They occasionally use

computer placed in their adjacent rooms for email and Internet. The remaining 17

libraries are from the public sector. Eight out of these 17 public sector libraries without

136
email and Internet are serving the postgraduate colleges and remaining 9 libraries were

of the departments and institutes of the universities. Half of these libraries are

universities in the big cities and remaining are in postgraduate colleges in remote areas

of the country.

4.2.4. Library Management System/Software

Library software plays an important role in information acquisition,

organization, management, retrieval and dissemination. Respondents were asked to

check the availability of the library software/database management system. They were

further asked to indicate whether it was developed in-house, donated or purchased and

to give the name of the package being used. Data in Table 4.5 reflects that 191

(87.20%) respondents had library software, while 26 (11.9%) respondent libraries were

still without library software. One hundred (45.7%) respondents had OPAC (Online

public access catalogue), 118 (53.9%) respondents are without OPAC. Only 33 (15.1%)

respondents had their own website while a significant majority, 181 (82.6%)

respondents had no website. Similarly, 42 (19.2%) respondents had Web OPAC while

175 (79.9%) were without Web OPAC.

Use of barcode labels for check-in and checkout reflects the quality of

circulation systems. Sixty-six (30.1%) respondents were using barcode labels for

circulation while the majority, 151 (68.9%) respondents, were without barcode system.

Table 4.15
Availability of Information Retrieval Systems
(n=219)
Yes No NR
Category N % N % N
Library Software 191 87.2 26 11.9 2
OPAC 100 45.7 118 53.9 1
Library Website 33 15.1 181 82.6 5
Web OPAC 42 19.2 175 79.9 2
Use of Barcode Labels 66 30.1 151 68.9 2

137
Table 4.16
Availability of OPAC by Gender
(n=219)
OPAC (Online Public
Gender Access Catalogue) Total
No Yes
Male N 98 78 176
% 55.7 44.3 100
Female N 21 22 43
% 48.8 51.2 100
Total N 119 100 219

Regarding availability of OPAC by gender data mentioned in the Table 4.16

indicates that 78 (44.3%) out of 176 male librarians and 22 (51.2%) out of 43 female

librarians had OPAC (online public access catalogues) in their libraries. The finding

shows that the use of OPAC was significantly higher in the libraries where female were

head librarians.

Data in Table 4.17 reflects that 25.9% public sector and 44.9% private sector

academic libraries were using barcode technology for circulation purposes. Cross-

tabulation of libraries using barcode by type of library revealed a significant difference.

Private sector libraries seem ahead of public sector libraries in providing online public

access facility to their users and in use of barcode technology for circulation. The

difference may be attributed to a number of factors including professionalism and

initiatives of the staff, resources and sophistication of users in private sector academic

libraries.

Table 4.17
Libraries Using Barcode Labels by Type of Library
(n=219)
Type of Academic Libraries using
Libraries Barcode Labels Total
No Yes
Public N 126 44 170
% 74.1 25.9 100
Private N 27 22 49
% 55.1 44.9 100
Total N 153 66 219

138
Table 4.18
Acquisition Sources of Library Management System/Software
(n=219)
Acquisition Sources N %
In-house Developed 78 (35.6)
Purchased off–the-shelf 30 (13.7)
Donated 83 (37.9)
Not Responded 28 (12.8)

Regarding the source of acquisition of library software/database management

system, Table 4.18 shows that 78 (35.69%) respondents were using in-house developed

systems, 30 (13.7%) respondents were using off-the-shelf purchased systems and 83

(37.9%) respondents were using donated library software while 28 did not respond to

this question. Further analysis of the data revealed that the majority, 83 (37.9%), had

donated library management systems.

The most commonly used library softwares were CD ISIS/WINISIS developed

by UNESCO for bibliographic control and LIMS developed by a group of librarians and

computer professional using MS Access. These softwares were available free; so many

academic libraries were using them. These are not integrated library software to

perform all library functions, but are useful for inventory control, and issue/receive of

books through computer. However, these free softwares are in no way alternatives to

the professionally developed library software using international standards for

cataloguing, access and exchange of information (such as US MARC, Z39.50 etc).

Library software serves as a backbone to manage the automated and integrated

acquisitions, cataloguing, classification, OPAC, WebOPAC, circulation, self check-

in/out, remote access to bibliographic and full-text resources, remote reservation of

checked-out items, system generated bibliographies, and similar servicers. Libraries

cannot provide user empowered, remote access services to their users with lower end

softwares. Only a few libraries were using integrated library management systems such

as Library World, EOSi International, VIRTUA, etc. Regarding the cost of the software,

139
only a few respondents mentioned the cost of the software, which ranges from US$ 800

to US$ 80,000, depending on the features, modules and number of licenses of the

software.

4.2.5. Levels of Library Automation

In order to determine to what extent academic libraries in Pakistan are

automated respondents were asked to indicate the levels at which their acquisitions,

catalogue, circulation, serials and report generation activities are computerized. Table

4.19 indicates that 34 (15.5%) respondents had 100% automated acquisitions, 63

(28.7%) had over 75% automated acquisitions, 95 (43.3%) had over 50% automated

acquisitions while, a majority, 98 (44.7%) respondents, had no automated acquisition

system. Only 62 (28.3%) respondents had 100% automated catalogue, while a good

number 128 (58.4%) had over 75% automated catalogue, 172 (78.1%) had over 50%

automated catalogue while 30 (13.7%) respondents had no automated catalogue.

Circulation is an important activity performed in academic libraries. Data revealed that

35 (16%) respondents had 100% automated circulation, 72 (32.9%) had over 75%

automated circulation, 115 (52.5%) had 50% automated circulation, while a majority,

82 (37.4%) respondents had no automated circulation system.

Regarding serials management system, only 43 (19.6%) had over 75%

automated serials control; while a majority 109, (49.8%) respondents had no automated

serials control system in their libraries. Similarly, 82 (37.4%) respondents were not

using any automated report generation system, which provides necessary data and

statistics to plan library resources, operations and services. Based on the above modules

distribution criteria, the respondents were asked to use their judgement and rate overall

levels of automation of their libraries. The data revealed that only 18 (8.2%) respondent

libraries are fully automated, 96 (43.8%) are over 75% automated, 167 (76.2%) are over

140
50% automated, while 24 (11%) respondents are without any level of automation.

However, it was encouraging to note that 89% respondent libraries had some degree of

automation.

Table 4.19
Levels of Library Automation
(n=219)
Software Modules 100% 75% 50% 25% None NR
Acquisitions N 34 29 32 25 98 1
(%) (15.5) (13.2) (14.6) (11.4) (44.7) (.5)
Catalogue N 62 66 44 17 30 0
(%) 28.3) (30.1) (20.1) (7.8) (13.7) (.0)
Circulation N 35 37 43 20 82 2
(%) (16) (16.9) (19.6) (9.1) (37.4) (.9)
Serials N 20 23 36 30 109 1
(%) (9.1) (10.5) (16.4) (13.7) (49.8) (.5)
Report
33 44 38 20 82 2
Generation N
(%) (15.1) (20.1) (17.4) (9.1) (37.4) (.9)
Overall Lib. N
18 78 71 25 24 3
Automation
(%) (8.2) (35.6) (32.4) (11.4) (11) (1.4)

Library automation is regarded as the most important area of information

technology usage in libraries. It was interesting to note that a significant number of the

respondents are at different levels of library automation and those who did not had it at

the time of the survey reported that they are in the process or are seriously planning to

automate their library operations. However, the majority of the respondents are using

either donated (CD ISIS/WINISIS) or in-house developed (mostly LIMS developed

using MS Access) substandard library software. Cataloguing, circulation and

acquisitions are the priority areas of automation reported by the respondents.

To investigate the effects of different variables cross-tabulation was carried out

between overall library automation and the type of library, the size of library collections

(books), the librarians’ age, gender, highest qualification and their IT attitudes.

141
Table 4.20
Library Automation by Type of Library
(n=219)
Type of Library Overall Library Automation Total
100% 75% 50% 25% None
Public N 10 54 62 21 23 170
% 5.9 31.8 36.5 12.4 13.5 100
Private N 8 24 9 4 4 49
% 16.3 49.2 18.4 8.2 8.2 100
Total N 18 78 71 25 27 219
% 8.2 35.6 32.4 11.4 12.3 100

Results of the cross-tabulation, as mentioned in Table 4.20 reflects that 5.9% of

public sector and 16.3% of private sector academic libraries were fully automated;

31.8% of public sector and 49.2% of private sector libraries had achieved an automation

level of 75% while 13.5% of public sector and 8.2% of private sector academic libraries

had not started library automation. The remaining libraries mentioned in Table 4.20

were at different stages of automation. Cross-tabulation of library automation and type

of library revealed a significant difference as the private libraries are ahead of public

sector with regard to library automation. This is perhaps indicative of the importance

given by private sector academic libraries to the usage of library software for automated

library activities.

Results of a cross-tabulation between levels of library automation and size of

libraries (books) as mentioned in Table 4.21 indicate that 2 (.9%) very small size

respondent libraries, 5 (2.33%) small sized libraries, 1 (.5%) medium sized libraries, 8

(3.7%) large sized libraries and 2 (.9%) very large sized respondent libraries were fully

(100%) automated. Similarly, 19 (8.7%) very small sized respondent libraries, 20

(9.2%) small sized libraries, 23 (10.5%) medium sized libraries, 20 (9.2%) large sized

libraries and 12 (5.5%) very large sized libraries had 75% automation level. Findings, as

mentioned in Table 4.13 indicate that statistically, there was no significant difference in

library automation levels based on the size (number of books) of libraries.

142
Table 4.21
Library Automation by Size of Library (Books)
(n=219)
Size of Libraries (No. of
Books) Overall Library Automation Total
Automation % None 25% 50% 75% 100%
Not Responded N 1 0 1 2 0 4
% .5 .0 .5 .9 .0 1.8
Very Small (1-5,000) N 10 4 13 17 2 46
% 4.6 1.8 5.9 7.8 .9 21
Small (5,001-10,000) N 7 7 20 15 5 54
% 3.2 3.2 9.1 6.8 2.3 24.7
Medium (10,001-30,000) N 3 9 17 22 1 52
% 1.4 4.1 7.8 10 .5 23.7
Large (30,001-100,000) N 4 3 11 12 8 38
% 1.8 1.4 5.0 5.5 3.7 17.4
Very Large (100,000+) N 2 2 9 10 2 25
% .9 .9 4.1 4.6 .9 11.4
Total N 27 25 71 78 18 219
% 12.3 11.4 32.4 35.6 8.2 100

It was generally perceived that librarians with large size libraries might be

reluctant or less positive toward implementation of a new library system compared to

the librarians with newly established or smaller size libraries. Because it requires a lots

of data conversion, as well as physical changes (i.e., spine labels, location), changes in

the circulation, acquisitions, and other library policies and user and staff training, all

influenced by the software usage. However, the findings of this study had contradicted

this perception. Findings with regard to the cross-tabulation between levels of library

automation and gender as mentioned in Table 4.22 revealed that there is no statistical

difference in levels of library automation, based on gender.

Table 4.22
Library Automation by Gender
(n=219)
Gender Overall Library Automation Total
Automation % None 25% 50% 75% 100%
Male N 22 21 62 57 14 176
% 10 9.6 28.3 26 6.4 80.4
Female N 5 4 9 21 4 43
% 2.3 1.8 4.1 9.6 1.8 19.6
Total N 27 25 71 78 18 219
% 12.3 11.4 32.4 35.6 8.2 100

143
However, cross-tabulation between levels of library automation and librarians’

age, as mentioned in Table 4.23 indicates impact of librarians’ age on their libraries

automation levels. The data shows that out of 35 libraries with respondents of less than

25 years of age groups, 13 (37.2%) libraries had 75% automation completed. Similarly,

out of 63 libraries with respondents from 25-34 years of age groups, 24 (38.1%)

libraries had over 75% automation completed. Respondents within the age group of 35-

44 years of age reported that out of 52 libraries, 29 (55.7%) had achieved over 75%

automation level. Next set of respondents who belonged to 45-54 years groups of

indicated that 20 (50%) out of 40 libraries they belong to had achieved over 75% library

automation level. The most senior librarians with over 54 years of age indicated that 10

(34.56%) out of 29 libraries they belong to had achieved over 75% library automation

level. These statistics indicate a significant relationship between the librarians’ age and

their library automation levels. Libraries with librarians’ within age group of 35-44

were ahead of other age groups in achieving the higher level (over 75%) of library

automation followed by respondents within the age groups of 45-54 years and 25-34

years age group. The statistics indicate that very young (less than 25 years) and very old

(over 54 years) respondents had not positively influenced their library automation.

Table 4.23
Library Automation by Age
(n=219)
Age Groups Overall Library Automation Total
Years None 25% 50% 75% 100%
Less Than
4 6 12 10 3 35
25 Years N
% 11.4 17.1 34.3 28.6 8.6 100
25-34 N 7 7 25 22 2 63
% 11.1 11.1 39.7 34.9 3.2 100
35-44 N 7 4 12 19 10 52
% 13.5 7.7 23.1 36.5 19.2 100
45-54 N 6 4 10 17 3 40
% 15 10 25 42.5 7.5 100
Over 54 N 3 4 12 10 0 29
% 10.3 13.8 41.4 34.56 .0 13.2
Total N 27 25 71 78 18 219

144
Table 4.24
Library Automation by Librarians Highest Qualification
(n=219)
Librarians’ Qualifications Overall Library Automation Total
None 25% 50% 75% 100%
Certificate N 1 1 4 0 0 6
% 16.7 16.7 66.7 .0 .0 100
Diploma N 1 0 1 0 0 2
% 50 .0 50 .0 .0 100
BLISc N 3 0 4 3 0 10
% 30 .0 40 30 .0 100
MLISC N 22 23 61 67 16 189
% 11.6 12.2 32.3 35.4 8.5 100
MS/M Phil N 0 1 1 8 1 11
% .0 9.1 9.1 72.7 9.1 100
PhD N 0 0 0 0 1 1
% .0 .0 .0 .0 100 100
Total N 27 25 71 78 18 219

Similarly, cross-tabulation between levels of library and librarians highest

professional qualification, as mentioned in Table 4.24, revealed a significant difference

between the two variables. Data revealed that libraries with respondents having

postgraduate degree qualifications are at better levels of library automation compared to

the librarians with other qualifications.

Table 4.25
Library Automation by Librarians’ Level of IT Knowledge
n=219)
Library Automation by Librarians’
Variables Level of IT Knowledge
Pearson Correlation .478**
Sig. (2 sided) .000
N 219

To investigate any correlation between levels of library automation and

librarians’ level IT knowledge a Pearson Product Moment Correlation test was

deployed. The findings showed that a strong significant positive relationship existed

between the librarians’ level of IT knowledge and library automation in their libraries.

This implies that higher the librarians level of IT knowledge higher the automation level

145
would be. The findings indicate that the librarians’ level of IT knowledge is significant

in achieving the highest level (100%) of library automation.

Findings of this section have indicated that librarians’ personality characteristics

influence their efforts in automation of libraries. Moreover, a vast majority (more than

91%) of the respondents are still lagging behind in achieving 100% automation of their

library operations. Therefore, in addition to availability of appropriate hardware,

software, Internet, network and other information access technologies, their attitudes

toward automation need to be improved.

4.2.6. Availability of Electronic/Online Resources

We have already discussed in the literature review that the Higher Education

Commission of Pakistan has electronically linked various universities and provided

Internet access to share lectures, video conferences, library resources and research

output through its PERN (Pakistan Education and Research Network) project. By June

2006, a majority of the universities, 60 (40%), were linked with each other through the

PERN project and have Internet access for sharing resources ranging from 256 Kbps to

over 6Mbps. Respondents were also asked to mention if they have access to PERN

resources and the National Digital Library resources.

Table 4.26
Online Resources Available through Higher Education Commission
(n=219)
Access to HEC Resources Yes No NR
Internet Access through PERN 94 42.9% 119 54.3% 6 2.7%
Access to National Digital Library 166 75.8% 52 23.7% 1 .5%

The data mentioned in Table 4.26 indicates that 94 (42.9%) of the respondents

had Internet access through the PERN project while 119 (54.3%) were not connected

through the PERN resources. Similarly, data mentioned in the Table 4.26 revealed that

146
the majority, 166 (75.8%) of the respondents, had access to the Higher Education

Commission sponsored National Digital Library resources while 52 (23.7%)

respondents had no access to the National Digital Library resources. The Higher

Education Commission of Pakistan primarily focuses on providing resources to public

sector academic libraries. However, they have recently started extending access to the

Digital Library, Internet Bandwidth and similar resources to leading private sector

academic libraries through the provision of 50% of cost of the resources as matching

grant. Recently, Higher Education Commission has extended the access to its National

Digital Library to 124 universities/higher education institutes and 161 research centres

libraries. National Digital Library provides full-text access to over 23,000 online

journals and 45,000 e-books (Pakistan Higher Education Commission 2008).

Regarding subscription to electronic databases, Table 4.27 shows that 2 (0.9%)

respondents had more than 20 CD-ROM databases, 23 (10.5%) had between 11 to 20

CD-ROM databases, 28 (12.8%) had between 5 to 10 CD-ROM databases, 39 (17.8%)

had between 2 to 4 CD-ROM databases and 23 (10.5%) respondents had one CD-ROM

in each of their libraries. Important among these CD-ROM databases are AGRICOLA,

MEDLINE, Business Periodicals OnDisc (BPO), EconLit, World Development

Indicators and a few abstracts databases.

Table 4.27
E-Databases Subscribed by the Respondents
(n=219)
Database/Range 0 1 2-4 5-10 11-20 20 + NR
CD-ROM Databases N 94 23 39 28 23 2 10
% 42.9 10.5 17.8 12.8 10.5 .9 4.6
Subscribed E-Databases N 184 9 6 3 2 2 13
% 84 4.1 2.7 1.4 .9 .9 5.9

A majority, 94 (42.9%), respondents had no CD-ROM databases in their

libraries. Similarly, 184 (84%) of the respondents had not subscribed to any online

database for their libraries.

147
In addition to the HEC sponsored databases, respondents had subscribed to a

few online databases such as JSTOR, IEEE Computer Society digital library, ACM

digital library and MEDLINE. Regarding access to online books and journals, data in

Table 4.28 indicates that a vast majority, 197 (90%) of the respondents had no access to

online books.

Table 4.28
Access to Online Books and Journals
(n=219)
1- 101- 501- 1,001-
Resources/ Range 0 100 500 1,000 5,000 5,000+ NR
Subscribed Online 197 4 1 4 13
- -
Books 90.0% 1.8% .5% 1.8% 5.9%
Access Online 45 6 15 17 128 8
-
Journals 20.5% 2.7% 6.8% 7.8% 58.4% 3.7%

In case of online journals, data revealed that a majority, 128 (58.4%) of the

respondents had access to more than 5,000 full-text journals, 17 (7.8%) respondents had

access to between 1,001 to 5,000 full-text online journals, 15 (6.8%) had access to

between 501 to 1,000 full-text online journals while 45 (20.5%) respondents had no

access to full-text online journals. Data revealed that the majority of the respondents

were relying on the Higher Education Commission National Digital Library for access

to online journals.

After computing the availability of hardware, software, information access

technologies and availability of electronic resources into a variable, a further analysis

was carried out on the ‘libraries IT availability level’. The criteria used to compute

libraries IT availability is explained in detail at Appendix-E. The data mentioned in

Table 4.29 shows that a majority, 102 (46.6%) respondents were at an average IT

availability level, 68 (31.1%) were at a good IT availability level and only 12 (5.5%)

were at an excellent IT availability level. Thirty (13.7%) respondents were at a low IT

148
availability level and the remaining 7 (3.2%) respondents were at a zero or negligible IT

availability level.

Table 4.29
IT Availability by Type of Library
(n=219)
Type of Library Libraries’ IT Availability Level Total
Zero IT Low IT Average Good IT Excellent
Level Level IT Level Level IT Level
Public N 6 25 84 46 9 170
% 3.5 14.7 49.4 27.1 5.3 100
Private N 1 5 18 22 3 49
% 2 10.2 36.7 44.9 6.1 100
Total N 7 30 102 68 12 219
% 3.2 13.7 46.6 31.1 5.5 100

A further analysis indicates that 32.4% public sector and 51% private sector

libraries were in the very good to excellent IT availability level range. Similarly, 18.2%

public sector and 12.2% private sector academic libraries were at low or zero IT

availability levels. Cross-tabulation of libraries’ IT availability level and types of

libraries revealed that private sector libraries were in better levels of IT availability

compared to public sector academic libraries.

4.3. Levels of IT Use in Libraries

To measure the levels of IT use, the respondents were asked to indicate the

extent of use of different information technologies by library patrons and staff. Here is

the description and interpretation of the data and findings for each variable.

Respondents were asked on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from ‘Never Used’ to

‘Always Used’, to indicate the extent of IT usage in their libraries by both the library

staff and library users. Table 4.30 shows the findings for library staff IT usage. The

majority, 157 (71.7%) respondents always or often used computers, 49 (22.3%) had

little or seldom use and 13 (5.9%) respondents never used computers at their workplace.

149
Ninety-five (43.4%) respondents always or often used CD-ROM/DVDs, 80 (36.6%)

respondents had seldom or little used and 42 (19.2%) respondents never used CD-

ROM/DVDs at their workplace. The majority, 135 (61.6%) respondents, often or

always used photocopiers/ printers, 21% had seldom or little used and 16% never used

photocopiers/printers at their workplace.

Table 4.30
IT Use by Library Staff
(n=219)
IT Tools Never Seldom Little Often Always NR
Computers 13 15 34 73 84
-
(PC) 5.9% 6.8% 15.5% 33.3% 38.4%
CD ROMs/ 42 38 42 53 42 2
DVD 19.2% 17.4% 19.2% 24.2% 19.2% .9%
Photocopiers/ 36 21 26 59 76 1
Printers 16.4% 9.6% 11.9% 26.9% 34.7% .5%
Audio-Visual 77 39 41 31 29 2
Materials 35.2% 17.8% 18.7% 14.2% 13.2% .9%
Online 81 26 29 48 33 2
Catalogue 37.0% 11.9% 13.2% 21.9% 15.1% .9%
E-mail 25 23 35 58 78
-
11.4% 10.5% 16.0% 26.5% 35.6%
Internet 26 20 35 55 83
-
11.9% 9.1% 16.0% 25.1% 37.9%
Online 53 46 36 39 44 1
Databases 24.2% 21.0% 16.4% 17.8% 20.1% .5%

Sixty (27.4%) respondents always or often-used Audio-Visual materials, 80

(36.5%) respondents had seldom or little used and 77 (35.2%) respondents never used

Audio-Visual materials at their workplace. Eighty-one (37%) respondents always or

often used online catalogues, 55 (25.1%) had seldom or little used them while a

majority, 81 (37%) respondents, never used online catalogues at their workplace.

It was encouraging to note that a majority, 136 (62.1%) respondents, always or

often use e-mail, 58 (26.5%) had seldom or little use while 25 (11.4%) respondents

never used e-mail at their workplaces. A similar trend was found in the use of Internet

as 138 (63%) respondents often or always used the Internet, 55 (25.1%) had little or

seldom use while 26 (11.9%) respondents never used Internet at their workplace. There

150
seems to be a link between e-mail and Internet use by library staff. Eighty-three (37.4%)

respondents always or often used online databases, 82 (37.4%) respondents had little or

seldom use while, 53 (24.2%) respondents, never used online databases at their

workplace. In order to elicit the level of IT usage by the library patrons, respondents

were asked to indicate against each technology its level of usage.

Table 4.31 shows findings for library patrons IT usage. Data indicates that the

majority, 101 (46.1%) of the respondents always or often use computers, 73 (33.4%)

had little or seldom used and 45 (20.5%) respondents never used computers in their

libraries. Seventy-three (33.3%) respondents always or often used CD-ROM/DVDs, 92

(42%) respondents had seldom or little use and 53 (24.2%) respondents, never used CD-

ROM/DVDs in their libraries.

Ninety-seven (44.2%) respondents often or always used photocopiers/printers,

61 (27.8%) had seldom or little used and 59 (26.9%) respondents, never used

photocopiers/printers in their libraries. Fifty (22.9%) respondents always or often used

audio-visual materials, 72 (32.9%) respondents had seldom or little use and a majority,

95 (43.4%) respondents, never used audio-visual materials in their libraries. Sixty-four

(29.3%) respondents always or often used online catalogues, 63 (28.8%) had seldom or

little used while a majority, 90 (41.1%) respondents, never used online catalogue in

their libraries. It was encouraging to note that a majority, 107 (48.9%) respondents,

always or often used e-mail, 54 (24.7%) had seldom or little used while 57 (26%)

respondents never used e-mail in their libraries.

These statistics indicate that the library patrons preferred to use e-mail in their

offices, computer labs or at home rather than in libraries. A similar trend was found in

the use of Internet as 104 (47.5%) respondents often or always used the Internet, 63

(28.8%) had little or seldom used while 52 (23.7%) respondents never used Internet in

their libraries. A significant number, 60 (27.4%) of the respondents never used online

151
databases, 82 (37.4%) respondents had little or seldom used while 74 (33.8%) of the

respondents often or always used online database in their libraries.

Table 4.31
IT Use by Library Patrons (Users)
(n=219)
Never Seldom Little Often Always NR
Computers (PC) 45 42 31 35 66
-
20.5% 19.2% 14.2% 16.0% 30.1%
CD-ROMs/DVD 53 58 34 46 27 1
24.2% 26.5% 15.5% 21.0% 12.3% .5%
Photocopiers/ 59 48 13 45 52 2
Printers 26.9% 21.9% 5.9% 20.5% 23.7% .9%
Audio-Visual 95 35 37 33 17 2
Materials 43.4% 16.0% 16.9% 15.1% 7.8% .9%
Online Catalogue 90 32 31 33 31 2
41.1% 14.6% 14.2% 15.1% 14.2% .9%
E-mail 57 37 17 49 58 1
26.0% 16.9% 7.8% 22.4% 26.5% .5%
Internet 52 35 28 36 68
-
23.7% 16.0% 12.8% 16.4% 31.1%
Online Databases 60 48 34 39 35 3
27.4% 21.9% 15.5% 17.8% 16.0% 1.4%

It was encouraging to note that over 62% library staff and 48% patrons are

frequent users of online databases in the respondent libraries. The majority of the

respondents are relying on National Digital Library for access to online databases.

Currently, this is an important facility to promote research and development activities in

Pakistan.

To probe the effects of other variables on the use of online databases in

respondent libraries, cross-tabulation was carried out between the library staff’s use of

online databases by librarians’ gender and age. Table 4.32 shows that 25.6% male

respondents had not used online database compare to 18.6% female respondents.

However, in terms of frequency of use, 40.3% male respondents often or always used,

while 27.9% female often or always-used online databases.

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Table 4.32
Librarians Use of Online Databases by Gender
(n=219)
Gender Online Databases Total
NR Never Seldom Little Often Always
Male N 1 45 35 24 31 40 176
% .6 25.6 19.9 13.6 17.6 22.7 100
Female N 0 8 11 12 8 4 43
% .0 18.6 25.6 27.9 18.6 9.3 100
Total N 1 53 46 36 39 44 219

Table 4.33
Librarians Use of Online Databases by Age
(n=219)
Age Online Databases Total
Groups NR Never Seldom Little Often Always
Less Than N
0 8 6 9 2 10 35
25 Years
% .0 22.9 17.1 25.7 5.7 28.6 100
25-34 N 0 13 14 13 11 12 63
% .0 20.6 22.2 20.6 17.5 19 100
35-44 N 1 9 10 7 11 14 52
% 1.9 17.3 19.2 13.5 21.2 26.9 100
45-54 N 0 12 8 6 10 4 40
% .0 30 20 15 25 10 100
Over 54 N 0 11 8 1 5 4 29
% .0 37.9 27.6 3.4 17.2 13.8 100
Total N 1 53 46 36 39 44 219

Data in Table 4.33 reflects a significant difference in librarians’ use of online

databases based on their age. Statistics indicate that 34.3% respondents of less than 25

years age group, 36.5% of 25-34 years age group, 48.1% of 35-44 years of age group

often or always used online databases. Amongst the elders 35% respondents of 45-54

years of age group and 31% over 54 years of age group respondents often or always,

used online databases. Therefore, respondents within 35-44 years of age group were

frequent users of online databases compared to others.

