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An Evaluation of Paleogene Paleobathymetric Models: Benthic Foraminiferal Distributions in

the Metrella Member of the Tejon Formation, Central California


Author(s): Martin B. Lagoe
Source: PALAIOS, Vol. 3, No. 5, Determining Paleobathymetry (Oct., 1988), pp. 523-536
Published by: SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology
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DETERMININGPALEOBATHYMETRY 523

ofPaleogenePaleobathymetric
An Evaluation
Models:BenthicForaminiferal in
Distributions
theMetrellaMemberoftheTejonFormation,
CentralCalifornia
MARTINB. LAGOE

Department
ofGeological
Sciencesand Institute
ofGeophysics, ofTexasatAustin,Austin,TX 78712
University

PALAIOS,
1988, V. 3, p. 523-536 neeredbyNatland(1933,1952,1957)inhisstudiesofmodern
sedimentsand late Cenozoicrocks of southernCalifornia.
Benthicforaminiferal biofacies providea usefulmeansfor Natland'sinitial attempts were refined bytheworkofBandy
estimatingpaleobathymetry in Mesozoic and Cenozoicmarine (e.g., 1953a, 1953b,1960), Bandy and Arnal (1957,1960),and
rocks.Theseestimates aremadeon thebasisofbiofacies models Ingle(1967, 1975, 1980). Currentbiofaciesmodels,fortime
reflecting
thedistribution ofbenthic foraminifera in themodern periodsrangingfromthe Cretaceousto the Holocene,rely
ocean.Paleooceanographic evidencesuggeststhatpast oceans heavilyon thedetailedanalysisofmodernforaminiferal distri-
wereprobably muchdifferent fromthemodern ocean;therefore,butionsand theirrelationships to variousenvironmental fac-
benthicbiofaciesmodelsneedtobe recalibrated forperiodsthat tors. These modernstudies are used to interpretfossil
differsignificantlyfromthepresent.An analysisof benthic assemblagesusingthe principleof homeomorphy (Bandy,
foraminiferafromthemiddleEoceneMetrellaSandstone Mem- 1960)-similarmorphology betweenextinctandmodernspe-
beroftheTejonFormation provides an opportunity totestcurrent cies connotessimilar environmental relationshipsas based on
paleobathymetric biofacies modelsfor continental marginset- themodernbiofaciesmodel.Thisapproachis a classicuse of
tings.Sedimentologic and stratigraphic evidenceidentifiedthe uniformitarian principles.
Metrellastrandline, shelf-edge, and slope.The distribution of Benthic foraminiferal clearlychangeina systematic
biofacies
threetaxathought torepresent deepwater(lowermiddlebathyal mannerwithincreasing depthalongbasinmargintraverses.
ordeeper),Bathysiphon eocenica,Cyclammina spp.,and Plec- Earlybiofacies modelssimply documented thisrelationshipor
tofrondiculariapackardi s.l., indicatesthattheyall arepresentor triedtorelateittotemperature changes(Natland, 1933).More
abundantin outer-shelf toshelf-edge environments. The much recentworkon modernbiofaciesshowsthatthese changes
broaderbathymetric rangeof thesetaxa may reflecta less actuallyreflectbathymetric gradientsin numerousenviron-
density-stratified
watercolumnthanin themodern ocean. mentalvariables(e.g., temperature, salinity, nu-
illumination,
trientconcentration, oxygenation,turbulence,substrate)
rather thanindepthitself.WorkbyIngle(1975,1980),Ingleet
INTRODUCTION al. (1980),andDouglas(1979,1981),amongmanyothers,has
shownthattheapparent bathymetric arrangement ofbiofacies
Biofaciesanalysisof benthicforaminifera is an importantis largelya responseto oceanicwater-mass structure.
methodofestimating paleobathymetry inMesozoicandCeno- Ifbenthic biofaciesvariations
foraminiferal reflectthemod-
zoicmarine basins.Thesepaleobathymetric estimates areused ernocean'swater-mass structure,thenthepaleobathymetric
toconstruct paleobathymetric maps,provideestimates ofbasin biofacies modelsbasedontheserelationships willworkwellas
subsidence anduplift, determine basinalgeometries, andinter- longas past water-massstructure is similarto thatin the
pret depositional environments. The development of geo- modernocean. Water-mass structure is dynamic, however,
historyanalysis(vanHinte,1978),whichdetailsthetimevs. andrespondsto changesintheearth'sclimate(Bergeret al.,
depthrelationships ofsedimentary sections,has producedan 1981) andcontinental configurations(Berggrenand Holister,
increaseddemand for better biostratigraphic/chronostrati- 1977). Isotopicevidenceofmarinewater-mass characteristics
graphic ages andpaleobathymetric estimates.Clearly,benthic indicates thatthepre-middle Mioceneoceanwas substantially
foraminiferal biofaciesanalysiscan play a key role in the different fromthemodernocean.Variations inthesurface-to-
solutionof a wide varietyof stratigraphic, depositional,tec- bottomwatergradient ofoxygenisotopes(Fig. 1) indicatea
tonic,andpetroleum exploration problems. three-stepevolutionof the Cenozoicocean (Bergeret al.,
The use of benthicforaminiferal biofaciesin estimating 1981). The earlyand middleCenozoicocean exhibitlower
paleobathymetry of easternPacificmarinebasinswas pio- temperature gradientscomparedto the modernocean. The

Copyright? 1988, The Society of Economic Paleontologistsand Mineralogists 0883-1351/88/0003-0523/$3.00

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524 LAGOE

CU

CENTRAL PACIFIC N (P cn~~~~~~~-


I

PLEIST. 0 BAKERSFIELD , m
PLIOC. "MODERN 0~~~~~
0
Z 10 OCEAN"
TAFT

i,, 'MARICOPA -.4

30 "MIDDLE I "''9,,v ,,,,\" O

O CENOZOIC ~%%%~' ~ SHALLOW


2Li30- lOCEAN" | o t'
-~~~- 0~~~~~~~~~
4 0 1 - -
o
z 40
- - - - - - - - - - - - - --
W M
I 15I
w O KM 20 _
0
O 50 "EARLY FIGURE2-Locality map ofthe southernSan JoaquinBasin. Outcrops
of Tejon Formationshown in black. Stratigraphicinformation(sum-
O LI tCENOZOIC marized in Nilsen, 1987) indicates that these outcrops representa
westward-deepeningpaleobathymetricgradient.
LL6OZOCEAN"1

