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6TH YEAR 2018



Listening skills practice: The best job in the world – exercises

Listen to the information about the “best job in the world” competition and do the exercises to practise and
improve your listening skills.

1. Preparation: multiple selection

Do this exercise before you listen. Which five activities can you do in Australia? Tick (✓) all the correct

…………. get to know aboriginal culture

…………. look at dinosaur fossils

…………. learn how to cook traditional, local curries

…………. go skiing

…………. visit ancient Inuit monuments

…………. enjoy a firework display at New Year

…………. see lions and tigers in the wild

…………. go surfing

2. Check your understanding: gap fill

Do this exercise while you listen. Complete the gaps with the correct word.

1. The organisation Tourism Australia is offering six jobs, for six _______________.

2. If you want one of these jobs, you have to make a short _______________.

3. The job of outback adventurer is for someone with a passion for _______________ life.

4. Job number two is a park _______________ in Queensland.

5. The wildlife caretaker job on Kangaroo Island is for someone who loves _______________.

If you’re not an outdoor person, the next job is for someone whose talents are in

7. The taste master will need to _______________ about food as well as enjoy eating it.

8. The final job is based in ______________.

3. Check your understanding: grouping
Do this exercise while you listen. Put the job requirements with the correct job.

b. help preserve and

a. write, take
promote plants, c. work with some d. work with the
photographs and make
animals, fossils and dangerous animals organisers of festivals
indigenous culture

g. work in a state with h. use social media to

e. find the best places f. learn how to make
the world’s biggest tell people about cool
for “wining and dining” alcoholic drinks
sand island events

i. find adventures and

j. travel in a hot air k. use different types of
employment for young l. report on cafés,
balloon and be transport and leave only
people on working concerts and days out
prepared to eat insects! footprints

outback adventurer park ranger wildlife caretaker

lifestyle journalist taste master chief funster

Which of these jobs would suit you? Why?

I’d like to … because …

I’m good at … (-ing)
I enjoy … (-ing)
I’m interested in …
Listening skills practice: New inventions – exercises

Listen to the radio programme and do the exercise to practise and improve your listening skills.

1. Preparation: grouping
Do this exercise before you listen. Write the inventions in the correct group. If you don’t know, have a

Indoor cloud-maker Sign language Wing-suits (that enable

Time travel machine
machine translation gloves you to fly)

Bio-fabric clothes (that Digital running shoes

Air-maker (for use on
change colour according Solar water distiller (that give you
other planets)
to the wearer’s mood) performance statistics)

Real inventions Fictional inventions

2. Check your understanding: true or false

Do this exercise while you listen. Circle True or False for these sentences.

1. Wing-suits allow people to fly or glide. True False

2. Wing-suits are getting cheaper. True False

3. Gabriele Diamanti's water distiller is powered by the sun. True False

The "enable talk gloves" help people to use sign language in really cold
4. True False

5. James Cameron invented a new underwater camera. True False

6. MIT students have invented a new type of ketchup. True False

7. The last invention is a way of producing clouds indoors. True False

8. The science correspondent thinks the clouds are ugly. True False
3. Check your understanding: gap fill
Do this exercise while you listen. Write the word to fill the gaps.

1. Wing-suits are not very _______________, but the modern ones are better than ever.

2. Last October was the first ever wing-suit world _______________ in China.

3. You can buy a wing-suit for 600 to _______________ dollars.

4. The water distiller is for places where it’s hard to get clean _______________ water.

5. To produce the water distiller properly, they still need help with _______________.

6. The “enable talk gloves” were invented by some Ukrainian _______________.

The gloves use sensors to turn sign language into _______________ and then into spoken

James Cameron was part of a team which designed a submarine capable of descending to
_______________ kilometres down.

9. James Cameron was the first person to do a solo _______________ so deep under the sea.

10. MIT students have invented a product that helps people get the contents out of _______________.

11. A Dutch _______________ has found a way of creating clouds indoors.

12. You can’t make clouds for yourself at _______________ yet.

Listening skills practice: High-achieving teenagers – exercises

Listen to the radio interview about high-achieving teenagers and do the exercises to practise and improve
your listening skills.

1. Preparation: grouping
Do this exercise before you listen. Write the words in the correct group.

listeners photographers editors readers

talent scouts fans top designers followers

People working in arts and media The audience for arts and media

2. Check your understanding: multiple choice

Do this exercise while you listen. Circle the best option to complete these sentences.

Many famous and successful teenagers have used new technology / worked from an early age
/ been inspired by YouTube videos .

Justin Bieber started off singing with R&B star Usher / sending videos to talent scouts / posting
videos on YouTube .

Some people say Justin Bieber is the most influential person in the world because he has had
3. so many number one songs / he has so many followers on Twitter / he is friends with Barack
Obama .

A negative consequence of fame for Justin Bieber is he has very little privacy / people get
bored of hearing about him / people criticise his appearance .

Tavi Gevinson started a fashion blog when she was 11 years old / when she was in 11th grade
in high school / in 2011 .

6. “Rookie” means a beginner / a fan / someone who is bad at something .

Style Rookie allowed readers to post pictures of themselves / soon had a lot of readers / was
noticed by Karl Lagerfeld .
When some people didn't believe her age, Tavi was sad and angry at first / decided to attack
them in return / completely ignored them and continued working .

Tavi employs only teenagers / writers and photographers of all ages / a very small group of
people .

Louise thinks it’s difficult for Tavi to have a normal life / there’s more pressure when you are a
writer / there’s more pressure when you are a performer .

3. Check your understanding: gap fill

Do this exercise while you listen. Write the numbers to complete the gaps.

1. Justin Bieber started off posting videos on YouTube at the age of _______________ .

2. Justin Bieber has over _______________ followers on Twitter.

3. Tavi Gevinson started Style Rookie when she was only _______________ years old.

4. Tavi’s blog soon built up a huge following of up to _______________ reader per day.

One magazine upset Tavi by printing an article saying the writer didn’t believe Tavi was only
_______________ .

6. Tavi started Rookie Magazine in _______________ .

7. Less than a week after it started Rookie Magazine had _______________ followers.

8. Tavi employs about _______________ writers and photographers.

Do you think Justin Bieber and Tavi Gevinson deserve their success, or are they just lucky?

I think … deserves his/ her success because …

I don’t think … deserves his/ her success because …
Listening skills practice: Boy bands – exercises

Listen to the radio interview about boy bands and do the exercises to practise and improve your listening

1. Check your understanding: gap fill

Do this exercise before you listen. Complete the gaps with a word from the box.

reality music ‘look’

feel-good record good-looking

How to create a boy band

1. Find four or five _______________ boys.

2. Check they have at least some _______________ ability.

3. Decide on a _______________ for the band.

4. Write them some songs with safe, _______________ lyrics.

5. Ideally, get them on a _______________ TV show.

6. Make as much money as possible from _______________ sales, concerts and merchandising.

2. Check your understanding: true or false

Do this exercise while you listen. Circle True or False for these sentences.