4.4. Demographic Variables

This study attempted to examine the background factors that might possibly

influence the librarians’ attitudes toward information technology. The backgrounds of

librarians are measured by the following independent variables: (i) highest professional

153
qualifications, (ii) recency of attaining professional qualifications, (iii) age, (iv) gender

and (v) job experience.

4.4.1. Highest Professional Qualifications

In order to generate data on librarians qualifications, respondents were asked to

check their highest academic qualification from the given ranges. Table 4.34 indicates

that the majority, 189 (86.3%) respondents held a Masters degree in library and

information sciences, 11 (5%) held MS/ M Phil degrees, 1 held a Doctorate degree, 12

(5.5%) were Diploma/Bachelor degree holders and 6 (2.7%) were Certificate holders.

Table 4.34
Librarians’ Highest Professional Qualifications
(n=219)
Degree Frequency %
Certificate 6 2.7
Diploma 2 .9
BLISc 10 4.6
MLISc 189 86.3
MS/M Phil 11 5
Doctorate 1 .5

4.4.2. Recency of Attaining Professional Qualification

With respect to how recently the librarians have attained their library

qualification, respondents were asked to mention the year of their latest qualification. It

was divided into five sets of periods, from 1 year, between 2-4 years, between 5-10

years, between 11-15 years and more than 16 years. As shown in Table 4.35, 48 (22%)

respondents received their library qualifications quite recently, i.e., between 1-5 years

ago. The majority of the librarians, 96 (43.8%), received their qualifications 5-15 years

ago while 73 (33.3%) reported that they had attained their library qualifications more

than 15 years ago.

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Table 4.35
Respondents’ Year of Latest Professional Qualification
(n=219)
Range Frequency %
I Year 10 4.6
2-4 Years 38 17.4
5-10 Years 60 27.4
11-15 Years 36 16.4
Over 15 Years 73 33.3
NR 2 .9

4.4.3. Age

Age is an important factor that affects the behaviours and attitude of employees

to different technologies, jobs and responsibilities.

Table 4.36
Respondents Age Groups
(n=219)
Range Frequency %
Less Than 25 Years 35 16.0
25-34 Years 63 28.8
35-44 Years 52 23.7
45-54 Years 40 18.3
54 Years + 29 13.2

Table 4.36 shows that 98 (44.8%) respondents were of less than 35 years of age,

52 (23.7%) were of middle aged ranging from 35-44 years, 40 (18.3%) were of an

experienced age ranging from 45-54 years and 29 (13.2%) respondents were of more

than 54 years of age and were nearing retirement

4.4.4. Gender

In Pakistan, the male group dominates the library field as data in Table 4.37

reflects that more than 80% respondents were male. It is generally believed that females

are shy of technology, especially when they are first exposed to it.

155
Table 4.37
Gender Distribution
(n=219)
Gender Frequency %
Male 176 80.4
Female 43 19.6

4.4.5. Job Experience

Respondents were asked to check their experience as librarians and as head

librarian from the given range of years. Data in Table 4.38 indicates that the majority,

69 (31.5%) respondents who were librarian and a significant majority, 106 (48.4%)

respondents who were head librarians had less than 5 year of experience. Fifty-nine

(27%) librarians and 68 (30%) head librarians had job experiences ranging from 6 to 15

years, 59 (26.9%) librarians and 40 (18.3%) head librarians had between 16 to 25 years

of job experience. Thirty-two (14.6%) librarian and 5 (2.3%) head librarian had more

than 25 years of job experience. Twenty-six percent of the respondents had between 11-

20 years of job experience as librarians and the same percentage (36%) of respondents

had over 20 years of job experience as librarians.

Table 4.38
Job Experience
(n=219)
Less than 5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 Over 25
Experience as Years Years Years Years Years Years
Librarian 69 35 24 34 25 32
(31.5%) (16%) (11%) (15.5%) (11.4%) (14.6%)
Head Librarian 106 43 25 21 19 5
(48.4%) (19.6%) (11.4%) (9.6%) (8.7%) (2.3%)

Among the key findings for demographic variables, the researcher found that

86% of the respondents had Masters Degrees in library and information sciences. The

highest professional qualification reported was a Doctorate. Data revealed that males

were in significant majority in the respondent libraries while in western countries

female librarians dominate the library profession. Thirty-six percent of the respondents

156
were between 30-44 years of age and 31% are over 45 years of age. The data revealed

that the majority of the librarians and head librarians had several years left before

retirement.

4.5. Librarians’ Level of Expertise in Information Technology

The respondents’ level of expertise in information technology was examined

through 7 variables, namely (i) computer usage at home, (ii) frequency of IT usage,

(iii) experience in computer usage, (iv) recency in IT training, (v) level of technology

knowledge, (vi) level of awareness of new technologies and (vii) how much they had

written or published about information technology in libraries.

4.5.1. Computer Use at Home

Computer use at home was considered one of the indicators of the respondents’

experience in computer usage. According to the data, the majority, 148 (67.5%)

respondents were using computers at home while 70 (31.9%) respondents were not

using computers at home.

Table 4.39
Librarians Using Computers at Home by Gender
(n=219)
Computer Use at Home Gender Total
Male Female
No N 62 9 71
% 35.2% 20.9% 32.4%
Yes N 114 34 148
% 64.8% 79.1% 67.6%
Total N 176 43 219

Further analysis carried out through cross-tabulation mentioned in Table 4.39,

indicates somewhat unexpected results as 79.1% of female librarians used a computer at

home while 64.8% male librarians used a computer at home. One of the reasons for

157
these statistics could be that males spend more time in offices and they tend to use

office computers for personal purpose while females do not feel comfortable in using

office computers for personal purposes.

4.5.2. Frequency of Information Technology Use

Respondents were asked to check the frequency of commonly used information

technology tools. Table 4.40 depicts that the majority, 120 (54.8%) respondents used a

word processor on a daily basis, 53 (24.2%) used it on a weekly basis and 26 (11.9%)

respondents used a word processor on a monthly basis while 18 (8.2%) respondents

never used a word processor.

Table 4.40
Frequency of IT Use
(n=219)
Frequency Word Process CD-ROM Use E-Mail Use Internet Use
N % N % N % N %
Never 18 8.2 24 11 15 6.8 12 5.5
Daily 120 54.8 80 36.5 160 73.1 159 72.6
Weekly 53 24.2 44 20.1 30 13.7 37 16.9
Monthly 26 11.9 66 30.1 13 5.9 11 5
NR 2 .9 5 2.3 1 .5 - -

The majority 80 (36.5%) respondents used CD-ROMs on a daily basis, 44

(20.1%) used it on a weekly basis and 66 (30.1%) used CD-ROMs on a monthly basis

while 24 (11%) respondents never used CD-ROMs. The data depicts that the majority,

160 (73%) respondents used e-mail and Internet on a daily basis, 14 to 17% used it on a

weekly basis and 5 to 6% respondents used e-mail and Internet on a monthly basis

while 6 to 7% had never used e-mail and Internet.

An analysis of e-mail and Internet use by age, as mentioned in Table 4.41,

reflects that within the age group of less than 25 years, 27 (77.1%) respondents used e-

mail and Internet on a daily basis. Within the age group of 25-34 years, 52 (82.5%)

respondents used e-mail and Internet on a daily basis, and within the age group of 35-44

158
years, 41 (78.8%) respondents used e-mail and Internet on a daily basis, while within

the age group of 45-54 years, 23 (57.5%) respondents used e-mail and Internet on a

daily basis. A total of 160 (73.1%) respondents were using e-mail and Internet on a

daily basis.

Table 4.41
Frequency of E-Mail and Internet Use by Age
(n=219)
Age in Years Frequency of E-Mail and Internet Use
Range Never Monthly Weekly Daily Total
Less Than 25 N
1 2 5 27 35
Years
% .5 5.7 2.3 77.1 100
25-34 N 4 0 7 52 36
% .6.3 .0 11.1 82.5 100
35-44 N 2 5 4 41 55
% 3.8 9.6 7.7 78.8 100
45-54 N 6 4 7 23 40
% 15 10 17.5 57.5 100
Over 54 N 3 2 7 17 29
% 10.3 6.9 24.1 58.6 100
Total N 16 13 30 160 219
% 7.3 5.9 13.7 73.1 100

Data in Table 4.41 depicts that respondents with over 54 years of age were

comparatively less intense users of e-mail and Internet compared to younger

respondents. Analysis of the two most commonly used IT applications, e-mail and

Internet by age, as mentioned in Table 4.41 shows that more than 42.4% of librarians

within 25-34 years of age were better users of email and Internet compared to others.

4.5.3. Experience in Computer Usage

Respondents were asked to check from a range the number of years they had

spent on using computers. Table 4.42 indicates that a majority, 77 (35.2%) respondents

had less than one year experience in computer usage and 101 (46.1%) had 1 to 6 years

of experience in computer use. Similarly, 37 (16.9%) respondents had 7 to 9 years

experience and two respondents had more than 9 years of experience in computer use.

159
Table 4.42
Experience in Computers Use
(n=219)
Range Frequency %
Zero 2 .9
Less than 1 Year 77 35.2
1-3 Years 62 28.3
4-6 Years 39 17.8
7-9 Years 37 16.9
More Than 9 Years 2 .9

Table 4.43
Experience in Computers Use by Geographical Location
(n=219)
Experience in Computers Use (Range in years)
Location Zero Less than 1 1-3 4-6 7-9 Over 9 Total
City N 2 66 61 31 30 2 192
% .9 30.1 27.9 14.2 13.7 .9 87.7
Town N 0 11 1 8 7 0 27
% .0 5 .5 3.7 3.2 .0 12.3
Total N 2 77 62 39 37 2 219
% .9 35.2 28.3 17.8 16.9 .9 100

To further probe the impact of geographical location on experience in computer

use, a cross-tabulation was employed. Data in Table 4.43 indicates that private sector

librarians had slightly better experience than the public sector librarians do. Only two

librarians who do not had any computer experience belong to the public sector. No

major difference was found in experience in computer use between geographical

locations, which is in contrast to the general opinion about computer experience

facilities available to the urban population.

4.5.4. Recency in IT Training

Data in Table 4.44 indicates that a majority, 123 (56.2%) respondents last

attended an IT training programme less than 12 months ago and 39 (17.8%) attended a

programme 1 to 3 years ago. A total of 30 (13.7%) respondents attended IT training 4 to

6 years ago, 8 (3.7%) attended 7 to 9 years ago and 7 (3.2%) respondents attended their

160
last IT training programme more than 9 years ago, while, 11 (5%) respondents did not

attend any IT training programme. This indicates that the majority of the respondents

quite recently attending IT training programmes.

Table 4.44
Recency of IT Training
(n=219)
Range Frequency %
0 11 5.0
Less Than 1 Year 123 56.2
1-3 Years 39 17.8
4-6 Years 30 13.7
7-9 Years 8 3.7
Over 9 Years 7 3.2
NR 1 .5

4.5.5. Levels of Information Technology Knowledge

Respondents’ level of IT knowledge was further measured through three

variables, namely knowledge in technology, awareness of new technologies and how

much the respondents had written or published about information technology in

libraries. A Likert scale from one to five represented the following answers: none, little,

moderate, substantial and in-depth knowledge. This was used to obtain responses. The

data in Table 4.45 shows that 6 (2.7%) respondents had in-depth knowledge, 34

(15.5%) had substantial level of knowledge, a majority, 108 (49.3%) respondents had a

moderate level of knowledge, 57 (26%) had little knowledge while 13 (5.9%)

respondents had no knowledge in technology.

Respondents were asked to check the extent to which they kept abreast of new

technological developments. Data shows that 7 (3.2%) respondents had an in-depth

level of awareness of new technological development, 43 (19.6%) had substantial level

of awareness and 66 (30.1%) had a moderate level of awareness. The majority of the

respondents, 75 (34.2%) had little awareness of new technological developments while

27 (12.3%) had never kept themselves abreast of the new technologies. The respondents

161
were asked to indicate the extent to which they had written or published about

information technology in libraries. Data in Table 4.45 revealed that only 2 (.9%)

respondents had extensively (in-depth) published about IT in libraries. Eight (3.7%)

respondents had a substantial level of written contribution, 23 (10.5%) had a moderate

level of contribution, 37 (16.9%) respondents had little level of contribution and a

majority, 149 (68%) respondents had not written or published about information

technology in libraries.

Table 4.45
Respondents’ Level of IT Knowledge
(n=219)
Level of Technology Level of Awareness of Written Contribution on
Knowledge New Technologies IT in Libraries
N % N % N %
None 13 5.9 27 12.3 149 68
Little 57 26.0 75 34.2 37 16.9
Moderate 108 49.3 66 30.1 23 10.5
Substantial 34 15.5 43 19.6 8 3.7
In-depth 6 2.7 7 3.2 2 .9
NR 1 .5 1 .5 - -

Table 4.46
Level of Technology Knowledge by Type of Library
(n=219)
Level of Technology Knowledge
Mod- Subst In-
Type of Library NR None Little erate antial depth Total
Public N 1 11 47 89 20 2 170
% .5 5 21.5 40.6 9.1 .9 77.6
Private N 0 2 10 19 14 4 49
% .0 .9 4.6 8.7 6.4 1.8 22.4
Total N 1 13 57 108 34 6 219
% .5 5.9 26 49.3 15.5 2.7 100

Further analysis of data mentioned in Table 4.46 reflects that librarians of

private sector academic libraries had better levels of IT knowledge compared to their

counterparts in public sector libraries. Only 22 (10%) public sector respondents had

substantial and in-depth knowledge of IT, whereas 18 (8.2%) private sector respondents

162
had substantial and in-depth knowledge of information technologies. Findings revealed

that respondents from private sector libraries are more knowledgeable in technology

compared to public sector academic libraries. This difference is expected given the

various advantages private sector librarians may had over public sector librarians. The

advantages may include high awareness of the importance of information technology

and professional competence of librarians.

A summary of this section reflects an encouraging finding that 67% of the

respondents were using computers at home, 98% had experience in computer usage,

56% had attended IT training programme less than 12 months ago, 55% used word

processing on a daily basis and 73% of the respondents used e-mail and Internet on a

daily basis. This indicates that majority of academic librarians were using word

processing, e-mail and Internet to perform different functions. The data revealed that

most respondents had between little and moderate level of knowledge in technology, the

majority of the respondents were on a lower level of keeping abreast of new

technologies and the majority of the respondent academic librarians in Pakistan had not

contributed towards written or published literature about information technology in

libraries. The findings further revealed that librarians working in private sector libraries

were better equipped with IT knowledge compared to the librarians working in public

sector institutions.

4.6. Librarians’ Role in IT-Related Decision-Making

To understand the librarians’ role in information technology related decision-

making, respondents were asked to indicate the departments involved at different stages

of IT acquisitions and maintenance. Table 4.47 indicates that in 42 (19.2%) cases, the

administration and accounts departments are involved at the initiation stage, in 7 (3.2%)

cases computer professionals are involved at the initiation stage, in 37 (16.9%) cases the

163
library committee was involved and in 112 (51.1%) cases librarians are involved at the

initiation stages for IT for their libraries. The data reflects that in 100% of cases,

librarians are not involved at the initiation stage for IT acquisitions.

In 31 (14.2%) cases, the administration and accounts departments are involved

for preparing specification, in 10 cases purchase departments are involved, in 43 cases

computer professionals are involved and in 47 (21.5%) cases librarians are involved in

preparing specifications for IT acquisitions. In a majority, 56 (25.6%) cases, the library

committee was involved in preparing specifications for IT acquisitions. For making

choices, in 34 cases the administration and accounts departments, in 48 cases computer

professionals, in 67 cases a library committee and in only 36 (16.4%) cases are

librarians involved in making choices for IT acquisitions. The library committee seemed

heavily involved in the choice-making stage of IT acquisitions.

Table 4.47
Departments Involved in Different Stages of IT Acquisitions
(n=219)
Dept./ Initiation Prepare Make Allocate
Individuals Stage Spec. Choice Funds Purchase Install Maintain
Accts and
42 31 34 143 71 20 13
Admin
Purchase Dept. 0 10 4 10 60 13 6
Vendor 1 6 5 0 14 23 7
Consultant 1 3 4 0 2 18 8
Computer
7 43 48 10 25 104 129
Professionals
Library
37 56 67 33 26 10 14
Committee
Librarians 112 47 36 5 6 14 28

The accounts and administration departments are involved in 143 (65.4%) of the

cases, library committee in 33 (15.1%) of the cases and librarians are involved in only

five (2.3%) cases for allocation of funds for IT acquisitions. The Administration and

accounts departments are involved in 71 (32.4%) cases for purchase of IT, in 60

(27.4%) cases purchase departments are involved, in 25 (11.4%) cases computer

164
professionals are involved, in 26 (11.9%) cases the library committee was involved and

in only 6 (2.7%) cases librarians are involved for the purchase of IT tools for libraries.

The data reflects that at the installation and maintenance stages, in a majority of

the cases computer professionals are involved while librarians’ involvement remained

less than 13% of the cases. These statistics are reflective of the major involvement of

administration and accounts departments, library committees and computer

professionals compared to librarians at different stages of IT acquisitions for libraries.

It is evident from the findings regarding librarians’ role in decision-making in IT

acquisition, maintenance and implementation that in several stages of IT acquisitions,

the librarians’ appeared not to be involved to the extent commensurate with their

position. This reflects major involvement at the different stages of IT acquisitions for

libraries by the accounts and administration departments, library committees and

computer professionals compared to librarians.

Table 4.48
Departments Involved for Library IT Acquisitions by Type of Library
(n=219)
Departments Involved in the
Initiation Stage Type of Libraries Total
Public Private
NR N 17 2 19
% 10 4 8.7
Accts and Admin N 33 9 42
% 19.4 18.2 19.2
Vendor N 1 0 1
% .6 .0 .5
Consultant N 1 0 1
% .6 .0 .5
Computer Professionals N 6 1 7
% 3.5 2 3.2
Lib Committee N 26 11 37
% 15.3 22.4 16.9
Librarians N 86 26 112
% 50.6 53.1 51.1
Total N 170 49 219

Data in Table 4.48 reflects that at the initiation stage of IT acquisition, in public

sector institutions, the administration and accounts department are involved in 19.4% of

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the cases, library committee are involved in 15.3% of the cases and librarians were

involved in 50.6% of the cases. In private sector institutions, administration and

accounts departments were involved in 18.2% of the cases, library committee in 22.4%

of the cases and librarians were involved in 53.1% of the cases at the initiation stage of

IT acquisition of IT for libraries.

It further revealed an important role of administration and accounts department

and library committees for IT acquisition for libraries. The non-involvement of

librarians at the IT acquisitions initiation stage reflects that librarians were not pro-

active in taking initiatives for IT acquisition or the institutions management do not

either involve them or trust them for IT acquisition. Librarians are the key personal

responsible for library development and innovations. Their non-involvement could lead

to resistance to IT innovations or at least will make them passive in its implementation,

self-usage and in promotion of its use. However, librarians could be shy of technology

or in taking initiative. In such cases their skills and confidence need to be developed to

make them innovative, otherwise chances of failures of IT innovations will remain high.

4.6.1. Librarians’ Level of Satisfaction in IT-Related Decision-Making

To probe the attitudes of librarians and to understand their role in decision-

making regarding IT applications, respondents were asked to indicate the level of

satisfaction or dissatisfaction on a five-point Likert scale concerning IT in their

libraries. Table 4.49 indicates that 25 (11.4%) respondents were highly satisfied with

their role in IT related decision-making, 113 (51.6%) respondents were satisfied, 53

(24.2%) were dissatisfied and 22 (10%) respondents were highly dissatisfied with their

role in IT related decision-making. Next, respondents were asked to indicate their level

of satisfaction regarding overall IT application in their parent organizations.

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Table 4.49
Librarians’ Level of Satisfaction
(n=219)
Statement HD D UD S HS
Role in IT Decision- 22 53 6 113 25
Making 10% 24.2% 2.7% 51.6% 11.4%
Overall IT application 11 61 6 110 29
in Parent Organization 5% 27.9% 2.7% 50.2% 13.2%
IT Support from other 22 85 15 83 12
Departments 10% 38.8% 6.8% 37.9% 5.5%
Maintenance Support 29 90 12 74 12
and Funding for IT 13.2% 41.1% 5.5% 33.8% 5.5%

Key: HD= Highly Dissatisfied D= Dissatisfied UD= Undecided


S= Satisfied HS= Highly Satisfied

Table 4.50
Correlation between Librarians' Role in IT-Related Decision-Making and
Dimensions of their IT Attitudes
N=219
Statement Perceived Perceived Perceived
Confidence in IT Capabilities of IT Usefulness of IT
Application
Libraries’ Role in IT-Related
Decision-Making r = .145, p=.032 r= .120, p=.076 r = .053, p=.437

Data reflects that 29 (13.2%) respondents were highly satisfied with the IT

application in their parent organizations, 110 (50.2%) are satisfied, 61 (27.9%) were

dissatisfied while 11 (5%) respondents were highly dissatisfied with the IT application

in their parent organizations. Regarding IT support from other departments, 12 (5.5%)

respondents reported that they were highly satisfied, 83 (37.9%) were satisfied, a

majority, 85 (38.89%) reported that they were dissatisfied and 22 (10%) respondents

mentioned that they were highly dissatisfied with the IT support from other

departments. In response to the next question, 12 (5.5%) respondents showed that they

were highly satisfied, 74 (33.8) were satisfied, a majority, 90 (41.1%), were dissatisfied

and 29 (13.2%) respondents were highly dissatisfied with funding for IT maintenance in

respondent libraries. This reflects that the majority (54.3%) of the respondents were not

satisfied with the maintenance support and funding for IT applications.

167
Findings revealed that a significant number of librarians were not satisfied with

their decision-making role for libraries’ IT applications. Technical and maintenance

support is important for running hardware and software renewals and other IT

applications. A significant number of respondents were not happy with the technical

support from MIS/IT departments. An inspection of Table 4.50 indicates a significant

positive (r=.145, p<.05) relationship between librarians’ role in IT-related decision-

making and their IT attitude subscale “perceived confidence in IT application,” while

no significant relationship was found with remaining subscales “perceived capabilities

of IT,” and “perceives usefulness of IT.”

Findings regarding general condition of libraries revealed that majority of the

respondents were in the public sector and a significant majority of the respondent were

in the big cities. Corollary of data revealed good progress in IT availability in academic

libraries of Pakistan as 69.3% respondents had two or more PCs, 91.3% had email and

Internet, and 87.6% had some degree of automation. Similarly, majority (75.8%) of the

respondents had access to online journals and e-books through HEC Digital Library.

However, 4.6% respondents were without PCs, 8.7% had no email and Internet, 11%

had not started automation and only 8.2% libraries were fully automated. Private sector

libraries were comparatively better equipped with IT tools. In majority of the cases,

librarians were not, involved in IT-related decision-making. A significant positive

relationship was determined between librarians’ role in IT-related decision-making and

their attitudes toward IT application in libraries. This implies greater role of librarians in

IT-related decision-making more positive their attitudes toward IT application would

be.

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4.7. Attitudes Toward Information Technology

Attitude in this study is defined as the perceptions, beliefs and opinions of an

individual librarian toward the impact, cost and resource allocation, training needs and

general effects of information technology applications in academic libraries of Pakistan.

In order to measure the attitude variables, respondents were asked to indicate their level

of agreement or disagreement on 42 attitude statements on a five-point Likert scale.

Out of 42 IT attitude statements, 17 statements were used to elicit attitudes of

librarians toward the impact of information technology, 7 statements deal with attitudes

toward IT cost and resource allocation, 4 concerning attitudes toward IT training of staff

and users and 14 statements regarding general IT attitudes.

The findings for each part are explained in the text and presented in tables carrying

user responses on a five-point Likert scale against each statement. The numbers and

percentages of respondents’ responses along with the mean score for each statement are

mentioned in each table.

4.7.1. Attitudes About Impact of Information Technology

Data in Table 4.51 provides description of librarians’ feedback on their personal

beliefs and opinions regarding impact of information technology on libraries. In

response to a statement that each year IT offers, more effective ways to carry out library

operations, a majority, 104 (47.5%) respondents strongly agreed, 102 (46.6%) agreed, 8

(3.7%) disagreed and only 3 (1.4%) strongly disagreed while 2 (.9%) respondents

remained undecided with this statement. The mean score 4.35, indicates that the

majority of the librarians believe that IT innovations offer more efficient ways to

manage library operations.

In response to a statement, that IT helps make specific information available that

otherwise might not be available, 85 (38.8%) respondents showed their strong

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agreement, 112 (51.1%) showed agreement, only 13 (5.9%) disagreed and 1 (.5%)

strongly disagreed with the statement while 7 (3.2%) respondents remained undecided.

The mean score shows overall agreement at 4.22 levels. The findings reflect librarians’

belief in potential of IT in searching of relevant information compared to manual

systems.

In response to a statement that changes occurring due to IT application are out of

control of librarians so they have to adjust accordingly, 37 (16.9%) respondents showed

their strong agreement, 112 (51.1%) showed agreement, 41 (18.7%) showed

disagreement, and only 6 (2.7%) showed their strong disagreement with the statement

while 23 (10.5%) respondents remained undecided. The mean score, 3.61, indicates a

low level of agreement with the statement. The results reveal that respondents

understand the need to make regular changes in their skills, operations and process to

match the changes brought by the information technology.

A significant number 80 (36.5%) respondents strongly agreed, a majority 99

(45.2%) respondents agreed that the online databases provide more up-to-date

information than conventional catalogues and indexes, 19 (8.7%) disagreed, only 3

(1.4%) strongly disagreed with the statement while18 (8.2%) remained undecided. The

mean score, 4.07, for this statement indicates that respondents understand the impact of

IT in getting latest information through online resources compared to manual catalogues

and indexes.

A total of 27 (12.3%) respondents strongly agreed, 43 (19.6%) agreed, the

majority, 92 (42%) disagreed, 36 (16.4%) strongly disagreed with the statement that

card catalogue can be modified more easily than computerized catalogue (OPAC),

while 20 (9.1%) respondents remained undecided. The mean score for this statement is

2.69. The disagreement of the majority of the respondents showed their belief that it is

easy to modify and update OPAC than card catalogue.

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The librarians were divided over a statement that all levels of staff can easily

work with the IT based systems as 37 (16.9%) respondents strongly supported, a

majority 78 (35.6%) supported, 75 (34.2%) did not support and 6 (2.7%) respondents

strongly opposed this statement while 21 (9.6%) remained undecided. The mean score

at 3.29 indicates a low level of agreement of the respondents. The findings reveal

librarians’ discomfort with their existing IT skills and their realization for IT training

for the whole staff.