K L DATA AFTER SAVIN,1977

Paleogenebiofacies shouldbe internallycalibrated to environ-


0 1 2 3 4 5
mentalconditions prevailingat thetimeofinterest.
SURFACE TO BOTTOM WATER Objectives
GRADIENT IN %180 (per milI This study is an attempt suchan internal
to initiate calibra-
tionas mentioned above by examining a sequenceof middle
FIGUREI-Plot of the differencein oxygenisotope values between
plankticand deep-water benthic foraminiferain the central Pacific
Eocene rocksinthesouthern SanJoaquinBasin,California-
Ocean. The differenceis a reflectionof the temperaturegradient theMetrella SandstoneMemberoftheTejonFormation (Fig.
between surface and bottomwater (and thus a measure of pole-to- 2). The southern edgeofthisbasinwas uplifted during thelate
equator temperaturegradients).The stepwise evolutionof the Ceno- Cenozoicnormal to theEocene strandline. The resultant San
zoic ocean is evident,withthe earlyCenozoic ocean being markedly EmigdioMountains provideoutcropsections(Figs. 2 and 3)
less temperature-stratified
than the modernocean. (Figurebased on across the middleEocene basinmargin and local petroleum
data in Savin, 1977).
explorationwellsprovidenumerous subsurface sections.The
objectivesofthisstudyare:
specific
1. To establish a paleoenvironmental framework independent
offoraminiferal data. This framework is based on strati-
graphicand lithofacies relationshipswithinthe Metrella
early Cenozoic ocean in particular was apparently less SandstoneMemberandallowsidentification ofthemiddle
temperature- and density-stratified(reflecting subduedpole- Eocene slope,shelf-edge andstrandline.
to-equatortemperature gradients), probably circulated more 2. To briefly summarize the benthicforaminiferal biofacies
slowlyat depth,andmayhavecontained fewerdistinct water relationships intheMetrellaSandstoneMember.
masses (Oberhansliand Hsu, 1986; Corlissand Keigwin, 3. To discuss the paleobathymetric significance of three
1986). important benthicforaminiferal taxa: Cyclammina spp.,
Modernbiofaciesmodels,reflecting an intensely density- Bathysiphon eocenicaand Plectofrondicularia packardi
stratifiedoceanwithvigorousthermohaline circulation,
proba- sensulato(s.l.).
bly are not representative of earlyCenozoicconditions in 4. To evaluatethemiddleEocenepaleobathymetric distribu-
important ways.The uncritical applicationofmodernbiofacies tionof these taxa withinthe independently derivedpa-
modelscan lead to erroneouspaleobathymetric estimatesin leoenvironmental framework.
pre-middle Miocenerocks.It is apparent thatPaleogeneben- 5. To discussthesignificance ofcontradictionsbetweenthe
thicforaminiferal biofaciesmodelsneed to be evaluatedand middleEocenedistribution ofthesetaxaandtheirmodern
modified to realisticallyreflectthe Paleogeneocean. These homeomorphs.

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PALEOGENE
PALEOBATHYMETRIC
MODELS 525

twC N
1
A; 6 - t+' vC ltt8

7V?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.2' 4
0.

BXX C ...... -a)... .::

Wicx Mcura ame 1;GUpr wnCre ucrpscto;HDei' KthnSycie


NothTeon ad -Tjo Hll. ecios:A-ul..............FRC
section;
OilS...K..#1 .-nesn.
C Time... lpti.-1.0Clrv lisen#2 -W ieos uco n
WiloxMcMrry ......nJ-let
...... #6;E-Mge................p
Huso ekS Rmsy
#1 FROO lCr kDideo-UperTwi
#; t opsc Ceekoucro
on K-at rek -R C a mgi
..........
sectin; PleitCrekoutrop ectio; J-leitoCree/SaltCree Diid outro scton;H-evi'sKithe.Syclne.utro outrpscin
setin.KSltCre.otro.scio;.-OC.anEigi
C-I;M-Red Cnyooucropsecion O-Lveok Cayonoutrop ecton;P-Patora Ceek utcop sctin;
R-ROCO #1. The ROCOKCL#1 and KCL# frmWeee.ideOlFil. -ROC.Sa.EmgdioB-I.an
Tejon er.lousdi.ti.tdy.iur.oiie.ferLge
(1987).~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~.......... -
(vria(
uln)1n9scin8sd7nti)tuy.i ild:1MdaySne;2-o
of;4Pet;5-hee.ide.-eo oo;3-ht

Teof #.The SanKC


FGRE-3-Ma Emidi areaKC
showingthele
ditiuiongo Paleogeneoutropaso
(stiped pattern) modfie
sthey loaionr majoerLaoilfeld

GeologicandGeographic
Setting withcrystalline basementand representsthe initialEocene
transgression intotheSan Emigdioarea. The unitcontainsa
The studyarea is locatedat the southernend of the San varietyof generallycoarse-grained lithologiesin additionto
JoaquinValleyon thenorthern flankoftheSan Emigdioand megafossils, all ofwhichshowthattheunitbecomesyounger
westernTehachapiMountains (Fig. 2). These rangescontain fromwestto east (Fig. 4; see Nilsen,1987,fordetails).The
an extensivesequenceofCenozoicrocksranging inage from UvasConglomerate is overlain
bytheLiveoakShale(0-610 m;
middleEocene to Pleistocene(Fig. 4). The stratigraphy of 0-2000 ft thick)whichconsistslargelyof mudstonewith
these rocks, characterizedby complex east-west facies common burrows. Thisunitcontains common Narizian(middle
changes(Nilsen,1973, 1987; DeCelles, 1986), is further Eocene) foraminifera. The MetrellaSandstone(0-610 m;
complicated by late Cenozoiccompression, whichproduced 0-2000 ftthick)overliestheLiveoakShaleintheeasternpart
large-scalefoldingand northward-directed thrustfaulting ofthestudyarea. This thickunitofsandstone,conglomerate
(Davis, 1986; Davis and Lagoe, 1984). This late Cenozoic andminormudstone gradeswestwardintoa dominantly mud-
compression produceduplift andexposureofPaleogenerocks stonesectionwestofDevilsKitchenSyncline (Figs. 3 and4).
normal tothepaleostrandline, making thisareaidealforstudies A thininterval ofmudstone theMetrellaSandstonein
overlying
ofbasinmargin biofaciesdistribution. In addition, numerous oil the easternpartof the sturdyarea is assignedto the Reed
fieldsin the area (Fig. 3) providesubsurfacestratigraphicCanyonSiltstone(0-61 m; 0-200 ftthick).BoththeMetrella
control. SandstoneandReed CanyonSiltstone contain
Narizian(middle
The Paleogenestratigraphy ofthisareais discussedindetail Eocene) foraminifera.
elsewhere(e.g., Lagoe, 1986,1987; DeCelles, 1986; Nilsen, In theeasternpartofthestudyarea theTejonFormation is
1973,1987).The stratigraphic unitofinterest hereis theTejon unconformably overlainby the nonmarine TecuyaFormation
Formation (Fig. 4). (lateOligocene-early M.iocene).To thewesttheTejonForma-
The Tejon Formation is a complexsuccessionof marine tionis overlain byandmaygradeintothemiddletolateEocene
mudstone, sandstone, andconglomerate. It is thebasalunitin marineSan EmigdioFormation (Fig. 4).
thePaleogeneoftheSan EmigdioMountains. The formation is
subdividedintofourmembers(Marks,1941,1943): theUvas Methods
Conglomerate, LiveoakShale,MetrellaSandstone,and Reed
CanyonSiltstone. The unitofprimary hereis theMetrellaSandstone
interest
The Uvas Conglomerate (0-122 m; 0-400 ftthick)is the Memberof the Tejon Formation. The following sectionwill
basalunitoftheTejonFormation. It is indepositional contact showthattheMetrellaSandstonerepresents a progradational