1. Many boy bands are not successful. True False

In the past, boy band members dressed differently but had similar
2. True False

Having different types of boy in the group is supposed to appeal to

3. True False
different girls.

4. One Direction first became famous on YouTube. True False

5. One Direction lyrics are written for girls who like rebellious boys. True False

6. One Direction's stylists try to give each band member an individual look. True False

7. One Direction became famous in the US by clever use of social media. True False

8. One Direction have not tried to make money from merchandising. True False
3. Check your understanding: multiple choice
Do this exercise while you listen. Circle the best phrase to complete these sentences.

The most important thing for boy bands in the past was that they had some musical ability / they
could dance well / they had different personalities .

Things have changed because people wanted something different / the media and new
technology influence things differently / both of the above .

Starting on a reality show like X Factor is great for a band because appearing on TV is the
3. quickest way to get famous / the many viewers who vote every week become loyal fans / people
feel a personal connection with bands they see on TV .

The words to One Direction songs are designed to make teenage girls feel good about
4. themselves / appeal to mums by being a bit cheeky / communicate universal messages about love

One Direction's clothes are very individual and they each have a strong look / create a clean-cut,
safe and non-threatening image / are casual and fashionable with a touch of rebelliousness .

Lots of people said One Direction wouldn't be regarded as serious musicians / get famous in the
US as well as the UK / have a number one record .

One Direction were the first British band to have their first album go to number one in the US / sell
7. so many copies of their first album in just one week / break into the US market by using social
media .

The boys have also made money from selling One Direction products like dolls and phones /
performing as many sell-out concerts as possible / giving talks about their success .
Top techniques in identity theft 3 GRAMMAR passive (all forms);
it is said that. .. , he is thought to... , etc
Identity theft is the illegal use of somebody else's personal
information in order to obtain money or credit. Victims of identity a Complete the text with the correct active or
theft can face financial and even legal problems in the future because passive form of the verb in brackets.
an impostor has used their personal details to purchase something or
As a police officer, I was very upset when my
give false information to the authorities. The best way of preventing
motorbike 1 was taken (take) from outside
thieves from stealing your identity is to know how they operate. Here
my house last month. When I found out that over
are some of the most common identity theft techniques.
20 motorbikes 2 (steal) in my area
in the previous six months, I promised myself that
the thief would 3 (catch) and
_ _ _ _ _ _ (punish). First my colleagues and

I _ _ _ _ _ (question) all the victims of the
thefts and 6 (visit) all the motorbike
dealers in the area. Our investigations came to an
end late last night when we identified t he crimina l. ..
as my next-door neighbour!
He 7 (just arrest) and at the
moment he (hold) at the local
police station. His case (hear)

El Phishing in the Magistrate's Court next week and we all

(expect ) him to be found guilty. He
You get an email that claims to be from a financial institution or other business asking 11
might (give) a short prison sentence,
for some personal information from you. It contains a link to a web page where you
have to key in your bank username and password. The new page may look real but it is. but the best thing is that no more motorbikes
in fact, a fake. Identity thieves will take all of the information you give on the page and (steal) in my area in the near future.
use it to steal money from your accounts.
b Rewrite the sentences.
b Smishing 1 It is known that the rapist is a local man.
You get a text message which seems to require your immediate attention. for example: The rapist is known to be a local man .
'[Name of bank] confirms that you have bought a computer from [Name of retailer].
Call [Phone Number] if you have not made this purchase.' When you call the number. an 2 The blackmailer is understood to be a colleague
automated voice response system asks you to confirm your credit card details. The text of the victim.
message is actually from a group of identity thieves who can create and use a duplicate It is understood that the blackmailer is a colleaaue
bank card within 30 minutes of obtaining the necessary information. of the victim .

II Vishing 3 It is expected that the man will be acquitted.

This occurs when you receive a phone call on your landline from someone who seems The man _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
to be trying to help you. The person claims to have detected fraudulent activity on
your credit card and asks you to confirm your credit card details. The call is actually
4 It is reported that kidnappers have taken the
from an identity thief who wants to use your card to purchase things for himself. president's wife.
Kidnappers _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
lliJ Spoofing 5 The terrorists are thought to be in hiding
Hackers break into your computer and transfer communication from a legitimate website
to a fake one. For example, when you try to log into Facebook. your computer will take
somewhere in France.
you to the hacker's site, where they will steal your login information. From there. they Iris _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __
will have access to plenty of details. such as your date of birth and the names of the
6 The suspect is known to be dangerous.
members of your family. Later. they can use this information to steal your identity.
ltis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
d Spyware 7 It is reported that vandals have damaged the art
Spyware is a type of software used on the internet to gather information about gallery.
a person or organization without their consent. Identity thieves often attach it to
downloadable files. such as online games. When you install the game, a hacker records
Vandals ~--------------~

all your keystrokes. including things like credit card numbers or bank account logins. 8 The police are said to have arrested three men.
d Digging through your dustbin
It is ~-----------------

The dustbin can be a great source of personal information and in some cases. identity
thieves actually go through the rubbish to see what they can find. Make sure you
completely destroy your old credit cards when it is time to dispose of them. As far as
official documents are concerned, you should put them all through a shredder or burn
them before you throw them out.
a R ead the article and complete it b Find the words or phrases in the text to match definitions 1-9.
with the missi n g headings.
1 deal with something (introduction)
A Visit different places 2 about twelve (parawaph 1)
B You are paid to read 3 more intelligent (pa rawaph 2)
C No two days are ever the same 4 so metimes (paragraph 3)
D You can see your name in print 5 an increase in yo ur sa lary (pa rawaph 4)
E You're always finding out new things 6 rema in in control of (parawaph 5)
F You can be an opinion-maker 7 a time or date before which somethin g must be finished
G You meet all kinds of people (parawaph 6)
H Every minute counts 8 repeated exactly as it was written (parawaph 7)

9 a strong need or desire (parawaph 8)

tkebest job ever
Not everyone can handle a career in
journalism - it can be stressful and the hours
are long - but it's a fantastic, and popular,
career choice. Here are eight reasons why.