Table 4.51
Attitudes Toward Impact of IT
(n=219)
Attitude Statements N SDA DA UD A SA Mean
Each year IT offers more efficient ways to 3 8 2 102 104
219 4.35
carry out library operations 1.4% 3.7% .9% 46.6% 47.5%
IT helps provide specific information that 1 13 7 112 85
218 4.22
otherwise would not be available .5% 5.9% 3.2% 51.1% 38.8%
Changes occurring due to application of
6 41 23 112 37
IT are out of control of librarians so they 219 3.61
2.7% 18.7% 10.5% 51.1% 16.9%
have to adjust accordingly
Online databases provide more up-to-date
3 19 18 99 80
information than the conventional 219 4.07
1.4% 8.7% 8.2% 45.2% 36.5%
catalogues and indexes
Card catalogue can be modified easily 36 92 20 43 27
218 2.69
than a computerized catalogue (OPAC) 16.4% 42.0% 9.1% 19.6% 12.3%
All level of staff can easily work with the 6 75 21 78 37
217 3.29
IT based systems 2.7% 34.2% 9.6% 35.6% 16.9%
Use of IT can help people make quick and 5 18 8 107 79
4.09
correct decisions 217 2.3% 8.2% 3.7% 48.9% 36.1%
Extensive use of IT has created job fears 13 68 38 72 28
3.15
amongst librarians 219 5.9% 31.1% 17.4% 32.9% 12.8%
Automated acquisition is not feasible for 22 80 38 49 28
2.91
Pakistani libraries 217 10.0% 36.5% 17.4% 22.4% 12.8%
Computerized library inventory is not 12 67 31 86 21
3.03
acceptable to auditors in Pakistan 217 5.5% 30.6% 14.2% 39.3% 9.6%
Application of IT will not appreciably 11 42 26 111 28
3.47
reduce the number of library staff 218 5.0% 19.2% 11.9% 50.7% 12.8%
Computers help eliminate repetitive and 3 20 8 119 67
4.04
clerical functions 217 1.4% 9.1% 3.7% 54.3% 30.6%
IT enables most effective ways of 5 19 12 98 85
4.09
resource sharing to librarians 219 2.3% 8.7% 5.5% 44.7% 38.8%
Data storage on computer is highly risky 21 67 18 81 32
3.16
in libraries compared to print resources 219 9.6% 30.6% 8.2% 37.0% 14.6%
Information retrieval is much easier
31 82 7 71 28
through print resources than online 219 2.92
14.2% 37.4% 3.2% 32.4% 12.8%
resources
Information and data retrieved through
16 67 22 80 34
print resources is more authentic than 219 3.22
7.3% 30.6% 10% 36.5% 15.5%
retrieved through online resources
Use of computer creates health and 27 93 31 53 13
2.55
environmental problems 217 12.3% 42.5% 14.2% 24.2% 5.9%

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Seventy-nine (36.1%) respondents strongly believed and a majority 107 (48.9%)

respondents believed that use of IT helps make quick and correct decisions, 18 (8.2%)

did not agree, and only 5 (2.3%) respondents strongly disagreed with this statement,

while 8 (3.7%) respondents remained neutral or had no opinion. The mean score at 4.09

reflects high level of agreement of the respondents that IT can help in quick and correct

decision-making, as it helps provide relevant information and data instantly for efficient

decision-making.

A total of 28 (12.8%) respondents strongly supported, a majority 72 (32.9%)

supported, 38 (17.4%) remained undecided, 68 (31.1%) respondents did not support

while 13 (5.9%) strongly opposed a statement that extensive use of IT has created job

fears amongst librarians. The mean score for this statement remained 3.15 indicating

negative attitude of librarians towards this statement. These statistics reveal fears

amongst respondents that heads of institutes may ask them to reduce the staff or people

with lesser IT skills may lose their jobs.

A total of 28 (12.8%) respondents strongly supported, 49 (22.4%) supported, a

majority 80 (36.5%) did not support, 22 (10%) strongly opposed, while 38 (17.4%)

respondents remained undecided with a negative statement that automated acquisitions

are not feasible for Pakistani libraries. The mean score remained 2.91.This disagreement

of a significant number of the respondents with this negative statement shows the

positive attitudes of the respondents. However, data shows that still 35% of the

respondents had fears in their minds about automated acquisitions in Pakistan. One of

the reasons of this attitude could be low level of knowledge of respondents regarding

use of automated acquisition systems, use of credit card for online buying, and

maintenance of foreign currency accounts, as most of the books are published abroad,

and keeping acquisition records in soft format.

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In response to a statement that computerized library inventory (accessioning) is

not acceptable to auditors in Pakistani, 21 (9.6%) respondents showed strong

agreement, a majority 86 (39.3%) showed agreement, 67 (30.6%) showed disagreement

and 12 (5.5%) showed strong disagreement, while 31 (14.2) remained neutral with this

statement. The mean score of 3.03 indicated respondents’ negative attitude toward using

automated inventory control (accessioning etc) and preferring to maintain manual

records. The data indicates that maintaining manual inventory (accessioning) is a

necessity for librarians for auditing purposes. They also need to develop a reliable

automated inventory system that has the confidence of the auditors.

Twenty-eight (12.8%) strongly believed, a majority, 111 (50.7%) respondents

believed that IT would not appreciably reduce the number of library staff, 26 (11.9%)

respondents had no opinion regarding this statement 42 (19.2%) respondents did not

agree while 11 (5%) respondents strongly disagreed with this statement. The mean

score at 3.47 reflects the level of respondents’ agreement with the statement.

A good number 67 (30.6%) respondents strongly believed, a majority 119

(54.3%) believed that computers help eliminate repetitive and clerical functions, only

20 (9.1%) disagreed and 3 (1.4%) respondents strongly disagreed and 8 (3.7%)

respondents had no opinion about the statement. The mean score at 4.04 indicates the

respondents’ high level of agreement with this statement. The findings demonstrate

respondents’ knowledge and belief in use of computer hardware and software for office

use, data conversion and mass distribution of information through email and Internet.

A significant number 85 (38.8%) respondents strongly agreed, a majority, 98

(44.7%) respondents agreed that IT enables the most effective ways of resource sharing,

19 (8.7%) did not agree and only 5 (2.3%) strongly disagreed while 12 (5.5%)

respondents had no opinion about this statement. The mean score, 4.09 indicates that

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librarian understand the potential of IT in helping sharing resources, locally and at

remote locations.

A total of 32 (14.6%) respondents strongly agreed, 81 (37%) respondents agreed

that data storage on computer is highly risky in libraries compared to printed resources,

18 (8.2%) had no opinion while 67 (30.6%) respondents did not agree and 21 (9.6%)

respondents strongly disagreed with this negative statement. The mean score, 3.16

indicates the respondents’ (low level) agreement toward this negative statement, is

indicative of negative attitude of librarians regarding data storage on computers.

In response to the statement, that information retrieval is easier through printed

resources than online resources, 28 (12.8%) strongly agreed, 71 (32.4%) agreed, a

majority 82 (37.4%) disagreed, 31 (14.2%) strongly disagreed with this statement while

7 (3.2%) had no opinion for this negative statement. The mean score remained 2.92.

The disagreement of the majority of the respondents with this negative statement shows

that respondents believe that information retrieval is much easier through online

resources.

In response to a statement that data retrieved through print resources is more

authentic and reliable compared to data retrieved through online resources, 34 (15.5%)

showed their strong agreement, 80 (36.5%) showed agreement, 67 (30.6%) disagreed

and 16 (7.3%) strongly disagreed while 22 (10%) respondents had no opinion with this

statement. The mean score remained 3.22. These figures reflect that respondents had

doubts about the authenticity of data retrieved from online resources, which indicates

negative attitude of the respondents’ regarding use of online resources for research and

inquiry.

Only 13 (5.9%) respondents strongly agreed, 53 (24.2%) agreed, 31 (14.2%)

remained un-decided, while a majority 93 (42.5%) respondents disagreed and 27

(12.3%) respondents strongly disagreed that use of computer creates health and

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environmental problems. The mean score for this negative statement remained 2.55.

This indicates positive attitudes of the librarians regarding usage of computers at their

workplaces and at home.

The mean score of 3.43 for the above seventeen statements revealed that the

librarians showed positive attitudes toward the impact of IT with most (14 out of 17) of

the statements. Respondents showed highly (over 4.0) positive attitudes on statements

concerning capabilities of IT in specific information searching, elimination of repetitive

tasks, innovation and efficiency in library operations and resource sharing. The overall

positive attitudes of respondents towards the impact of IT was further reinforced, given

that most respondents showed a low level of agreement (less than 3) with negative

statements. However, findings revealed respondents negative attitudes with the three

statements concerning librarians’ job fears because of extensive IT use; maintaining

automated library inventory (accessioning) and data storage on computers as risky.

4.7.2. Attitudes Toward IT Costs and Resource Allocation

Table 4.52 summarizes the attitudes of librarians toward IT costs and resource

allocation. The results indicate that 59 (26.9%) respondents strongly believed and a

majority 139 (63.5%) respondents believed that each year librarians should increase IT

expenditure, only 7 (3.2%) did not believe and 6 (2.7%) respondents strongly

disbelieved while 4 (1.8%) respondents had no opinion about this statement. The mean

score, 4.10 indicates strong agreement of the librarians in recognizing the need for

continuous increase in IT expenses.

Similarly, 91 (41.6%) strongly agreed and a majority 115 (52.5%) respondents

agreed that if extra funds were allocated to the library more IT would be purchased only

6 (2.7%) disagreed and 1 (.5%) strongly disagreed, while 5 (2.3%) respondents had no

opinion about this statement. The mean score, 4.32 indicates librarians’ opinions that

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special grants and funds if made available should be directed towards introducing new

information technologies in the libraries.

A total of 78 (35.6%) respondents strongly agreed and a majority 101 (46.1%)

agreed that whenever a new technology is acquired, it is essential that funds should be

allocated for the purpose of education and training, even if it is expensive, 15 (6.8%)

disagreed, 11 (5%) strongly disagreed while 13 (5.9%) did not give their opinion about

this statement. The mean score, 4.01 indicates the respondents’ strong agreement with

the need for allocation of funds for training on new technologies.

Table 4.52
Attitudes Toward IT Cost and Resource Allocation
(n=219)
Attitude Statements N SDA DA UD A SA Mean
Each year librarians should increase IT 215 6 7 4 139 59 4.10
expenditure 2.7% 3.2% 1.8% 63.5% 26.9%
If extra fund were allocated to my 218 1 6 5 115 91 4.32
library more IT would be purchased .5% 2.7% 2.3% 52.5% 41.6%
Whenever new technology is acquired it 218 11 15 13 101 78
is essential that funds should be
4.01
allocated for the purpose of education
and training even if it is expensive 5.0% 6.8% 5.9% 46.1% 35.6%
While cost of IT tools is very high they 218 16 91 28 55 28
are not well worth their value for 2.94
Pakistani libraries 7.3% 41.6% 12.8% 25.1% 12.8%
The expenditure for IT maintenance and 218 9 57 17 97 38
supplies is very high compared to 3.45
printed resources 4.1% 26.0% 7.8% 44.3% 17.4%
The cost of the most appropriate and 219 22 81 31 55 30
advanced technology for my library is
2.95
so high that I will not be able to
purchase what I need 10.0% 37.0% 14.2% 25.1% 13.7%
IT is still a luxury for Pakistani libraries 218 40 80 11 48 39 2.84
18.3% 36.5% 5% 21.9% 17.8%

A total of 28 (12.8%) respondents strongly agreed and 55 (25.1%) agreed with

the statement that while the cost of IT tools is very high, they are not worth their value

for Pakistani libraries, 28 (12.8%) respondents remained undecided while a significant

number 91 (41.6%) respondents did not agree while 16 (7.3%) strongly disagreed with

this statement. The mean score, 2.94 indicates the level of disagreement with this

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negative statement, which indicates the librarians’ believe the worth and importance of

buying IT for Pakistani libraries.

In response to statement, that the expenditure of IT maintenance and supplies is

very high compared to printed resources, 38 (17.4%) respondents showed their strong

agreement, a majority 97 (44.3%) showed agreement, 57 (26%) showed disagreement

and 9 (4.1%) respondents showed strong disagreement while 17 (7.8%) respondents had

no opinion about this statement. The mean score, 3.45 reflects the respondents’

agreement level with this statement.

The respondents were divided about a statement when 30 (13.7%) respondents

showed strong agreement, 55 (25.1%) showed agreement, a majority 81 (37%) showed

disagreement and 22 (10%) respondents showed strong disagreement with a statement

that cost was a major factor for not buying IT for libraries. The mean score for this

statement is 2.95. The data indicates that while cost may be one factor, there may be

other factors for not buying IT for libraries.

Only 39 (17.8%) respondents showed strong agreement, 48 (21.9%) showed

agreement, a majority 80 (36.5%) respondents showed disagreement and 40 (18.3%)

respondents showed strong disagreement with a statement that information technology

is still a luxury for Pakistani libraries, while 11 (5%) remained undecided with this

statement. The mean score for this statement is 2.84. The low level of agreement with

this negative statement shows that the librarians in Pakistan consider IT as a necessity

not a luxury for their libraries.

Mean scores on attitudes of librarians on IT cost and resources allocation are

generally high. The mean level of agreement was positively high for the first three

statements mentioned in Table 4.30 focusing on allocation of budget for IT expenditure.

Respondents also indicated their concerns regarding high cost of IT tools and e-

resources. The overall positive attitudes of respondents toward IT cost and resource

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allocation was further reinforced, given that most respondents showed a low level of

agreement with negative statements. Librarians consider IT as a necessity not a luxury

for Pakistani and other developing country libraries.

4.7.3. Attitudes Toward IT Training for Staff and Users

Respondents were asked to indicate their beliefs and opinions regarding the

need and importance of IT training for staff and users through four statements. As

described in Table 4.53, a significant majority 143 (65.3%) strongly agreed and 66

(30.1%) respondents agreed that attainment of theoretical and practical IT knowledge

should be a core component of library education in Pakistan only 3 (1.4%) strongly

disagreed and the same number of respondents disagreed and same number of

respondents remained undecided about this statement.

Table 4.53
Attitudes Toward IT Training for Staff and Users
(n=219)
Attitude Statements N SDA DA UD A SA Mean
The attainment of theoretical and
practical IT knowledge should be a 218 3 3 3 66 143
4.57
core component of library education 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 30.1% 65.3%
In Pakistan
All levels of staff involved in IT
2 3 1 80 133
applications should be given 219 4.55
.9% 1.4% .5% 36.5% 60.7%
ongoing education and training
It is essential for librarians to
arrange instructional programmes 219 3 14 4 94 104
4.29
for users whenever they introduce 1.4% 6.4% 1.8% 42.9% 47.5%
new electronic systems
Library automation training
currently being imparted through
Pakistan Library Association 43 79 25 50 22
2.70
computer centres and other 217 19.6% 36.1% 11.4% 22.8% 10%
institutions in Pakistan is of high
quality and very effective

The mean score at 4.57 indicates strong agreement regarding importance of

theoretical and practical IT knowledge through library education as a core component of

the formal library education in Pakistan.

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A majority, 133 (60.7%) respondents strongly agreed and 80 (36.5%) agreed

that all levels of staff involved in IT applications should be given on-going education

and training, only 3 respondents disagreed 2 strongly disagreed and 1 remained

undecided about this statement. The mean score for this statement is 4.55. The findings

revealed librarians strongly believe in ongoing IT training for all level of library staff.

Similarly, a majority 104 (47.5%) respondents strongly believed and 94 (42.9%)

believed that it is essential for librarians to arrange instructional programmes for users

whenever they introduce or receive new electronic systems, 14 (6.4%) did not agree and

3 (1.4%) strongly disagreed, while 4 (1.8%) respondents had no opinion about this

statement. The mean score, 4.29 indicates respondents’ opinions concerning user

training enhance the use of library systems.

Respondents were asked to show their agreement or disagreement with a

negatively framed statement that the level and quality of library automation training

provided by the Pakistan Library Association (PLA) computer-training centre and other

institutions in Pakistan 22 (10%) strongly agreed and 50 (22.5%) agreed with this

statement, while majority 79 (36.1%) did not agree and 43 (19.6%) strongly disagreed

with this statement and, 25 (11.4%) remained undecided that the training provided by

Pakistan Library Association (PLA) computer training centre and other institutions in

Pakistan is of high quality and very effective. The mean score for this statement is 2.70.

Disagreement of the majority of the respondents with this negative statement shows

librarians’ positive attitudes and concern that the standard and quality of the training

currently provided needed to be raised.

Mean scores of 4.57, 4.55 and 4.29 revealed librarians’ positive attitudes and

emphasis toward IT training for staff and users. The overall positive attitudes of

respondents toward IT training was further reinforced, given that most respondents

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showed a low level of agreement with a negative statement regarding quality of IT

training provided by Pakistan Library Association computer training centre.

4.7.4. Attitudes Toward General IT Statements

Respondents were asked to indicate their agreement or disagreement with the 14

general information technology statements. The data in Table 4.54 indicates that only

26 (11.9%) respondents strongly agreed and 31 (14.2%) respondents agreed with the

statement that application of IT in libraries is not librarians’ responsibility, computer

professionals need to do this. A significant number, 113 (51.6%) respondents disagreed

35 (16%) strongly disagreed while 14 (6.4%) respondents had no opinion about this

statement. The respondents’ disagreement with this negative statement shows the

librarians’ positive attitudes and commitment that it is the responsibility of librarians to

take IT related innovative initiatives in their libraries. These figures and the mean score,

2.60 indicate some librarians’ confusion regarding responsibility for IT applications in

libraries. The reason behind this confusion regarding IT application ownership in

libraries could be attributed to the heads of institutions’ confidence in computer

professionals in this regard rather than on librarians.

In response to a statement that only librarians should be enthusiastic and

committed toward technological innovation in libraries, 49 (22.4%) respondents showed

strong agreement a majority 88 (40.2%) showed agreement, 61 (27.9%) showed

disagreement and 8 (3.7%) showed strong disagreement while 13 (5.9%) had no opinion

about this statement. The mean score for this statement is 3.53. This also indicates

confusions in 31.6% respondents regarding responsibility for IT initiative in libraries.

A total of 83 (37.9%) respondents strongly agreed a majority 109 (49.8%)

agreed, only 15 respondents disagreed and 5 strongly disagreed while 7 remained

undecided about a statement that application of IT should be a high priority in our

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libraries. The mean score, 4.14 indicates the high level of agreement that new

technologies should be implemented on priority in libraries for effective management

and initiation of new services to users.

Table 4.54
Attitudes Toward General IT Statements
(n=219)
Attitude Statements N SDA DA UD A SA Mean
Application of IT in libraries is not
35 113 14 31 26
librarians responsibility computer 219 2.60
16% 51.6% 6.4% 14.2% 11.9%
professionals need to do this
Only librarians should be enthusiastic
8 61 13 88 49
and committed toward technological 217 3.53
3.7% 27.9% 5.9% 40.2% 22.4%
innovations in libraries
Application of IT should be a high 5 15 7 109 83
4.14
priority in our libraries 219 2.3% 6.8% 3.2% 49.8% 37.9%
It is difficult for librarians to handle 32 115 11 40 21
2.55
computer and other technologies 219 14.6% 52.5% 5.0% 18.3% 9.6%
IT is a separate discipline librarians need 59 85 13 35 27
2.47
not to learn this 219 26.9% 38.8% 5.9% 16.0% 12.3%
Electronic resources are more effective to
conduct simple complex and 218 10 24 15 106 63
3.86
comprehensive searches than manual 4.6% 11.0% 6.8% 48.4% 28.8%
systems
Concrete steps should be taken by
1 9 9 122 78
Pakistani libraries to develop library 219 4.22
.5% 4.1% 4.1% 55.7% 35.6%
networks and consortia
More advanced IT would be applied in 2 10 13 124 70
4.14
Pakistani libraries in future 219 .9% 4.6% 5.9% 56.6% 32%
New information technology is exciting 0 11 4 160 44
4.08
and fascinating 219 5.0% 1.8% 73.1% 20.1%
Many librarians in Pakistan carry many
8 39 20 127 25
myths and confusions about application 219 3.56
3.7% 17.8% 9.1% 58% 11.4%
of IT in libraries
IT is more useful for developed country 219 19 110 17 50 23
2.76
libraries compared to Pakistani libraries 8.7% 50.2% 7.8% 22.8% 10.5%
It is difficult for librarians in Pakistan to
13 90 11 89 15
cope with ever-changing technologies 218 3.01
5.9% 41.1% 5.0% 40.6% 6.8%
and innovations
Competencies developed by library
schools in Pakistan are equal to 218 65 95 12 36 10
2.22
international standards and could help in 29.7% 43.4% 5.5% 16.4% 4.6%
meeting emerging technology challenges
Rule and schemes developed only for 34
16 73 78 18
print collections have become obsolete in 219 15.5% 3.04
7.3% 33.3% 35.6% 8.2%
the current scenario

Only 21 (9.6%) respondents strongly agreed 40 (18.3%) agreed with the

statement that it is difficult for librarians to handle computer and other technologies, a

majority 115 (52.5%) disagreed and 32 (14.6%) strongly disagreed while 11 (5%)

remained undecided with this statement. This shows confidence of the majority of the

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librarians in handling the information technologies in libraries. The mean score at 2.55

indicates the low level of agreement over this statement.

Only 27 (12.3%) respondents strongly agreed, 35 (16%) agreed, 13 (5.9%) had

no opinion while majority 85 (38.8%) respondents disagreed and 59 (26.9%) strongly

disagreed with the negative statement that information technology is a separate

discipline and librarians need not learn it. The mean score for this statement remain

2.47. The findings indicate realization of the fact on part of the librarians that IT is not a

separate discipline; it is now everywhere, in every profession, and in every house.

Moreover, it is pervasive, so we have to learn it for better use in libraries.

The data for the above five statement indicates that the majority, over 60%

librarians, are clear that they are responsible for any IT innovation or initiative for their

libraries. However, around 30% librarians had confusion about the responsibility for IT

initiative in their libraries.

In response to a statement that electronic resources are more effective in

conducting simple, complex and comprehensive searches compared to manual systems,

63 (28.8%) respondents showed strong agreement, a majority 106 (48.4%) showed

agreement, 15 had no opinion while 24 respondents did not agree and 10 respondents

showed strongly disagreement with this statement. The mean score at 3.86 indicates the

respondents’ level of agreement with this statement.

In response to a statement, that concrete steps should be taken by Pakistani

librarians to develop library networks and consortia, 78 (35.6%) respondents showed

their strong agreement, a majority 122 (55.7%) showed agreement 9 (4.1%) remained

undecided and only 9 respondents did not agree while 1 respondent showed strong

disagreement with this statement. The mean score at 4.22 indicates respondents’ high

level of agreement and desire of librarians to develop cooperative IT-based networks

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and consortia to handle the budgetary constraints and rising costs of library books,

journals and online databases.

A total of 70 (32%) respondents strongly believed 124 (56.6%) believed that

more advanced IT would be applied in Pakistani libraries in future, 13 remained

undecided only 10 (4.6%) did not agree and 2 respondent strongly disagreed with this

statement. The mean score at 4.14 indicates respondents’ high level of agreement and

optimism about IT application in our libraries.

A total of 44 (20.1%) respondents strongly agreed and a majority 160 (73.1%)

agreed that new IT is exciting and fascinating, 4 (1.8%) remained undecided while only

11 (5%) did not agree with this statement. The mean score at 4.08 indicates that

respondents enjoy using IT, and they seem free of any technology anxiety or stress,

which is good for our libraries development.

Twenty-five (11.4%) respondents strongly agreed, a majority 127 (58%)

respondents agreed that many librarians in Pakistani carry many myths and confusions

about IT application in libraries, 20 (9.1%) remained undecided while 39 (17.8%)

disagreed and 8 (3.7%) respondents strongly disagree with this statement. The mean

score at 3.56 indicates that respondents need more training opportunities, guidelines and

understanding regarding automation, its benefits, its limits, choices in software and

hardware selection, implementation and its ultimate benefits to our users.

Only 23 (10.5%) respondents strongly agreed and 50 (22.8%) agreed, 17 (7.8%)

had no opinion while a majority, 110 (50.2%) respondents did not agree and 19 (8.7%)

strongly disagreed with the statement that IT is more useful for libraries of developed

countries compared to Pakistani libraries. The mean score for this statement is 2.76.

This indicates the importance of using information technology in Pakistan in the

librarians’ minds.

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Respondents were divided over a statement that librarians in Pakistan are

finding it difficult to cope with innovations and ever-changing technologies, as 15

(6.8%) strongly agree and 89 (40.6%) agree while a majority 90 (41.1%) respondents

disagree and 13 (5.9%) strongly disagreed and 11 (5%) respondents remained

undecided with this statement. The mean score, 3.01 indicates respondents’ in-

decisiveness regarding this statement. These findings indicate tow results. One is that

half of the respondents may find it difficult to upgrade their skills with the fast changing

technologies. Second is that other half of respondents who do not agree with this

statement are confident in meeting the ever changing IT.

Only 10 (4.6%) respondents strongly believed, 36 (16.4%) believed while a

significant number 95 (43.4%) respondents did not believe and 65 (29.7%) strongly

disbelieved that the competencies developed by Pakistani library schools are equivalent

to international standard and could help in meeting the emerging technology challenges.

The mean score at 2.22 indicates respondents’ disagreement with this statement. This

concern of the majority of the respondents is in line with the literature on competencies,

and curriculum revision in library schools in Pakistan.

The respondents are divided over the statement that librarians need to develop

new cataloguing and classification rules because existing rules were focused toward

manual and printed resources, as 18 (8.2%) respondents strongly agreed a majority 78

(35.6%) agreed, 34 (15.5%) had no opinion while 73 (33.3%) did not agree and 16

(7.3%) strongly disagreed with this statement. The mean score at 3.04 indicates

respondents’ in-decisiveness and negative attitudes with this statement.

184
Mean scores on librarians’ attitudes on general IT statements are generally high.

The mean level of agreement was positively high (more than 4) for the following

statements:

Statements Mean Score

• Application of IT should be a high priority for libraries 4.14

• Librarians should take concrete steps to develop library networks 4.22

• Advanced IT will be applied in Pakistan libraries in future 4.14

• New IT is exciting and fascinating for librarians 4.08

The overall positive attitudes of respondents toward general IT applications are

further reinforced given that most respondents showed a low level of agreement with

negative statements. However, respondents’ showed negative attitudes toward

development of new rules and regulations for handling IT materials and tools.

4.7.5. Overall IT Attitudes

Table 4.55 presents a summary of the respondents’ overall attitudes toward

information technology statements and the breakdown of their attitudes toward impact

of information technology, IT costs and resource allocation, IT training and general IT

attitude statements. The mean scores given against each group of statements indicate the

respondents’ average level of agreement with the particular group of statements. The

mean score of 4.19 indicates librarians’ consensus and high priority of information

technology related training for both the patrons and library staff. The overall mean score

of 3.59 indicates that respondents showed positive attitudes towards IT statements. This

was further reinforced given that most of the respondents showed a low level of

agreement with negative statements.

185
Table 4.55
Summary of Respondents’ IT Attitudes
(n=219)
Group Sum of
Attitudes Statement Groups N Statements Mean
Attitudes of librarians about impact of IT 218.17 749.88 3.43
Attitudes of librarians about IT cost and
resource allocation 217.71 779.00 3.59
Attitudes of librarians about IT training 218.25 915.00 4.19
Attitudes of librarians about general IT
statements 218.64 796.86 3.64
Librarians’ overall IT attitudes 218.26 810.18 3.71

The mean of 17 IT attitudes statements about impact of information technology

is 3.43; it is 3.59 for 7 statements about IT costs and resource allocation. The mean

score for 4 attitudes statements regarding IT training is higher among all the groups as it

is 4.19 and for 14 general IT attitudes statements the mean score is 3.64. The overall

mean score 42 IT attitudes statements are 3.71 reflecting an overall positive attitude of

librarians toward application of IT in academic libraries of Pakistan.