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526 LAGOE

4 FIGURE 4-Stratigraphic summary


forthe San Emigdio area showing
z
1 2[l 3 4Yv 5FSSS
E major stratigraphicunits and gen-
?- ~~~~~~
# ~~A E X B
eralized paleoenvironments. Sec-
C_E
tions used to constructthe figure
are shown on Figure 3. The Tejon
NONMARINLROCKSM
)TULARE__FM.
Formationis the unitof interestin
A TbMC
TIN 9) ETCHEGO FM Te ETCHE FM
this study. See Lagoe (1987) for
5- _ \? EsCo I TE TE IN ? ?ci ? sources of informationused in
UNDIFFERNTIATEDAE0
compiling this summary. Key to
SAEU SAON TRE1 ' F. 9
1^N
symbols: 1= Bathyal rocks;
> c ?t-- ?< ?

20z TEMBLOR iD C
2=Neritic rocks; 3=Nonmarine
c
rocks; 4=Volcanic rocks; and
TbW
E1,SHALE e T CUY
5="Seismite" of DeCelles (1986).
(FigureafterLagoe, 1987.)
20 ETCHE
2 TEMBLOR
: R TDEMBLOR A A
FME TtETtm F NFM. vvv

lo 0C MONTEREN MONTEJON FM
30 fc .$
s F M.
FM ~~~ ~
COEJNGTEJNOF
~~FM.ERT cS9.
TEMBLRIZMNTAERSCALE C,
ACALIT
EOTOB L S 0 PLEITO FM P

SO n CREEK CREEK v Tt. vw


~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~
CREEK CTR
CDTm0vw
F M.~

PRE CEOOC Tt__B BSMN c AEET B0BSMN

SATAA LESLTOS SAM MIAS PET SLT ECAS


RPVN3IAOEPSOI UI

REFUGIAN
REFUGIAN ~ CREA CRATRAtRAcCEK CEK CRO CAA RA RE

A
PALEOENVIRONMENTALFRAMEWORK
KM I

An independent evaluation biofaciesin


of the foraminiferal
:__ SHELF BREAK
questiondependsupontheability to independentlydetermine [

SLOPE
paleobathymetricpositionwithinthebasin.Studiesofdeep-sea
X

benthicforaminifera(e.g., Tjalsmaand Lohman,1983) have


B used thethermal subsidencehistory ofoceaniccrustto trace
particular
locationsbackto theproperpaleobathymetry. This
independent paleobathymetric
S .......
framework providesan impor-
tantcontextwithinwhichto evaluatebiofaciesdistributions >30
throughtime.Unfortunately, thesubsidencebehaviorofcon-
KM 20
20-30 0 -10

Lii tinental
margins, particularly
activecontinental
margins suchas 10-20

are muchmorecomplexthanthatforoceaniccrust
California, SANDSTONE?

FIGURE5-Example of stratigraphicrelationshipsacross a prograda- andtracing backlocationsis impossible.


tional margin,as based on Quaternarysediments offwesternAfrica. The sedimentary recordof depositional historyon basin
A) Major stratigraphicsequences and theirdepositional character: margins does contain evidenceofbasin"landmarks" whichcan
I-progradation;Il=aggradation; III=progradation; IV=unstable pro- be used to roughly constrain paleobathymetricrelationships.
gradation; V= retreat (retrogradation); VI = progradation; and
Vll= retreat(retrogradation).Note developmentof shelf edge depo-
This is particularly true of progradational basin margins
center in sequence IV. B) Sandstone percentage based on seismic (Winker and Edwards,1983). These landmarks includethe
intervalvelocities. Note shorewardincrease in sandstone values and strandline,shelf-edge,and base-of-slope.Whilethe absolute
rapid decrease near shelf edge. (Figure modifiedfromWinkerand bathymetry of such featurescan vary,theyare usefulin
Edwards,1985.) evaluatingmajorpaleobathymetric relationships.
Someofthemajorstratigraphic andsedimentologic relation-
shipsusefulforlocatingsuchlandmarks includethefollowing
(summarized fromWinkerand Edwards,1983,unlessother-
phase of Tejon deposition and thatcertainstratigraphic and wisenoted):
sedimentologic featuresoftheunitidentify thepositionofthe
Metrella-agebasin-slope,shelf-edge, and strandline. Using 1. Progradational clinoforms definingtheself-to-slope
geom-
theseindependently derived"landmarks," thepaleobathymet- etry.Thisis oftenvisibleon seismicsectionsbuttheSan
ric distribution of Metrellaforaminiferal assemblagescan be Emigdioarea is too structurallycomplexforthisto be of
evaluated. helpforthisstudy.

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PALEOGENEPALEOBATHYMETRIC
MODELS 527

RR DK PL SP SC TC RCFCGC LO PC EP FIGURE 6-Schematic east-


weststratigraphiccross-section
SAN EMIGDIO FM through theTejonFormation for
.L.............. - V. TECUYA FM the San Emigdioarea. Section
_____ REED CYN MBR mi is hungon the top of the Me-
trellaSandstoneMember.Sec-
tions: RR=ROCORamsey#1;
DK= Devil's Kitchen Syncline
outcrop section; PL= Pleito
Creekoutcrop section;SP= Salt
CreeWPleito Creek Divideout-
METRE LLA
crop section; SC = Salt Creek
outcrop section; TC=Tecuya
Creek outcrop section;
RC= Reed Canyonoutcropsec-
tion;FC=Falls Canyonoutcrop
section;GC= Grapevine Canyon
outcropsection; LO= Liveoak
Canyon outcrop section;
PC= Pastoria Creek outcrop
section; and EP=Edmonston
Pumping Plantoutcropsection.
1000-300
See Figure3 forlocationofsec-
tions.(FigureafterLagoe,1987
and Nilsen,1987.)
ft m

