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Properties and Applications of

Materials

Classification of Materials

Materials

Metals Polymers Ceramics

Metals

Metals

Ferrous Non-Ferrous

Steel and Cast Irons Al, Cu, Mg etc.

Ferrous Materials Ferrous Steels Cast iron Low Alloy High Alloy Stainless Tool steel steel .

4 wt%) Carbon Tool • High Alloy High –Stainless Steel (> 11 wt% Cr) Carbon –Tool Steel .25 to 0. • Several grades are available. Low High alloy alloy • Low Alloy (<10 wt%) –Low Carbon (<0.6 to 1.60 wt%) Medium –High Carbon (0. Ferrous Materials .Steels • Steels .25 wt% C) Low Carbon Stainless –Medium Carbon (0.alloys of iron-carbon. May contain other alloying Steels elements.

Good Weldability and machinability High Strength. Low Alloy (HSLA) steels . cold working needed to improve the strength. Ni and Mo) up to 10 wt %. Most abundant grade of steel is low carbon steel .alloying elements (like Cu. Low Carbon Steel Plain carbon steels . Not responsive to heat treatment. . V. least expensive. have higher strengths and may be heat treated.very low content of alloying elements and small amounts of Mn.greatest quantity produced.

Low carbon steel Compositions of some low carbon and low alloy steels .

Properties and typical application of some low carbon and low alloys steels .

6%. quenching and then tempering.3 – 0. Medium Carbon Steel Carbon content in the range of 0. crankshafts. Most often used in tempered condition – tempered martensite Medium carbon steels have low hardenability Addition of Cr. Mo improves the heat treating capacity Heat treated alloys are stronger but have lower ductility Typical applications – Railway wheels and tracks. . gears. Can be heat treated . Ni.austenitizing.

Composition of some alloyed medium carbon steels .

6 – 1. Hardest and least ductile. Used in hardened and tempered condition Strong carbide formers like Cr.4% High C content provides high hardness and strength. V. W are added as alloying elements to from carbides of these metals. Used as tool and die steels owing to the high hardness and wear resistance property . High Carbon Steel High carbon steels – Carbon content 0.

Compositions and Application of some Tool steels .

•Phosphorus – increases strength and hardness and decreases ductility and notch impact toughness of steel. •Molybdenum increases the hardenability.ferrite strengthener. •Silicon – one of the principal deoxidizers used in steel making. enhances the creep resistance of low-alloy steels . beneficial to corrosion resistance (Cu>0. effects hardenability of steel.20%) •Nickel . •Sulfur decreases ductility and notch impact toughness Weldability decreases. In low-carbon steels. increases the hardenability and impact strength of steels. silicon is generally detrimental to surface quality. •Copper – detrimental to hot-working steels. decreases ductility and weldability. Effects of Alloying Elements on Steel •Manganese – strength and hardness. Found in the form of sulfide inclusions.

Duplex Stainless Steels – Ferrite + Austenite Composition and Properties of some stainless steels are given in the next slide . Exhibits extraordinary corrosion resistance due to formation of a very thin layer of Cr2O3 on the surface. Precipitation-Hardening (PH) Stainless Steels – Ultra high- strength due to precipitation hardening. Austenitic Stainless Steels – Austenite () phase field is extended to room temperature. Categories of stainless steels: Ferritic Stainless Steels – Composed of  ferrite (BCC) Martensitic Stainless Steels – Can be heat treated.A group of steels that contain at least 11% Cr. Most corrosion resistant. Stainless steel •Stainless steels .

.

Applications of Stainless steels .

Low shrinkage and good fluidity and casting ability.4.1. malleable and compacted graphite. . Cast Irons Carbon 2. white. Types of cast iron: grey.2 wt% C. Lower melting point (about 300 °C lower than pure iron) due to presence of eutectic point at 1153 °C and 4.5 wt% and Si (normally 1-3 wt%). nodular.