Respondents placed high emphasis on the following statements:

1. Application of IT should be a high priority for libraries.

2. Pakistani librarians should take concrete steps to develop library networks

for resource sharing.

3. More advanced information technologies will be applied in Pakistan libraries

in future.

4. Information technology is exciting and fascinating.

5. Budget should be provided for training whenever a new technology is

acquired even if it is highly expensive.

The respondents also emphasized the need for orientation of library staff and

users for every new system installed or implemented the need for devising new rules

and regulations for IT environment, the need for highly recommended changes in the

syllabi of library schools and in the contents of the Pakistan Library Association

186
Computer Training Centre courses. However, it was discouraging to note that 28% of

the respondents still believed that IT is a separate discipline and librarians need not

learn it, and it is difficult for librarians to handle computers and other technologies.

Forty percent respondents believed that IT is still a luxury for Pakistani libraries,

35% of the respondents believed that information retrieval is easier through printed

resources compared to online resources. Similarly, some librarians were not clear

regarding ownership for introducing information technology in libraries.

Findings also revealed respondents negative attitudes with the five statements

concerning librarians’ job fears because of extensive IT use; maintaining automated

inventory (accessioning); data storage on computers is risky, cost of IT tools is too high

of their worth for Pakistani libraries. Respondents also showed negative attitude for

abandoning rule and regulations developed to handle printed resources versus

development and adoption of new rules for handling IT tools and resources in libraries.

The next section provides factor analysis conducted to explore the underlying

factors/ dimensions on the 42-items librarians IT attitude scale.

4.8. Factor Analysis

One of the purposes of this study was to explore the underlying dimensions of

librarians’ attitudes toward application of IT in academic libraries of Pakistan. In order

to do so, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was deployed on 42 IT attitude

statements with Likert type data. Use of factor analysis requires certain assumptions or

conditions, to be met before the decision to run factor analysis can be taken (Hair et al

2006). The first assumption is that there should be at least three variables from the pool

of items to be factor analyzed. This assumption was met since 42 items are available

from the librarians IT attitude scale. The second assumption is that the variables to be

factor analyzed must be measured on an interval or ratio scale. This assumption was

187
also met since all the items in the librarians IT attitude scale were interval level

variables. Respondents were asked to check the statements on a 5-point Likert scale: (1)

strongly disagree; (2) disagree; (3) undecided; (4) agree and (5) strongly agree. The

third assumption is that there should be significant inter-correlations between each pair

of variables. Table of correlations indicated many correlations were significant between

all items (See Table 4.59). The fourth and final assumption is that there should be at

least a minimum of 5 cases per variable. This assumption was met since each variable

has more than required number of cases (N=219).

Negatively worded statements were reverse-scored in the beginning, so that all

the statements were scored in the same direction. The larger value for each statement

represented more positive attitude. Factor analysis was conducted resulting in a three-

factor solution for dimensions of librarians IT attitudes. It was considered most

appropriate after examining the Scree plot, Eigenvalues, component matrix, and

correlation matrix (Table 4.57, Table 4.58, Table 4.59 and Figure 4.4). The extraction

method used was principal components, with a varimax procedure, excluding cases

listwise and sorting factors by size. Varimax rotation with principal component was

preferred over other options because it allows factors to be interpreted from few

variables with positive loadings to few variables with negative loadings. Using this

method the researcher ignored the statement with less than .35% of coefficient value.

The reason for this cut off point is that statements with less than .35% coefficient values

were not conceptually relevant with the other grouped statements. Besides, this arbitrary

cut off was deployed to keep the number of factors to a manageable level both for ease

of labelling factors in some meaningful way and for aiding in interpretation of results.

Cronbach alpha was run to test internal consistency of each factor. The rotated

components matrix was examined for overlapping variables to increase the reliability of

factor scale. Initially, sixteen statements were grouped under factor 1 with 5.028 (12%

188
of the total variance) Eigenvalues based on their variability. However, eleven

significantly relevant statements as per the above stated criteria were considered for

assigning labels. Nine statements were grouped under factor 2 with 2.708 (6.4% of the

total variance) Eigenvalues based on their variability. Eight statements were grouped

and used for labelling under factor 3 with 2.283 (5.4% of the total variance)

Eigenvalues based on their variability. These underlying factors affect the attitudes of

librarians toward information technology. These factors could be used to assess

librarians’ attitudes, intentions, perceptions, behaviours and capabilities toward IT

application in Pakistani libraries.

The dimensions of librarians IT attitude scale are labelled and defined as follows:

• Perceived confidence in IT application: It refers to librarians’ confidence in

application of IT. This is an important factor in determining librarians’ attitudes

toward IT application in academic libraries of Pakistan. Higher the confidence

of librarians in IT application more positive their attitudes toward IT application

in academic libraries in Pakistan would be.

• Perceived capabilities of IT: It refers to the librarians’ opinions and beliefs that

IT has capabilities to bring positive changes in library operations and services

for users. Higher the librarians perceptions about the capabilities of IT more

positive their attitudes toward IT application in academic libraries in Pakistan

would be.

• Perceived usefulness of IT: It refers to the librarians’ opinions and beliefs

about usefulness of IT in library operations and services as compared to print or

manual systems and its worth in terms of expenses. Thus, higher the perceptions

of librarians concerning usefulness of IT more positive their attitudes toward IT

application in academic libraries in Pakistan would be.

189
Table 4.56
Dimensions of Librarians IT Attitudes
Factor Labels for Loaded Cronbach
Factors Initial Eigenvalues of Loadings Alpha
Nos. Dimensions Variance Cumulative
Total % %
1 Perceived Confidence .7571
5.028 11.973 11.973
in IT Application
2 Perceived .6244
2.708 6.448 18.421
Capabilities of IT
3 Perceived Usefulness .6021
2.283 5.435 23.855
of IT

Scree Plot
6

2
Eigenvalue

0
1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40

Component Number

Figure 4.4
Scree Plot for of IT Attitudes Factors Eigenvalues

190
Table 4.57
Rotated Component Matrix
Components
Item no. 1 2 3
attitude32 .674
attitude33 .596
attitude29 .593
attitude8 .529
attitude16 .523
attitude14 .491
attitude21 .489
attitude24 .457
attitude17 -.430
attitude9 .408
attitude40 -.397
attitude42 -.376
attitude4 .363
attitude15 .355
attitude22 -.351
attitude23
attitude38
attitude41
attitude34
attitude36 .611
attitude13 .548
attitude35 .494
attitude37 .455
attitude27 .455
attitude7 .444
attitude26 .410
attitude19 .385
attitude18 .351
attitude31
attitude20
attitude25
attitude30
attitude12 .537
attitude6 .532
attitude3 .522
attitude5 .382 .494
attitude39 .452
attitude1 .429
attitude28 .417
attitude2 .366
attitude10
attitude11
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax
with Kaiser Normalization. A Rotation converged in 5 iterations.

191
Table 4.58
Total Variance Explained
Comp Extraction Sums of Rotation Sums of Squared
onent Initial Eigenvalues Squared Loadings Loadings
% of % of % of
Varian Cumula Varian Cumulat Varianc Cumulat
Total ce tive % Total ce ive % Total e ive %
1 5.028 11.973 11.973 5.028 11.973 11.973 4.551 10.835 10.835
2 2.708 6.448 18.421 2.708 6.448 18.421 3.008 7.161 17.996
3 2.283 5.435 23.855 2.283 5.435 23.855 2.461 5.859 23.855
4 2.220 5.286 29.142
5 1.966 4.682 33.823
6 1.890 4.500 38.323
7 1.745 4.155 42.478
8 1.612 3.839 46.318
9 1.507 3.589 49.907
10 1.312 3.123 53.029
11 1.238 2.947 55.977
12 1.216 2.895 58.871
13 1.125 2.679 61.550
14 1.085 2.583 64.133
15 .971 2.311 66.444
16 .958 2.282 68.726
17 .933 2.220 70.946
18 .895 2.131 73.077
19 .825 1.965 75.043
20 .812 1.933 76.975
21 .746 1.775 78.750
22 .700 1.666 80.417
23 .685 1.630 82.047
24 .643 1.531 83.577
25 .601 1.431 85.009
26 .561 1.336 86.345
27 .534 1.273 87.618
28 .525 1.249 88.867
29 .493 1.173 90.040
30 .472 1.123 91.163
31 .443 1.054 92.217
32 .419 .997 93.214
33 .406 .966 94.180
34 .351 .835 95.015
35 .348 .829 95.845
36 .318 .757 96.601
37 .284 .676 97.278
38 .255 .607 97.885
39 .248 .591 98.475
40 .233 .554 99.030
41 .222 .527 99.557
42 100.00
.186 .443
0
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

192
Table 4.59
Component Matrix of Loaded Variables for Factor Analysis
Variable Statements /Components
(Factors) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
It is difficult for librarians to handle
computer technology 0.59 0.27 0.20 0.04 0.15 0.09 0.09 0.02
Cost of IT tools is very high of … for
Pakistani libraries 0.59 0.11 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.37 0.02 0.07
IT application in libraries is the
responsibility of computer
professionals not librarians 0.59 0.14 0.07 0.11 0.04 0.17 0.16 0.21

IT is still a luxury for Pakistani libraries 0.54 0.03 0.10 0.19 0.00 0.24 0.32 0.06
IT is a separate discipline librarians’
need not to learn 0.52 0.26 0.16 0.08 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16
Card catalogue can be modified easily
than OPAC 0.49 0.04 0.39 0.03 0.25 0.15 0.19 0.02
Each year librarians should increase IT
expenditure 0.46 0.20 0.01 0.45 0.15 0.09 0.21 0.05
Computer creates health and
environmental problems 0.46 0.02 0.16 0.28 0.06 0.24 0.02 0.25
IT is more useful for developed country
libraries 0.45 0.01 0.36 0.33 0.16 0.13 0.03 0.05
Extensive IT use creates job fears
amongst librarians 0.45 0.31 0.01 0.18 0.24 0.13 0.05 0.34
User must be given orientation of new
IT systems 0.41 0.28 0.23 0.15 0.03 0.23 0.22 0.29
Online databases provide more up-to-
date information 0.40 0.04 0.05 0.18 0.30 0.34 0.02 0.07
Data storage on computer is highly
risky 0.40 0.27 0.13 0.14 0.12 0.12 0.31 0.09
More IT will be applied in Pakistani
libraries in future 0.04 0.65 0.03 0.01 0.15 0.02 0.22 0.11
IT enables most effective ways of
resource sharing 0.08 0.57 0.01 0.11 0.10 0.16 0.09 0.22
Pakistani libraries should take concrete
steps to develop library networks 0.21 0.48 0.08 0.03 0.26 0.18 0.20 0.06
New Information Technology is
exciting and fascinating 0.18 0.45 0.08 0.14 0.25 0.04 0.11 0.04
Changes occurring due to IT are out of
control of librarian 0.02 0.06 0.54 0.25 0.33 0.13 0.17 0.19
All level of staff can easily work with
IT based systems 0.10 0.05 0.54 0.23 0.15 0.26 0.12 0.11
Computers help eliminate repetitive …
functions 0.27 0.26 0.45 0.39 0.16 0.18 0.09 0.02
Use of IT helps to make quick and
correct decisions 0.09 0.35 0.41 0.07 0.04 0.17 0.12 0.25
Training fund allocation is must for
new technology 0.23 0.21 0.16 0.54 0.33 0.02 0.29 0.05
IT will not … reduce the number of
library staff 0.14 0.13 0.25 0.49 0.30 0.19 0.20 0.01
IT helps provide specific information
available 0.21 0.15 0.31 0.21 0.60 0.05 0.07 0.17
Each year IT offers more efficient ways
to carry library operations 0.18 0.18 0.38 0.17 0.56 0.04 0.17 0.12
(Cont’d)

193
Table 4.59 (Cont’d)
Variable statements /components
(factors) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Rule … for print have become obsolete
now 0.22 0.44 0.01 0.10 0.04 0.54 0.04 0.02
Expenditure for IT maintenance is very
high than print resources 0.39 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.19 0.46 0.11 0.01
Only librarians should be committed
towards IT innovation in libraries 0.04 0.05 0.09 0.25 0.14 0.08 0.56 0.24
Data retrieved through print resources
is authentic than online resources 0.44 0.23 0.19 0.02 0.00 0.10 0.44 0.18
Extra fund allocations should be spent
on IT 0.25 0.30 0.07 0.07 0.21 0.03 0.43 0.05
Attainment of theoretical and practical
IT knowledge …be core component of
lib. edn. 0.30 0.22 0.02 0.22 0.06 0.17 0.10 0.57
Staff involved in IT should be given
ongoing training 0.31 0.29 0.15 0.27 0.04 0.09 0.01 0.50
Extraction Method: Principal Components Analysis.

In order to extract and explore underlying factors, principal component analysis

was conducted on 42-item IT attitude scale using SPSS. It resulted in a three-factor

solution. These factors were labelled as (1) Perceived confidence in IT application, (2)

Perceived capabilities of IT and (3) Perceived usefulness of IT. Librarians’ beliefs and

opinions on these dimensions constitute their attitudes toward IT application. The high

score on these dimensions means high positive attitude of librarians toward IT.

4.9. Statistically Significant Differences

The description, analysis, interpretation and findings with regard to the

availability and use of different IT tools and applications, organizational characteristics,

demographic variables and librarians’ professional characteristics, attitudes of librarians

toward information technology and determination of IT attitude subscales have

provided a basis for further analysis.

This section presents the analysis concerning statistically significant mean

differences between independent variables namely, type of library, geographical

location, gender, computer use at home, librarians’ highest professional qualification

and three dimensions of librarians IT attitudes as per established research questions.

194
Independent sample t-test and One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to

determine the statistically significant differences between means of independent

variables with regard to three factor subscales of librarians’ IT attitudes. These three

subscales/dimensions are perceived confidence in IT application, perceived capabilities

of IT, and perceived usefulness of IT.

4.9.1. Type of Library and Librarians IT Attitudes

Are there statistically significant mean differences in different dimensions of IT

attitudes of librarians who are working in public and private academic libraries?

Type of Library and Perceived Confidence in IT Application

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = .48, p>.05, between public (M= 3.22, SD=

0.62) and private sector librarians (M= 3.16, SD= 0.83)] with regard to their score on

librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived confidence in IT application” (See Table

4.60).

Table 4.60
Type of Library and Perceived Confidence in IT Application

Type of Library N Mean SD t df Sig (2-tailed)


Public 170 3.2198 .62
Private 49 3.1577 .83
Total 219 .483 217 .631

Type of Library and Perceived Capabilities of IT

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = 1.15, p>.05, between public (M= 4.18,

SD= 0.39) and private sector librarians (M= 4.26, SD= 0.49)] with regard to their score

on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived capabilities of IT” (See Table 4.61).

195
Table 4.61
Type of Library and Perceived Capabilities of IT

Type of Library N Mean SD t df Sig (2-tailed)


Public 170 4.1784 .39
Private 49 4.2562 .49
Total 219 1.152 217 .250

Type of Library and Perceived Usefulness of IT

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that a statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = 2.22, p<.05, between public (M= 3.63,

SD= 0.55) and private sector librarians (M= 3.43, SD= 0.61)] with regard to their score

on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived usefulness of IT” (See Table 4.62).

Findings suggest that perceived usefulness of IT was higher in public sector librarians

compared to private sector librarians.

Table 4.62
Type of Library and Perceived Usefulness of IT

Type of Library N Mean SD t df Sig (2-tailed)


Public 170 3.6331 .55
Private 49 3.4311 .61
Total 219 2.217 217 .028

4.9.2. Geographic Location and Librarians IT Attitudes

Are there statistically significant mean differences in different dimensions of IT

attitudes of librarians who are working in city or town academic libraries?

Location of Library and Perceived Confidence in IT Application

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = 1.07, p>.05, between librarians of city

(M= 3.22, SD= 0.69) and town academic libraries (M= 3.07, SD= 0.59)] with regard to

their score on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived confidence in IT application”

(See Table 4.63).

196
Table 4.63
Location of Library and Perceived Confidence in IT Application

Location N Mean SD t df Sig (2-tailed)


City 191 3.2247 .69
Town 28 3.0779 .59
Total 219 1.074 217 .284

Location of Library and Perceived Capabilities of IT

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = 1.17, p>.05, between librarians of city

(M= 4.18, SD= 0.42) and town academic libraries (M= 4.28, SD= 0.38)] with regard to

their score on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived capabilities of IT” (See Table

4.64).

Table 4.64
Location of Library and Perceived Capabilities of IT

Location N Mean SD t df Sig (2-tailed)


City 191 4.1832 .42
Town 28 4.2817 .38
Total 219 1.169 217 .244

Location of Library and Perceived Usefulness of IT

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = -1.35, p>.05, between librarians of city

(M= 3.57, SD= 0.56) and town libraries (M= 3.72, SD= 0.57)] with regard to their score

on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived usefulness of IT” (See Table 4.65).

Table 4.65
Location of Library and Perceived Usefulness of IT

Location N Mean SD t df Sig (2-tailed)


City 191 3.5681 .56
Town 28 3.7232 .57
Total 219 -1.355 217 .177

197
4.9.3 Gender and Librarians IT Attitudes

Are there statistically significant mean differences in different dimensions of IT

attitudes between male and female librarians?

Gender and Perceived Confidence in IT Application

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = -.105, p>.05, between male librarians (M=

3.20, SD= 0.69) and female librarians (M= 3.21, SD= 0.62)] with regard to their score

on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived confidence in IT application” (See Table

4.66).

Table 4.66
Gender and Perceived Confidence in IT Application

Gender N Mean SD T df Sig (2-tailed)


Male 176 3.2035 .69
Female 43 3.2156 .62
Total 219 -.105 217 .916

Gender and Perceived Capabilities of IT

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = -.598, p>.05, between male librarians (M=

4.19, SD= 0.42) and female librarians (M= 4.23, SD= 0.39)] with regard to their score

on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived capabilities of IT” (See Table 4.67).

Table 4.67
Gender and Perceived Capabilities of IT

Gender N Mean SD t df Sig (2-tailed)


Male 176 4.1875 .42
Female 43 4.2300 .39
Total 219 -.598 217 .555

198
Gender and Perceived Usefulness of IT

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = .458, p>.05, between male librarians (M=

3.60, SD= 0.55) and female librarians (M= 3.55, SD= 0.65)] with regard to their score

on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived usefulness of IT” (See Table 4.68).

Table 4.68
Gender and Perceived Usefulness of IT

Gender N Mean SD T df Sig (2-tailed


Male 176 3.5966 .55
Female 43 3.5523 .65
Total 219 .458 217 .647

4.9.4. Computer Use at Home and Librarians IT Attitudes

Are there statistically significant mean differences in different dimensions of IT

attitudes of librarians who use and those who do not use computers at home?

Computer Use at Home and Perceived Confidence in IT Application

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that a statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = -2.554, p<.05, between librarians who are

not using (M= 3.04, SD= 0.77) and those who are using computers at home (M= 3.28,

SD= 0.61)], with regard to their score on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived

confidence in IT application” (See Table 4.69). Findings suggest that librarians who

were using computers at home showed high level of confidence in IT application

compared to those not using computers at home.

Table 4.69
Computer Use at Home and Perceived Confidence in IT Application

Computer Use at Home N Mean SD t df Sig (2-tailed


No 71 3.0397 .77
Yes 147 3.2856 .61
Total 219 -2.554 217 .020

199
Computer Use at Home and Perceived Capabilities of IT

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = -.659, p>.05, between librarians who are

not using (M= 4.17, SD= 0.49) and those who are using computers at home (M= 4.21,

SD= 0.38)] with regard to their score on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived

capabilities of IT” (See Table 4.70).

Table 4.70
Computer Use at Home and Perceived Capabilities of IT

Computer Use at t df Sig (2-tailed


Home N Mean SD
No 71 4.1690 .49
Yes 148 4.2087 .38
Total 219 -.659 217 .511

Computer Use at Home and Perceived Usefulness of IT

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [t (217) = -1.95, p>.05, between librarians who are

not using (M= 3.48, SD= 0.53) and those who are using computers at home (M= 3.64,

SD= 0.58)] with regard to their score on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived

usefulness of IT” (See Table 4.71).

Table 4.71
Computer Use at Home and Perceived Usefulness of IT

Computer Use at Home N Mean SD t df Sig (2-tailed


No 71 3.4806 .53
Yes 148 3.6394 .58
Total 219 -1.952 217 .052

200
4.9.5. Highest Professional Qualification and Librarians IT Attitudes

Are there statistically significant mean differences in different dimensions of IT

attitudes of librarians who have certificate, diploma, bachelor degrees, masters, MS/M.

Phil and doctorates?

Highest Professional Qualification and Perceived Confidence in IT Application

The results of running a One-way ANOVA showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [F (5, 213) = 1.488, p>.05] between the librarians

who have certificate, diploma, bachelor degrees, masters, MS/M. Phil and doctorates

with regard to their score on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived confidence in IT

application” (See Table 4.72).

Table 4.72
Highest Professional Qualification and Perceived Confidence in IT Application
ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 3.355 5 .671 1.488 .195
Within Groups 96.072 213 .451
Total 99.427 218

Highest Professional Qualification and Perceived Capabilities of IT

The results of running a One-way ANOVA showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [F (5, 213) = 2.155, p>.05] between the librarians

who have certificate, diploma, bachelor degrees, masters, MS/M. Phil and doctorates

with regard to their score on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived capabilities of

IT” (See Table 4.73).

Table 4.73
Highest Professional Qualification and Perceived Capabilities of IT
ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 1.822 5 .364 2.155 .060
Within Groups 36.025 213 .169
Total 37.848 218

201
Highest Professional Qualification and Perceived Usefulness of IT

The results of running a One-way ANOVA showed that no statistically

significant mean difference existed [F (5, 213) = .674, p>.05] between the librarians

who have certificate, diploma, bachelor degrees, masters, MS/M. Phil and doctorates

with regard to their score on librarians IT attitude subscale, “perceived usefulness of IT”

(See Table 4.74).

Table 4.74
Highest Professional Qualification and Perceived Usefulness of IT
ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 1.091 5 .218 .674 .643
Within Groups 68.936 213 .324
Total 70.027 218

Summary

The results of running an independent sample t-test showed that no statistically

significant mean differences existed between librarians working in cities and towns with

all dimensions of librarians IT attitudes. No statistically significant mean differences

existed between private and public sector librarians and their IT attitude dimensions of

perceived confidence in IT application and perceived capabilities of IT. A statistically

significant mean difference existed in public and private academic librarians and their

perceived usefulness of IT. No statically significant mean differences existed in male or

female librarians with all dimensions of their IT attitudes. A statistically significant

mean difference existed in those librarians using computers at home and those not using

computers at home with regard to their confidence in IT application. No statically

significant mean differences existed in librarians who were using or not using

computers at home on their perceived capabilities of IT and perceived usefulness of IT.

The results of running a One-way ANOVA showed that no statistically

significant mean differences existed between librarians with different professional

202
qualifications (certificate, diploma, bachelor, master, MS/M. Phil and doctorate and

their IT attitude dimensions (perceived confidence in IT application, perceived

capabilities of IT and perceived usefulness of IT).

4.10. Correlation Analysis

One of the objectives of this study was to determine the interrelationship

between independent variables (organizational, demographic and librarians’

professional characteristics) and dependent variable (different dimensions of librarians

IT attitudes). Spearman’s rho was deployed to measure the significance, intensity,

direction and relationship between independent variables with different dimensions of

librarians IT attitudes.

4.10.1. Organizational Variables and Librarians IT Attitudes

Are there statistically significant relationships between different dimensions of

librarians IT attitudes and libraries of varying collection size; user size; staff size and

library budget?

Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation (rho) was performed to find the

significance, intensity and direction of relationship between organizational variables

(collection size, user size, and staff size and library budget) with different dimensions of

librarians IT attitudes (perceived confidence in IT application, perceived capabilities of

IT and perceived usefulness of IT).

A visual inspection of Table 4.75 shows that no statistically significant

relationship existed between librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived confidence in IT

application” and organizational variables “collection size (rs=.011, p>.05), user size

(rs=.024, p>.05), staff size (rs=.132, p>.05) and library budget (rs=.017, p>.05).”

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Table 4.75
Organizational Variables and Perceived Confidence in IT Application
Correlates Perceived Confidence in IT Application
Collection Size (Books) rs= .011 p = .868
User Size rs= .024 p = .727
Staff Size (Librarians) rs= .132 p = .052
Library Budget rs= .017 p = .806

Table 4.76
Organizational Variables and Perceived Capabilities of IT
Correlates Perceived Capabilities of IT
Collection Size (Books) rs= -.075 p = .271
User Size rs= -.002 p = .975
Staff Size (Librarians) rs= .066 p = .331
Library Budget rs= -.144 p = .033

A visual inspection of Table 4.76 shows that no statistically significant

relationship existed between librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived capabilities of

IT” and organizational variables “collection size (rs=-.075, p>.05), user size (rs=-.002,

p>.05) and staff size (rs=.066, p>.05).” A significant negative relationship existed

between librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived capabilities of IT” and “library

budget (rs=-.144, p<.05).”

A visual inspection of Table 4.77 shows that no statistically significant

relationship existed between librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived usefulness of IT”

and organizational variables “collection size (rs=.060, p>.05), user size (rs=.096, p>.05)

and library budget (rs=.022, p>.05).” A significant relationship existed between IT

attitude subscale “perceived capabilities of IT” and “staff size (rs=.145, p<.05).”

Table 4.77
Organizational Variables and Perceived Usefulness of IT
Correlates Perceived Usefulness of IT
Collection Size (Books) rs= .060 p = .377
User Size rs= .096 p = .159
Staff Size (Librarians) rs= .145 p = .032
Library Budget rs= .022 p = .749

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4.10.2. Demographic Variables and Librarians IT Attitudes

Are there statistically significant relationships between different dimensions of

librarians IT attitudes and their year of attaining professional qualification, age,

experience as a librarian and experience as a head/chief librarian?

Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation (rho) was performed to find the

significance, intensity and direction of relationship between demographic variables

(year of latest professional qualification, age, experience as a librarian and experience

as a head/chief librarian) with different dimensions of librarians IT attitudes (perceived

confidence in IT application, perceived capabilities of IT and perceived usefulness of

IT). A visual inspection of Table 4.78 shows that a statistically significant negative

relationship existed between librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived confidence in IT

application” and demographic variables “year of latest professional qualification (rs= -

.165, p<.05), age (rs=-.174, p<.05), experience as a librarian (rs=-.172, p<.05) and

experience as a head/chief librarian (rs=-.239, p<.05).” The findings indicate that year of

latest professional qualifications, age and experience as a librarian and as a head

librarian affected negatively librarians’ confidence in IT application.

Table 4.78
Demographic Variables and Perceived Confidence in IT Application
Correlates Perceived Confidence in IT Application
Year of Latest rs= -.165 p = .014
Professional Qualification
Age rs= -.174 p = .010
Experience as Librarian rs= -.172 p = .011
Experience as Head / rs= -.239 p = .000
Chief Librarian

A visual inspection of Table 4.79 shows that no statistically significant

relationship existed between librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived capabilities of

IT” and demographic variables “year of latest professional qualification (rs= -.013,

205
p>.05), age (rs=-.049, p>.05), experience as a librarian (rs=-.048, p>.05) and experience

as a head/chief librarian (rs=-.088, p>.05).”