5 km
04
0 4mi

2. Sedimentary structuresindicativeof tractiontransport cross-section willbe used to constrain basinmargin geometry


(dominant ontheshelf)vs. density flows(dominant onthe andevaluateforaminiferal distributions.
slope). As shownby the cross-section, the MetrellaSandstone
3. Isopachmaximaneartheshelfbreak inunstableprograda- Memberthickensfromeast to west up to the PleitoCreek
tionalmargins (Fig. 5). section(Fig. 6). It thenabruptly thinsfartherto thewest. An
4. Highersandstone/shale ratioson innershelfvs. theouter isopachmap of the member(Fig. 7), based on numerous
shelf(Fig. 5). outcropand subsurface wellsections,corroborates the view
5. Distinctivelithofacies patterns (e.g., nonmarine-to-marine seen incross-section. In general,thememberthickens west-
transitionsdefining therelativeposition ofthestrandline). wardtowardsa north-south-oriented depocenter locatedalong
6. Dominance ofphysical sedimentary ontheinner Pleito Creek. This depocenteris recognizedin both the
structures
shelfvs. biologicalsedimentary structures(burrowing,hanging andfootwallofthePleitoThrustSystem(Fig. 7). The
bioturbation) on the outer shelf(Cliftonet al., 1971; memberthenthinsrapidly farther to thewest.
Clifton,1981). Sandstonepercentwithin theMetrellaSandstoneMember
has been determined byNilsen(1987). Sandstonepercentis
The last fiverelationships listedabove are used here to highestin the easternpartof the studyarea (Fig. 8) and
determine therelativepositionoftheMetrellastrandline and decreases westward,decreasingabruptly near the pointof
shelf-edge. Havingestablished thisgeneralbasinmarginge- abruptisopachthinning (compareFigs. 7 and8).
ometry,the distribution of some keymiddleEocene benthic Nilsen(1973, 1987) also providesinformation on thedistri-
foraminifera will be comparedwiththeirmodernhomeo- butionof sedimentary structuresand sandstonegrainsize
morphs. withintheMetrellaSandstoneMember.He recognizesthree
majorfacieswithinthe member:nearshoreconglomerate-
sandstone,shallowmarinesandstone,anddeep marinesand-
MetrellaBasinMarginGeometry stonefacies(Fig.9, referred to as innershelf,outershelf,and
bathyal,respectively).
Outcrop andsubsurface wellsectionsoftheTejonFormation The nearshoreconglomerate and sandstone(innershelf)
providean east-westtransectacrossthemiddleEocene San faciesis composedofpebble-cobble conglomerate andmedium
JoaquinBasin margin(Fig. 6). This sectionis normalto to verycoarse-grained sandstone(Nilsen,1987).Thisfaciesis
depositionalstrikefortheseunits(Nilsen,1973, 1987). This dominated byphysical sedimentary structures-primarilyflat,