The first thing you do in your working day is sit down and find
out what's been happening in the world since you went to sleep
the night before. Reading a dozen or so news outlets and blogs 5
with your morning coffee is a better way to start the day than It's a big, fast world, and it's important to be where the
sitting in traffic in the rush hour! news is happening, particularly with events that have a global
significance like conflicts or protests. Not all journalists travel
a lot, but many do. Situations change quickly these days and
When you start writing a new story, you know nothing, or very
it's important to stay on top of the story.
little, about it. But by the time you hand your finished article
to the editor, you're an expert in that story. You're constantly 6
learning and getting smarter when you're a journalist. A newsroom is a fast-paced environment and a journalist
works to a tight deadline, so there's always a certain adrenaline
rush. If you are the type of person who works best under
On a single day, you could be at your desk researching some new
pressure, it's the best job ever.
story. Or you might cover a press event with a photographer, or
interview a contact for a developing story. From time to time 7
you might even be asked to review a restaurant or cultural It's a great feeling to have your name in a published article,
event. You never know what the day is going to bring. or to have something you've written quoted in another article.
And when someone tells you that they've read your article and
they like what you've written, that's even better.
One of the highlights of the job is interviewing really
interesting people you wouldn't normally have the chance 8
to talk to: from 'ordinary' people who have done something If you have an urge to write and you are curious about the
extraordinary, to sportspeople, artists, and musicians. And world around you, a career in journalism is the obvious choice.
you don't have to worry about what you say to everyone you The best journalists are the ones who really try to understand
meet, either - if you ask a politician a question they don't like, every aspect of a story, and then explain that story well.
you could get a pay rise. A good, well-written article can influence the way people think .

about... advertising

Mad Men:
Complete the sentences with a phrase from the box.
fact or fiction
an ear worm a captive audience get into your head
had their day hit a false note their ears perk up in the world of
word for word
advertising today?
l The best way to get rid of an ear worm is to replace it
Many people have been introduced to the world of advertising through
with another tune .
the American drama series Mad Men, which follows the lives of people
2 Some people say that libraries have _ __ _ _ _ __ working for an important advertising agency on Madison Avenue in
and they will soon disappear. New York in the 1960s (hence the name ' Mad Men'). However, the
advertising industry has progressed and developed in many ways
3 The song has a catchy chorus which can easily
since then . Here are some examples of how things are different today.
_ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ and you find yourself singing
it all day. 1
Sterling, Cooper, Draper, Pryce is the fictional name of Mad Men's
4 I repeated her instructions _ _ __ _ _ ____ to advertising agency and the action revolves around its creative director,
avoid any confusion. Don Draper. All of the agency's work is heavily dependent upon
Draper's creative talent and he is constantly called upon to save the
5 My dogs love biscuits- _ __ _ _ _ ____ as
day. However, his ability to instantly solve advertising problems single-
soon as they hear me open the packet. handedly does not reflect what happens nowadays. In fact, advertising
6 Musicians often play on train s and ask for money agencies are made up of different teams that work together and most
because they know they have ___ _ _ __ __ _ projects are part of one massive and co-ordinated campaign. The fate
of a real-life campaign rarely lies in the hands of one individual.
7 The mayoress _ _ ________ with her speech
and caused a lot of controversy. 2
Mad Men is well-known for its improvised 'pitches' (presentations to
potential clients) that seem to come out of nowhere. Often it is Don
Draper himself who suddenly manages to effortlessly transform a
2 READING vague idea he has had into advertising gold . This portrayal gives the
impression that the most successful approach for pitching a new idea
a Read the article and match headings A-D to to a potential client is to put off the work for as long as possible. Th is
paragraphs 1-4. could not be further from the truth, however, and in real life it takes a
lot of hard work and creative genius to make a successful pitch .
A Leaving it Late C One-Man Show
B Gender Gap D All Play, No Work 3
The atmosphere at Sterling, Cooper, Draper, Pryce is one where
b Read the article. Mark the sentences T (true) or F (false). anything goes. From long lunches to midday naps at in the office, it
seems as if there is never anything to be done. In the real world, an
I Mad Men is a comedy drama series. agency's workload can vary from one extreme to another depending on
2 Don Draper is portrayed as a hero in the series. _ the cli ent 's demands and the corresponding deadlines. One week, the
3 A modern advertising campaign involves team may have more time to play while the next they have no time to
sleep. This is the nature of the job and a great deal of work goes into
many people working together. every single project, even though there are times when the employees
4 A lot of planning goes into Don Draper's pitches. are able to take a break.
5 The executives at SterlinB, Cooper, Draper, 4
P1yce work extremely hard. In Mad Men, the female characters have been carefully researched so
that they coincide with the views of American society at the time. In
6 In a rea l ad agency there is never time to relax .
the 1960s, few women went on to further education, and those who
7 Most of the women at SterlinB, Cooper, Draper, did often became secretaries or nurses. This situation is reflected
Pryce are secretaries. at the agency, where sexism is rife and all but one of the executives
is male. The exception, Peggy Olson , is regarded as an oddball
8 A large proportion of creative directors in
by her colleagues . Fortunately, the situation nowadays has greatly
advertising agencies today are women. improved regarding sexism in the work place. However, still only a tiny
percentage of today's creative directors are women.
c Look at the highlighted words and phrases.
What do you think they m ea n? Use your dictionary to Mad Men is one of the most popular period drama series ever shown
on American television . It has been widely praised for its historical
look up their meaning and pronunciation.
authenticity, visual style, costume design, acting, writing, and

directing and it has won many awards .
a Look at the pictures and read the article.
Match each picture to a paragraph.
Unknown inventors
For most of us, the word ·'inventor" makes us think of names like
Alexander Graham Bell or Guglielmo Marconi, the men behind
the telephone and the radio. But what about the people whose
inventions we use so often that we forget someone had to think
them up in the first place? Read on to find out about five of the
unknown invent ors of our times.

A An American woman called Margaret Knight was working in a paper bag

factory when she noticed how difficu lt it was to put things into t he bags.
So, she decided to invent a machine that folded and glued paper to make a
flat-bottomed bag. She made a lot of sketches of her machine, but before
she could actually make it, another employee called Charles Annan stole her
idea. Knight took Annan to court and eventually won the case. In 1858 Knight
set up her own paper bag company and received large sums of royalties for
her invention when other companies made her bags under licence.

8 In 1910, a Russian-born sweet manufacturer called Sam Born emigrated

to the USA and set up a business there. One day, when he was wondering
how to make the sweet making process more efficient, he thought up an
idea for a new machine. It was called t he Born Sucker Machine and its job
was to quickly and mechanically insert the sticks into lollipops. The new
machine helped make the sweets and Sam's company into a huge success
and in 1916, he was awarded 'the key to San Francisco'. In 1923, he founded
the Just Born company, which is still going strong in the USA today.

b Read the article again and answer C In 1959, Ernie Fraze, the owner of a successful American engineering
company, was at a picnic when he went to fetch the drinks. In those
the questions. Write the letter of the
days, drinks were in sealed cans which were opened with a can opener.
Unfortunately, Ernie had forgotten to bring the opener. This started him I
Wh ich inventor ... thinking, and one night, when he was having trouble sleeping, he solved the
1 thought of something that made can dilemma. His idea was a new can that could be easily opened with a ring
an extra tool unnecessary? pu ll. Ernie's company began manufacturing a system of mass producing
these cans and by 1980, he was making over $500 million dollars a year from
2 made it safer to carry something?
his invention.
3 found the answer to a security
problem? D Once the banks had decided they wanted to install cash machines, the
4 came from outside the country next problem was how to confirm a customer's identity to allow money to
where he created his invention? be withdrawn. It was a Scottish man by the name of James Goodfellow who
came up with the solution. In 1966, Goodfellow realized he could link a set of
5 invented something which was
numbers, known only to the account owner, to an encoded card. If the two
an improvement on the existing
numbers matched, the person would receive their cash. This number became
known as a Personal Identification Number or PIN. Goodfellow didn't get a
6 was British? penny for his idea, but he did receive an OBE* from the Queen in 2006. I
7 invented someth in g that speeded
up the manufacturing process? E When takeaway cups of coffee became popular, the Solo Cup Company,
a leading producer of disposable cups, saw a gap in the market for a new
8 had to take legal action against a
container. Jack Clements was the man they asked to design it. In 1985,
Clements designed a new lid for the cup in the shape of a dome. The lid
9 designed something that can rested comfortably between the mouth and nose when the user took a sip
be fitted onto something else? and it also helped prevent spilling. Since then, the Solo Traveller Lid has been
10 had an idea outside work? adopted by many of America's coffeehouses and it has helped Clements'
company earn $2 billion of annual income.