0 – 4. Grey Cast Iron Grey cast iron contains graphite in the form of flakes. C:3. Excellent damping capacity. Microstructure modification by varying silicon content and cooling rate Casting shrinkage is low .0 % Microstructure: graphite flakes in a ferrite or pearlite matrix Weak & brittle in tension (the graphite flake tips act as stress concentration sites). wear resistance.0 – 3. Si: 1.Stronger in compression.0 wt%. Named after its grey fractured surface.

Nodular or Ductile Iron Addition of Mg and/or Cerium to grey iron converts the graphite flakes to nodules. Normally a pearlite matrix. Castings are stronger and much more ductile than grey iron as the stress concentration points existing at the flake tips are eliminated. .

. Most of the carbon is in the form of cementite. Si: 0.5%. Named after its white fracture surface.5 – 1. Results from faster cooling.%. Thickness variation may result in nonuniform microstructure from variable cooling Very hard and brittle Used as intermediate to produce malleable cast iron. not graphite. White Cast Iron White cast iron – C: 2.5 – 3 wt. Contains pearlite + cementite.

0 – 1. graphite forms in the form of rosettes in a ferrite or pearlite matrix.75 % Obtained by heat treating white iron for a prolonged period that causes decomposition of cementite into graphite. Malleable Cast Iron Malleable cast iron – Carbon: 2.3 – 2. Si: 1. Reasonable strength and improved ductility (malleable) Heat treatment White iron Malleable . Heat treatment : Two stages – Isothermal holding at 950 C and then holding at 720 C.7 wt%.

Relatively high thermal conductivity.0 wt %.1 – 4. lower oxidation at elevated temperatures. Microstructure and properties are between gray and ductile iron. . Carbon: 3. but has a higher tensile strength and some ductility. good resistance to thermal shock. Alloying addition may be needed to minimize the sharp edges and formation of spheroidal graphite. Compact Graphite Iron (CGI) CGI graphite occurs as blunt flakes or with a worm-like shape (vermicular). As castable as grey iron.7 – 3.0 wt%. Matrix varies with alloy additions or heat treatment. Silicon: 1.

Applications of Cast iron Cast irons are used in wide variety of application owing to the properties like good fluidity. buildings Cook wares – Excellent heat retention . blocks and gearbox cases. wear resistance and damping capacity. lids (manhole lids) Foundation for big machines (good damping property) Bridges. excellent machinability. low shrinkage. Pipes. Applications – Car parts – cylinder heads. ease of casting.

Mg. Ta oxidation/corrosion application resistant . Au. Si. landing gear) -very low : 1. Nonferrous Metals • Cu Alloys • Al Alloys Brass: Cu-Zn alloy. missiles • Ti Alloys relatively low : 4.7 g/cm3 Corrosion resistant. Mn. Zn additions costume jewelry. Pt -Nb. coins -solid solution or precipitation Bronze : Cu – with Sn. strengthened (structural Al. Si.7g/cm3 -ignites easily -aircraft. Ni aircraft parts Cu-Be: & packaging) precipitation hardened • Mg Alloys Nonferrous (bushings. -low : 2. Used in -Cu. W.5 g/cc • Refractory metals reactive at high T’s Noble metals -high melting T’s space and biomedical .Ag. Mo.

 Electrical and construction industries are the largest users of Cu. .  Excellent thermal conductivity – Copper cookware most highly regarded – fast and uniform heating.  The boilers on early steamboats were made from copper. difficult to machine. Pure Cu is soft and malleable.  Very high electrical conductivity – second only to silver. Copper  Copper is one of the earliest metals discovered by man.  Copper is refined to high purity for many electrical applications.000 years.  The copper tubing used in water plumbing in Pyramids was found in serviceable condition after more than 5.  Cu is a ductile metal.