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528 LAGOE

I ~~~~~~ t /
~~~~~~N 0 2
FIGURE7-Isopach map of the Me-
trellaSandstone Memberinthe up-
I~~~~IE per and lower Plate of the Pleito
Thrustsystem. Horizontalrulingin-
* -I
ml
'
\0
o . At MIE
dicates the depocenter for the
7 member. Contours are in feet.
p~~/ I~; (FigurefromLagoe, 1987.)
* ~ ~ O~~~~~~('
~ ~ ~ ~
0-j~~~~ c>~'\
4~~~~~~

TEJON FM RPOUT'~' O U C

ISOPACHMAP(
METRELLAMEMBER f cc
TEJON FORMATION cc/
CONTOURSIN FEET W-l
U.* IaZ
10-

44
S~~~~~~

* 3 ~~~~~~. 0.

~~jLh. ~~0I 0
LL
V ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ '~~' '
300
CA~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~00~ao
0

4-4 I
"m
i l l
~0 u. *i
Izo0 U.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~MBL

sedimentary structures (Nilsen,1987). Thisfaciesdominates


SECT IONS Metrellasectionseast ofLiveoakCanyon(Fig. 9).
O WELL *OUTCROP o2 KM The shallowmarinesandstone(outershelf)faciesis com-
posed offine-to medium-grained sandstoneand minorinter-
TEJON FM. OUTCROPS 2Mld bedded mudstone. Physical sedimentary structures are rare,
0
extensivebioturbation being dominant.Rare examplesof

I
0 current ripplesandsmall-scale do occur.An
cross-stratification
PO 0~~ 0
is indicated

i-~~~~~~~~
modifiedfo 0s outer-shelf, relativelylow-energy environment
(Nilsen, 1987). Thisfaciesdominates sectionsinthemiddleof
0
0
thetraverse,fromGrapevine Canyonto PleitoCreek(Fig.9).
1
The deep marinesandstone(bathyal)facies consistsof
O
interbedded finegrainedsandstoneandmudstone.The sand-
stones are characterized by gradedbeds and Bouma se-
j,OWER PLATE 0P
quences. Rip-upclasts of mudstoneare commonlocally.
Evidenceforslumping (contortedbedding andsandstone dikes)
is also found.The sandstonescan be classifiedas faciesD
turbiditesandtheabsenceofsubmarine fanfeaturesindicates
o ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~P
0 0 a slopeenvironment (Nilsen,1987).
The MetrellaSandstoneMemberexhibitsmanyof the
FIGURE8-Sandstone percentagemap forthe MetrellaSandstone characteristics ofanunstable, progradationalbasinmargin. The
Member.Noteincreasing sandstonepercentage to theeast. (Figure sedimentologic and stratigraphicevidenceprovidesmultiple
modified fromNilsen,1987.) criteriaforlocating shelf-edge,
thestrandline, andslopeofthe
Metrella-age basinmargin(Fig. 9). Lithofaciesevidenceindi-
cates thatthe Metrellastrandline was at or just east of the
parallellamination and medium-to large-scalecross-stratif-easternmostoutcropsin thestudyarea (Fig. 9). Lithofacies
ication.Small-scalecross-stratification, currentripples,and patternsand the prominent north-south depocenter(Fig. 7)
megaripples occur less frequently.Beach foreshore, shore- place the Metrella shelf-edgebetween Pleito andSan Emigdio
face,andinnermost shelfenvironments are indicated bythese Creeks,witha basinslopetothewest(Fig.9). Thisbasinedge

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PALEOGENE MODELS
PALEOBATHYMETRIC 529

SLOPE SHELF-EDGE STRANDLINE FIGURE 9-Dominant lithofa-


cies in the Metrella Sandstone
LO PC EP Memberas based on data from
RR DK PL SP SC TC RCFCGC
Nilsen (1987). Sections shown
Bi Kl/2 C1 T1 are those of Figure 6 plus:
B1=ROCO San Emigdio B=1;
Kl/2=ROCO KCL #1 and KCL
#2; T1=ROCQ Tejon #1. See
Figure 3 for location of sec-
tions. Lithofacies described in
text. Note interpretationof ba-
sin "landmarks"-strandline
shelf-edge and slope.

-~~~/

LITHOFACIES

m Bathyal 1000- 300


Outer Shelf ft m
Inner Shelf 5 km
l 0 4mi

geometry can nowbe used to constrain benthicforaminiferal The ReedCanyonsection(Fig.10) is thetypelocality forthe
distributions. MetrellaSandstoneMemberandis locatedtowardstheeast-
ern end of the bathymetric gradient.Lithofaciesanalysis
METRELLA FORAMINIFERA suggeststhatit lies nearthe shoreward edge of the shallow
marinesandstonefacies(outershelf)of Nilsen(1987). The
The east-westcross-section through the Tejon Formation Metrellaforaminiferal assemblageshere are dominatedby
(Fig. 6) represents a westward-deepening bathymetric gradi- speciesfrom factor1 (Table1): variousspeciesofCibicidoides,
ent. Foraminiferal biofaciesshouldvarysystematically across Eponidesyeguaensis, Lenticulina inornatus,Melonisplanatum,
the gradient. A quantitative studyof the Tejon foraminiferal Bolivinakleinpelli, and Caucasinaschencki. Plectofrondicula-
biofaciesis currentlyinprogress.Somepreliminary resultswill na packardis.l. is also a prominent faunalelement(Fig. 10).
highlight majorbiofaciesvariationsacrossthemiddleEocene The Devil'sKitchenSyncline outcropsection(Fig. 11) and
San Joaquin basinmargin.The majorfocusforthispaperis a the Richfield Ramsey#1 wellsection(Fig. 12) are fromthe
paleobathymetric evaluationofthreeimportant generawithin westernend of thepaleobathymetric gradient.The Metrella
theMetrellaMember-Bathysiphon, Cyclammina, andPlecto- SandstoneMember(oritsstratigraphic equivalent)consistsof
frondicularia. the deep marinesandstoneand mudstonefacies(bathyal)of
Nilsen(1987). Benthicforaminiferal assemblagesare charac-
MetrellaBiofacies
terizedbyspeciesfromfactor3: Uvigerina garzaensis,Gyroi-
A preliminary factoranalysisof 78 samplesthatspan the dinasoldanii,andBathysiphon eocenica,inaddition to Cyclam-
east-westbathymetric gradientof the MetrellaSandstone minaspp.,Buliminacorrugata, andUvigerina churchi (thelast
Member,providesan initial viewofmajorbiofacies variations twospeciesnotoccurring inenoughsamplesto be included in
(Table 1). The factoranalysisuses principalcomponents the prelminary quantitative analysis-Table 1). In general,
analysisforfactorextraction andvarimax rotation(see Davis, species fromfactor1 dominatefaunalassemblageseast of
1986). The firstfivefactorspresentedhere(whichrepresent PleitoCreekandspeciesfrom factor3 aremostimportant west
majorbiofacies)accountforover 50% of the originaldata's ofPleitoCreek.
variance/covariance. The distribution
ofthesebiofacies across Currentpaleobathymetric models(e.g., Ingle,1980)forthe
the gradient willprovidesome indication oftheirpaleobathy- Paleogenewouldsuccessfully interpretthiswestward variation
metricsignificance. of biofaciesas a westward-deepening bathymetric gradient.

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530 LAGOE

TABLE I-Sorted and rotated factor loadings of the firstfive factors derived from a factor analysis of 78 samples
fromthe Metrella Sandstone Member

SORTED ROTATED FACTOR LOADINGS*

Factor1 Factor2 Factor3 Factor4 Factor5

Cibcidoidessp. A 0.880 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000


Melonisplanatum 0.845 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Eponidesyeguaensis 0.812 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Cibicidoidessp. D 0.809 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Bolivinakleinpelli 0.589 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Cibicidoidessp. B. 0.000 0.923 0.000 0.000 0.000