*OBE - An awa rd given in Britain for a spec ial ach ievement.

a Read the article quickly and match b Look at the highlighted words and phrases in the tex t and try to work out
the t itles to the paragraphs. their meaning. Then m atch them to definitions 1-10.
A Criticizing past employers 1 that cannot be fo rg iven
B Talking too much 2 con nected with what is being d iscussed _ _ _ __ _ _ __ __
C Doubts about your CV 3 making you very nervous or worried
D Bringing a drink with you 4 srupid mistakes
E Ignorance of the company .) be unable to answer a question
6 from memory
7 start talking about something less importa nt

8 drinking a very small amount ofliquid at a time

9 di slike very much
10 play w ith someth ing because you are nervous _ __ _ __ _ __ __

A job interview is a nerve-racking experience at

the best of times, so it's important to prepare
for it well. Arriving late is sure to ruin your
chances, as is dressing inappropriately. And do
not dream of answering your phone during
the interview. Read on for five more common
blunders and how to avoid making them.
1 __ This is a highly unprofessional habit, as it suggests
a serious inability to manage your time. Surely you could
have planned your schedule better to include a coffee
stop beforehand? Having a cup in your hand creates the
opportunity for distraction: you m ight fiddle with it or miss
a question while taking a sip of coffee. Worse still, its
contents may end up on the desk, wh ich will result in the
interviewer remembering you for all the wrong reasons.

2 _ _ In this age of technology, it is inexcusable not 4 It is important to maintai n a positive attitude

to know anything about your prospective employer. Most throughout the interview, even when discussing things that
company websites these days have an 'About Us' section have gone wrong. Don't let the interviewer know that you
giving company histo ry, locations, divisions and a mission want to leave you r current job because you can't stand your
statement. Do so me research before the Big Day and you boss. Sayi ng unpleasant things about your colleagues is not
won't be stumped if the interviewer asks you a question a good idea, because the interviewer might know them.
about the place where you, theoretica lly, want to work. Also, you will be showing him how you wil l spea k about his
company if you leave on bad terms in the future.
3 __ An interview is a professional situation, not a
personal one, so the interviewer will not want to hear your 5 __ Not being fami liar with your past history of
life story. While you need to answer al l the questions you employment creates a very bad impression. It suggests that
are asked, your responses shou ld be focused and to the either you have a very bad memory, or you made up some of
point. Don't get -side-tracked and talk about your home life, the facts. Make sure you know the basic information by heart
your partner and any children you may have - save this for because the interviewer is sure to ask you about it. If you
the first day in your new job w hen you are gettin g to know rea lly do have a bad memory, take a copy to refer to, but do
your coll eagues. not appear to be reading it out loud.
b R ead the article again and c hoose the right
How to be a Hipster answer.
T he hipster subculture is m ade up of
Today, hipsters can be seen people who want ...
more frequently than ever before. a to look cool.
They are part of a subculture that b to be d i fferent.
rejects everything mainstream c to fit in.
in favour of expressing their own 2 Hipsters do n't tend to wear. ..
uniqueness. If this sort of thing a sports s hoes.
appeals to you, you might like b colo urful patterns.
to consider becoming a hipster c baggy trousers.
yourself. Read on to find out more.
3 Hipsters sometimes go sho pping in ...
a shops that support a good cause.
D Dress like a hipster D Entertainment b stores that sel l the latest fas hio ns.
Hipsters would never wear designer Hipsters love all things independent
c places t hat everyone knows.
clothes because they prefer to create and lndie music is a big part of what
their own image. Indispensable items they represent. They are always the 4 Many hipsters ...
in a hipster's wardrobe include skinny first to hear about new bands, but once a like to read abo ut politics.
jeans or leggings and T-shirts with a band becomes popular, they stop b are involved in politics .
ironic messages printed on them. listening to them . A typical hipster line c know very little about politics.
Check and flower patterns are also is: ' I liked them before they were cool.'
5 Hipsters like new mu sic .. .
popular, and it doesn 't matter if the When it comes to cinema, they watch
garments don't match . They wear independent and foreign films, and a after it has become well known.
cowboy boots or Converse trainers they attend independent productions at b until it becomes well known.
on their feet, and as far as accessories the theatre. Hipsters also love reading, c when others stop likin g it.
are concerned , they wear sunglasses, especially books about political science, 6 Hipsters enjoy food ...
bright belts and they generally have a anthropology and sociology. a fro m superm arkets.
couple of piercings.
la Food b they prod uce the mselves.
fil Shopping Eating meat isn't popular with c in restaura nts.
Consumerism is something that hipsters hipsters, and most of them tend to c Find the words or phrases in the text to
can't stand, so they don't go shopping be vegetarians or vegans. Many grow m a tch definitions 1- 10:
very often. Instead they prefer to make their own food in their gardens or on
use of old things, and they love vintage a balcony; if not, they go to natural l ad jective referring to ideas and opinions
clothing. Female hipsters raid their food markets instead . Fruit, coffee thought robe normal beca use they are
grandmothers' cupboards looking for old and Asian food are very popular with shared by most people (i 11trod11 ctio11)
dresses, while the men go in search of hipsters, and they love making meals
Grandad's old shirts - the ones without for their foodie friends. 2 the general impression that a person gives
a collar. Of course, the clothes generally (parawaph 1)
So if you want to be a hipster,
need to be altered to make them fit, but
forget everything you know 3 t hin gs that yo u wear o r carry to match
a hipster is a genius with a needle and
about being 'cool' and find your your clothes, e.g. bag, sca r f (parawaph 1)
thread, so this isn't a problem. The only
own unique way to fit in with
shops a hipster will enter are charity
this trend. 4 ga rments from a certai n period in the past
shops, craft shops, or their local vintage
boutique. (parawaph 2)
5 thin gs yo u use fo r sewi ng (parawaph 2)
Hipsters tend to be very bothered
6 worried about something (parawaph 3)
and upset about the way the world
works - or doesn't work, in their
view. They are usually well-informed 7 a stron g feeling o f not liking somethi ng
because they spend hours every day (pa rawapl1 3)
sitting in cafes surfing the internet 8 nor influenced by anything else (parawaph4)
on their smartphones or tablets - the
only exceptions to their aversion to 9 people who don't eat any animal produc
consumerism . Hipsters are usually quite at all (pa ragraph 5)
young - the age ranges from late teens
to mid-30s. Most go to university, and
10 a person who is very incere red in ~·ing
many of them base their career choices
around music, art, or fashion.
different dishe (paragraph 5)
about... children's books