Table 4.79
Demographic Variables and Perceived Capabilities of IT
Correlates Perceived Capabilities of IT
Year of Latest Professional rs= -.013 p = .848
Qualification
Age rs= -.049 p = .474
Experience as Librarian rs= -.048 p = .479
Experience as Head / Chief rs= -.088 p = .194
Librarian

Table 4.80
Demographic Variables and Perceived Usefulness of IT
Correlates Perceived Usefulness of IT
Year of Latest Professional rs= .043 p = .531
Qualification
Age rs= -.025 p = .717
Experience as Librarian rs= -.031 p = .651
Experience as Head / Chief rs= .011 p = .869
Librarian

A visual inspection of Table 4.80 shows that no statistically significant

relationship existed between librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived usefulness of IT”

and demographic variables “year of latest professional qualification (rs= .043, p>.05),

age (rs=-.025, p>.05), experience as a librarian (rs=-.031, p>.05) and experience as a

head/chief librarian (rs=.011, p>.05).”

4.10.3. Librarians’ Professional Characteristics and their IT Attitudes

Are there statistically significant relationships between different dimensions of

librarians IT attitudes and their experience in computer use, recency in IT training,

level of IT knowledge, level of awareness of new technologies, and level of written

contribution on IT in libraries?

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Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation (rho) was performed to find the

significance, intensity and direction of relationship between librarians professional

characteristics (experience in computer use, recency in IT training, level of technology

knowledge, awareness about new technologies and level of written contribution on IT in

libraries) and different dimensions of librarians IT attitudes .

Table 4.81
Librarians’ Professional Characteristics and Perceived Confidence in IT
Application
Correlates Perceived Confidence in IT Application
Experience in Computer Use rs= .181 p = .007
Recency in IT Training rs= .022 p = .749
Level of Technology Knowledge rs= .175 p = .009
Level of Awareness of New rs= .161 p = .017
Technologies
Level of Written Contribution on IT rs=.110 p= .106
in Libraries

A visual inspection of Table 4.81 shows that no statistically significant

relationship existed between librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived confidence in IT

application” and librarians professional characteristics “recency in IT training (rs=.022,

p>.05) and level of written contribution on IT in libraries (rs=.110, p>.05). A

statistically significant positive relationship existed between librarians IT attitude

subscale “perceived confidence in IT application” and librarians professional

characteristics “experience in computer use (rs=.181, p<.05), level of technology

knowledge (rs=.175, p<.05) and level of awareness of new technologies (rs=.161,

p<.05).”

A visual inspection of Table 4.82 shows that no statistically significant

relationship existed between librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived capabilities of

IT” and librarians professional characteristics “experience in computer use (rs=.119,

p>.05), recency in IT training (rs=.033, p>.05) and level of written contribution on IT in

libraries (rs= -.077, p>.05).” A statistically significant positive relationship existed in

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librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived capabilities of IT” and librarians professional

characteristics “level of technology knowledge (rs=.169, p<.05) and level of awareness

of new technologies (rs=.275, p<.05).”

Table 4.82
Librarians’ Professional Characteristics and Perceived Capabilities of IT
Correlates Perceived Capabilities of IT
Experience in Computer Use rs= .119 p = .078
Recency in IT Training rs= .033 p = .622
Level of Technology Knowledge rs= .169 p = .012
Level of Awareness of New rs= .275 p = .000
Technologies
Level of Written Contribution on rs=-.077 p=.254
IT in Libraries

A visual inspection of Table 4.83 shows that no statistically significant

relationship existed between librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived usefulness of IT”

and librarians professional characteristics “ recency in IT training (rs=-.015, p>.05),

level of technology knowledge (rs=.120, p>.05) and level of written contribution on IT

in libraries (rs=.070, p>.05).” A statistically significant positive relationship existed

between librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived usefulness of IT” and librarians

professional characteristics “experience in computer use (rs=.190, p<.05) and level of

awareness of new technologies (rs=.150, p<.05).”

Table 4.83
Librarians’ Professional Characteristics and Perceived Usefulness of IT
Correlates Perceived Usefulness of IT
Experience in Computer Use rs= .190 p = .005
Recency in IT Training rs= -.015 p = .822
Level of Technology Knowledge rs= .120 p = .077
Level of Awareness of New rs= .150 p = .026
Technologies
Level of Written Contribution on rs=.070 p=.301
IT in Libraries

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Summary

Findings regarding correlation analysis between librarians IT attitude subscales

and organizational, demographic variables and librarians’ professional characteristics

revealed following results. The results of running Spearman’s (rho) test showed that a

statistically significant positive relationship existed between librarian IT attitudes

subscale “perceived confidence in IT application” and librarians’ experience in

computer use (rs=.181, p<.05), their level of technology knowledge (rs=.175, p<.05) and

their level of awareness about new technologies (rs=.161, p<.05). The results also

showed that a statistically negative significant relationship existed between librarians IT

attitude subscale “perceived confidence in IT application” and their year of latest

professional qualification (rs=-.165, p<.05), age (rs=-.174, p<.05), experience as a

librarian (rs=-.172, p<.05) and experience as a head/chief librarian (rs=-.239, p<.05). No

statistically significant relationship existed between librarians IT attitude subscale

“perceived confidence in IT application” and libraries’ collection size (rs=.011, p>.05),

user size (rs=.024, p>.05), staff size (rs=.132, p>.05), library budget (rs=.017, p>.05),

librarians’ recency in IT training (rs=.022, p>.05), and their level of written contribution

on IT in libraries (rs=.111, p>.05).

The results of running Spearman’s (rho) test showed that a statistically

significant positive relationship existed between librarian IT attitudes subscale

“perceived capabilities of IT” and librarians’ level of technology knowledge (rs=.169,

p<.05) and their level of awareness about new technologies (rs=.275, p<.05). The results

also showed that a statistically negative significant relationship existed between

librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived capabilities of IT” and library budget (rs=-

.144, p<.05). No statistically significant relationship existed between librarians IT

attitude subscale “perceived capabilities of IT” and libraries’ collection size (rs=-.075,

p>.05), user size (rs=-.002, p>.05), staff size (rs=.066, p>.05), librarians’ year of latest

209
professional qualification (rs=-.013, p>.05), age (rs=-.049, p>.05), experience as a

librarian (rs=-.048, p>.05), experience as a head/chief librarian (rs=-.088, p>.05)

experience in computer use (rs=.119, p>.05), recency in IT training (rs=.033, p>.05), and

their level of written contribution on IT in libraries (rs=-.077, p>.05).

The results of running Spearman’s (rho) test showed that a statistically

significant positive relationship existed between librarian IT attitudes subscale

“perceived usefulness of IT” and libraries staff size (rs=.145, p<.05), librarians’

experience in computer use (rs=.190, p<.05) and their level of awareness about new

technologies (rs=.150, p<.05). No statistically significant relationship existed between

librarians IT attitude subscale “perceived usefulness of IT” and libraries’ collection size

(rs=.060, p>.05), user size (rs=.096, p>.05), library budget (rs=.022, p>.05), librarians’

year of latest professional qualification (rs=.043, p>.05), age (rs=-.025, p>.05),

experience as a librarian (rs=-.031, p>.05), experience as a head/chief librarian (rs=.011,

p>.05), recency in IT training (rs=-.015, p>.05), level of technology knowledge

(rs=.120, p<.05) and their level of written contribution on IT in libraries (rs=.070,

p>.05). Among all the independent variables, librarians’ level of awareness of new

technologies showed significantly positive relationship with all dimensions of librarians

IT attitudes. This implies the higher the awareness about new technologies the more

positive their attitudes toward IT would be. Respondents’ year of latest professional

qualification, their age, experiences as a librarian and experiences as a head/chief

librarian showed negative significant correlation with librarians’ confidence in IT

application. This implies that younger librarians showed more confidence in IT

application compared to more senior and older librarians. A number of variables such as

libraries’ location, collection size, user size, librarians’ gender and their written

contribution did not show significant mean differences or relationship with any of

librarians IT attitude subscales.

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4.11. Hypotheses Testing

The following hypotheses were established to test the significance, intensity and

direction of relationships. They are (1) libraries IT availability and librarians’ attitudes

toward IT, (2) libraries’ IT use and librarians attitudes toward IT (3) librarians’

frequency of IT use and their attitudes toward IT (4) librarians’ level of IT knowledge

and their attitudes toward IT and (5) libraries’ expenditure on IT and librarians’

attitudes toward IT. Findings of hypotheses tests are explained below.

H1: There is a statistically significant relationship between libraries’ levels of

IT availability and different dimensions of librarians’ attitudes toward application of IT

in academic libraries of Pakistan.

The attitudes of librarians toward information technology were assessed using

42 IT attitude statements, measured on a five-point Likert scale. The mean score was

derived for each of the respondents across 42 statements. Factor analysis was conducted

to determine the dimensions of librarians IT attitude scale.

Regarding levels of IT availability, respondents were asked to check the number

of computers, availability of different kinds of hardware, availability of e-mail, Internet,

network access levels, library management system, web applications, percentage of

library operations automated and the number of online books, e-journals and databases.

Respondents’ levels of IT availability were obtained through computing the availability

of all kinds of hardware, information access technologies, software, IT services and

availability of electronic resources in respondent libraries.

In order to obtain a numerical value of the responses on IT availability in

libraries, key variables were assigned weights, keeping in view their importance for

libraries. Assigning weights is a very important concept in data analysis as it allows you

to give different weights to different cases. Busha and Harter (1980), Powell and

Connaway (2004) and Pickard (2007) mentioned that investigators assign numerical

211
values to obtain ranking and mean of the responses for data analysis. Based on

experience, understanding and familiarity with the IT tools being used in academic

libraries in Pakistan, the researcher used his judgment to assign the weights to key

variables as given in the ‘weight table’ as Appendix-E. Because of weighing, total

scores of IT availability for each respondent was obtained on a ratio scale and labelled

as libraries IT availability.

The results of running a Pearson Product Moment correlation test showed that a

statistically significant positive relationship existed in “libraries’ levels of IT

availability” and librarians IT attitude subscales [(perceived confidence in IT

application, r=.150, p<.05), (perceived capabilities of IT, r=.204, p<.05) and (perceived

usefulness of IT, r=.210, p<.05)] (See Table 4.84), thus supporting the hypothesis. This

implies that availability of IT in libraries influences all dimensions of librarians IT

attitudes positively. The higher the libraries’ IT availability scores the more positive

librarians IT attitude would be.

Table 4.84
Correlation Matrix for Dimensions of Librarians IT Attitudes
Correlates (H1, H2, H3, Perceived Perceived Perceived
H4 and H5) Confidence in IT Capabilities of Usefulness of IT
Application IT
Libraries’ Levels of IT
Availability r = .150, p=.026 r= .204, p=.002 r = .210, p=.002
Libraries’ Levels of IT
Use r = .198, p=.003 r = .168, p=.013 r = .281, p=.000
Librarians’ Frequency
of IT Use r = .248, p=.000 r= .165, p=.015 r = .103, p=.130
Librarians’ Levels of IT
Knowledge r = .255, p=.000 r = .193, p=.004 r = .155, p=.022
Libraries IT
Expenditure r = .111, p=.100 r= .119, p=.079 r = .121, p=.075

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H2: There is a statistically significant relationship between libraries’ levels of

IT use and different dimensions of librarians’ attitudes toward application of IT in

academic libraries of Pakistan.

Libraries’ levels of IT use by respondents was obtained through computing the

means of 16 statements eliciting use of common information technologies by library

staff and patrons measured on a 5-point Likert type scale. Respondents were asked to

indicate the extent of use of different information technologies by their library users.

The results of running a Pearson Product Moment correlations test showed that a

statistically significant positive relationship existed in “libraries’ levels of IT use” and

librarians IT attitude subscales [(perceived confidence in IT application, r=.198, p<.05),

(perceived capabilities of IT, r=.168, p<.05) and (perceived usefulness of IT, r=.281,

p<.05)] (See Table 4.84), thus supporting the hypothesis. This implies that levels of IT

use in libraries influences all dimensions of librarians IT attitudes positively. The higher

the libraries’ IT use scores the more positive librarians IT attitude would be.

H3: There is a statistically significant relationship between librarians’

frequency of IT use and different dimensions of their attitudes toward application of

information technology in academic libraries of Pakistan.

The total score for librarians’ frequency of IT use was obtained through

computing the use of word processing, CD-ROM, email and Internet, on a scale of (0)

never, (1) several times a month, (2) several times a week and (3) daily use of these

technologies. The results of running a Pearson Product Moment correlation test showed

that a statistically significant positive relationship existed between the librarians’

“frequency of IT use” and their IT attitude subscales [(perceived confidence in IT

application, r=.248, p<.05) and (perceived capabilities of IT, r=.165, p<.05)] (See Table

4.84), thus supporting the hypothesis. This implies that frequency of IT use by librarians

213
influences two dimensions of librarians IT attitudes positively. However, it did not

show a significant relationship with librarians’ attitude subscale (perceived usefulness

of IT, r=.103, p>.05). The higher the librarians’ frequency of IT use scores the more

positive their attitudes toward IT would be.

H4: There is a statistically significant relationship between librarians’ level of

IT knowledge and different dimensions of their attitudes toward application of

information technology in academic libraries of Pakistan.

The score on librarians’ level of IT knowledge was obtained on a scale of

measure on (0) none, (1) little, (2) moderate, (3) substantial and (4) in-depth level of IT

knowledge. The results of running a Pearson Product Moment correlation test showed

that a statistically significant positive relationship existed between “librarians’ level of

IT knowledge” and their IT attitudes subscales [(perceived confidence in IT application,

r=.255, p<.05), (perceived capabilities of IT, r=.193, p<.05), and (perceived usefulness

of IT, r=.155, p<.05)], thus supporting the hypothesis (See Table 4.84). This implies

that librarians’ level of IT knowledge influences all dimensions of their attitudes toward

IT. The higher the librarians’ level of IT knowledge, the more positive their attitudes

toward information technology would be.

H5: There is a statistically significant relationship between libraries IT

expenditure and librarians’ attitude toward application of IT in academic libraries of

Pakistan.

The results of running a Pearson Product Moment correlation test showed that

no statistically significant relationship existed in “libraries IT expenditure” and

librarians IT attitude subscales [(perceived confidence in IT application, r=.111, p>.05),

(perceived capabilities of IT, r=.119, p>.05), and (perceived usefulness of IT, r=.121,

p>.05)], thus not supporting the hypothesis (see Table 4.84). This implies that there is

214
no statistically significant relationship in librarians’ attitudes toward IT, based on their

libraries’ expenditure on IT application in academic libraries of Pakistan.

Findings regarding hypotheses tests indicate that the first 4 hypotheses (H1, H2,

H3, and H4) were supported as “libraries levels of IT availability,” “libraries levels of

IT use,” librarians’ frequency of IT use,” and their “levels of IT knowledge” showed

significant (p<.05) positive relationships with all dimensions of librarians IT attitudes.

However, fifth hypothesis was not supported as no significant relationship was

determined between libraries IT expenditure with any dimension of librarians IT

attitudes. This implies that more IT is made available in libraries more positive

librarians IT attitudes would be. More IT is used in libraries more positive librarians IT

attitudes would be. More frequently, librarians use IT more positive their IT attitudes

would be. Higher the librarians’ level of IT knowledge more positive their attitude

toward IT would be. Surprisingly, libraries expenditure on IT did not show a significant

relationship with any dimension of librarians IT attitudes. The reasons of this result

could be that librarians working in libraries with varying levels of IT expenditure could

have similar attitudes toward IT application.

4.12. Problems of Library Automation in Pakistan

Respondents were asked to list in priority from 1 to 8 (1 being the most

problematic and 8 being the least problematic) the problems they are facing in

implementing and enhancing the use of information technology in the target libraries. A

list of common problems such as budget, standard library software, hardware, skilled

human resources, cost of software, management’s attitudes, size of the library and

provision of Internet was listed for their convenience. A visual inspection of Table 4.85

indicates that the majority 104 (47.5%) of the respondents rated non-availability of

215
budget as the number 1 problem, 76 (34.7%) mentioned standard library software and

29 (13.2%) mentioned hardware as their number one problem.

Table 4.85
Problems in IT Application in Respondent Libraries
(n=219)
Problems /Priority 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
N N N N N N N N NR
% % % % % % % %
Budget 104 22 30 20 13 7 7 5 11
47.5 10 13.7 9.1 5.9 3.2 3.2 2.3 5.0
Standard Library 76 63 27 19 7 10 5 5 17
Software 34.7 28.8 12.3 8.7 3.2 4.6 2.3 2.3 7.8
29 33 35 46 35 17 10 5 9
Availability of Hardware
13.2 15.1 16 21 16 7.8 4.6 2.3 4.1
Skilled Human Resources 107 30 33 18 14 5 4 3 32
48.9 13.7 15.1 8.2 6.4 2.3 1.8 1.4 14.6
Cost of Software 40 47 27 23 54 13 4 3 20
18.3 21.5 12.3 10.5 24.7 5.9 1.8 1.4 9.1
Management Attitudes 86 37 16 12 10 19 18 6 31
39.3 16.9 7.3 5.5 4.6 8.7 8.2 2.7 14.2
Size of the Library 16 12 12 30 51 35 25 21 77
7.3 5.5 5.5 13.7 23.3 16 11.4 9.6 35.2
Provision of Internet 13 2 3 31 47 45 35 37 36
5.9 .9 1.4 14.2 21.5 20.5 16 16.9 16.4

A significant majority, 107 (48.9%) respondents indicated lack of skilled human

resources, 40 (18.3%) indicated cost of software, 86 (39.3%) reported management’s

negative attitudes, 16 (7.3%) mentioned size of the library, 13 (5.9%) mentioned

provision of Internet and a good number (more than 10) of respondents mentioned lack

of proper IT training as their number one problem through their comments.

The next 22 (10%) respondents indicated budget as their number 2 problem, 63

(28.8%) mentioned standard library software, 33 (15.1%) mentioned hardware and 30

(13.7%) respondents mentioned lack of skilled human resources as their number 2

problem. A total of 47 (21.5%) respondents believed cost of software, 37 (16.9%)

reported management’s negative attitudes, 12 (5.5%) mentioned size of the library and 2

(.9%) respondents mentioned provision of Internet as their second problem.

216
Only 30 (13.7%) respondents rated non-availability of budget as number 3

problem, 27 (12.3%) mentioned standard library software and 35 (16%) mentioned

hardware as their number 3 problem. The next 33 (15.1%) respondents indicated lack of

skilled human resources, 27 (12.3%) believed cost of software, 16 (7.3%) reported

management’s negative attitudes, 12 (5.5%) mentioned size of the library and 3 (1.4%)

respondents mentioned provision of Internet as their number 3 problem.

The next 20 (9.1%) respondents rated non-availability of budget as number 4

problem, 19 (8.7%) mentioned standard library software and 46 (21%) mentioned

hardware as their number 4 problem. Only 18 (8.2%) respondents indicated lack of

skilled human resources, 23 (10.5%) mentioned cost of software, 12 (5.5%) reported

management’s negative attitudes, 30 (13.7%) mentioned size of the library and 31

(14.2%) respondents mentioned provision of Internet as their number 4 problem.

A total of 13 (5.9%) respondents rated non-availability of budget as number 5

problem, 7 (3.2%) mentioned standard library software, 35 (16%) mentioned hardware

and 14 (6.4%) respondents indicated lack of skilled human resources as their number 5

problem. The next 54 (24.7%) respondents believed cost of software, 10 (4.6%)

reported management’s negative attitudes, 51 (23.3%) mentioned size of the library and

47 (21.5%) respondents mentioned provision of Internet as their number 5 problem.

For the next three levels of problems in IT applications, the majority 45 (20.5%)

respondents rated provision of Internet as their number 6 problem, 35 (16%) rated

provision of Internet as their number 7 problem and 37 (16.9%) respondents also rated

provision of Internet as their number 8 problem.

From the data mentioned in the above table and general comments of the

respondents in the questionnaire, it is determined that shortage of skilled human

resources, lack of funds, the management’s attitudes, lack of proper IT training and non-

availability of standard library software are the major problems hindering wider

217
application of information technology in academic libraries of Pakistan. Many

respondents also pointed out lack of regular and uninterrupted electric supply as a

serious problem, as all IT applications run on electricity. Some responses carried

remarks that while making any recommendations or decisions regarding IT acquisition

for library, the decision-makers and management relied more on computer professionals

than on librarians.

4.13. Findings from the Documentary Analysis

The Government of Pakistan documents, annual reports of Ministry of

Education, Pakistan Telecommunication Authority, Higher Education Commission of

Pakistan and National Digital Library websites, and Federal Bureau of Statistics and

other publications were used to collect data and information regarding literacy rate,

education budget, libraries development initiatives and IT Infrastructure of Pakistan.

Analysis of data revealed that out of a total of 160.9 million people, overall literacy rate

was 55%, which was lowest (120 out of 129) amongst the countries of the world. The

education sector of Pakistan was poorly funded, as by 2003-04, Pakistan only spent

2.1% of its GDP on education. However, realizing the importance of higher education

in overall development of the country, the Government of Pakistan renewed its focussed

to raise the level of higher education in the country. In 2002, the Government

established Higher Education Commission of Pakistan with a mandate to raise the

quality, quantity and standard of higher education and research in the country. The

budgetary allocations for the higher education were increased from Rs. 7,954 million in

2004-05 to Rs. 17,461 million in 2008-09, which indicates 120% rise in 4 years. The

number of universities and institutes increased from 62 in 2000-01 to 124 in 2008.

Since establishing, a library is an integral part of a higher education institution the

number of libraries has also grown.

218
Higher Education Commission of Pakistan has taken a number of e-initiatives to

move toward developing a knowledge base economy. These include Pakistan

Educational Research Network (PERN), National Digital Library and Pakistan Research

Repository. National Digital Library provides full-text access to 23,000 online journals

and 45,000 e-books to all (124) universities and institutes of higher learning. HEC has

started digitization of PhD thesis published by Pakistani universities and made 1,600

theses available online by June 2008. Through its PERN project, HEC has linked 56

public and private sector universities and institutes through Internet. Teledensity of

Pakistan had reached from 4% in 2002 to 49% and Internet users had reached to 17

million by June 2007.

4.14. Summary of Findings

This chapter has dealt with the description and analysis of the data collected

through the questionnaire survey. Several data analysis techniques were deployed. They

include frequency runs, cross-tabulation t-Test, ANOVA, Principal Components

Analysis (PCA), Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation (rho) and Pearson Product

Moment Correlation Coefficient.

The findings with regard to the availability of key IT tools revealed that 95.4%

respondent libraries were equipped with PCs, 91.3% respondents had e-mail and

Internet facilities and 30.1% respondents were using barcode technology in their

libraries. Regarding library automation, findings revealed that majority of the libraries

were using donated and in-house developed software for automation of cataloguing,

circulation and other library activities. More than 75% library operations were

automated in 43.8% of the respondent libraries and the same percentage of respondents

(43.8%) were at different levels of library automation. The remaining 12.4% of

respondents were still thinking about starting library automation. A significant positive

219
relationship (r=.478, p<.05) was determined between libraries level of library

automation and librarians’ level of IT knowledge. The majority of the respondents had

access to online journals sponsored by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan

National Digital Library. Further analysis revealed that private sector academic libraries

were comparatively better equipped with IT tools and services.

Computers, photocopiers/printers, e-mail and Internet were the most common IT

tools used often by library staff and patrons. However, a significant number, 60% of

library staff and 65% of patrons, were not frequent users of online databases. Regarding

IT acquisition for libraries, majority of the respondents mentioned that they were not

involved in IT related decision-making. They were also not satisfied with the IT

maintenance support from other departments. A significant positive (r=.145, p<.05)

relationship was determined between librarians’ role in IT-related decision-making and

IT attitudes subscale “perceived capabilities in IT application.”

Key findings regarding libraries’ characteristics revealed that 87.6% of the

respondents were located in the cities. As far as the collection is concerned, 63.5%

public sector and 89.7% private sector libraries had less than 30,000 books. Only 12.9%

public sector and 6.1% private sector libraries had over 100,000 books. There has been

a significant increase in libraries’ budget. However, keeping in view the cost of

subscription of journals and electronic equipment and databases, respondents generally

stated that they were short of funds. Data revealed that private sector libraries were

comparatively spending more on IT.

Overall, librarians showed positive attitudes toward IT attitude statements

regarding impact of IT, costs and IT resource allocation, IT training and on general IT

attitude statements. High attitude scores (over 4.0) were determined on IT training

related statements. However, respondents showed negative attitudes to 5 statements

regarding job fears because of IT use, maintaining automated library inventory, data

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storage on computers, cost of IT tools is very high of their worth for Pakistani libraries,

and rules and regulations developed for print resources have become obsolete so we

need to develop new rules to handle electronic resources.

Dependent variable 42-items IT attitude scale was subjected to factor analysis to

determine the underlying dimensions affecting the librarians IT attitudes. Results of

running principal components analysis identified three dimensions (1) perceived

confidence in IT application (2) perceived capabilities of IT and (3) perceived

usefulness of IT.

Among the key findings for demographic variables, the researcher found that

86% of the respondents had a Masters Degree in library and information sciences. Data

revealed that males were in significant majority in the respondent libraries. Twenty-

eight percent of the respondents were between 25-34 years of age and 23.7% were

between 35-44 years of age.

It was encouraging to find that 67% of the respondents were using computers at

home, 98% had experience in computer usage, 56% had attended IT training

programme during the previous year, 55% used word processing on a daily basis and

73% of the respondents used e-mail and Internet on a daily basis. This indicates that the

majority of academic librarians were using word processing, e-mail and Internet to

perform different functions. The data revealed that most respondents had between little

to moderate levels of knowledge in technology. The majority of respondents were on a

lower level with regard to keeping abreast of new technologies. Furthermore, the

majority of respondent librarians in Pakistan had not contributed toward the literature

on information technology in libraries. The findings further revealed that librarians

working in the private sector were better equipped with IT knowledge compared to

librarians working in the public sector.

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Findings regarding statistically significant difference in different variables

indicated that no statistically significant mean difference existed between different

dimensions of librarians’ IT attitudes and independent variables, location of libraries,

librarians’ gender and their highest professional qualification. Type of library showed

statistically significant mean difference with IT attitude subscale perceived usefulness

of IT, while it did not show statistically significant mean difference with IT attitude

subscales, perceived confidence in IT and perceived capabilities of IT. Librarians’

computer use at home showed statistically significant mean difference with IT attitude

subscale perceived confidence in IT, while it did not show statistically significant mean

differences with IT attitude subscales perceived capabilities of IT and perceived

usefulness of IT.

Findings regarding correlation analysis revealed that no significant relationship

exited between different dimensions of librarians IT attitudes and libraries’ collection

size, user size, librarians’ recency in IT training and their level of written contribution

on IT in libraries. A statistically significant negative relationship existed between IT

attitude subscale perceived confidence in IT application and librarians’ year of highest

professional qualification, their age, experience as a librarian and as a head/chief

librarian. Staff size showed statistically significant positive relationship with IT attitude

subscale perceived usefulness of IT, while it did not show a significant relationship with

perceived confidence in IT application and perceived capabilities of IT. Size if library

budget showed statistically significant negative relationship with IT attitude subscale

perceived capabilities of IT, while it did not show significant relationship with

perceived confidence in IT application and perceived usefulness of IT. No statistically

significant relationship existed between two subscales of IT attitude (perceived

capabilities of IT and perceived usefulness of IT) with librarians’ year of highest

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professional qualification, their age, experience as a librarian and experience as a

head/chief librarian.