Cassidulinasubglobosa 0.000 0.919 0.000 0.000 0.000
Plectofrondiculariapackardis.1. 0.000 0.691 0.000 0.000 0.000
Uvigerinagarzaensis 0.000 0.000 0.831 0.000 0.000
Gyroidina soldarnii 0.000 0.338 0.792 0.000 0.000
Globobulimina spp. 0.000 0.000 0.734 0.000 0.000
Siphoninaspp. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.811 0.000
Discorbisspp. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.759 0.283
Pseudoglandulina conica 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.589 0.000
Gyroidina condoni 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.320 0.778
Cyclamminaspp. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.744
spp.
Quinqueloculina 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.446 0.570
Plankticspp. 0.000 0.251 0.000 0.000 0.000
Caucasinaschencki 0.409 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Uvigerinaauberiana 0.000 0.423 0.000 0.000 0.000
Bathysiphoneocenia 0.000 0.000 0.499 0.000 0.000
Lenticulina
inornatus 0.422 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

less than0.250aresetto0.000.
*Factorloadings

Thereare,however,anomalous members oftheeastern(i.e., intheeasternnorthPacific.It is a reasonableuse ofuniformi-


"updip")assemblagesthatwouldmakepaleobathymetric inter- tatianprinciples
to suggestthatthesetaxacharacterize similar
pretationdifficult.
Theseassemblagesseemingly arecomposed environments in thepast. Plotsoftaxadistributionwithinthe
ofbothneriticandbathyalspecies,as determined bymodern Metrellapaleoenvironmental framework willtestwhether this
distributionsofhomeomorphs forthesemiddleEocene taxa. reasonableassumption is correct.
For instance,Reed Canyonassemblagescontainsupposed For the purposesof plottingtaxa distributions several
neriticspeciesin associationwithCyclammina spp.,Melonis subsurface sectionshavebeenprojected intothelineofsection
planatum,and Plectofrondicularia packardis.l., taxa whose definedearlier(Fig. 14). The sectionsused for plotting
modernhomeomorphs inhabit
middleto lowerbathyal environ- purposesare: Richfield Ramsey#1 (RR), Devil's Kitchen
mentsin the moderneasternPacificOcean (Natland,1933; outcropsection(DK), Richfield San Emigdio#B-1 (B1),
Bandy,1953a; Ingle, 1980). A conservativeinterpretationRichfield KCL #1 and #2 compositesection(KI/2),Richfield
wouldbe madeon thebasisofthedeepest-water elementsin San Emigdio(C-1 (Ci), the Reed Canyonoutcropsection
the assemblage(Ingle,1980), attributing the occurrenceof (RC), the Richfield Tejon #1 (TI), the Liveoak Canyon
neriticspeciesto downslopetransport. outcropsection(LO) andthePastoriaCreekoutcropsection
(PC).
SingleTaxonDistribution Bathysiphon considered
eocenicais currently of
an indicator
Three anomaloustaxa thatsuggestdeep-waterconditions lowerbathyalwaterdepths(Fig. 13; Ingle, 1980). In the
for some samples fromthe eastern end of the Metrella sectionplottedhere (Fig. 14) it is mostcommonand consis-
paleobathymetric gradientare Cyclammina spp.,Bathysiphontentlypresentin sectionsfromthe slope and basin-floor
eocenicaand Plectofrondicularia packardis.l. Modernpaleo- environment (RR, DK). However,severalscatteredoccur-
bathymetric modelsemphasizethevariation in environmentalrencesare recordedwithin environment
theouter-shelf (K1/2,
factorsthatsubdividethe marineenvironment near a basin Ci, T1) whichindicatethatitdidat timesinhabitwaterdepths
margin (Fig. 13). Allthreetaxainquestionarecharacteristic shallower
of significantly thanits modernhomeomorphs. These
moderndeep-water massesbelowthepermanent thermoclineoccurrences are insectionsthatdo notexhibit sedimentologic

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PALEOGENE
PALEOBATHYMETRIC
MODELS 531

ofthethreetaxainquestionis substantially different


from what
is suggestedbythedistribution oftheirmodernhomeomorphs
(Fig. 17). Bathysiphon spp. and Cyclammina spp. didinhabit
bathyalenvironments butwherealso presentin outer-neritic

5L
and shelf-edge environments. These taxa had muchbroader
_
XCi * zzno 1 '
;at
TECUYA bathymetric rangesthantheirmodernhomeomorphs.
a
Lu
a
Plectofrondicularia packardis.l. has a bathymetric range
FM. :O*
0 0 co L) _0
o
co -O significantly fromits modernhomeomorphs.
different Rather
thatcharacterizing lower-middlebathyaltolowerbathyal water
depths,it seems to be mostabundant in thisbasinnearthe
shelfedge,ranging ontotheoutershelf.In thistransverse at
0 0
LLIk
z
CI least, it is not as commonin deeperbathyalenvironments.
LU Eitherthis taxa also had a widerbathymetric range than
modernhomeomorphs or it mayhavehad a shallowerrange
z thatis disjunct frommodernhomeomorphs.
None of the examinedtaxa occurredin the inner-shelf
sections.
w 000
x 0
N
w~~~~~~ CONCLUSIONS

2 ,, Duu0;u~~~~~~"ii This analysissuggeststhat paleobathymetric


benthic foraminiferal
models of
whichare basedon thedistribu-
biofacies
tionofmodernforaminifera maynotbe entirely applicableto
themiddleEocene. Atleastthreeprominent taxahavebathy-
metricrangeswhichare significantly shallowerthanmodern
homeomorphs. These taxa were driveninto deeper-water
environments bypost-Eocenepaleoceanographic events(e.g.,
creationofAntarctic bottomwater,steepening thermal gradi-
ents; Kennett,1982) whichfundamentally alteredthe water
masscharacteristics ofmarinebasins.
The greatlyexpandedbathymetric rangesof Bathysiphon
FIGURE 10Distributionofselectedforaminifera intheReedCanyon
outcropsection.See Figure3 forlocationofsection.Paleobathymet- and Cyclammina may indicatea less environment
stratified
ricabbreviations:NM=Nonmarine; N=Neritic; UB=UpperBathyal; (e.g., a less density-stratified watercolumn withfewerdistinct
MB=MiddleBathyal;and LB=LowerBathyal. watermasses) thanthe modernocean. Ongoingworkwith
Tejonforaminiferal biofacieswillproducea clearerand more
comprehensive pictureofmiddleEocenebiofacies distributions
and theirrelationships to Eocene paleoceanographic condi-
tions.
evidencefor enormousdeepeningover shortstratigraphic frame-
It is clearthateven generalized paleoenvironmental
intervals.The species is not foundin sectionsfromthe
works can be a powerfultool in evaluatingforaminiferal
inner-shelfenvironment (LO, PC).
bathymetric gradients.As morespeciesare evaluatedbetter
Cyclammina spp. is thought to characterize lower-middle
biofaciesmodelswillresultin morerealistic(if not always
bathyalanddeeperwaterdepths(Fig. 13; Ingle,1980). This
paleobathymetric estimates.
genusis commonin sectionsfromthe slope and basin-plainhigher-resolution)
environment (Fig. 15; sectionsRR andDK). It is also foundin
significant
numbers insectionsneartheshelfedge(Bi) andthe ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
outershelf(K1/2,Ti). It is notfoundinsectionson theinner