S. and half dollar coins contain 91. . Cu-Zn-Ni or Cu-Al-Zn-Sn alloys. quarter. The various Euro coins are made of Cu-Ni. nickel is actually 75% copper.67% copper and the Susan B Anthony dollar is 87.5% copper. The U. The dime. Copper The second largest use of Cu is probably in coins.

Nickel (Ni) C7xxxx nickel silvers . aluminum. Bronzes contain tin. Copper Alloys Brasses and Bronzes are most commonly used alloys of Cu. Family of Cu Alloys Alloy Alloying element UNS numbers Brass Zinc (Zn) C1xxxx–C4xxxx. Brass is an alloy with Zn. Other copper alloy families include copper-nickels and nickel silvers. silicon or beryllium. More than 400 copper-base alloys are recognized.C66400– C69800 Phosphor bronze Tin (Sn) C5xxxx Aluminium bronzes Aluminium (Al) C60600–C64200 Silicon bronzes Silicon (Si) C64700–C66100 Copper nickel.

Copper Alloys .Relatively low melting point and high fluidity  Properties can be tailored by varying Zn content.Brass  Brass is the most common alloy of Cu – It’s an alloy with Zn  Brass has higher ductility than copper or zinc.  Brass is frequently used to make musical instruments (good ductility and acoustic properties).  Some of the common brasses are yellow. naval and cartridge.  Easy to cast . .

can be cast.  Stronger than brasses with good corrosion and tensile properties. hot worked and cold worked. Bronze  Copper alloys containing tin. aluminum. lead. surgical and dental instruments.  Wide range of applications: ancient Chinese cast artifacts. skateboard ball bearings.  Cu-Sn Bronze is one of the earliest alloy to be discovered as Cu ores invariably contain Sn. Bronze bearing . silicon and nickel are classified as bronzes.

Wrought alloys – lower Be and some Co Cu-Be is ductile.7% at 866 C. Other applications include jet aircraft landing gear bearings and bushings and percussion instruments. Thermal conductivity is between steels and aluminum. Low-current contacts for batteries and electrical connectors. Applications Used in springs. Decreasing solubility at lower temp. abrasive wear and galling. Beryllium copper Cu-Be alloys are heat treatable. weldable and machinable. Max solubility of Be in Cu is 2. Cast alloys are used in injection molds. Also resistant to non-oxidizing acids (HCl or H2CO3). imparts precipitation hardening ability.higher Be. Cast alloys . load cells and other parts subjected to repeated loading. .

rivets Cartridge C26000 30. bronze 0.Compositions.Ni C71500 30 Ni Annealed 125 380 36 Condenser.9 Be Precipita. bushings. Condition YS UTS %El Applications No. 435 525 8 Automotive radiator brass rolled core. (Leaded) 1 Sn light fixtures Al bronze C95400 11 Al.25 P diaphragm. As cast 152 310 25 Bearings. Phosphor C51000 5. Copper roofing. valves Tin bronze C90500 10 Sn. clutch disk. As cast 83 234 35 Furniture.04 O Annealed 69 220 45 Electrical wires. springs Yellow C85400 29 Zn. nails.0 Pb. 4 Fe valve seats and guards Beryllium C17200 1.0 Sn. lamp fixture. fuse clips. battery clamps.2 Co hardened pumps Cu . ammunition. gears . radiator bras 3. fittings. valves. heat- exchanger. 965 1140 10 Electrical.%) (MPa) (MPa) Eletrolytic C11000 0. 2 Zn piston rings. Properties and Application of some Cu Alloys Name UNS Compos. copper 0.0 Zn Cold. (wt. bushing. Annealed 130 325 64 Bellows. piping. As cast 241 586 18 Bearings.