1 LOOKING AT LANGUAGE Kids, teens, and e-books

Complete the ' fillers ' in the mini dialogues . Are young people embracing the new technology?
1 A Which book have you enjoyed reading recently? Publishers are closely monitoring the sales of printed books and
B The Hunger Games. AlriBht , it was written for e-books these days in order to adapt to an ever-changing market.
teenagers, but I really liked it. Bearing in mind that today's children will be the consumers of the
future, it is the under-18s that interest them most. Market research
2 A How are you getting on with that e-reader I gave you? is carried out in this age group on a regular basis and new data
B I was a bit wor ried I wouldn't use it but , a._ __ _ suggests that this segment faces so me very special challenges.
it's very handy. The first survey was conducted online among a thousand parents
of children aged 0 to 12. Disappointingly for digital booksellers,
3 A Do you know anything about Ken Follett's books? e-books still make up on ly 11% of children's books. There are
B I think they're s ____ o_ _ _ _ thrillers, several reasons for this. Firstly, a child needs to own a digital
aren't they? device to be able to read an e-book. The survey found that while
27% of the kids of parents in the survey had their own computer
4 A Have you ever read a Charles Dickens novel in English?
and 25% owned a smartphone, only 7% currently possessed an
B No way! I m , it would be too hard, wouldn't it? e-reader. These figures are likely to increase in the future, however,
5 A Did you enjoy Crime and Punishment? as more children have access to a reading device. The parents in the
survey said that they often share their digital devices with their
B Yes, although it was a bit, y kn._ __
kids and they are starti ng to hand them down when they upgrade
depressing in places. to a newer model.
6 A What do you think of the writer Dan Brown? Another obstacle facing e-books in the child ren's market is the
B W , he's not a great writer, but I quite enjoy popularity of traditional bookstores. These are still the number
one source of discovery for children's books and more than 85% of
his books.
books are bought on impulse. Pare nts often prefer shopping in a
bookstore because printed books are usually graded by age or Level.
They also make colourful presents for yo ung children, while e-books
Lack the visual and tactile appeal. On the other hand, the research
2 READING showed that the look and feel of a book becomes less important
as children grow older. Seven- to 12-year-olds say that e-books are
a Read the article and@the correct a n swers. 'fun and cool' and they encourage t hem to read more, despite the
1 The article is about e-books in the over f918s fact that their parents would prefer t hem to read printed books.
The other segment which interests publishers is the yo ung adult
e-book market.
market. Teenagers today do most of their reading on smartphones
2 Fewer / More seven- to 12-year-olds have an e-reader and tablets, but this does not mean that t hey are in favour of
tha n a computer. e-books. A second onli ne survey of a thousand 13- to 17-year-olds
3 T he find in gs suggest th at f ewer/ more children are showed that teens are way behind all other age groups in e-book
likely to read e-books in the future. adoption. Sixty-six per cent of young ad ults in the survey said
that they prefer printed books to e-books, and only 8% preferred
4 Most children's books are bought online /on the hiBh e-books. The main reason for this
street. resistance is that teenagers enjoy using
5 O lder children are more/ less a ttracted to e-books th a n technology as a social medium . Every
their parents . day t hey read hundreds of short pieces
about all sorts of different subjects and
6 E-books a re more/ less popu lar with teen agers th a n
they share t he most interesting with their
o ther age g roups. frie nds. At this point e-books cannot be
7 Teenage rs regard reading e-books as an individual / a shared or commented on and so they are
social activity. not a social technology.
8 T he resea rch shows that children a nd teenagers still Surveys Like these are of vital
importance to publishers because they
prefer e- books /p rinted books.
tell them about the latest trends in the
b Look a t the highlighted w o rd s a nd ph rases. Wha t d o market. In the case of t he children's and
yo u t hink they m ean ? Use your dictionary to look up young adult market, the two surveys have
shown that printed books are still winning
t he ir m eaning a nd pronunciation .
t he race against e-books.
Adventure is just bad planning.
Explorer Roald Amundsen, first man to reach the South Pole

a R ead the story quickly. H ow did Nicho las Joy survive
the freezing conditions of Suga rloaf Mountain?

b Read the story again and choose the right a nswer.

1 Sugarloaf Mounta in is popular w ith skiers because . . .
a it is easy to get to.
1 Sugarloaf Mountain in
b it is free at the weekend .
Maine, USA, is one of the
c it is in a beautiful area.
best ski resorts in the country.
2 Nicholas and his fat her separated because Nicholas
Thousands of winter sports
wanted to ... enthusiasts head for the area
a go a different way. during weekends and holidays to
b sit down and have a rest. enjoy the breathtaking scenery.
c meet some friends at the car pa rk . Most of them go home exhausted
3 Nicholas knew how to make a snow cave because .. . but happy at the end of a great
a his fa ther had taught him. day's skiing. But not in the case
b he had seen someone do it o n TV. of 17-year-old Nicholas Joy from
c he had been on a surviva l course. Massachusetts.
2 Nicholas had gone skiing
4 The first thing Joseph Paul did w hen he fo und
with his father in Sugarloaf. It
Nicholas was to . ..
was a Sunday, and they were
a ca ll his parents. on their way back down the mountain when Nicholas saw a shortcut. He
b give him some food . decided to take the shortcut while his father continued on the official
c take him back to the resort. path. They arranged to meet back at the car park for the drive home.
5 Skiers who go missing at S ugarloaf. . . And that was the last his father saw of him that day because Nicholas
a have usually left the official t ra il. didn't turn up at the car park. After waiting for what he considered to be
b usually make their own snow caves. a reasonable time, Nicholas's worried father raised the alarm. A massive
c usually have good surviva l skills. search party was launched but it soon began to snow heavily. Eventually,
the search was called off.
c Find the words and phrases in the text to match 3 Meanwhile, Nicholas was desperate. He had got hopelessly lost,
definitions 1-8. and he realized that he was going to have to spend the night on the
l people who are ver y interested in a n activity mountain. Fortunately, he is a big fan of survival shows and so he knew
(parawaph 1) how to make a snow cave. He found a safe place to build his cave and
2 a more direct way to get somewhere (paraaraph 2) made a huge pile of snow with his skis. Then, he made a tunnel into the
snow and dug out a hole to sit in. He covered the bottom with fallen pine
branches and lay down inside. Whenever he was thirsty, he left the cave
3 to ld everybody there was an emergency (paraaraph 2)
and drank water from a nearby stream. Then he returned to his cave and
waited to be found.
4 a sma ll river (paraaraph 3) 4 Rescue came two days later in the form of snowmobiler Joseph
5 a path through the country (paraB'raph 4) Paul. Mr Paul was riding along a trail about six kilometres from the
resort when he spotted Nicholas's snow cave. He got off his snowmobile,
6 in a position where the ar ms, legs and head are close to inspected the cave and found Nicholas curled up inside. After giving the
the body (paraaraph 4) _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ hungry teenager some cheese crackers and peanuts, he took Nicholas
7 a phrase meaning you aren't a llowed to go there back to the resort to be reunited with his relieved parents.
(paraaraph 5) 5 A warden at Sugarloaf confirmed that two or three groups of skiers
go missing on the mountain each year. Like Nicholas, they are usually
8 survive (paraaraph 5) _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __
found in areas that are out of bounds. However, few of the rescued skiers
are in such good shape because they lack his knowledge of survival skills.