shelf(LO, PC). The consistent occurrence ofthisgenuseastof Thisresearchhasbenefited from thesupport ofmanypeople
theMetrellashelfedgeindicates thatitis a common elementof andorganizations. Acknowledgment is madeto thedonorsof
outer-shelfassemblages. thePetroleum ResearchFund,administered bytheAmerican
Plectofrondicularia packardis.l. is alsoconsidered a lower- ChemicalSociety,forpartialsupportofthisproject.Financial
middlebathyal indicator (Fig. 13; Ingle,1980). Its distributionsupportwas also receivedfromthe University Research
intheMetrellaSandstonemember differsdramatically fromits Institute,University ofTexas at Austin,andtheOwenCoates
modernhomeomorphs (Fig. 16). It is a consistentcomponent Fundof the GeologyFoundation, Department of Geological
in shelf-edge(Bi) andouter-shelf sections(K1/2,RC, Ti). It Sciences,University ofTexas at Austin.ARCO Oil and Gas
is absentininner-shelf sections(LO, PC) andnearlyso from Companyand TennecoOil Companyhave providedsamples
slopeand basin-plain sections(RR, DK). Its maximum abun- and subsurfaceinformation. WilliamJ.M. Bazeley, Thom
danceis neartheshelfedge (Fig. 16). Davis, WeldonRau, KristenMcDougall,Thor Nilsen,Jim
Thisanalysisindicates thatthepaleobathymetric significanceIngle, Peter DeCelles, Steve Graham,Greg Blake, and

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532 LAGOE

FIGURE 11-Distribution of selected


0~~~~~ foraminiferafromthe Devil's Kitchen
< O PALEO- Synclineoutcropsection. See Figure3
SELECTED forlocationofsection. Paleobathymet-
> ( <: FORAMINIFERA c ric abbreviationsare the same as Fig-
BATHYMETRY
ure 10. Event A refers to prominent
0)o0 LITHOLOGY0 f c m paleobathymetric shift in the San
Emigdio Formation. (Figure modified
Massilve sandstone~ fromLagoe, 1986.)
o*W. and conglomerate lE Z
Z
Massive _ zUl
sandstone, C) a O O
ix0
pebbly E' O
0 c -2

#
. Sandy mudtone OI 1 E
C 1 C z ' *1
C
N

and sandstone
ZC
E~~~~
-:- o
C.~~~~~~0 eaosl N o s
Sandstone eco 'c 0
-T e,- Sandstone,com 2t
L ~~~~~w
U
B c
E Mon
megafossallsL
minor mudstone cn Ule0
Mudton
Sandstone and Z E
minormudatone CO w
nterbedded -
mudstone and uJ

o
L%, ogoeae n

Ecx >
sandysmadstone /

o; e sanmudatone
" L Granodiorite T

HeatherMurphyprovidedadvice,criticism,
and information.BERGGREN,W.A.,andHOLLISTER,C.D., 1977,Platetectonics andpaleo-
My thanksto all. circulation-commotion v. 38, p. 11-48.
intheocean: Tectonophysics,
sequences in Miocene shoreline
CLIFTON, H.E., 1981, Progradational
deposits,southeasternCalienteRange,California: ofSedimen-
Journal
REFERENCES taryPetrology,v. 51, p. 165-184.
CLIFTON, H.E., HUNTER, R.E., andPHILLIPS, R.L., 1971,Depositional
BANDY,O.L., 1953a,Ecology
andpaleoecology
ofsomeCalifornia
forami- structuresand processes in the nonbarredhighenergynearshore:
nifera.PartI. The frequency distribution ofRecentforaminifera off JournalofSedimentary Petrology,v. 41, p. 651-670.
California:Journal
ofPaleontology, v. 27, p. 161-182. CORLISS,B.H., andKEIGWIN,L.D., JR., 1986,Eocene-Oligocene paleo-
BANDY,O.L., 1953b,Ecology andpaleoecology ofsomeCalifornia forami- ceanography,in HsU, K.J., ed., Mesozoic and Cenozoic Oceans:
nifera.PartII. Foraminiferal evidenceof subsidence ratesin the AmericanGeophysicalUnion,Geodynamics Series, v. 15, p. 101-118.
Ventura Basin:JournalofPaleontology, v. 27, p. 200-203. DAVIS, J.C., 1986, Statisticsand data analysisin geology:JohnWileyand
BANDY,O.L., 1960,Generalcorrelation offoraminiferal structurewith Sons, New York,second edition,646 p.
environment: InternationalGeological Congress, 21stSession,Nor- DAVIS,T. L., 1986, A structural outlineof the San EmigdioMountains,in
den,pt.22, p. 7-19. DAVIS, T.L., and NAMSON,J.S., eds., Geologictransectacross the
BANDY,O.L., andARNAL, R.E., 1957,Distribution ofRecentforaminifera western Transverse Ranges: PacificSection, Society of Economic
offthe west coast of CentralAmerica:American Associationof Paleontologists and Mineralogists Book 48, p. 23-32.
Petroleum GeologistsBulletin,v. 41, p. 2037-2053. DAVIS, T. L., and LAGOE, M. B., 1984, Structuraldevelopmentof the
BANDY,O.L., and ARNAL,R.E., 1960, Conceptsof a foraminiferal north-central Transverse Ranges and southernmarginof the San
paleoecology:American AssociationofPetroleum Geologists,Bulletin, JoaquinValley: GeologicalSociety of America,AbstractswithPro-
v. 44, p. 1921-1932. grams,v. 16, p. 484.
BERGER,W.H.,VINCENT, E., and THIERSTEIN, H.R., 1981,Thedeep-sea DECELLES, P.G., 1986, MiddleTertiarydepositionalsystemsof the San
record:Major steps in Cenozoicocean evolution:SocietyofEconomic EmigdioRange,southernCalifornia: Societyof EconomicPaleontolo-
PaleontologistsandMineralogists SpecialPublication32, p. 489-504. gistand Mineralogists Book 47, 32 p.

This content downloaded from 195.34.78.11 on Tue, 10 Jun 2014 21:38:12 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
PALEOGENE
PALEOBATHYMETRIC
MODELS 533

FIGURE12-Distributionof selected
SELECTED foraminiferafromthe ROCORamsey
FORAMINIFERA #1. See Figure4 forlocationof sec-
tion. Paleobathymetricabbreviations
z PALEO- are the same as Figure10. EventA
E-LOG E
Lux
BATHYMETRY correlatesto same event in Devil's
Kitchen Synclinesection(Figure11).
a. co 0! LITHOLOGY m ? E <
00 Z co cm m

Sc 0 a

CC Mudstone and o ?) w
__ U. 'o CC LU
- *
0 minor Z a
sn sandstone
a OZ

&1 w t]|, z <W |l ; i

Sandatone, io
z
<

glauconitic, corn 0
mon megafosslia 0 a *U.
LU 0E LU
Mudstone a
0 z
Sandstone
|mnormdst
Sa 0
co)~
lu | | E
0O z z
Mudstone and E LU
E N
minor sandstone Z LU
z
Sandstone and - ~~~O a z
0 minor mudstone oLU oLU
,O~~~~~a-
Mudstone --

Is ~~~Crystalline
basement

U.--ULATISIAN

WATER a;
MASSES c
5 DOUGLAS,R.G., 1979,Benthic ecology
foraminiferal A
andpaleoecology:
/ 0~.TRACTO
INNER NERITIC
OUTER NERITIC
PHOTIC
ZONE
SURFACE
WATER cr reviewofconcepts andmethods: Foraminiferal andpaleoecol-
ecology
LITTORAL 150 UPPER INTERMED-
- I ogy,Societyof EconomicPaleontologists and MineralogistsShort
t
CURRENTS.=....
BATHYAL IATE co Courseno.6, p. 21-53.
s500 WATER Z< DOUGLAS, R.G., 1981, Paleoecology of continental marginbasins:A
O0Z
OXYGEN
MINIMUM UPPER IPERMANENT _
moderncase history fromthe borderland of southern California:
IDEPTH VARIESI
MIDDLE
THERMOCLINEI U.< Z
Depositionalsystemsof activecontinental marginbasins,Pacific
A 1000
BATHYAL
Section,SocietyofEconomic andMineralogists
Paleontologists Short
\-JBT
CourseNotes,p. 121-156.
L

________- A 1500
INGLE,J.C., 1967, Foraminiferalbiofaciesand the Miocene-Pliocene
LOWER boundary insouthern Bulletins
California: ofAmerican Paleontology,
PALEOENVIRONMENTAL BATHYLE v. 52,p. 1-217.
MODEL 200 INGLE,J.C.,1975,Paleobathymetric analysisof sedimentarybasins,in
[AFTERINGLE,1975,19801 LOWER WATER DICKINSON, W.R.,ed., Currentconcepts ofdepositional
systems with