A statistically significant positive relationship existed between librarians’

experience in computer use and IT attitude subscales perceived confidence in IT

application and perceived usefulness of IT, while it did not show significant relationship

with perceived capabilities of IT. A statistically significant positive relationship existed

between librarians’ level of technology knowledge and IT attitude subscales perceived

confidence in IT application and perceived capabilities of IT, while it did not show

significant relationship with perceived usefulness of IT. Interestingly a significant

positive relationship was determined between librarians’ level of awareness of new

technologies and all dimensions’ of their IT attitudes.

The study supported the stated hypotheses that (i) there is a significant positive

relationship between libraries levels of IT availability and librarians’ attitudes toward

application of information technology in academic libraries of Pakistan, (ii) there is a

significant relationship positive relationship between libraries levels of IT use and

librarians attitudes toward application of information technology in academic libraries

of Pakistan (iii) there is a significant positive relationship between librarians’ frequency

of IT use and their attitudes toward application of IT in academic libraries of Pakistan

(iv) there is a significant positive relationship between librarians’ level of IT knowledge

and their attitudes toward application of IT in academic libraries of Pakistan. The study

did not support the hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between the

attitudes of librarians toward information technology and libraries IT expenditure.

Results of ratings of common problems in IT applications revealed lack of

financial resources, shortage of skilled librarians, management’s attitude and lack of

proper IT training hindering wider application of IT in academic libraries of Pakistan.

Many respondents also mentioned electricity outages as a serious problem.

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Findings from the documentary analysis revealed that Pakistan’s literacy rate

was 55% that is among the lowest (120 out of 129) in the world, the funding of

education in Pakistan has been poor as by 2003-04 Pakistan was spending only 2.1% of

its GDP. The number of universities and institute of higher learning were 62 by 2000-01

and teledensity has been 4% by 2002. However, there has been some improvement in

the higher education sector after the establishment of Higher Education Commission of

Pakistan (HEC) since 2002. The number of public and private universities and institutes

along with their central libraries, had reached 124, the funding of higher education

sector has witnessed 120% rise in 4 years. HEC now provides full-text access to 23,000

online journals and 45,000 e-books to all the public and private sector universities and

institutes. It has provided Internet access to 59 universities and started making theses

available online. Teledensity had reached 49% by June 2007. These statistics indicate

the desire, focus and commitment of the Government of Pakistan and the private sector

to improve the standard and quality of higher education and research in the country. As

far as funding and access to online resources is concerned these statistics indicate that

the academic libraries had received considerable attention of the parent institutions to

play their role in enhancing the quality of education and research through making

effective use of these resources. Librarians being the key persons in the libraries have a

critical role in promoting the use of these online and print resources through pro-

actively disseminating the right information resources to the right faculty, researchers

and students.

The next chapter presents a summary, conclusions and a detailed discussion

from the research findings and a model to enhance positiveness of librarians’ attitudes

towards application of IT in libraries. It also provides recommendations for

implementation and suggests directions for future research.

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CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0. Introduction

This chapter focuses on developing conclusions from the study findings and

offering recommendations for improving attitudes of librarians in order to increase IT

use in libraries. It also presents a model to enhance positiveness of librarians’ attitudes

toward application of IT in academic libraries in Pakistan and recommendations for

further research.

5.1. Key Findings

Prior to generating a detailed account of study conclusions and

recommendations, a summary of the key findings in order of research questions and

hypotheses are restated for easy reference.

5.1.1. RQ 1: Levels of IT Availability and IT Use in Libraries

Libraries’ levels of IT availability were obtained through computing the

availability of different kinds of hardware, software, information access technologies

and availability of electronic resources. Findings revealed that 12 (5.5%) respondent

libraries were at excellent IT availability level, 68 (31.1%) were at good, 102 (46.6%)

were at average and 30 (13.7%) respondent libraries were at low IT availability level.

The remaining 7 (3.2%) respondents were at zero or negligible IT availability level. The

findings revealed that 209 (95.4%) respondent libraries had PCs, 56 (26%) respondents

had one PC each in their libraries, 152 (69.3%) had two or more PCs, while only 10

(4.6%) libraries were without PCs.

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A significant number 200 (91.3%) of the respondent libraries had e-mail and

Internet facilities, while 19 (8.7%) libraries were without email and Internet. A total of

100 (45.7%) respondents had OPAC for information retrieval and 66 (30.1%)

respondents were using barcode technology for circulation control. Regarding library

automation, findings revealed that majority of the respondent libraries were at different

levels of library automation as 192 (87.6%) respondents had some degree of

automation. It was also found that majority of the respondent libraries were automated

with lower-end, donated or in-house developed software, while 24 (11%) respondents

had not started the process of automation. Over 166 (75.8%) respondent libraries had

access to online databases mainly through the National Digital Library.

Computers, photocopiers / printers, email and Internet were most common IT

tools being used in libraries. However, a significant number of library users were not

frequent users of online databases.

5.1.2. RQ 2: Librarians’ Role in IT-Related Decision-Making

Findings regarding the librarians’ role in decision-making regarding IT

acquisition, maintenance and implementation revealed that in several stages of IT

acquisitions, the librarians’ did not appear to be involved to the extent commensurate

with their position. Data reflected major involvement at different stages of IT

acquisitions for libraries by accounts and administration departments, library

committees and computer professionals compared to librarians. The majority (53%) of

the respondents were not satisfied with the maintenance support for IT tools.

5.1.3. RQ 3: Librarians’ IT Attitudes

Librarians’ attitude as their personal beliefs and perceptions toward IT is taken

as the dependent variable. The findings revealed that respondents showed an overall

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positive attitude toward application of IT in libraries with a mean score of 3.71 for 219

respondents measured on a 5-point Likert scale on 42 IT attitude statements. They

generally had positive attitudes towards impact of IT (mean= 3.43), IT costs and

resource allocation (mean= 3.59), IT training of staff and users (mean= 4.19) and for

general statements about IT (mean= 3.64). However, respondents showed negative

attitudes on five statements concerning librarians’ job fears because of extensive IT use;

maintaining automated inventory (accessioning, etc.); data storage on computers as

risky, cost of IT tools vs. their worth for buying Pakistani libraries, and on abandoning

rules developed to handle print resources in favour of new rules to handle e-resources.

5.1.4. RQ 4: Dimensions of Librarians IT Attitudes

In order to extract and explore underlying factors, principal component analysis

was conducted on 42-item librarians IT attitude scale using SPSS. It resulted in three-

factors, namely (1) perceived confidence in IT application, (2) perceived capabilities of

IT and (3) perceived usefulness of IT. Perceived confidence in IT application emerged

as an important factor in determining librarians’ attitudes toward IT application in

academic libraries of Pakistan. Higher the confidence of librarians in IT application

more positive their attitudes toward IT application in academic libraries in Pakistan

would be. Perceived capabilities of IT reflects librarians’ opinions and beliefs that IT

has capabilities to bring positive changes in library operations and services for users.

Higher the librarians’ perceptions about the capabilities of IT more positive their

attitudes toward IT application in academic libraries in Pakistan would be. Perceived

usefulness of IT refers to the librarians’ opinions and beliefs about usefulness of

different IT tools in library operations and services as compared to print or manual

systems and its worth in terms of expenses. Thus, higher the perceptions of librarians

concerning usefulness of IT more positive their attitudes toward IT application in

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academic libraries in Pakistan would be. Librarians’ beliefs and opinions on these

dimensions constitute their attitudes toward IT application. The high score on these

dimensions means high positive attitude of librarians toward IT.

5.1.5. RQ 5: Statistically Significant Differences

Findings indicate that a statistically significant mean difference exists in the

attitudes of the librarians working in public or private sector academic libraries [t (217)

= 2.22, p<.05] and those using computers at home or not [t (217) = -2.254, p<.05]. It

suggests that perceived usefulness of IT was higher in public sector librarians compared

to private sector academic librarians. Similarly, librarians who were using computers at

home showed high level of confidence in IT application compared to those not using

computers at home. The mean scores with regard to IT attitudes across male or female

librarians, respondents with different levels of professional qualifications, and those

working in ‘city’ and ‘town’ libraries were very similar.

5.1.6. RQs 6, 7 & 8: Correlation Analysis

Finding regarding correlation analysis revealed that no statistically significant

relationship existed between librarian IT attitudes and libraries’ collection size and user

size. Similarly, no statistically significant relationship exited between librarians IT

attitudes, their recency in IT training and their level of written contribution on IT in

libraries. A statistically significant negative relationship existed between librarians IT

attitudes subscale perceived confidence in IT application and their year of highest

professional qualification (rs = -.165, p<.05), their age (rs = -.174, p<.05), experience as

a librarian (rs = -.172, p<.05) and as a head/chief librarian (rs = -.239, p<.05). These

findings indicate that older the year of professional qualification; age; experience as a

librarian and as a head librarian, less confident would be librarians in IT application as

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compared to the younger ones. Size of library budget also showed statistically

significant negative relationship (rs = -.144, p<.05) with the librarians IT attitudes.

Staff size showed a statistically significant positive relationship (rs = .145,

p<.05) with librarians IT attitude subscale perceived usefulness of IT. A statistically

significant positive relationship exists between librarians’ experience in computer use

(rs = .190, p<.05) their level of technology knowledge (rs = .175, p<.05) their level of

awareness of new technologies (rs = .275, p<.05) and their attitudes toward IT. The

results indicate that librarians’ attitudes toward IT were positively influenced by their

professional characteristics, and negatively influenced by their demographic variables.

5.1.7. RQ 9: Problems in IT Application

Respondents were given choices to check in priority the problems they were

facing in enhancing the use of IT in their libraries. Out of the eight common problems

hindering the wider application of information technology in academic libraries in

Pakistan listed by the researchers, the majority, 107 (48.9%) of the respondents rated

non-availability of skilled human resources as their number one problem. A significant

number 104 (47.5%) of respondents rated budgetary constraints, 76 (34.7%) rated non-

availability of standard library software and 86 (39.3%) rated management attitudes as

their number one problem, followed by the cost of the software, provision of hardware

and size of the libraries. Keeping in view the recent funding of academic institutions the

cost of the software and hardware seems less of an issue. However, one can understand

that non-availability of trained librarians and IT personnel that were experienced and

skilled enough to implement library technology is still a major problem hindering the

use of information technologies in our libraries. In addition, a number of respondents

highlighted the non-availability of uninterrupted power supply as a serious issue for

many libraries.

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5.1.8. Testing of Hypotheses

The results supported the stated hypotheses that a statistically significant

positive relationship existed in “libraries’ levels of IT availability” and librarians IT

attitude subscales perceived confidence in IT application (r=.150, p<.05), perceived

capabilities of IT (r=.204, p<.05) and perceived usefulness of IT (r=.210, p<.05). This

implies that availability of IT in libraries influences all dimensions of librarians IT

attitudes positively. The higher the libraries’ IT availability scores the more positive

librarians IT attitude would be. A statistically significant positive relationship existed in

“libraries’ levels of IT use” and librarians IT attitude subscales perceived confidence in

IT application (r=.198, p<.05), perceived capabilities of IT (r=.168, p<.05) and

perceived usefulness of IT (r=.281, p<.05), thus supporting the hypothesis. This implies

that levels of IT use in libraries influences all dimensions of librarians IT attitudes

positively and vice versa. Higher the libraries’ IT use scores the more positive librarians

IT attitude would be.

Findings showed that a statistically significant positive relationship existed

between the librarians’ “frequency of IT use” and their IT attitude subscales perceived

confidence in IT application (r=.248, p<.05) and perceived capabilities of IT (r=.165,

p<.05), thus supporting the hypothesis. This implies that frequency of IT use by

librarians influences two dimensions of their IT attitudes positively. However, it did not

show a significant relationship with librarians’ attitude subscale perceived usefulness of

IT. The higher the librarians’ frequency of IT use scores the more positive their

attitudes toward IT would be and vice versa. A statistically significant positive

relationship existed between “librarians’ level of IT knowledge” and their IT attitudes

subscales perceived confidence in IT application (r=.255, p<.05), perceived capabilities

of IT (r=.193, p<.05) and perceived usefulness of IT (r=.155, p<.05) thus supporting the

hypothesis. This implies that librarians’ level of IT knowledge influences all dimensions

230
of their attitudes toward IT and vice versa. The higher the librarians’ level of IT

knowledge, the more positive their attitudes toward information technology would be.

Findings did not support the hypothesis that a statistically significant

relationship existed between libraries’ expenditure on IT and different dimensions of

librarians’ IT attitudes as no significant relationship existed in “libraries IT

expenditure” and librarians IT attitude subscales perceived confidence in IT application,

perceived capabilities of and perceived usefulness of IT. This implies that no

statistically significant relationship exists in librarians’ attitudes toward IT, based on

their libraries’ expenditure on IT application, in academic libraries in Pakistan.

Findings regarding hypotheses tests indicate that more IT is made available in

libraries more positive librarians' attitudes toward IT would be. More IT is used in

libraries more positive librarians' attitudes toward IT would be. More frequently,

librarians use IT more positive their IT attitudes would be. Higher the librarians’ level

of IT knowledge more positive their attitude toward IT would be. Surprisingly, libraries

expenditure on IT did not show a significant relationship with any dimension of

librarians IT attitudes. The reasons of this result could be that librarians working in

libraries with varying levels of IT expenditure could have similar attitudes toward IT

application. Similarly, one could argue that mere spending on IT may not be a necessary

condition for positive IT attitudes. In other words, it is the will of the librarians to

ensure that the IT capability is used to benefit library users. A litmus test for positive

attitudes lies in proper provision and utilization of IT resources. IT spending does not

necessarily show that enhancing an institute’s IT capability was spearheaded through a

conscious, concerted effort of the librarians; rather, it could be an institutional

imperative.

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5.2. Summary of Statistically Significant Differences and Correlation Analysis

The results of running an independent sample t-Test showed that a statistically

significant mean difference existed between private and public sector librarians’

attitudes toward IT application as perceived usefulness of IT was higher in public sector

librarians compared to private sector librarians. Similarly, a statistically significant

mean difference was determined between those librarians using computers at home

those not using at home, as librarians who were using computer at home showed high

level of confidence in IT application. The results of correlation analysis as mentioned in

Table 5.1 revealed that librarians’ awareness about new technologies, their level of

technology knowledge, frequency of IT use, experience in computer use and their levels

of IT knowledge are significant variables positively influencing their IT attitudes.

Librarians’ level of IT knowledge was the most important and positively

correlated variable in determining their attitudes toward IT, as it enhances the level of

their confidence in IT applications and ultimately enables them to initiate IT projects

and to bring innovations in their libraries. Librarians’ age, their years of latest

professional qualification, their job experiences as a librarians and as a head librarian

are negatively tied to their IT attitudes, which reflects that younger librarians showed

positive attitude toward IT compared to senior (aged) librarians. The older people were

found less innovative as they may not like to take risks towards the end of their service

and they usually try to maintain the status quo.

A significant positive relationship was determined between libraries’ levels of

IT availability and use with all dimensions of librarian IT attitudes. This significant

positive relationship could be leveraged to improve librarian IT attitude by providing

sufficient IT tools in the libraries. The staffs in terms of the number of librarians was

positively tied with the attitudes of librarians as it provides them sufficient and

sometimes highly trained staffs, which ultimately helps them adopt positive attitudes.

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Variables showing significant relationship have been highlighted in Table 5.1

for ease of reference.

Table 5.1
Statistically Significant Differences and Correlation Matrix for Dimensions of
Librarians IT Attitudes

Independent Variables *P. Confidence **P. Capabilities ***P. Usefulness


Sig. Sig. Sig.
Type of Libraries t = .483, p>.05 t = 1.152, p>.05 t = 2.217, p<.05
Geographical Location t = 1.074, p>.05 t = 1.169, p>.05 t = -1.355, p>.05
Gender t = -.105, p>.05 t = -.598, p>.05 t = .458, p>.05
Computer Use at Home t = -2.554, p<.05 t = -.659, p>.05 t = -1.952, p>.05
Highest Professional
Qualification F = 1.488, p>.05 F = 2.155, p>.05 F = .674, p>.05
Collection Size rs= .011, p>.05 rs= -.075, p>.05 rs= .060, p>.05
User Size rs= .024, p>.05 rs= -.002, p>.05 rs= .096, p>.05
Staff Size (Librarians) rs= .132, p>.05 rs= .066, p>.05 rs= .145, p<.05
Library Budget rs= .017, p>.05 rs= -.144 p<.05 rs= .022, p>.05
Year of Latest
Qualification rs= -.165, p<.05 rs= -.013 p>.05 rs= .043, p>.05
Age rs= -.174, p<.05 rs= -.049 p>.05 rs= -.025, p>.05
Experience as a
Librarian rs= -.172, p<.05 rs= -.048 p>.05 rs= -.031, p>.05
Experience as a Head /
Chief Librarian rs= -.239, p<.05 rs= -.088 p>.05 rs= .011, p>.05
Experience in Computer
Use rs= .181, p<.05 rs= .119 p>.05 rs= .190, p<.05
Recency in IT Training rs= .022, p>.05 rs= .033 p>.05 rs= -.015, p>.05
Level of Technology
Knowledge rs= .175, p<.05 rs= .169, p<.05 rs= .120, p>.05
Level of Awareness of
New Technology rs= .161, p<.05 rs= .275, p<.05 rs= .150, p<.05
Level of Written
Contribution on IT rs= .110, p>.05 rs= -.077, p>.05 rs= .070, p>.05
Libraries’ Levels of IT
Availability r = .150, p<.05 r = .204, p<.05 r = .210, p<.05
Libraries’ Levels of IT r = .198, p<.05 r = .168, p<.05 r = .281, p<.05
Use
Librarians’ Frequency of
IT Use r = .248, p<.05 r = .165, p<.05 r = .103, p<.05
Librarians’ Level of IT
Knowledge r = .255, p<.05 r = .193, p<.05 r = .155, p<.05
Libraries IT Expenditure r = .111, P>.05 r = .119, p>.05 r = .121, p>.05

*P= Perceived Confidence in IT Application


**P= Perceived Capabilities of IT
***P= Perceived Usefulness of IT

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5.3. Conclusions

The results of this study can be generalized on the population of academic

libraries in Pakistan. One major purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of

librarians toward information technology and then determine their relationship with

selected institutional variables and librarians’ demographic and professional

characteristics. The evidences derived from the findings of this study have identified

new aspects and dimensions of librarians’ attitudes, has revealed new relationship and

has confirmed various anticipated results.

5.3.1. IT Availability and Usage

Regarding the status of information technology, the findings from this study

revealed that academic libraries across Pakistan has shown good state of development in

terms of availability of PCs, e-mail, Internet and access to online databases. However,

still a vast majority of respondents were far behind achieving excellent IT availability

levels, despite the efforts of both the Government of Pakistan and the private sector to

make the technology available to all the libraries under their jurisdiction. Some libraries

were without PCs, email and Internet, which are very common IT tools used to perform

basic library functions. Even for those 26% respondents where only one PC was

available in the library, it would have been difficult for the students, faculty,

administrative staff and librarians to get the opportunity to work on the available PC.

On the other hand, 9.1% of the respondents reported availability of more than 20 PCs in

their libraries. Some of the respondents had reported an extensive number of PCs in

their libraries. The data indicated that a sizeable number of respondents were even

without photocopying and printing facility.

Power failures are a major problem for libraries in Pakistan. Since more and

more computers and web-based systems are being introduced in libraries, an

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uninterrupted power supply is necessary for normal functioning of IT tools. It was good

to notice that 14% respondents had introduced wireless LAN in academic libraries in

Pakistan and 15% respondent libraries had other types of hardware that were not listed

by the researcher.

Library automation is regarded as the most important information technology

application in libraries. It was encouraging to find that 87.6% of the respondents had

some degree of automation. However, a vast majority (more than 91%) of the

respondents were lagging behind to achieve 100% automation of their library

operations. Only 14% of the respondents were using off-the-shelf, state-of-the-art

library software, 36% were using in-house developed software (in most of the cases

LIMS developed through MS Access) and the majority, 38% of the respondents, were

using donated library software (CD ISIS/WINISIS). Authors like Shafique and

Mahmood (2007), Ramzan (2004a) and Mahmood (1999) have also mentioned that a

majority of the libraries in Pakistan were not using international standard library

software and this could be one of the reasons that our libraries were not fully automated

in order to provide quality services to their users. Data revealed that a significant

number of respondents were at different levels of library automation and those who did

not had library automation at the time of the survey, reported that they were in the

process of or were seriously planning to automate their library operations. A few

respondents mentioned that they were likely to start library automation and some said

they were waiting for the Higher Education Commission to sponsor automation of their

libraries as they had done in providing access to online journals through the National

Digital Library. Therefore, a major institutional effort is required for achieving high

level (75-100%) of automation of all academic libraries of Pakistan. This would enable

librarians to organize their collections effectively and provide user-empowered library

services and resource sharing at national and international level.

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Data revealed that the majority (75.8%) of the academic libraries were relying

on the National Digital Library for access to online journals and e-books. Despite free

access to more than 23,000 full-text journals and 45,000 e-books to academic

institutions across Pakistan, Said (2006) in her report has mentioned that only 14 public

sector and 4 private sector academic libraries were making good use of these online

journals.

Findings have revealed that despite patrons’ focus to promote IT use, significant

increase in funding, falling costs of hardware, and excellent improvements in the

country’s IT infrastructure, there were slow improvements in the availability of

hardware, automation of libraries, use of web applications and other IT applications in

academic libraries. On the other hand, significant changes have occurred in majority of

the academic libraries in provision of access to online journals and e-books, and Internet

access through Pakistan Education and Research Network project. The access to online

resources and Internet bandwidth through PERN could be acknowledged to the

excellent institutional efforts of the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. While

the below average IT infrastructure of many of the academic libraries speaks of the

possessiveness on the part of the concerned librarians and their management.

Findings of this study have revealed that in majority of cases librarians were not

involved in the different stages of IT applications, namely initiation, planning, making

choices, acquisition, implementation and maintenance. The top management, through

computer professionals and the library committee members, usually enforce such

decisions. This has led librarians to become performers instead of becoming champions

of innovations. The minimal involvement of librarians in IT related decision-making

could be one of the reasons for the average level of innovations in their libraries.

Moreover, this may also have a significant bearing on the attitudes of librarians toward

IT. Interestingly, 64% of the respondents reported that they were satisfied with their

236
role in IT related decision-making. This finding may be reflective of the notion of

‘laggards’ as mentioned in Rogers’ (2003) theory of diffusion of innovation. Laggards

and possessive people usually remain satisfied with the status quo and do not like to

take initiatives and risks.

Since there is a broad range of technologies available in respondent libraries, it

was not surprising that there was also a broad range in the number of uses of

information technologies in respondent libraries. Obviously, a certain portion of IT

utilization score must be directly tied to the number of computer terminals and other IT

tools available in libraries. The more IT tools available in the respondent libraries, the

more ways in which those tools may be put into effective use. The present study found

an average level IT use in academic libraries in Pakistan as 50% librarians and only

43.5% patrons were frequent users of online public access catalogues, and 54.3%

librarians and 49.3% patrons were frequent users of online databases accessible through

their libraries. However, 48.9% librarians and 55.7% patrons never used online public

access catalogues and 45.2% librarians and 49.3% patrons never used online databases

available in their libraries. Access to National Digital Library and other electronic

resources is only possible through a computer and Internet connection and non-

availability of these tools in respondent libraries could be another reason for low IT use

in libraries.

5.3.2. Librarians IT Attitudes

The findings revealed that overall librarians showed positive attitudes towards

application of IT in academic libraries of Pakistan. The mean score for 42 IT attitude

statements remained 3.71 on a 5-point Likert scale. However, respondents showed

negative attitudes on five statements. They are, (i) job fears because of extensive IT use,

(ii) maintaining an automated inventory (accessioning), (iii) data storage on computers

237
is risky, (iv) the cost of IT tools is very high worth of their buying for Pakistani libraries

and (v) regarding need to abandon rules developed to manage print resources in favour

of new rules to manage e-resources. These negative attitudes require serious

consideration and need to be addressed at the institutional level and professional

association level. For example, librarians’ fears regarding job could be addressed

through providing them IT training to enhance their work comfort level, or their job

descriptions could be modified to make best use of their available skills, and their team

could be strengthened with IT skilled librarians. Findings revealed a significant

relationship between the number of librarians available in a library and librarians’ IT

attitudes. The logic behind this outcome seems availability of comfort and support on

technology matters amongst the group of colleagues. The issue of maintaining an

automated inventory could be resolved through raising the level of librarians and

auditors’ understanding of the capabilities of the software/softcopies in terms of safety

and integrity of the data. Otherwise, the ultimate benefit of automation to save time and

efforts spent in manual accessioning and record keeping could not be achieved.

Regarding the risks of data storage on computers librarians, need to understand

the data backup system through backup tape drives, hard disks, DVDs, and USBs.

Through such a training and education, their attitudes toward data storage on computers

could be improved significantly. Librarians’ awareness of the capabilities of the IT tools

in terms of efficiency and effectiveness in library services will make their attitude

positive for spending money in IT acquisitions. Traditionally librarians feel comfortable

in using the existing cataloguing rules, classification schemes and standards in practice.

Because, any change in the existing system requires conversion of current and archival

records both, in physical and soft formats, and changes in staff practices and user’s

information seeking behaviour. However, with emerging digital paradigm as indicated

in the literature review (Singh 2008, Ramzan 2008, Lewis 2007 and Shuler 2007) new

238
rules have become necessary to manage data and resources in digital formats.

Librarians’ awareness of new technologies through participation in International

conferences, reading and discussing about emerging IT trends in libraries and working

at the professional association levels, their attitudes toward development and adoption

of new rules could be improved. These findings reveal the need for librarians to update

their knowledge of new information technologies and innovations in the library and

information profession.

The findings reveal that although not all the librarians were experts in IT, they

feel that IT is a useful tool and an enabler to perform different library related functions

effectively. Moreover, they must be aware that more and more resources were now

available in electronic formats. Similarly, librarians must be aware of rising user

expectations in terms of appropriate IT use. There was a consensus amongst librarians

(with a mean score of over 4.0) regarding allocation of resources for IT training and

devising new rules to handle IT related equipment, systems and resources. However,

some librarians were still not clear regarding ownership for making IT based

innovations in libraries. It seems that due to lack of necessary knowledge and skills

needed to initiate innovative IT projects, librarians were waiting for instructions from

information technology/MIS departments/university management before starting

projects for library automation. This indicates a lack of leadership, pro-activeness,

communication skills and innovativeness amongst librarians that is necessary to bring

changes in their libraries. The findings revealed fears of IT amongst librarians.

Furthermore, a number of respondents believed that information technology is more

suitable for developed countries and is still a luxury for Pakistani libraries.

Another significant contribution of this study is findings regarding underlying

factors affecting librarians IT attitude. It was determined that librarians perceived

confidence in IT application, perceived capabilities of IT and perceived usefulness of IT

239
affect the librarians’ attitudes toward application of IT in academic libraries in Pakistan.

The high score on these three dimensions reflect high positive attitudes of librarians.

Findings revealed that these three dimensions are the key in enhancing the positiveness

of librarians IT attitudes.

5.3.3. Interrelationship between Dependent and Independent Variables

A significant positive correlation was determined between libraries’ IT

availability and levels of IT use librarians IT attitude subscales, perceived confidence in

IT application, perceived capabilities of IT and perceived usefulness of IT. The analysis

supported the hypotheses that the more IT was made available and utilized in libraries

the more positive the attitudes of librarians toward information technology would be

and vice versa. The confirmation of the relationship between the attitudes of librarians

and libraries IT availability and use is in line with the findings of Adesope et al (2007),

Yaacob (1992) and Powell (1998). The findings also suggest that other factors, such as

high cost of technology and expenditure for IT had affected the librarians’ ability to

acquire and use new technologies in academic libraries of Pakistan.