Tragically, some of them do not make it through the night.
a R e ad the article. Comple t e it w ith the miss ing
sente nces.
A When American journalist Kathryn Schulz was 29, she
decided to get a tattoo
B Since then, Ms Schulz has found two ways of dealing with her
C Apart from these four components, Ms Schulz also felt pain
D Despite not having the effect that she had intended, Ms
Schulz's tattoo has served to remind her of something else
E Ms Schulz experienced all four components of regret that
F Ms Schulz's tattoo is a compass
A. Unfortunately, she regretted getting it as soon as she left
the tattoo shop. Until then, she had been proud of leading a
b Rea d the whole text a g a in a nd m ark the s entences life without regrets. She had gone through life working on the
T (true) o r F (fals e). principle that you should always look forward and never look back.
1 K a th ry n Schulz h a d h ad no r eg re ts until sh e But that night, she remembers feeling regret for the very first time.
go t a t a ttoo. _ . The first one was denial and she spent the first few

2 T h e fi rst em o tio n Ms Schul z fe lt th a t night hours saying to herself, 'Make it go away!' The second was a
was a kind o f confus io n . feeling of bewilderment in which she kept on asking herself, 'How
3 By the time s h e go t h o m e, her w ris t h a d could I have done that?' The third was a desire to punish herself,
s to pped hurting. something along the lines of 'I could kick myself'. The fourth is
something that psychologists call perseveration. This is the habit
4 M s Schulz isn 't the only A m e ri can w h o regr e ts
of focussing obsessively and repeatedly on the exact same thing.
h aving a ta ttoo.
A person who is feeling regret has the first three components
5 In Ms Schulz 's o pinio n , regre t usu a ll y
going around in their head again and again.
di sa ppea rs over time. 3
_ ; not only the physical pain of her tattooed wrist, but
6 W h e n Ms Schul z sh ows people h er t attoo,
the emotional pain of knowing that she had done something
they a re usu a lly h o rrifie d . incredibly stupid.
7 Ms Schultz wa nte d a ta ttoo t h a t re minde d h e r 4
. The first is to take comfort in the fact that she is not
of the pl aces s he travelle d to. alone. Figures show that around 17% of Americans regret getting
8 S h e thinks regre t s teach us to acce pt o ur mist a kes. tattoos at some point in their lives. The second is to learn to laugh
c L ook a t the highlighted w o rd s a nd phrases in the t ext at herself. Humour and black humour play a fundamental role in
a nd try t o work o ut their m eaning. The n matc h the m to helping us come to terms with our regret. Apart from that, Ms
d e finitio n s 1-10. Schulz recognizes the value of sitting back and waiting for the pain
of regret to go away. Time heals all wounds as the saying goes, and
1 h a ppe nin g m a ny times in the case of regret this is most certainly true.
2 a re fu sa l to accept that som e thing unpleasant has 5
_ . Most people who see it are disappointed, because
h a ppe ned they don't think it is that bad; the problem is that she doesn't
3 w ith a mist a ke w hic h m ea ns t h a t it is not perfect like it. She got the tattoo when she was off travelling and she
was worried that she would forget some of the lessons that she
4 h a ppe ning a t exactly the sa m e time as som ething e lse had learnt during that time. It is a lesson that she wants to share
with other people. For her, the compass represented the two
5 purposes or aims ideas in one image.
_ . It reminds her how important it is to keep on exploring,
6 thinking t oo much ab o ut o n e pa rti c ul a r th in g
and simultaneously how important it is to know where you're
heading in life. Ms Schulz believes that if we have goals and dreams
7 the impo rta nce of som e thin g
and if we love people, we should feel pain when things go wrong.
8 acce pt som ethin g unpleasa nt o r difficult
In her view, we need to learn to love the Aawed things that we
create and to be able to forgive ourselves for creating them. Ms
9 confusio n a nd s u r prise
Schulz says that her experience has taught her that regret doesn't
10 a basic gen e r a l idea exist to remind us that we did badly; instead it is there to remind
us that we know that we can do better.

ing about... waste

Q t h e right adverbs in the min i d ialogues.
1 A How do y o u recycle your o rganic waste?
B We don't. Ideally I Obviously /~ it's
impossib le to do that w here we live.

2 A Wh o's in cha rge of emptying t he bins in your house?

B Amazing ly I Gradually I Sadly, my teenage son always
t akes t he r ub bish out.