has wide variety of surface finishes. Such materials are widely used in aerospace and automotive applications where weight savings are needed for better fuel efficiency and performance. Aluminum can be riveted.7 g/cc). appearance. hammered. highly reflective to heat and light.high strength-to-weight ratio (high specific strength) owing to low density. drawn. . Aluminum Aluminum is a light metal ( = 2. spun. good electrical and thermal conductivities. is easily machinable. or resin bonded.no protective coating needed. Al and its alloys . extruded and forged into many shapes. however it is often anodized to improve surface finish. Versatile metal . welded. roll-formed. brazed. Corrosion resistant . Al-Li alloys are lightest among all Al alloys and find wide applications in the aerospace industry.can be cast. stamped. rolled.

x Other Elements .x Zinc 8xxx Other Elements 8xx. Cast – The last digit after the decimal indicates product from( casting .x Unused Series 7xxx Zinc 7xx.0 or ingot -1) Wrought As Cast Alloy Principal Alloying Element Alloy Principal Alloying Element Series Series 1xxx 1xx.00% Aluminum 2xxx Copper 2xx.x Silicon with Copper and/or Magnesium 4xxx Silicon 4xx.x Tin 9xx. Wrought – the 1st digit indicates the major alloying element. Alloys are designated by a 4 digit number. Wrought alloys can be either heat-treatable or non-heat treatable.x Copper 3xxx Manganese 3xx.x Aluminum. Aluminum Alloys Aluminum alloys are classified into two categories – Cast and Wrought alloys.00% or greater Minimum 99.x Silicon 5xxx Magnesium 5xx. 99.x Magnesium 6xxx Magnesium and Silicon 6xx.

 O Annealed.strain-hardened without thermal treatment. Solution heat treatment – heating to the single phase region and isothermal holding. Temper Designations  F As fabricated . O or H.  H1 Strain-hardened only . .  T3 Solution heat-treated and then cold worked.products in which no thermal treatments or strain-hardening.  H Strain-hardened (wrought products) – strain hardened with or without additional thermal treatment. recrystallized  T Thermally treated with or without strain-hardening to produce stable tempers other than F.

1.%) (MPa) (MPa) 1100 0. pressure vessels and Mn.5 Heat treated 325 470 20 Aircraft structure. 0. cylinder blocks 8090 2. railroad cars. 0.Damage tolerant aircraft Cu. 0. 0.6 Zn.12 Cu. springs 2024 4. 0.6 Si. fuse clips.95 Mg. canoes. screw 6061 1 Mg.0 7 Si. (T6) highly loaded applications 0. 195 230 14 Bellows. Properties and Application of some Al Alloys Al Ass.0 Li. Composition Condition YS UTS %El Applications No (wt.23 Cr 359.Compositions. 0.3 Mg T6 164 228 4 Aircraft pump parts. 1.3 Heat treated 360 465 .1. truck Mg.2 Cr furniture. heat exchangers light reflectors 3003 0.12 Zr (T651) .3 Cu. clutch disk. 2.5 Mg. rivets. Cr (H32) diaphragm.1 Zn piping 5052 2.12 Cu Annealed 35 90 45 Food/chemical handling (O) equipment. pipelines 7075 5.6 Mn (T4) wheels.6 Cu. 1.4 Cu. automotive transmission cases. 0.2 Annealed 40 110 30 Utensils.25 Strain-hardn.5 Peak-aged 505 570 11 Aircraft structures and other Mg. cold-worked structures 0. 0. T4 145 240 22 Trucks.

Can catch fire and cause severe damage Ti is stronger than Al . . Can be used in elevated temperature components. Titanium has high affinity to oxygen – strong deoxidiser. Limitation of pure Ti is its lower strength.high strength and low weight makes titanium very useful as a structural metal. Can be used as biomaterial. Titanium Pure titanium melts at 1670 oC and has a low density of 4.51 g/cc (40% lighter than steel and 60% heavier than aluminum). Excellent corrosion resistance due to a presence of a protective thin oxide surface film. Alloying is done to improve strength.