A statistically significant difference was found in the attitudes of public and

private sector librarians. The mean score on public sector librarians IT attitudes was

higher compared to private sector librarians. The findings are unique in the sense that

no other study has examined the affects of this variable (public vs. private) on

librarians’ IT attitudes. No significant difference was found in the librarians’ attitude

toward IT, based on location of their libraries (city/rural). In line with the findings of

Yaacob (1992), no significant relationship was determined in the librarians’ attitudes

based on their user size. In line with the Luquire (1983) and in contrast to the findings

of Yaacob (1992) no significant relationship was determined in the librarians’ attitudes

based on their library’s collection size. A possible explanation for the lack of any

240
significant relationship between these variables is that librarians working in different

size of libraries can have similar attitudes toward IT. Surprisingly, a significant negative

relationship was found between the librarians IT attitudes and their library budget size.

While in literature review findings of a study by Yaacob (1992) showed significant

positive relationship between the librarians IT attitudes and library budget and

expenditure on IT. However, findings of this study revealed no significant relationship

between librarians IT attitudes and expenditure on IT in respondent libraries.

No statistically significant difference was found in the librarians’ attitudes

toward IT based on their highest professional qualification. Literature review revealed a

significance difference in the librarians’ attitudes based on qualifications in the studies

of Adeyinka (2008) and Al-Zahrani (2000), while no statistical significant difference

was found in the studies of Nair (1999) and Yoo (1998). In line with the findings of

Nair (1999) and Yaacob (1992), a statistically significant positive relationship was

determined between the number of librarians and librarians’ attitudes towards

information technology. The reason for this outcome could be that with a good number

of librarians the head librarians may feel more confident and can find well IT-oriented

staff to help them in applying new information technologies.

A number of studies have been carried out to explore male and female librarians

IT attitudes. Literature review mentions significant differences in male and females

librarians IT attitudes in studies of Adeyinka (2008), Sacks et al (1993) and DeYoung

and Spence (2004). While no significant difference was found in male and female

librarians attitudes in this study. These findings are in line with the findings of Al-

Qallaf (2006), Powell (1998), Pope-Davis and Twing (1991), Sievert et al (1988),

Aharony (2009), Yaacob (1992). In some studies, it was found that at initial stages

females librarians were found little shy but later they become similar to their male

colleagues regarding application of IT in their libraries.

241
Age is another variable of interest for many library scholars to explore its

relationship with librarians IT attitudes. However, researcher have noted while

reviewing literature that little attention has been paid to distinguish librarians IT

attitudes and age relationship for first time IT user or as a regular IT user. Adesope et al

(2007) and Pope-Davis and Twing (1991) found that older people showed positive

attitude compared to younger people because with more experience they can become

better users and ultimately adopt more positive attitudes toward IT. Findings of this

study revealed a significant negative relationship between librarians’ IT attitudes and

their age, job experience and recency in professional qualification. Findings indicate

that younger librarians were better oriented and inclined toward IT application in

libraries compared to older librarians. These findings of the present study are in line

with the findings of Al-Zahrani (2000), Powell (1998), DeYoung and Spence (2004)

and Birdi and Zapf (1997) that demographic variables such as age, job experience and

recency in professional qualification showed significant negative relationship with

librarians IT attitudes. In addition to the experience and exposures to technology, the

other reasons for highest positive attitudes in younger librarians could be their high

energy level, ambition for progress in the profession, promotions to the next grades and

other motivations. While studies of Uwaifo (2007), Taghavi (2006), Nair (2001) and

Adedeji et al (2005) did not find a significant relationship between librarians IT

attitudes and their age and experience related variables.

A significant positive relationship was determined in librarians IT attitudes and

experience in computer use and IT training. These findings are similar to the studies of

Tella and Ayeni (2006), Adeyinka (2008), Idowu (999), Adesope et al (2007), Al-

Zahrani (2000) Taghavi (2006), Sievert et al (1988), DeYoung and Spencer (2004), and

Yaacob (1992). Similarly, mean score of the librarians using computer at home was

higher on librarians IT attitude score compared to those not using computer at home.

242
The positive significant correlation between training and experience in IT-related

variables and librarians IT attitude indicate the need and effectiveness of training and

exposure to computer and other IT tools to increase the positiveness of librarians

attitudes toward applying IT based innovations in their libraries.

A significant positive relationship was found between librarians’ level of IT

knowledge and their attitudes towards information technology. The study has confirmed

findings of Adeyinka (2008), Adekunle et al (2007), Tella and Ayeni (2006), Idowu

(1999) and Finaly and Finlay (1996) that librarians’ level of IT knowledge positively

influences their attitudes toward introducing new technologies in their libraries. These

findings are in line with Rogers (2003) diffusion of innovation theory, which states that

respondents who possess good IT knowledge demonstrate more positive attitudes

towards IT based innovations compared to people with low IT knowledge and with

those who remain ignorant of latest IT developments. This also implies that librarians

require continuous education and exposure to increase their level of knowledge of new

technologies. Librarians experience in computer use also significantly and positively

correlated with librarians’ attitude toward IT. In line with the findings of Al-Zahrani

(2000), this study confirmed that more frequently librarians use IT tools the high

positive their attitude toward IT application in libraries would be. A significant

relationship was also determined between the librarians’ IT attitudes and their year of

attaining professional qualification.

The most significant relationship was found between attitudes of librarians and

awareness about IT. Therefore, it is evident that these variables are capable of making

the attitudes of librarians more positive towards information technology. These findings

are also in line with the study framework that librarians’ attitudes are open to influence

by the respondents personal and professional characteristics, and institutional factors.

243
5.3.4. Problems Hindering Wider Use of IT

In the literature review Ramzan (2004a), Rehman (2000b), Riaz (1993), Anwar

(1993) and Johnson (1991) identified a number of factors that have hindered the

application of information technology in libraries of Pakistan. This study has confirmed

several of these factors. The most important barriers appear to be non-availability of

skilled librarians, lack of in-depth training and ineffective role of librarians in IT related

decision-making. Irregular and unstable power supply was also identified as a serious

obstacle in the optimum use of information technologies. There is a consensus between

veteran library educators of Pakistan and practicing senior librarians in the country that

no institutional effort has been made so far to enhance the librarians’ level of IT

knowledge. Only a few individuals who were making efforts to update their knowledge

but their impact was insignificant on overall IT application in the country.

The data revealed that in addition to the above factors, non-availability of

standard library software, budgetary constraints and the management’s non-receptivity

to IT changes were the major problems in the way of library automation in Pakistan.

The study confirmed the findings of Hardesty (1997) that the librarians’ working

relationship with computer centres is vital for the overall success of organizational

innovations. In consonance with Weiner (2003), the study found that librarians’ lack of

information of innovations and an ineffective role in IT decision-making were the

reasons for librarians’ resistance to change, their fear of change, fear of computers and

insecurity.

Despite significant funding available to academic libraries, the application of

information technology is low in Pakistani libraries compared to similar libraries in the

developed countries. The study found that the librarians’ positive attitudes could be

leveraged to increase the libraries’ potential to acquire and use new technologies, given

244
adequate training, financial resources, role in decision-making and support from

computer and other departments.

This study has provided scientific data and evidences for local authors and

international researchers to further probe into the different dimensions of attitudes of

librarians towards information technology in this part of the world. The findings of this

study would help planners and decision-makers, such as Higher Education Commission

of Pakistan, Planning Commission, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of

Information Technology, Ministry of Education, library directorates, Vice-Chancellors

of universities, heads of other academic institutions and members of library committees,

educators and librarians. They would benefit by knowing the status of IT in Pakistani

libraries, the attitudes of librarians toward IT application in academic libraries,

librarians’ role in IT-related decision-making and in understanding the factors affecting

attitudes of librarians towards IT. Through such an understanding, the decision-makers

can review their existing library IT projects and can take concrete steps to further

improve attitudes of librarians towards information technology, which in turn, will

enhance the effective and appropriate use of information technologies in libraries across

Pakistan. The enhanced IT application and usage will help in achieving the all-

important goal of constant improvement in teaching, learning and research standards of

educational institutions in Pakistan.

5.4. A Model to Enhance Positiveness of Librarians’ Attitudes Towards IT

One of the purposes of this study was to present a model to improve the

librarians’ attitudes towards application of IT in libraries. The model is presented in

Figure 5.1. This model is based on the findings regarding underlying dimensions of the

librarians IT attitudes and affects of organizational, demographic and professional

variables on librarians’ attitudes toward application of IT in libraries. In developing the

245
model, basic ideas have been taken from Technology Acceptance Model (Davis et al

1989) and from the conceptual framework of the study given at Figure 2.2. The model

illustrates three types of variables affecting (positively/ negatively) different dimensions

of librarians’ IT attitudes. They are ‘demographic variables’, ‘professional

characteristics’ and ‘organizational variables.’ An inspection of the model indicates that

age and experience related demographic variables (year of latest qualification, age,

experience as a librarian and experience as a head librarian) negatively influence the

librarians perceived confidence in IT application. Findings indicate that younger

librarians showed more confidence in IT application compared to older librarians.

Similarly, librarians using computers at home showed greater confidence in IT

application in libraries.

Librarians’ professional characteristics (awareness about new technologies, level

of IT knowledge and frequency of IT use) positively influence librarians’ attitudes

regarding usefulness of IT, capabilities of IT and their confidence for IT application in

libraries. Level of technology knowledge influences librarians’ attitudes regarding

capabilities of IT and their confidence in IT application. Similarly, experience in

computer use showed significant positive relationship with librarians perception

regarding usefulness of IT and their confidence in IT application.

Findings regarding professional characteristics as mentioned in the model

indicate that librarian’s level of knowledge and experience in IT positively influences

their attitude toward IT. These variables play an important role in enhancing the

positiveness of librarians’ attitudes toward IT application in libraries.

Of the organizational variables, a statistical significant mean difference existed

in type of library (private/publics) as perceived usefulness was higher in public sector

librarians.

246
Professional Characteristics
Librarians’ Level of IT
Knowledge
Librarians’
Level of Awareness of
Frequency of IT
New Technologies

Experience in Level of Technology


Computer Use Knowledge

Demographic
r = .255, p<.05
rs = .161, p<.05

rs = .181, p<.05
r = .155, p<.05
rs = .169, p<.05
rs = .175, p<.05

r = .193, p<.05
rs = .275, p<.05

r = .165, p<.05

r = .103, p<.05
rs = .150, p<.05

r = .248, p<.05
Organizational

rs = .190, p<.05
Variables
Variables
Year of Latest Qualification
rs=-.165, p<.05
Staff Size
rs=.145, p<.05

Figure 5.1.
(Librarians)
r = .210, p<.05 Computer Use at Home
Libraries’ Levels of IT r = .204, p<.05 t=-2.554, p<.05
Availability
r = .150, p<.05
of IT

of IT
r = .281, p<.05 Age
Libraries’ Levels of IT Use r = .168, p<.05 rs=-.174. p<.05
r = .198, p<.05
IT Application

Experience as a Librarian
Perceived Usefulness
Perceived Capabilities

Library Budget rs=-.144 p<.05


rs=-.172, p<.05
Perceived Confidence in

t=2.217,p<.05 Experience as a Head /

A Model to Enhance Positiveness of Librarians’ Attitudes Toward IT


Type of Libraries Chief Librarian
Librarians Attitudes Toward IT rs=-.239, p<.05

247
Size of library budget showed significant negative relationship with perceived

capabilities of IT. Number of librarians indicated significant positive relationship with

the perceived usefulness of IT. Libraries’ levels of IT availability and levels of IT use

showed positive significant relationship with all the dimensions of librarians IT

attitudes. The more IT was made available and utilized in libraries the more positive

librarians’ attitude toward application of IT would be. This model can also be used as a

basis in preparing policies and plans to enhance the positiveness of librarians IT

attitudes in enhancing effectiveness of librarians in IT innovations, in judging their

suitability to carry out IT projects and in assessing the existing IT projects or predicting

the success or failure of an IT project in a library setting.

5.5. Recommendations for Practice

Findings revealed that a few libraries were without PCs, printers, email and

Internet. Many libraries had only one PC. Similarly, some libraries had not started

automation. Majority of those who had started automation were at different levels of

automation. Most of the libraries were not using standard library software for

automation. Respondents showed overall positive attitudes towards IT. However, they

have showed negative attitudes towards few statements concerning job fears because of

IT, maintaining automated library inventory and risks for storing data on computers. In

addition, they were not positive about value of IT tools versus cost and need to abandon

the rules developed for print resources in favour of new rules to handle e-resources. The

study also found a number of personal, professional and institutional factors influencing

the librarians’ attitudes.

Based on these findings and conclusions, the researcher offers the following

recommendations to improve the IT attitudes of librarians, which have been found to be

248
positively associated with the libraries’ IT availability level, librarians’ awareness and

knowledge in information technology and other factors:

1. It is important that libraries have sufficient hardware for administration and

library services. No library can function effectively without an e-mail and

Internet connection in today’s information driven society. For those

postgraduate colleges and departmental libraries of the universities where there

was no computer, email and Internet, the university authorities, Higher

Education Commission and Provincial Education Departments need to arrange

sufficient (at least two or more) PCs for administrative and faculty and students’

use, printers, scanner and email and Internet connections. Similarly, for those 57

respondents where there was only one PC available in the library, there is a need

to provide more computers as it will be difficult for the faculty, students,

administrative staff and librarians’ to get an opportunity to work on the available

computers. Once hardware is provided, it is important to allocate funds for the

maintenance and up-gradation of hardware.

2. A number of libraries had not started automation. Findings revealed that only a

few libraries that had started or completed automation were using industry

standard state-of-the-art integrated software. It would not be possible for rest of

the libraries who were not using standard library software to compete with the

libraries using standard library software. The Higher Education Commission

should take concrete steps for automation of academic libraries in the country.

This argument is further strengthened by the successful experience of launching

of National Digital Library for the whole country.

3. Librarians, being the key stakeholders of the library, need to be fully involved in

any IT based acquisition for libraries. Their effective involvement at each stage

249
of the IT decision-making for the library will ensure their ownership, motivation

and improvement in positive attitudes for the promotion of IT.

4. Overall librarians have showed positive attitudes toward IT. However, they have

showed negative attitude on five IT-attitude statements that need to be addressed

to make their attitudes positive. For example, librarians’ fears regarding job

could be addressed through providing them IT training to their work comfort

level, or their job descriptions could be modified to make best use of their

available skills, and their team could be strengthened with IT skilled librarians.

Findings of this study have revealed a significant relationship between the

number of librarians available in a library and librarians’ IT attitudes. The logic

behind this outcome seems availability of comfort and support on technology

matter amongst the group of colleagues. The issue of maintaining an automated

inventory could be resolved through enhancing the level of librarians and

auditors’ understanding of the capabilities of the software/softcopies in terms of

safety and integrity of the data. Otherwise, the ultimate benefit of automation to

save the time and efforts in manual accessioning and record keeping would not

be achieved. Regarding librarians concerns of risks in storing data on computers

it is recommended to educate and train them about using different safe methods

for data storage. For example, tape drives hard disks, DVDs, and USBs etc.

Traditionally librarians feel comfortable in using the existing cataloguing rules,

classification schemes and standards in practice. Because, any change in the

existing system requires conversion of the current and archival records both

physical, and soft formats, and changes in staff practices and user’s information

seeking behaviour. However, with emerging digital paradigm as indicated in the

literature review new rules are necessary to manage data and resources in digital

formats.

250
5. Librarians’ confidence in IT application, awareness of capabilities of IT tools

and their perceived usefulness of IT in terms of their knowledge and practice in

IT application, their role in IT-related decision-making and efficiency and

effectiveness of IT in library services will make their attitude more positive for

application of IT in libraries.

6. A significant effort is required to increase awareness of new technologies among

the librarians in Pakistan. Librarians should be more proactive in reading;

discussing and publishing IT related issues and experiences. It is important for

organizations to send librarians abroad to attend workshops, seminars, short-

term training courses and visits so that they could observe the latest technologies

and raise their level of knowledge to implement the appropriate information

technologies in Pakistani libraries.

7. The majority of the respondents received IT training through very short courses.

Formal IT training programmes of longer durations (diploma etc.) need to be

organized by the Departments of Library and Information Sciences in Pakistan

and the Pakistan Library Association. The existing Pakistan Library Association

Computer Training Centres need to be strengthened in terms of hardware,

software and qualified faculty.

8. Planners and head of libraries need to keep in mind while making IT projects the

findings of this study, which revealed that the librarians’ age, their job

experience as a librarian and as a head librarian showed significant negative

attitudes towards IT.

9. Librarians in Pakistan should take the ownership to initiate and implement

innovative information technologies in their libraries.

251
10. A separate budget should be allocated for training whenever a new technology is

acquired even if it is highly expensive. Librarians should initiate orientation

programmes for staff and users for newly installed/implemented IT systems.

11. New rules and regulations to accommodate technology based materials and

services should be devised. There is a need to take into confidence the accounts

department, auditors and management of the organization about the accuracy,

transparency and authenticity of IT based reports, records and statistics.

12. More emphasis should be placed on improving librarians' attitudes towards

technology. Several factors contribute to improving attitudes toward IT. A mere

focus on increasing budget allocation will not ensure positive attitudes.

Librarians’ knowledge in IT, experience in computer use, age group, working

experience, level of awareness of technologies and their role in IT decision

making are key factors influencing their attitudes toward information

technology. These factors need to be addressed while planning and

implementing any IT based project in libraries.

5.6. Directions for Future Research

The body of literature focusing on attitudes, IT and librarianship will benefit

from future studies covering some of the following areas for investigation and inquiry:

1. Replication of the present study with additional parameters such as multiple

respondents in the participating libraries, including other key decision-makers

(heads of the organizations, etc.), as well as incorporation of the views of end

users. Replication studies will also help in validating the findings of this study

and the proposed model.

2. To conduct a longitudinal study on a small number of libraries using the case

study method to better understand the problems and challenges in IT evolution.

252
3. Study to develop standards for IT application in Pakistani libraries.

4. To conduct more focussed studies for in-depth analysis of IT issues. For

example, studies focusing on large libraries, government libraries and

specialized libraries.

5. Cross-cultural studies will be extremely useful to examine the levels of IT

attitudes across countries. Such studies could be both regional as well as

international in scope.

6. The researcher believes that given the relative dearth of IT attitudes related

research in librarianship in Pakistan, efforts focusing on gathering and analyzing

the views of key stakeholders (users, librarians, computer scientists, government

functionaries, academicians, thinkers and funding agencies) in IT

implementation will go a long way in providing a sound basis for developing

guidelines for fostering a more conducive environment for IT application in

libraries in Pakistan.

5.7. Concluding Statement

This study presents data, recommendation and a model to librarians, educators,

heads of academic institutions, Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, education

departments, planning and development ministries and other policy making bodies for

enhancing the positiveness of librarians’ attitudes toward IT application in Pakistani

libraries. It is earnestly hoped that the findings and recommendations of this study will

add value to the national and international literature on attitudes of librarians toward

application of information technology in libraries.

253
APPENDICES

254
APPENDIX A

List of E-Databases Accessible Through HEC (Higher Education Commission of


Pakistan) Digital Library

255
List of Electronic Databases Accessible through HEC Digital Library

Subject-Specific Resources
• American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT)
• American Chemical Society (ACS)
• American Institute of Physics (AIP)
• American Mathematical Society (AMS)
• American Physical Society (APS)
• American Society of Civil Engineering (ASCE)
• American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME)
• Association of Computing Machinery (ACM)
• ESDU - Engineering Solutions for Academia
• Institute Of Electrical And Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
• Institute of Physics
• International Forestry Review - Commonwealth Forestry Association
• Journal of The Acoustical Society of America (JASA)
• Mineralogical Society of Great Britain & Ireland - MINABS Online
• Nature Publishing
• Optical Society Of America (OSA)
• Oxford English Dictionary

Multidisciplinary Resources
• Blackwell Synergy
• Cambridge University Press
• EbscoHost
• Elsevier (Science Direct)
• ELIN@ Pakistan
• JSTOR
• National Academies Press (NAP)
• Science Online
• Springerlink
• Taylor & Francis Journals
Medicine
• Beech Tree Publishing

256
• Bentham Science

Social Sciences & Humanities


• Emerald
• University Of Chicago Press

Scholarly Databases for Reference Searching


• ISI Web of Knowledge
• SCOPUS

McGraw Hill e-Book Collections


Digital Library has acquired following McGraw Hill Collections for all the Digital
Library registered institutions:
• McGraw-Hill's Digital Engineering Library
• McGraw-Hill's Access Medicine
• McGraw-Hill's Access Science

Ebrary...eContent Platform
Ebrary offers the most flexible options for acquiring eBooks and other
authoritative content from the world's leading publishers. Ebrary offers an increasing
selection of more than 34,250 e-Books of 220 distinguished international
publishers...more!

Oxford University Press eBooks


Oxford University Press e-Books contains the full-text of over 1,350 Oxford
books in the areas of Economics and Finance, Political Science, Mathematics,
Physics, Religion, Management Sciences and some Social Sciences Subject
categories. Keywords are available at book and chapter level, and up to 200 new and
recently published books.

257
APPENDIX B

Cover Letter for Questionnaire to Librarians

258
FACULTY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA, 50603 KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA

Dear Colleague

The advent of remote and instant access to information has provided enormous
opportunities and significant risks for the consumers of information and librarians.
Many of our colleagues are finding themselves in a situation where information
technology has become an essential part of their professional life. I am conducting this
survey to collect information about “Attitudes of Librarians Towards Application of IT
in Academic Libraries in Pakistan” for my research with the Faculty of Computer
Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya. The purpose of this
research is to measure the levels at which IT is being provided and utilized, investigate
the attitudes of librarians toward IT, determine the interrelationship between librarians’
IT attitudes and demographic, professional and organizational variables, examine the
factors that affect librarians attitudes and propose a model to enhance the positiveness
of librarians attitudes toward IT applications in Pakistani libraries.

It is hoped that the findings of this study would be used by library leaders,
government functionaries, administrators, policy makers, heads of universities
/institutes, higher education commission and other decision-makers in addressing the
factors that affect librarians’ IT attitudes and problems that librarians are facing in IT
application (automation projects) within an organizational setting. The data obtained
through this study will help in understanding IT related problems and in initiating
institutional level efforts to further improve the librarians’ positive attitudes for
optimum IT use in our libraries.

Your cooperation is very important for the success of this study. I fully realize
how busy you are but ask that you take some time to answer the questions and return
the questionnaire as soon as possible, in an enclosed envelope or through my colleague
who handed this to you. Thank you.

Yours sincerely,

Muhammad Ramzan, Doctoral candidate


FCSIT, University of Malaya, KL, Malaysia

C/o
Chief Librarian
Lahore University of Management Sciences
Opposite Sector U, DHA, Lahore

259
APPENDIX C

Copy of the Survey Questionnaire


Attitudes of Librarians Towards Application of Information Technology in
Academic Libraries in Pakistan

260
Survey Questionnaire

Attitudes of Librarians Towards Application of Information Technology in

Academic Libraries in Pakistan

Part 1: Availability and Usage of IT

1. Please indicate the number of computers available in your library.

Computer (PC) Laptops Palm PCs

2. Please check √ the hardware/IT tools available in your library.

Audio player Digital camera Printers

Back up drive Facsimile (Fax) Scanners (digital)

Barcode reader Microfilm reader Slide projector

CC TV Camera Multimedia projector Television

Photocopier UPS (Power Supply) CD/DVD player

USB Pen drive VCR/VCP Wireless LAN

Others (pl. specify)

3. Please check √ the software and IT applications available in your library.

A. E-mail: Yes No Internet Yes No Intranet (LAN) Yes No

B. What is your level of Internet access bandwidth (please check √ that applies)?

i. up to 256 Kbps ii. 512 Kbps


iii. 1 Mbps iv. 2 Mbps
v. 4 Mbps and above

C. Is your library using Internet through HEC PERN project? Yes No

D. How does your library access the Internet, (please check √ that applies you)?

i. Domain control ii. Proxy


iii. Individual iv. Dial up

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E. What network resources are available in your library (please check √ that applies)?

i. Shared folders ii. Mapped network drives iii. Network printing

F. Are you using any library management system/software)? Yes No

if yes: Name of the package


In house developed Purchased off the shelf
Approximate cost Donated

G. Does your library have OPAC (Online Catalogue)? Yes No

H. Does your library have its own website? No___ Yes (URL pl.) ______________

I. Does your library have a Web OPAC? No___ Yes (URL pl.) ____________

J. Are you using barcode (bar labels) for check out/in of materials? Yes No

4. Please check √ what percentages of your following library operations are automated?

Acquisition 100%______ 75%_____ 50%______ 25%______ None______


Catalogue 100%______ 75%_____ 50%______ 25%______ None______
Circulation 100%______ 75%_____ 50%______ 25%______ None______
Serials 100%______ 75%_____ 50%______ 25%______ None______
Report Generation 100%______ 75%_____ 50%______ 25%______ None______
Overall Automation 100%______ 75%_____ 50%______ 25%______ None______

5. Please indicate the number of electronic resources available in your library.

Number of CD-ROM databases _____


Please list the important databases/packages a._________________ b. ______________
c. _____________________________ d. __________________e.______________
Number of online/electronic databases/digital library (less HEC) subscribed to _______
Please list important ones a. ________________b. ______________c._______________
d. __________________ e. ________________f.________________
Number of online books subscribed ___Number of online full text journals accessible___
Do you have access to HEC sponsored National Digital Library? Yes No

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6. Which of the following information technologies do your library staff and patrons use?

Please circle the appropriate extent of use on the following scale:

Never Seldom Little Often Always


N S L O A
1 2 3 4 5

IT TOOLS LIBRARY STAFF PATRONS (USERS)


N S L O A N S L O A
Computers (PC) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
CD-ROM/DVD 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Photocopiers/ 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Printers
AV Materials 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Online Catalogue 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
E-mail 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Internet 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Online databases 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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Part 2: Librarians’ Role in IT-Related Decision-Making

7. Please check √ below the departments involved in different stages for acquisition of
hardware/software/ electronic resources for your library:

Departments Stages
Initiate Prepare Make Allocate Purchase Install Maintain
Specs. Choices Funds
Accounts & Admin
Purchase
Vendor
Consultant
Computer
Professionals
Library Committee
Librarians

8. Please indicate the level of your satisfaction or dissatisfaction against the


following questions:

Highly Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Undecided Satisfied Highly Satisfied


HDS DS UD S HS
1 2 3 4 5
HDS DS UD S HS
Your role in decision making for IT applications……………1 2 3 4 5
Level of overall IT application in your organization ………..1 2 3 4 5
IT support from other departments…………………………..1 2 3 4 5
Maintenance support and funding for IT applications……….1 2 3 4 5

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Part 3: Attitudes Toward Information Technology

9. For statements listed below, please indicate the level of agreement or disagreement
using the following scale:
(Please describe your personal beliefs and attitudes toward IT application in libraries)
Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree
SDA DA UD A SA
1 2 3 4 5
Please read each statement and circle the number that best describes your opinion.