forpetroleum
applications geology:San Joaquin Society,
Geological
LYSOCLINE- - BATH- p. 11/1-11/12.
INGLE,J.C.,1980,Cenozoicpaleobathymetry anddepositional
historyof
selectedsequenceswithin thesouthern California border-
continental
ABYSSAL WATER land:Cushman FoundationforForaminiferalResearchSpecialVolume
no. 19,p. 163-193.
FIGURE13-Summary of paleobathymetricsubdivisions of a basin INGLE,J.C., KELLER,G., and KOLPACK, R., 1980, Benthicforaminiferal
marginand theirrelationshipto major environmentalprocesses and sediments
biofacies, andwatermassesof the southern Peru-Chile
water masses. Position of the lysocline and calcite compensation Trencharea,southeasternPacificOcean:Micropaleontology,v. 26,
depth (CCD) varyin time and space. Shown on left is bathymetric p. 113-150.
distribution,according to currentbiofacies models, of the three KENNETT,J.P.,1982,MarineGeology: NewJersey,
Prentice-Hall, 813p.
foraminiferaltaxa evaluated here. (Figure compiled fromdata in LAGOE, nomenclature
M.B., 1986,Stratigraphic andtime-rock relation-
Ingle, 1980.) shipsinthePaleogenerocksoftheSanEmigdio Mountains,inDAvis,

This content downloaded from 195.34.78.11 on Tue, 10 Jun 2014 21:38:12 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
534 LAGOE

RR DK PL SP SC TC RC FCGC LO PC EP FIGURE 14-Distribution of


B1 K1/2 C1 TI Bathysiphon eocenica within
the Metrella Sandstone Mem-
ber. Sections used are: RR, DK,
B1, K1/2, Cl, RC, Ti, LO and
PC. Abundance categories are:
Present = 1-32 specimens/
sample; Common = > 35 spec-
imens/sample.

Bathysiphon eocenica
COMMON
PRESENT 1000 300
ABSENT
ft m

5 km
0
0 4 ml

RR DK PL SP SC TC RCFCGC LO PC EP FIGURE15-Distribution of Cy-


BI K1/2 CI TI clammina spp. withinthe Me-
trella Sandstone Member.
Same sections and abundance
categories were used as in Fig-
ure 14.

Cyclammina spp.
COMMON
PRESENT 1000 300
ABSENT

ft m

5 km
0
0 4 m1

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
PALEOGENE
PALEOBATHYMETRIC
MODELS 535

RR DK PL SP SC TC RCFCGC LO PC EP
FIGURE 16-Distribution of
B1 K1/2 C1I T1I packardisI.1
Plectofrondicularia
withinthe Metrella Sandstone
Member. Same sections and
abundance categories were
used as in Figure14.

Plectofrondicularia packardi
COMMON
PRESENT 1000 300
1
ABSENT
ft m
5 km
0 4 ml

WATER
MASSES
INNER NERITIC PHOTIC SURFACE P C B
5 -.TRAC OUTER NERITIC ZONE WATER
LITTORAL CRRENTS. 10
UPPER INTERMVED- LAGOE,M.B., 1987,Cenozoicstratigraphic fortheSanEmigdio
framework
r-- BATHYAL IATE Mountains,
turalevolution
California,
inDAVIS,T.L., andNAMSON,J.S.,eds.,Struc-
of thewesternTransverse Ranges:PacificSection,
500 A WATER
OXYGEN (PRANN Societyof EconomicPaleontologists and Mineralogists Book 48A,
UPPER
MINIMUM
IDEPTH VARIESI
\ PERMANENT
THERMOCLINEI
p. 85-98.
M 1000 IDDLE MARKS,J.G.,1941,Stratigraphy oftheTejonFormation initstypearea,
I SC@- BATHYAL
\ KernCounty, California
[unpub.M.A. thesis]:Stanford University,
Stanford,CA,65 p.
LOWER DE MARKS, J.G., 1943,Type locality of the Tejon Formation: California
A
MIDDLE
PALEOENVIRONMENTAL BATHYAL
DivisionofMines,Bulletin118,p. 534-538.
MODEL 2000
NATLAND,M.L., 1933,Temperature and depthclassificationof some
IAFTER INGLE.1975, 19801 LOWER WATER recentandfossil foraminifera
inthesouthern California
region:Scripps
LYSOCLINE- - BATH- Institutionof Oceanography, Bulletin,TechnicalSeries, v. 3,
YAL
p. 225-230.
NATLAND,M.L., 1952,Pleistocene andPliocenestratigraphy ofsouthern
CCD- 4000_____ California[unpub.Ph.D. dissert.]:University of California,Los
)'BOTTOM
ABYSSAL WATER Angeles, CA, 165p.
NATLAND,M.L., 1957,Paleoecology ofWestCoastTertiary sediments,in
FIGURE17-Revised paleobathymetricdistributionof P-Plectofron- LADD, H., ed., Treatise
onmarine ecology andpaleoecology: Geolog-
dicularia packardi s.l.; C-Cyclammina spp.; and B-Bathysiphon icalSocietyofAmerica, Memoir 57, v. 2, p. 543-571.
eocenica in lightof the analyses presented here. Questioned lower NILSEN,T.H., 1973,Faciesrelations intheEoceneTejonFormation ofthe
depth limitsare due to the limitof environmentsanalyses withinthe SanEmigdio andwestern Tehachapi Mountains, Sedimen-
California:
Metrella Sandstone Member. Compare this figurewith Figure 13. taryfacieschangesin Tertiary rocks-California Transverseand
Each of these taxa have bathymetricranges in the middle Eocene southern CoastRanges,SEPM Trip2, 1973Annual Meeting, Ameri-
whichare significantly different fromtheirmodernhomeomorphs. canAssociation ofPetroleum Geologists, p. 7-23.
andsedimentology
NILSEN, T.H., 1987,Stratigraphy oftheEoceneTejon
Formation, western TehachapiandSanEmigdio Mountains,California:
United StatesGeologicalSurvey, Professional Paper1268,110p.
OBERHANSLI,H., andHso, K.J.,1986,Paleocene-Eocene Paleoceanogra-
T.L., andNAMSON, J.S., eds., Geologic transect acrossthewestern phy,in Hsu, K.J.,ed., Mesozoicand CenozoicOceans:American
Transverse Ranges:Pacific Section, SocietyofEconomic Paleontolo- Geophysical Union,Geodynamic Series,v. 15,p. 85-100.
gistsandMineralogists Book48, p. 11-21. TJALSMA, R.C., andLOHMAN, G.P., 1983,Paleocene-Eocene bathyaland

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536 LAGOE

abyssalbenthic
foraminiferafrom theAtlantic Ocean:Micropaleontol-WINKER,C.D., andEDWARDS,M.B., 1983,Unstable clastic
progradational
ogyPressSpecialPublication, no. 4, 90 p. SocietyofEconomic
shelfmargins: andMineralogists
Paleontologists
VANHINTE,J.E.,1978,Geohistory analysis-Applicationofmicropaleon- SpecialPublicationno.33, p. 139-158.
tologyin explorationgeology:American Association
of Petroleum
GeologistsBulletin,
v. 62, p. 201-222.

It shouldhardlybe necessaryto emphasizehow greatan interpretative gap separatedthe raw


phenomena inthefieldfromeventhemostimmediate, solitary, recordofhowthose"facts"
and private
wereperceived.Whenexamining an exposureofrockontheseashoreorina roadcutting, a geologist
did nothavethesame perceptions as a nearbyfisherman beachinghisboatora villagerpassingin
a cart.Whatthegeologistperceivedwerethealreadyinterpreted ofstratawitha measurable
features
containing
orientation, identifiable on the spot-however
fossils,and capable of beingintegrated
an imaginedpicture
provisionally-into and sequences.... Eventhenotes
ofvastlylargerstructures
thatgeologistsmademostprivately, and inclosestcontactwiththerawmaterialsofthenatural world
werethustheproductsofskilledobservation, alreadyimpregnated withthetacitknowledgeofthe
establishedcraftofgeologicalfieldwork.Such notescan be regardedas a traceofa privateand
dialogue,in the sense thattheyrecorda geologist'sinternal
"intrapersonal" debate about the
significanceofwhathe was seeing.Butinno waycan thatprocessbe divorcedfrom thecollective
framework ofpracticethatgave ititsmeaning.

-MartinJ.S. Rudwick

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