3 A How do yo u dispose of old electrical devices?

B Actually I Eventually I Unfortunately, it's not usually Each year, Amer icans t hrow away about 250 million tons of garbage.
a p roblem because I rarely buy new ones. That 's roughly two kilos per person per day, most of which ends up
in a landfill site. 1 _ As well as being an eyesore, landfills create
4 A What sort o f things do you recycle?
environmental damage and emit harmful greenhouse gases, which
B Amazing ly I Apparently I Basically, we try to recycle
have been shown to contribute to climate change. These concerns
a s much a s w e can. have prompted San Fra ncisco and a handful of other cities to aim for
5 A Can you see any problems with recycling? a once-u nthinkable goal: zero waste.
In 2009, San Fra ncisco became the first city in the coun try to
B Actually I Anyway I Obviously, you need four different
require that residents and businesses alike separate from their tras h
bins in the kitchen, but apart from that, it's easy.
biodegradable items , like food scraps, and re cyclable goods, like
6 A What hap pened to that beautiful old vase you had? paper, metals, and plastic, into separate bins. And that has led to a
B Generally I Sadly I Strangely it broke, so we had t o big reduction in th e amount of garbage headed to the landfill. The
city's new laws have hel ped to keep 80% of its waste away from
throw it away.
landfills, when the nati onal average is 35%. However, the city mayor,
7 A Have t hey come to empty the recycling bins yet? Ed Lee, wants to go even further. 2 _
B No, t hey haven't. They always come on Mondays, but San Francisco's 80-year-old private garbage company has recent ly
basically I in f act I strangely they haven't been today. invented a new name for itse lf: Recology. 3 _ This can be used to
make a substance called compost, which can be added to soil to
help plants grow. So, Reco logy set about bui lding a new composting
2 READING facility on an enormous complex to the northeast of Sa n Francisco.
Here they turn al l of the city's organic waste into ri ch compost that
a Read the article about the zero waste policy in San is used by some of the nation's best vineyards. In the rest of the
Fra ncisco. Complete it with the missing sentences. co untry, where co mposting is a rarity, 97% of food waste is disposed
T here is one sentence you do not need to use. of in landfills.
Surprisingly, it isn't only food that residents are told to put into
A Then there is the question of penalties.
thei r compost bins; they are encouraged to put in all sorts of other
B When rec ycling was f irst introduced , it was discovered that garbage as well. This includes packaging where meat has been sold,
the largest remaining kind of trash was leftover food. food wrappings, paper napkins, tissues, used paper plates, and even
C All kinds of trash can be fou nd in t hese places from broken milk cartons. In the right conditions, paper will biodegrade in two to
toys to unwanted CDs, and a lot of items that cou ld have four weeks. Com post bins provide these cond itions because t hey are
warm and moist. _ However, Ed Lee has found a solution to this
been recyc led.
problem, too: he has ba nned th em from the city.
D One of the few things that people are warned against putting Not al l Sa n Franciscans are enthusiastic about Ed Lee's recycling
here are plastic bags, which are not biodegradable at all. policy because they say it is costing them more. Since last year,
E He wants the city to achieve 100% zero waste. residents have had to pay for the ir recyc ling and com post bins, as
F The most commonly recycled items are glass bottles . well as the ir trash bins. _ Those who refuse to sort their garbage
can face fines ranging from $100 to $1 ,000. Tea ms of workers
Glossary from the c ity go round knock ing on doors of residents who, wi t hout
garbage, trash AmE fo r ru bb ish
realizi ng it, have had their garbage cans inspected by aud itors early
in the morn ing. The idea is to educate people on composting and
b Look at the highlighted words and phrases. What do
recyc ling and answer any questions they may have. So far, no fines
you t hink they m ean? Use your dictionary to look up have been imposed and only warnings have been given out. And city
th eir mea ning and pronunci atio n. offic ials say that th e more people know about zero waste, t he keener
t hey are to support the policy.
Music expresses that which cannot be put into words and that which cannot remain silent.
Victor Hugo, poet, novelist, and dramatist

a R ead the art icle quick ly an d an swer the quest ions.
l W hat danger does t he article refer to?
2 Who is affected by t he p ro blem ?
b R ead the article aga in an d ma rk t he senten ces
T (true) o r F (false).
Twe nty-two yea rs ago as I
1 T he w riter's m oth er didn't wa nt her to go left the house to go to see
to t he concert. _I_ M otorhea d - known at t he
2 T he mu sic at the concert was louder t han t ime as 'the loudest band in
the sound of a jet plan e tak ing off the world ' - my mother's words fol lowed me out of th e door: 'You'll ruin yo ur
hearing one day!' At the time, I ro lled my eyes dramatica lly, and proceeded to
3 After the concert, t he wr iter had no
assault my ears with 140 decibels of noise, w hich I now know is ten decibels
symptoms of hear ing da m age.
above the sound of a jet plane taking off. That nig ht, I left t he venue with my
4 T he w riter had problems w ith her hearin g ears ringing and it took more tha n a week for the ringing to diminish. But after
at work, but not at home. that, I thought no more of it.
5 T he w riter pretended that she could hear That is, unt il I was in my mid-20s. I was working in a busy store with
what a person at t he party was say in g. background noise from shoppers and music, and I started finding it difficult to
6 Despite her problems, the wr iter ca n still hear w hat customers were saying. At home, my husband began to notice t hat
hea r sounds at the bo ttom range of the scale. I was eit her mishearing or not hearing things at all. O n one occasion when we
were at a noisy party I had no idea what someone was saying to me, but I was
7 T he doctors told her that her hearing would
nodding and smiling as if I understood. Afterwards, my husband informed me
event ually recover.
that th e person had been telling me that her dog had just died. Needless to
8 Now the w riter wea rs a dev ice in one ear say, I was extrem ely embarrassed. The resu lt of t his episode was that I we nt to
to help her hear better. see my GP to have my hearing checked.
9 According to the w riter, m ost people don 't The news was not good. I had hearing loss of 50 per cent. It affected the
take the da ngers of hearing loss seriously. top range of my hearing, which meant that any high-pitched noises, speech,
phones, and day-to-day sounds were gone. I also had tinnitus, which was
c Look at the highlighted words and phrases causing an infuriating ring ing in my ears. The doctors explained t hat years of
in the text and try to work out their m eaning. listening to loud music had caused the tiny sensory hair cells in the inner ear
T h en m atch to d efi n itio n s 1-8. to become irreversibly flattened - meaning I would never hear properly again.
1 obvio usly And unless I protected my ears, my hearing would deteriorate even more.
So it turns out that my mother was rig ht and I have, indeed, ru ined my
2 showed annoya nce at som ething that was said
hearing. Today, I wear a pair of hearing aids that are quite discreet but still
definitely very uncool. But according to th e Worl d Health Org anization, I am
3 not fas hio nable not alone. They say that around four million Britons risk serious damage to
4 affect your senses in a way th at is very unpleasa nt their ears by exposure to loud music. Hours spent listening to music on M P3
or uncom forta ble playe rs and at concerts are to blame.
5 very annoying There are so many things that can be done to protect our hearing an d it is
often a case of 'it'll never happen to me' or thinki ng t hat 'only old people go
6 in the end we di scover
deaf'. However, in our modern life, where most people spend half their time
7 sounds that you can hea r, but you a re not
p lugged into a music device, it is very likely that it may, indeed, happen to you.
listenin g to
8 become worse
2 READING b Read the text again and choose the right
a Read the text quickly and a nswer the questions.
I Arguments o n the internet occur most
I What is the problem w ith online arguments?
frequently when someone .. .
2 What does Professor Markman think is the solution?
a expresses an opinion in the wrong way.
b has a negative opinion about a website.
c disagrees with a comment about an article.
2 According to Professor Markman, arguments
Internet rage: o n line are more aggressive than face -to-face
a new trend? arguments because the commenter. ..
a lives in a different town or country.
b doesn't disclose their identity.
Until now, people have usually carried c is experienced in commenting on articles.
out their arguments face-to-face. 3 Professor Markman th inks that on line
A disagreement occurs and each side arguments have no value because people
wants to make his o r her views known. tend to ...
But the internet has changed all this.
a spend too long reading other people's views.
Today, more and more people are
b make too many mistakes in their comments.
getting involved in arguments online.
c ignore other people's opinions.
M any of these take place in the comments section fol lowing on from
4 In Professor Markman 's view, an o nline
articles on news websites. The tone of some of the posts on these
threads can be extremely agg ressive. So why is everyone so angry on
argument usually res ults in the participants ...
the internet? a fee ling angry.
Art Markman, a professor of psychology at the University of Texas, b avoiding a particular website.
has an explanation for this . Firstly, he points out that the people who c writing fewer comments in the future.
post these comments are anonymous. N obody knows their real name 5 Professor Markman believes that news
or who they are, w hich means that they do not have to explain th eir websites should ...
actions. Secondly, the commenter and the person who is the target of a stop allowing people to comment on their
their anger are not actua lly in the same room. The distance between articles.
th em makes the commenter lose his inhibitions and so he becomes b monitor comment threads more carefu lly.
mo re offensive. Thirdly, it is much easier to be nasty in writing th an in c prohibit certain people from posting
speech, according to Professor Markman. comments.
Although Professor M arkman believes in self-expression, he
rega rd s on line arguments as a complete waste of time. He says that c Look at the highlighted words and phrases
the whole point of an argument is to tr y to persuade someone else to in the text and t ry to work out their m eaning.
agree w ith you. In order to do thi s, the people involved have to listen T hen use them to complete the sentences.
to each other. This sort of interaction is lacking on the internet, says I She had a particularly nasty customer last
Professor M arkman. Exchanges o n comment threads do not happen week, who made her cry.
in rea l time and so people have longer to focus on their opinion and 2 I was the of a lot of criticism
write lengthy monologues to justify themselves. In the process, they after the article I wrote last week.
become even more convinced that they are right, and they stop
3 Since he retired, he has been _ _ _ _ __
listening to oth er people. In the end, there is a complete absence
local politics.
of communication and the only thing they have achieved is to work
4 When he was a child he used to get into a
themselves up into a rage.
______ when he didn't get what he
So, what is the solution? Professor Markman does not think that
com ment t hreads should be banned, but he does think that controls
shou ld be stricter. In his view, it is the news o utlets th emse lves who 5 I fo und your comment about my friend's
sho uld be responsible for the content of the thread. 'If, on a website, appeara nce extremely _ _ _ _ __
comments are left up that are making personal attacks in the nastiest 6 T he police will any vehicles
way, you're sending the message t hat this is acceptable human which are illegally parked.
behavio ur', he says. Professor M arkman wou ld like site administrators 7 I feel there is something m my
to remove the offend ing remarks from the comme nt thread. ' Having life.
a conversation with someone you don't agree with is a skill,' he says. 8 Internet are often dominated
Unfortunat ely, it seems to be a skill th at some commenters are not by a small number of angry people.
fam iliar with .