Engine parts sporting equipment. Care should be taken during processing. nitrogen. marine hardware Medical implants . and hydrogen can cause titanium to become more brittle. desalination. valve and pump parts.prosthetic devices. chemical processing. Recently use of Ti in bikes and automotives is increasing . Titanium Oxygen. Titanium can also be cast using a vacuum furnace. turbine engine parts. titanium is used in a variety of applications: Aircraft – Body structure. Because of its high strength to weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance.

= 4 – neutral (Sn. reasonable ductility and good creep resistance. stronger and less ductile than  alloys. Strength of Titanium is improved by alloying. Titanium alloys Pure Ti exhibits two phases – Hexagonal -phase at room temperature and BCC -phase above 882 C.  alloys have low density. Alloying elements are either  or  stabilizer. Elements with electron/atoms ratio < 4 –  stabilizer (Al. moderate strength. O. Ga). Mo. ( + ) two-phase alloys can be obtained with right proportions of alloying elements.Ta. Metastable  alloys are heavier. W). Creep strength reduces with increasing  content  ( + ) alloys show a good strength-ductility combination . Zr) and > 4 –  stabilizer (V.

% Condition YS UTS %El Applications type (UNS No) (MPa) (MPa) CP Ti 99.Compositions. parts requiring uniform tensile stresses . hubs - Ti-6Al-4V Annealed 877 947 14 Prosthetic implants. Annealed 890 950 15 Forged jet engine 1V (R54810) components – compressor disc. 2Sn (R56620) airframe structure  Ti-10V -2Fe.5Sn Annealed 784 826 16 Gas turbine engine casing (R54520) and rings. Annealed 985 1050 14 Rocket engine case. Properties and Application of some Ti Alloys Alloy Comp . (R56400) airframe components - Ti-6Al-6V . marine (R50500) and chemical processing equipments  Ti-5Al-2.1Ti Annealed 414 484 45 Airframe skins. wt. plate. chemical processing equipment Near- Ti-8Al-1Mo. Heat treated 1150 1223 10 High-strength airframe 3Al (aging) components.

Ni-base super alloys are a unique class of materials having exceptionally good high temperature strength. . Also used extensively in electroplating various parts in variety of applications. Nickel Catalyst for Fuel Cells: Nickel- cobalt is seen as a low-cost substitute for platinum catalysts. Two-thirds of all nickel produced goes into stainless steel production. Used in many high temperature applications like turbine engines. creep and oxidation resistance. high-strength metal with good ductility and excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature properties. Nickel Nickel is a high-density. Ni has may unique properties including its excellent catalytic property.

Ni-metal hydrides). food preparation. chemical production. are an important class of engineering materials finding widespread use in many applications. Nickel Shape Memory Alloys: Ni base (Ni-Ti) and Ni containing (Cu-Al-Ni) shape memory alloys that can go back to original form. energy (batteries: Ni-Cd. Nickel-containing materials are used in buildings and infrastructure. communications. environmental protection. . water treatment and transportation.

Applications of Nickel Turbine engine Electroplating Batteries .

Thermal conductivity is less than Al while their CTE is almost same.Can be alloyed with many elements.7 g/cm3). . Zn. Can be used as igniter or firestarter. Properties of Mg can be improved substantially by alloying. Pure Mg has adequate atmospheric resistance and moderate strength. Is very reactive and readily combustible in air. Magnesium Magnesium . Most widely used alloying elements are Al. Mn and Zr. plate. forgings and extrusions. Wrought Wrought alloys are available in rod.  Favorable atomic size . Melting point is 650 C and it has HCP structure. sheet.Lightest among commonly used metals ( 1. Mg Alloys – Cast. bar.

Mg and its alloys are used in many applications:– Auto parts. and brake pedal brackets. clutch housings. Magnesium Alloys Mg alloys: Impact and dent resistant. Automotive applications include gearboxes. power tools. electronic gadgets. valve covers. . alloy wheels. superior machinability and ease of casting. sporting goods. Due to its light weight.effective for high-speed applications. and material handling equipment. have good damping capacity . aerospace equipment. fixtures.