Impact of Information Technology SDA DA UD A SA


Each year IT offers more efficient ways to carry out library
operations ……….…………………………………………..…. 1 2 3 4 5
IT helps provide specific information that otherwise would
not be available……………….………………………………… 1 2 3 4 5
Changes occurring due to IT application are out of control of
librarians, so they have to adjust accordingly…………………… 1 2 3 4 5
Online databases provide more up-to date information
than the conventional catalogue and indexes…………….……….1 2 3 4 5
Card catalogue can be modified easily than a computerized
catalogue (OPAC)…………….. …………………………….… 1 2 3 4 5
All level of staff can easily work with the IT based systems …... 1 2 3 4 5
Use of IT can help people make quick and correct decisions…… 1 2 3 4 5
Extensive use of IT has created job fears amongst librarians ….. 1 2 3 4 5
Automated acquisition is not feasible for Pakistani libraries…………
1 2 3 4 5
Computerized library inventory (accessioning) is not
acceptable to auditors in Pakistan ……………………………… 1 2 3 4 5
Application of IT will not appreciably reduce the number
of library staff ………………………………………………….. 1 2 3 4 5
Computers help eliminate repetitive and clerical functions…..… 1 2 3 4 5
IT enables most effective ways of resource sharing to librarians…1 2 3 4 5
Data storage on computer is highly risky in libraries compared
to print resources……………………………………..…………. 1 2 3 4 5
Information retrieval is much easier through printed
resources than online resources ……………………………..….. 1 2 3 4 5
Information and data retrieved through print resources
is more authentic than retrieved through online resources……... 1 2 3 4 5

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Use of computer creates health and environment problem…..… 1 2 3 4 5

IT Cost and Resource Allocation


Each year librarians should increase IT expenditure…...………. 1 2 3 4 5
If extra funds were allocated to my library, more IT
would be purchased ……………………………………………. 1 2 3 4 5
Whenever new technology is acquired, it is essential
that funds should be allocated for the purpose of
education and training, even if it is expensive ……..……….….. 1 2 3 4 5
While the cost of IT tools is very high, they are not
well worth their value for Pakistani libraries………………..….. 1 2 3 4 5
The expenditure for IT maintenance and supplies
is very high compared to printed resources………………….. 1 2 3 4 5
The cost of the most appropriate and advanced
technology for my library is so high that I will not
be able to purchase what I need …………………………..……. 1 2 3 4 5
Information technology is still a luxury for Pakistani libraries… 1 2 3 4 5

IT Training of Staff and Users


The attainment of theoretical and practical IT knowledge
should be a core component of library education in Pakistan….. 1 2 3 4 5
All levels of staff involved in IT applications should be given
on-going education and training………………………..….…… 1 2 3 4 5
It is essential for librarians to arrange instructional programmes
for users whenever they introduce new electronic systems…....... 1 2 3 4 5
Library automation training currently being imparted through
PLA (Pakistan Library Association) computer centres and other
institutions in Pakistan are of high quality and very effective …. 1 2 3 4 5

General Statements About IT


Application of IT in libraries is not librarians responsibility,
computer professionals need to do this….……………………… 1 2 3 4 5
Only librarians should be enthusiastic and committed
toward technological innovations in libraries……..……….…… 1 2 3 4 5
Application of IT should be a high priority in our libraries ……. 1 2 3 4 5
It is difficult for librarians to handle computer and other

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technologies …………………………………………………….. 1 2 3 4 5
IT is a separate discipline librarians need not to learn this …....... 1 2 3 4 5
Electronic resources are more effective to conduct simple,
complex and comprehensive searches than manual systems …... 1 2 3 4 5
Concrete steps should be taken by Pakistani librarians to
develop library networks and consortia………………………… 1 2 3 4 5
More advanced IT would be applied in Pakistani libraries in
future ……………………………………………………….…… 1 2 3 4 5
New information technology is exciting and fascinating ………. 1 2 3 4 5
Many librarians in Pakistan carry many myths and
confusions about application of IT in libraries …………….…… 1 2 3 4 5
IT is more useful for developed country libraries
compared to Pakistani libraries ……………………….…….. 1 2 3 4 5
It is difficult for librarians in Pakistan to cope with
ever-changing technologies and innovations..……………….… 1 2 3 4 5
The competencies developed by library schools in Pakistan are
equal to international standards and could help in meeting
emerging technology challenges ………………………...…….. 1 2 3 4 5
Rules and schemes developed only for print collections
have become obsolete in the current scenario……………….…. 1 2 3 4 5

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Part 4: Library Characteristics

10. Name of the parent organization________________________________________

11. Type of your library is

a. Public (Govt./ Semi-Govt.)__________________ b. Private ____________________

12. Please check √ if your library is located in a. City________ b. Town________

13. Please indicate the approximate number of your library members.

a. Within organization/Internal Member ______ b. Outside/External members ______

14. Please indicate the appropriate number of your printed collections:

a. Books_______b. Documents/bound volumes ______ c. Subscribed journals ______

15. Please indicate the number of full-time library staff

a. Librarians ____ b. Library Asstt.____ c. Computer professional ___ d. Others___

16. Please check √ the approximate operating library budget and expenditure for
purchase and maintenance of IT based collections and equipment:

Total Operating Budget Expenditure on IT


Amount in Pak Rs/Year 2003 2004 2005 2003 2004 2005
None
Less than Rs 50,000
50,001 - 100,000
100,001 - 500,000
500,001 - 1,000,000
1,000,001 - 5,000,000
5,000,001 - 10,000,000
10,000,0001 - 50,000,000
Over 50,000,000

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Part 5: Librarians Personal and Professional Characteristics

17. Please check √ the highest library qualification that you posses:

Certificate ____Diploma____ BLISc ____MLISc ____MS/M Phil ____Doctorate____

18. When did you receive your latest professional qualification? {……}

19. Please check √ your range of age in years.

Less than 25 years____ 25-34____35-44 ____45-54 _____Over 54 years ______

20. What is your gender? Male _______ Female______

21. Please check √ the range of your experience as librarian.

Less than 5 years___6-10 ____11-15 ____16-20 ____ 21-25____ Over 25 years ____

22. How long have you been the head librarian? Please check √ range.

Less than 5 years ____6-10 ____11-15 ____16-20 ____21-25 ____Over 25 years ____

23. Do you use a computer at home? Yes________ No _______

24. Please check √ how often do you use the following IT applications?

Frequency IT Applications
Word processing CD-ROM E-mail Internet
Daily
Several times/week
Several times/month
Never

25. How much experience do you have of using computers? Check √ appropriate
range.

None ____ Less than one year____1-3 ____4-6 ____7-9 ____Over 9 years____

26. Please check √ the number of months/years ago you attended the last IT
training programme.

None ____ Less than one year ____1-3 ____4-6 ____7-9 ____ Over 9 years____

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27. Please check √ the most appropriate answer using the scale below.

Statements None Little Moderate Substantial Indepth


How do you rate the level of your
knowledge of technology?
Do you constantly keep abreast
of new technological developments?
How much have you written /
published about IT in libraries?

28. Please list in priority (1-9) any problem(s) you are facing in application of IT in
your library; one indicating the most difficult and nine the least difficult.

Budget ________________ Standard library software ___________________


Hardware ______________ Skilled human resources ____________________
Cost of software _________ Management’s attitudes ____________________
Size of the library ________ Provision of Internet _______________________
Others, please specify ______________________________________________

Any comments please.

Thank you very much for your cooperation in completing this questionnaire. Please return
in the enclosed envelope to:

Muhammad Ramzan
Doctoral candidate
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur

C/o
Chief Librarian, Lahore University of Management Sciences
Opposite Sector U, DHA Lahore Cantt-54792, Pakistan
Tel: 92 42 03004487844, mramzan@lums.edu.pk, mramzaninfo@gmail.com

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APPENDIX D

Code Book Comprising of Variable Labels and Value Labels

271
Code Book Comprising of Variable Labels and Value Labels for Questionnaire

VARIABLE LABELS

V1 Total Number of Computers Available in Respondent Libraries


V1A PCs
V1B Laptops
V1C Palm PCs

V2 Hardware/IT Tools Available in Respondent Libraries


V2A Audio Players
V2B Backup Drives
V2C Barcode Readers
V2D CCTV Camera
V2E CD/DVD Players
V2F Digital Camera
V2G Fax Machines
V2H Microfilm Readers
V2I Multimedia Projectors
V2J Photocopiers
V2K Printers
V2L Scanners (Digital)
V2M Slide Projectors
V2N Television
V2O UPS (Power Supply)
V2P USB Pen Drive
V2Q VCR/VCP
V2R Wireless LAN (Wi Fi)
V2S Others

V3 Software/IT Applications Available in Respondent Libraries


V3A E-Mail
V3B Internet
V3C Intranet
V3D Level of Internet Access (Bandwidth)
V3E Internet Access through HEC PERN Project
V3F Mode of Internet Access
V3G Network Resources Available in the Library
V3H Database Management System/Library Software
V3I Database Management System/Library Software Obtained Through
V3J OPAC (Online Catalogue)
V3K Library Website
V3L Web OPAC
V3M Libraries Using Barcode Labels for Circulation

V4 Percentage of Library Operations Automated


V4A Acquisitions
V4B Catalogue
V4C Circulation

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V4D Serials
V4E Report Generation
V4F Overall Automation

V5 Number of Electronic Resources Available in Respondent Libraries


V5A CD-ROM Databases
V5B Online/Electronic Databases (Less HEC) Subscribed
V5C Subscribed Online Books
V5D Subscribed Online Journals
V5E Access to HEC Sponsored National Digital Library Resources

V6 Extent of IT Use by Library Staff


V6A Computers (PC)
V6B CD-ROMs/DVD
V6C Photocopiers/Printers
V6D Audio-Visual Materials
V6E Online Catalogue
V6F E-mail
V6G Internet
V6H Online Databases

V7 Extent of IT Use by Library Patrons


V7A Computers (PC)
V7B CD-ROMs/DVD
V7C Photocopiers/Printers
V7D Audio-Visual Materials
V7E Online Catalogue
V7F E-mail
V7G Internet
V7H Online Databases

V8 Departments Involved in Acquisition of IT Tools and Applications


V8A Departments Involved in the Initiation Stage
V8B Departments Involved in Preparing Specifications
V8C Departments Involved in Making Choices
V8D Departments Involved in Allocation of Funds
V8E Departments Involved in Purchase
V8F Departments Involved in Installation
V8G Departments Involved in Maintenance

V9 Respondents Level of Satisfaction


V9A Role in Decision-Making for IT Applications
V9B Overall IT application in Parent Organization
V9C IT Support from Other Departments
V9D Maintenance Support and Funding for IT Applications

V10 Librarians’ Personal Beliefs and Attitudes About Impact of IT


V10A Each Year IT Offers More Efficient Ways to Carry Out Library
Operations
V10B IT Helps Provide Specific Information Available

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V10C Changes Occurring Due to IT Application are Out of Control of
Librarians
V10D Online Databases Provide More Up-To-Date Information
V10E Card Catalogue Can Be Modified More Easily Than OPAC
V10F All Level of Staff Can Easily Work with IT Based Systems
V10G IT Helps Make Quick and Correct Decisions
V10H Extensive Use of IT Has Created Fears amongst Librarians of Losing
Jobs
V10I Automated Acquisition is not Feasible for Pakistani Libraries
V10J Computerized Library Inventory is not suitable to Auditors in Pakistan
V10K IT Will not Appreciably Reduce the Number of Library Staff
V10L Computers Help Eliminate Repetitive and Clerical Functions
V10M IT Enables Most Effective Ways of Resource Sharing
V10N Data Storage on Computer is Highly Risky in Pakistani Libraries
V10O Information Retrieval is Easier through Printed Resources
V10P Data Retrieved through Print Resources is Authentic
V10Q Use of Computer is a Health Hazard

V11 Librarians’ Personal Beliefs and Attitudes About IT Cost and Resource
Allocation
V11A Each Year Librarians should Increase IT Expenditure
V11B Extra Fund Allocations should be spent on IT
V11C Training Fund Allocation is Must for Any New Technology
V11D Cost of IT Tools is Very High, vis-à-vis of Their Worth for Pakistani
Libraries
V11E IT Maintenance Expenditure is Very High
V11F Cost is a Major Factor of Not Buying IT for Libraries
V11G IT is Still a Luxury for Pakistani Libraries

V12 Librarians’ Personal Beliefs and Attitudes About Staff and User Training
V12A Attainment of IT Knowledge should be Core Component of Library
Education
V12B Staff Involved in IT should be Given Training
V12C User must be Given Orientation of New Electronic Systems
V12D IT Training provided by Pakistan Library Association Centres is of
Quality and Very Effective

V13 Librarians’ General IT Attitudes


V13A IT Application in Libraries is the Responsibility of Computer
Professionals
V13B Technological Innovation in Pakistani Libraries is Librarians'
Responsibility
V13C IT should be a High Priority for Pakistani Libraries
V13D It is Difficult for Librarians to Handle Computer and Other Technologies
V13E Librarians need not Learn IT as it is a Separate Discipline
V13F CD-ROM and Online Resources are Effective to Conduct Simple,
Complex and Comprehensive Searches
V13G Pakistani Libraries should Take Concrete Steps to Develop Library
Networks
V13H Advanced IT will be applied in Pakistani Libraries in Future
V13I New Information Technology is Exciting and Fascinating Librarians

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V13J Librarians in Pakistan Carry Many Myths and Confusions about IT
Applications
V13K IT is More Useful for Developed Country Libraries
V13L Librarians are finding it Difficult to cope with Technology Changes
V13M Competencies Developed by Pakistani Library Schools is Equivalent to
International Standards and Can Meet Emerging Technology Challenges
V13N Rules and Schemes Developed for Printed Collections have become
Obsolete in the Current scenario

V14 Library Characteristics


V14A Type of Library
V14B Library Members from within that Organization
V14C External Library Members
V14D Number of Books (Size of Libraries)
V14E Number of Documents/bound volumes
V14F Number of Subscribed Print Journals
V14G Geographical Location
V14H Number of Professional Librarians
V14I Number of Library Assistants
V14J Number Computer Professionals
V14K Number of Other (Clerical, Administrative) Staff

V15 Libraries’ Operating Budget for the Years


V15A 2003
V15B 2004
V15C 2005

V16 Libraries’ IT Expenditure for the Years


V16A 2003
V16B 2004
V16C 2005

V17 Background of Head/Chief Librarians


V17A Librarians Highest Professional Qualifications
V17B Respondents' Year of Latest Professional Qualification
V17C Age
V17D Gender
V17E Working Experience as Librarian
V17F Experience as Head/Chief Librarian

V18 Librarians IT Expertise


V18A Librarians Using Computers at Home
V18B Frequency of Word Process Use
V18C Frequency of CD-ROMs Use
V18D Frequency of E-Mail Use
V18E Frequency of Internet Use
V18F Experience in Computers Use
V18G Recency of IT Training
V18H Level of Technology Knowledge
V18I Level of Awareness of New Technologies
V18J Level of Written Contribution on IT in Libraries

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V19 Problems in IT Application in Respondent Libraries
V19A Budget
V19B Standard Library Software
V19C Availability of Hardware
V19D Skilled Human Resources
V19E Cost of Software
V19F Management’s Attitudes
V19G Size of the Library
V19H Provision of Internet
V19I Others

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VALUE LABELS

V1 Total Number of Computers Available in Responding Libraries

V1A-VIC (0=0), (1=1), (2-4=2), (5-10=3), (11-20=4), (More than 20=5),


(9 = Not Responded)

V2 Hardware/IT Tools Available in Responding Libraries

V2A-V2S (YES = 1), (NO = 0), (9= Not Responded)

V3 Software/IT Applications Available in Responding Libraries

V3A-V3C (YES = 1), (NO = 0), (9= Not Responded)


V3D (0=0), (1=256KBS), (2=512KBS), (3=1MBS), (4=2MBS), (5=4MBS
and More), (9= Not Responded)
V3E (YES = 1), (NO = 0), (9= Not Responded)
V3F (1='Domain), (2=Proxy), (3='Individual), (4='Dial up), (9='Not
Responded)
V3G (1=Shared folders), (2=Mapped drives), (3=Network printing),
(9=Not Responded)
V3H (YES = 1), (NO =0), (9= Not Responded)
V3I (1=In-house developed), (2=Purchased off the shelf), (3=Donated),
(9=Not Responded)
V3J-V3M (YES = 1), (NO =0), (9= Not Responded)

V4 Percentage of Library Operations Automated in Responding Libraries

V4A-V4F (None=0), (1=100%), (2=75%), (3=50%), 4=25%), (9 = Not


Responded)

V5 Number of IT-Based Resources Available in Responding Libraries

V5A-V5B (0=0), 1=1), (2-4=2), (5-10=3), (11-20=4), (More than 20=5),


(9 = Not Responded)
V5C-V5D (0=0), (1-100=1), (101-500=2), (501-1000=3), (1001-5000=4),
(More than 5000=5), (9 = Not Responded)
V5E (YES = 1), (NO = 0), (9= Not Responded)

V6 Extent of IT Use by Library Staff

V6A-V6H (0 = Never), (1 = Seldom), (2= Little), (3= Often), (4 = Always),


(9 = Not Responded)

V7 Extent of IT Use by Library Patrons

V7A-V7H (0 = Never), (1 = Seldom), (2= Little), (3= Often), (4 = Always),


(9 = Not Responded)

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V8 Department Involved in IT Acquisition

V8A-V8G (1=Accounts and Admin.), (2=Purchase Department), (3=Vendor),


(4= Consultant), (5 = Computer Professional), (6 = Library
Committee), (7 = Librarians), (9= Not Responded)

V9 Librarians’ Level of Satisfaction

V9A-9D (1= Highly Dissatisfied), (2=Dissatisfied), (3=Un-decided), (4 =


Satisfied), (5 = Highly Satisfied), (9 = Not Responded)

V10 Librarians’ Personal Beliefs and Attitudes About Impact of IT

V10A-V10Q (1=Strongly Disagree), (2=Disagree), (3=Un-decided), (4=Agree),


(5=Strongly Agree), (9 = Not Responded)

V11 Librarians’ Personal Beliefs and Attitudes About IT Cost and Resource
Allocation

V11A-V11G (1=Strongly Disagree), (2=Disagree), (3=Un-decided),


(4=Agree), (5=Strongly Agree), (9 = Not Responded)

V12 Librarians’ Personal Beliefs and Attitudes About Staff and User IT Training

V12A-V12D (1=Strongly Disagree), (2=Disagree), (3=Un-decided),


(4=Agree), (5=Strongly Agree), (9 = Not Responded)

V13 Librarians’ General IT Attitudes

V13A-V13N (1=Strongly Disagree), (2=Disagree), (3=Un-decided), (4=Agree),


(5=Strongly Agree), (9 = Not Responded)

V14 Libraries’ Characteristics

V14A (1 = Public.), (2 = Private), (9 = Not Responded)


V14B-V14C (0=0), (1-100=1), (101-500=2), (501-3,000=3), 3,001-10,000=4),
(More Than 10,000=5), (9=Not Responded)
V14D-V14E (0=0), (1,000-5,000=1), (5,001-10,000=2), (10,001-30,000=3),
(30,001-100,000=4), (More Than 100,000=5), (9=Not Responded)
V14F (0=0), (1-100=1), (101-500=2), (501-3,000=3), 3,001-10,000=4),
(More Than 10,000=5), (9=Not Responded)
V14G (1 = City), (2 = Town), (9 = Not Responded)
V14H-V14K (0=0), (1=1), (2-5 = 2), (6-10 = 3), (11-50 = 4), (More than 50= 5),
(9 = Not Responded)

V15 Libraries’ Operating Budget during 2003-2005

V15A-V15C (0 = None), (1 = Less than 50,000), (2 = 50,000 - 100,000), (3


=100,000 - 500,000), (4 = 500,001 - 1000, 000), (5 = 1000, 001-
5000, 000), (6 = 5000,001 - 10,000,000), (7 = 10,000,001 - 50,000,000)
(8= More than 50,000,000), (9 = Not Responded)

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V16 Libraries IT Expenditure during 2003-2005

V16A-V16C (0 = None), (1 = Less than 50,000), (2 = 50,000 - 100,000), (3


=100,000 - 500,000), (4 = 500,001 – 1,000, 000), (5 = 1,000, 001-
5,000, 000), (6 = 5,000,001 - 10,000,000), (7 = 10,000,001 -
50,000,000), (8 = More than 50,000,000), (9 = Not Responded)

V17 Background of the Head/Chief Librarian

V17A (1=Certificate), (2=Diploma), (3=BLISc), (4=MLISc), (5 = MS/ M


Phil), (6 = PhD), (9 = Not Responded)
V17B (1 = 1 year), (2 = 2-4 years), (3 = 5-10 years), (4 = 11-15 years),
(5 = More than 15 Years), (9=Not Responded)
V17C (1= Less than 25 years), (2 = 25-34), (3 =35-44), (4 = 45-54), (5 =
More than 54), (9=Not Responded)
V17D (1 = Male), (2 = Female), (9 = Not Responded)
V17E-V17F (1 =Less than 5 years), (2= 6-10) (3= 11-15), (4= 16-20), (5=21-
25), (6 = Over 25 years), (9 = Not Responded)

V18 Librarians’ Level of IT Expertise

V18A (1 = Yes), (0 = No), (9 = Not Responded)


V18B-V18E (0 = Never), (1 = Monthly), (2 = Weekly), (3 = Daily), (9 = Not
Responded)
V18F-V18G (0 = None), (1 = Less than 1 year), (2 = 1-3 years), (3 = 4-6 years),
(4 = 7-9 years), (5 = More than 9 Years), (9=Not Responded)
V18H-V18J (0 = None), (1 = Little), 2 = Moderate), (3 = Substantial),
(4 = In depth), (9=Not Responded)

V19 Problems in IT Application in Respondent Libraries

V19A-V19H (0=No problem), (1= Number 1 problem), (2=Number 2 problem),


(3=Number 3 problem), (4=Number 4 problem), (5= Number 5
problem), (6=Number 6 problem), (7=Number 7 problem), (8=
Number 8 problem), (9=Not Responded)

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APPENDIX E

Libraries IT Availability Weight Table

280
Weight Table for Libraries’ IT Availability

Variables Range Weight Total


Number Computers (PC) 0 0 Maximum
1 1 Weight 20
2-4 3
5-10 7
11-20 15
Over 20 20
Number of Laptops 0 0 Maximum
1 1 Weight 8
2-4 4
Over 4 8
Number Palm PCs 0 0 Maximum
1 1 Weight 4
Over 2 4
Audio Players, Yes 1 Maximum
Backup Drives No 0 Weight
Barcode Reader 28
CCTV Camera
CD/DVD Players
Digital Camera
Fax Machines
Microfilm Readers
Multimedia Projectors
Photocopiers/Printers
Scanners (Digital),
Slide Projectors
Television,
UPS (Power Supply)
USB Pen Drive
VCR/VCP
Wireless LAN (Wi Fi) and others
E-mail, Internet, Intranet
Internet Access through PERN
Library Software, OPAC
Library Website, Web OPAC
Libraries Barcode Circulation
Percentage of Library Operations None 0 Maximum
Automated 25% 5 Weight 20
50% 10
75% 15
100% 20
Access to HEC Digital Library Yes 20 Maximum
Online Databases No 0 Weight 20
Libraries’ IT Availability Total Weight 100 points

281
Libraries’ IT Availability Levels as per Weight Points

IT Availability Levels Weight Points


Zero IT Availability Level Zero Weight Point
Low IT Availability Level 1-24 Weight Points
Average IT Availability Level 25-49 Weight Points
Good IT Availability Level 50-74 Weight Points
Excellent IT Availability Level Over 75 Weight Points

282
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PUBLICATIONS FROM THIS STUDY

Following papers have been published/accepted/submitted for publication from


this study.

1. Ramzan, M. and D. Singh. 2010. “Factors affecting librarians’ attitudes toward IT


application in libraries”, The Electronic Library Vol. 28 No. 2, pp. 334-344.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting librarians,
attitudes toward IT application in libraries. The study also aimed to identify common
underlying factors, which could be used to predict the probable behavior of librarians
toward IT innovation in their libraries. Primary data was collected through a
questionnaire survey of 288 sampled head librarians working in academic libraries
across Pakistan. The study found that the intensity of librarians’ fears in IT handling,
ability to cope with the ever changing IT innovations and their level of understanding of
IT-based rules and regulations were good predictors of librarians’ attitudes toward
information technology. The findings could be utilized to improve the librarians’
attitudes toward IT applications, their role in IT-related decision-making, their
ownership of IT application in libraries and for success of library IT projects and
innovations.

2. Ramzan, M. and D. Singh. 2009. “Status of information technology application in


academic libraries of Pakistan”, The Electronic Library Vol. 27 No.4, pp.573-
787.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and determine the libraries IT
levels. More specifically the study focused on the status of computers and other
commonly used hardware, email, Internet, library software, automated users services,
expenditure on IT, and online resources available in academic libraries of Pakistan. The
data was collected through a questionnaire survey of 288 sampled academic libraries
across Pakistan. The study found a low level of IT availability, especially the absence of
computers, email and Internet in few libraries. Similarly, the libraries are far behind to
achieve excellent IT levels. It was found that libraries need to be fully automated using
standard library software / management systems. However, access to online resources
through the HEC was found extensive, and comprehensive. The data indicated the need
to enhance libraries IT expenditure. The findings can be utilized to evaluate the status of
different IT tools and applications. The statistical data is very useful and authentic
source for planning to improve the libraries’ IT infrastructure, library automation, and
in reducing the gap in levels of IT application in different type of libraries.

3. Ramzan, M. 2008. A study of ICT-Enabled paradigm shift in Pakistani libraries. In


Library and Information Studies in Digital Age: Professor M.P. Satija
Festschrift edited by Jagtar Singh, New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, pp 803-
816.

ABSTRACT: Traditionally libraries have been dealing with the recorded knowledge.
The changes in the formats of writing and access have historically influenced the
libraries use of technologies. However, the wonderful invention of computer and
information access technologies has drastically influenced recording, organization and

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access to knowledge. Since then the libraries are in a continued change mood. The shifts
from physical to virtual, direct access to authors and instant access to globally available
knowledge from remote locations are changing the whole scenario of the library
profession. Academic libraries being in the forefront of the creation and use of
scholarship and knowledge are confronting the innovations influenced by the disruptive
technologies. This study is an effort to trace what has happened in the developed world
in terms of information and communication technology applications in their libraries &
their user expectations, and where we in Pakistan stand in this global phenomenon

4. Ramzan, M. 2008. Problems hindering wider use of ICTs in libraries of developing


countries. In Emerging paradigm in librarianship: A call for innovation.
Proceedings of the PLA Golden Jubilee International Conference 2007, Edited
by K. Ameen, R.A. Ali and M.A. Tahami, p.158. Lahore: Pakistan Library
Association Punjab Branch. (Abstract published).

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the common problems hindering the wider
application of information technologies in Pakistan and other developing countries.
Emerging information and communication technologies are changing the shape of
libraries and information centres, globally. Findings of this study support the
observations of earlier authors that the libraries in Pakistan are lagging behind in
effective use of information and communication technologies. Data collected through a
recent survey of Pakistani libraries and documentary evidences regarding some
neighbouring and African country libraries revealed that skilled human resources,
inadequate funds, IT infrastructure, management’s attitudes, and unavailability of un-
interrupted power supply are common problems being faced by librarians in application
of innovative technologies.

5.Ramzan, M. and D. Singh (forthcoming) Librarians’ attitudes toward IT application in


academic libraries: Analysis and implications. The Journal of Academic
Librarianship (In final review)

ABSTRACT: Based on primary data collected for PhD thesis, this paper provides an in-
depth analysis and implications for librarians’ attitudes toward IT application in
libraries. The investigation revealed interrelationships between a number of
organizational, demographic and professional characteristics of librarians and their
attitudes toward IT. Paper also provides thoughtful discussion and conclusions for
practice.

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