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Top 10 Solar O&M KPIs to Track - Arbox Renewable Energy Page 1 of 3

The solar industry has been experiencing large scale growth globally over the
past few years in relation to solar hardware costs which are going down. The
growing number of online projects and projects coming through the pipeline are
creating an ever-growing demand for Operations and Maintenance (O&M). As the
industry matures the demand for reliable and efficient O&M increases and is
driving the O&M industry to adopt standardized initiatives.

Tracking Key Performance Indicators (KPI) helps to communicate to your team

what the criteria for success is as well as getting everyone focused on a set goal.
KPIs provide a means to track and compare the PV Plant’s performance so careful
planning is required in the selection and development of your company’s KPI.
There isn’t a set of KPIs that every solar operator uses; however, we’ve gathered a
list of the top 10 O&M KPIs to track.

1) PR – Performance ratio
This ratio is the relationship between actual plant energy production and designed
target energy production while taking environmental factors and energy loss into
account. The energy loss is through conductive thermal loss and operational
energy consumption from the panels to the grid. This enables investors and
operators to compare different plants based purely on the performance factor of
the plant and on an even scale.

2) PA – Plant availability
The PA is calculated as a percentage to represent the time that the power plant is
available to provide energy to the grid. This can be thought of as the up-time of
the plant. Solar PV plants usually have little downtime resulting in a higher
percentage of availability. The plant availability factor should not be confused with
the capacity factor.

3) MTTR – Mean time to repair 5/24/2018
Top 10 Solar O&M KPIs to Track - Arbox Renewable Energy Page 2 of 3

This metric measures the maintainability of the solar PV plant and its components.
This is the average time it takes for repair to be completed. To calculate this, you
record the total time for corrective maintenance divided by total number of tickets
for repair. For example, if issue 1 took 10 minutes for repair and issue 2 took 2
minutes to repair, the MTTR is 6 minutes.

4) MTBF – Mean time between failures

This metric represents the reliability of the power plant. This is the mean time
between system failures. Although for electronic devices the MTBF is counted in
hours the MTBF for solar modules and components are typically measured in
years. The MTBF is useful to measure over a long period of time and it represents
the likelihood of failure and should not be used as a prediction to when the parts
will fail.

5) DCC – DC Capacity – Direct Current

The capacity is usually referring to the maximum energy generation in direct
current and measured in watts.

6) ACC – AC Capacity- Alternating

This capacity will be lower than the DC capacity as there is loss in energy when
converting DC to AC. Although it is useful to see the DCC and ACC by themselves,
when you view both metrics together an operator can see the loss of energy due
to possible clipping or energy loss from converting current through the inverter.

7) PI – Peak Irradiance
Solar irradiance is the energy that’s emitted from the Sun to Earth. This is
calculated by measuring the solar energy in watt per unit area, commonly a
square meter (W/m2). The peak irradiance is the maximum measured solar
irradiance. 5/24/2018
Top 10 Solar O&M KPIs to Track - Arbox Renewable Energy Page 3 of 3

8) TT – Ticket Types %
Tickets are generated from a variety of issues from different sources. Tickets vary
greatly, but not limited to, inverters overheating to vegetation abatement to
compliance checks. Tracking the Ticket Types as a percentage assists with
identifying and maintaining control over issues by comparison from each period.

9) V – Variance between expected

kWh and actual kWh
Forecasting energy generation as accurately as possible is essential for plant
operations. Although there will always be variances between the expected kWh
vs the actual kWh, monitoring the variance over a period of time could shine light
on incorrect data or lead to other problems such as weather or hardware.

10) PSH – Peak Solar Hours

The PSH should not be confused with total daylight hours. The difference
between daylight hours and PSH is that PSH is defined in hours the duration of
sunlight that exceeds 1 kW / m2.
Although annual or quarterly targets are communicated to the O&M team, it is
often difficult for team members to scale these targets into daily or hourly goals.
KPIs provides that missing link where everyone on the team can gauge their
efforts towards the target. When looking at performance measurements on a
granular level, it allows for the company to measure the maintainers performance
on a daily basis as well as increase the reactiveness and proactiveness towards
the success of a high performing PV plant. 5/24/2018