7 Zn automobile.0Zn. luggage and electronic devices AM60A 9. 0. Compositions. 0.45Zr for aircrafts Cast Alloys AZ91D 9. 200 255 9 High temp applications Annealed (high strength to 315 C) ZK60A 5. Properties and Application of some Mg Alloys ASTM Compos.0Al.0 Si. AS41A 4. As cast 140 210 6 Die-cast parts requiring 0.%) (MPa) (MPa) Wrought Alloys AZ31B 3. 1.5 Zn.0Th.15 As cast 150 230 3 Die-cast parts for Mn.3Al.0Al. 1.13Mn.35Mn good creep strength . Condition YS UTS %El Applications No (wt.6Zr Strain hard. 0.0 Al. Aged 285 350 11 Forging of max strength 0. As cast 130 220 6 Automotive wheels 0. 0. Extruded 200 262 15 Structure and tubing.2 cathodic protection Mn HK31A 3.

Ceramics Materials Ceramics Refractory Advanced Abrasives Glass Materials Ceramics .

. but cannot be used in oxygen environment. Zirconia . Must be chemically and physically stable at high temperatures. Are used in linings for furnaces. Aluminium oxide (alumina). should be chemically inert. crucibles and reactors. Need to be resistant to thermal shock. kilns. SiC and Carbon – also used in some very severe temperature conditions. silicon oxide (silica).retains its strength at high temperatures > 500°C. Refractory Materials Refractory . incinerators.extremely high temperatures. as they will oxidize and burn. and have specific ranges of thermal conductivity and thermal expansion. calcium oxide (lime) magnesium oxide (magnesia) and fireclays are used to manufacture refractory materials.

0 90 0.3 3.2 21 chrome ore .0 2. Composition of some common refractory materials Composition (wt%) Al2O3 SiO2 MgO Cr2O3 Fe2O3 CaO TiO2 %Porosity Refractory Fireclay 25-45 50-70 0-1 0-1 0-1 1-2 10-25 High-alumina 90-50 10-45 0-1 0-1 0-1 1-4 18-25 fireclay Silica 0.0 3.2 96. 9.2 25 Periclase 1.6 2.0 73 8.0 2.5 22 Periclase .2 2.3 0.0 5.

Operate without a cooling system. Possible engine parts: engine block & piston coatings . & ZrO2 (sensors). Low frictional losses. SiC (MESFETS). Lower weights than current engines Disadvantages: Ceramic materials are brittle. ball bearings). Advanced Ceramics: Automobile Engine parts Advantages: Operate at high temperatures – high efficiencies. Ceramic parts are difficult to form and machine Potential materials: Si3N4 (engine valves. Difficult to remove internal voids (that weaken structures).

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)
MEMS – These micron-sized structures such as beams, cantilevers,
diaphragms, valves, plates and switches that can function as tiny
sensors and actuators.
Fabricated by integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing processes: bulk
and surface micromachining.
Thousands of micromachines can be fabricated on a single silicon
wafer with supporting circuits integrated on the chip. Can be mass-
produced in the millions at low prices.
Low-cost, commercial MEMS devices developed for: Corrosion
detectors and monitors; Instrumentation for automotive and aerospace;
Biological and medical devices; Chemical and environmental sensors;
Manufacturing and process control devices ;Virtual reality systems

Abrasive Ceramics
Abrasives are used in cutting and grinding tools.
Diamonds - natural and synthetic, are used as abrasives,
though relatively expensive. Industrial diamonds are hard and
thermally conductive. Diamonds unsuitable as gemstone are
used as industrial diamond
Common abrasives – SiC, WC, Al2O3 (corundum) and silica
sand.
Either bonded to a grinding wheel or made into a powder and
used with a cloth or paper.

Silicon carbide

Glass
 Glass - inorganic, non-crystalline (amorphous) material.
 Range - soda-lime silicate glass for soda bottles to the
extremely high purity silica glass for optical fibers.
 Widely used for windows, bottles, glasses for drinking,
transfer piping and receptacles for highly corrosive liquids,
optical glasses, windows for nuclear applications.
 The main constituent of glass is silica (SiO2). The most
common form of silica used in glass is sand.
 Sand fusion temp to produce glass - 1700 °C. Adding other
chemicals to sand can considerably reduce the fusion
temperature.
 Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) or soda ash, (75% SiO2 + 25%
Na2O) will reduce the fusion temperature to 800 °C.
 Other chemicals like Calcia (CaO) and magnesia (MgO) are
used for stability. Limestone (CaCO3) and dolomite (MgCO3)
are used for this purpose as source of CaO and MgO.

Key Properties of Glass • Glass-ceramic materials should have:  Relatively high mechanical strengths  Low coefficients of thermal expansion  Relatively high temperature capabilities  Good dielectric properties  Good biological compatibility  Thermal shock resistance .

Compositions and Characteristics of some common Glasses .

recreation items. Natural plastics – hellac.g. Are one of the most commonly used class of materials. Are used in clothing. automobiles. packaging. ethylene (C2H4). signs. and cellulose. and medical implants. rubber. Thermoplasts – Do not soften on heating Plastics – moldable into many shape and have sufficient structural rigidity. aircraft. . asphalt. electronics. Polyethylene – (–CH2 – CH2)n Polymers: Thermosets – Soften when heated and harden on cooling – totally reversible. housing. Polymers Polymers – Chain of H-C molecules. Each repeat unit of H-C is a monomer e.

Fluorocarbon Chemically inert. rigid. can be made insulation. toys. Bearings. liquid jacketing for wires and cables absorber. garden hose. relatively and valves. film wrapping materials Polyamide Good strength and toughness. chemical pipes (Teflon) electrical properties. bushings and (Nylon) abrasion resistant. electric al wire material. tough. housing appliances dimensional stability . toys. bearings. friction coeff. cams. beverage containers corrosion resistant Vinyl Low-cost general purpose Floor coverings. Characteristics and Applications of some common Thermoplastics Material Characteristics Applications Polyethylene Chemically resistant. high temp electronic parts Polyester Tough plastic film. excellent Recording tapes. excellent Anticorrosive seals. good thermal and panels. anti-adhesive weak coatings. battery cases. battery parts. low strength ice trays. tyre cords. automotive (PET) fatigue and tear strength. low Flexible bottles. pipe. clothing. lighting optical clarity. low friction coeff.. phonograph flexible records Polystyrene Excellent electrical prop and Wall tile. gears.

often fiber reinforced . resistance. Characteristics and Applications of some common Thermosetting Polymers Material Characteristics Applications Epoxy Excellent mechanical Electrical moldings. (Bakelite) (>150C). inexpensive. chair fans formulated for room or high temperature. low cost. sinks. auto distributors. prop. electrical can be compounded with fixtures many resins Polyester Excellent electrical Helmets. telephones.. good electrical fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). protective coatings. can body components. good adhesion and laminates dimensional stability Phenolic Excellent thermal stability Motor housings. auto (Aropol) properties. (Araldite) properties and corrosion adhesives. fiberglass boats.

Tg. Hence. Their primary uses are in seals. adhesives and molded flexible parts. . oxygen and/or silicon. hydrogen. Glass transition temperature. Cross-linking in the monomers provides the flexibility. Elastomers Elastomer – a polymer with rubber-like elasticity. Elastomers are amorphous polymers existing above their Tg. Each of the monomers that link to form the polymer is usually made of carbon. is the temperature at which transition from rubbery to rigid state takes place in polymers. considerable segmental motion exists in them.

60 – 120 C. resistant to oil. 100 – 800% . seals and O-rings. Gasoline. (CR) Excellent resistance to high seals. 500. Temp. copolymer elongation 450 – 500% (SBR)) Acrylonitrile. High and low temp. excellent and medical uses electrical prop. Same as natural rubber butadiene Good physical properties. Elng. gaskets cutting abrasion. soles and heels copolymer elongation 400 – 600% (NBR) Chloroprene Temp.Characteristics and Applications of some commercial Elastomers Material Characteristics Applications Natural Useful temp. range: . Temp. elng. range: . heels rubber (NR) 120Cgood resistance to and soles. insulation.50 – 150 C. range : . range: .60 – Pneumatic tyres and tubes. chemicals and oil hose. butadiene Excellent resistance to oils. ozone.50 – 105 C. diaphragm. tubing for food and low temp.700% Styrene.

called twisted nematics (TN). and it only takes a little more heat to turn the liquid crystal into a real liquid. Primarily used in LCDs (liquid crystal displays) on watches. Advantages . . is naturally twisted. LCDs use these liquid crystals because they react predictably to electric current in such a way as to control light passage. The name "liquid crystal" arises out of their characteristics.LCDs are thinner and lighter and consume much less power than cathode ray tubes (CRTs). A particular sort of nematic liquid crystal. flat panel computer monitors. Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCP) LCPs are a group of chemically complex structure having unique properties. depending on the applied electrical potential. It takes a fair amount of heat to change a suitable substance from a solid into a liquid crystal. Applying an electric current to these liquid crystals will untwist them to varying degrees. televisions and clocks.

Advanced Polymers Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)  Molecular weight ca. 4 x 106 g/mol  Outstanding properties  high impact strength  resistance to wear/abrasion  low coefficient of friction  self-lubricating surface UHMWPE  Important applications  bullet-proof vests  golf ball covers  hip implants (acetabular cup) .

polymers . magnesium. References http://www.cfm http://www.msm. nickel.org/NickelUseInSociety/ http://www.com/materials/alloys/aluminum/temper.efunda.alcotec.com/lcd.com/us/en/solutions/-Understanding-the- Aluminum-Alloy-Designation-System.keytometals.titaniuminfogroup. Ferrous and Noferrous alloys. ceramics.htm http://www.uk/phase-trans/ 2004/titanium/ titanium.php http://www.com/Article58.cam. Stainless steel.uk/tech-data-links. Cast iron.ac. aluminium alloys. temper designation. titanium.htm Key words: Application of materials.howstuffworks.co.cfm http://www.nickelinstitute.html http://www.

What is 17-7PH steel? What is the source of high strength in these steels? 6. What should be minimum carbon content in a cast iron? 7. What are the major alloying elements in stainless steels? Why are stainless steels resistant to corrosion? 5. What is the shape of graphite in malleable cast iron? 10. Quiz 1. What are the useful properties of cast iron? 11. Classify metals. Why is grey cast iron so brittle? Why is it resistant to wear? 8. Why is copper used extensively in electrical and thermal applications? . 2. Why are tool steels hard? What is HSLA steel? 4. What are the typical grades of steel? What is the effect of different alloying elements in steel? 3. Classify materials. How can the ductility of cast irons be increased? 9.

Why is titanium resistant to corrosion? 17. Why Ti alloys are preferred for high temperature applications? 19. What are the key properties of glass-ceramics? . Which is the heat treatable alloy of copper? 14. What are the different temper designation of aluminum alloys? 16. What are the typical phases in Ti alloys? What is  and  stabilizer? 18. What are the different categories of ceramic materials? 20. How are Alumium alloys classified and designated? 15. What is Brass? What are typical alloying elements in bronze? 13. Quiz 12. What are the main constituents in refractory ceramics? What are the main constituents of glass? 21.

What is twisted nematics? 30. What are thermosets and thermoplasts? 23. Why do plastics find widespread applications? 24. What is glass transition temperature? 26. Quiz 22. Name some natural plastics. What is elastomer? What are their typical characteristics and applications? 25. Why are LCPs used in LCD displays? 29. What is LCP? 28. . What is UHMWPE polymer? 27.