a Read the article quickly and choose the
right answer.
How to spot a liar
What kind of clues does the article say can enable
us to spot a Iiar?
People tell us lies every single day. Some of these lies are white lies,
a verbal clues told to protect our social dignity or to keep a secret which needs
b non-verbal clues to be kept. But others are more dangerous and can cause serious
c both verbal and non-verbal clues problems. According to Pamela Meyer in her best-selling book
Liespotters, most of us only realize that someone is lying to us 54%
b Read the article again and mark the sentences
of the time. In her book, Ms Meyer explains the patterns used to
T (true) or F (false).
recognize deception by liespotters like herself.
1 White lies are less serious than other lies. Ms Meyer starts by disproving some of the myths about liars
2 Ordinary people are conscious of and their body language. For example, most people believe that
just over half of the lies they are told. liars tend to move around and fidget a lot when they are not telling
3 People who are lying cannot keep still. the truth. In fact, people tend to freeze their upper bodies when
4 Liars are incapable of maintaining they are lying, she says. Another misconception is that liars will
eye contact. not look a person in the eye. According to Ms Meyer, they maintain
5 It is easy to smile, even when you eye contact a little too much because they have already heard
don't fee l like it. about the myth. In general, liars are very good actors but one thing
that can give them away is their smile.
6 You ca n detect a real smi le because
ln her book, Ms Meyer explains how it is possible to detect a
of the lines around the mouth.
fake smile. Smiling is a conscious action, she says, and anybody
7 People will know that you are lying if can do it just by contracting the muscles in their cheeks. The secret
you shake your head when you say yes. to a real smile lies in the eyes. We have some lines at the outer
8 Liars never shrug their shoulders when corner of our eyes called crow's feet, which appear when we give a
they are telling you a story. genuine smile. It is impossible to consciously contract the muscles
9 People only use one side of their face around the eyes to produce these lines. This means that a smile
to show contempt. which doesn't reach the eyes is not real.
10 As soon as you spot a person making one
of the signs, you know that they are lying.
c Look at the highlighted words and phrases
in the text and try to work out their meaning.
Then use them to complete the sentences.
l It is a popular that we
only use 103 of our brains.
2 I you won't be going to
the party now that you know your ex-wife will
be there. Further signs that give liars away, according to Ms Meyer,
3 She lit a cand le to try to _ _ _ _ _ _ __ are differences between their words and their actions. Someone
who shakes their head when they are saying 'yes' is lying, as is a
the smell of smoke in the room .
person who shrugs their shoulders when they are trying to tell
4 That watch must be a _______ __
a convincing story. Facial expressions are another clue. Liars are
You can't get a Rolex for that price!
experts at faki ng expressions for long periods of time in order to
5 I sometimes tell my wife _ _ _ _ __ _ __ mask what they really feel. Often, the emotion they are trying
to avoid arguments. to hide suddenly appears on their face for a second. Ms Meyer
6 Little chi ldren tend to _ _ _ __ _ __ identifies the worst of these emotions as contempt: a feeling that
Sometimes, they just can't keep still. a person is without value. Contempt is shown by pulling one
7 We' ll soon know if those boys broke the corner of the lips up and in.
window or not . Their guilty faces will Ms Meyer warns us, however, that we shouldn't presume that
somebody is lying just because we have seen one of the signs. But
8 They are exa minin g the document to see if it we should be suspicious when we see many of the signs together.
IS _ __ _ _ _ _ __ When we spot that we're being lied to, our next job is to find out
the truth , and that requires completely different skills.

No-one truly knows a nation until one has been inside its jails.

1 VOCABULARY crime and punishment d ~the correct word.

1 A man has been cauBht /~n connection with the
robbery at the bank yest~
a Order the letters to make words for crimes.
1 gbrryual buralary 2 lt took the jury two weeks to reach their punishment/
2 jkihigcan verdict of'Not gui lty'.
3 gsunimlgg 3 The victim's husband has been charged/ committed with
4 mtrisrero the murder of his wife.
.)lsivdnaam 4 The criminal will appear in court /judge next week.
5 Police are investigatina /questioning the kidnapping
6 rudaf
of a millionaire's son in Los Angeles.
7 bbrriey
6 The judge acquitted/ sentenced the accused man because
8 drmeur there was no evidence.
b Complete the chart. 7 The jury/ witnesses who had seen the burglary reported it
to the police.
Crime l Criminal ] Verb 8 He got a €3 00 fine/ sentence for parking illegally.
kidnapping kidnapper to kidnap
blackmailer 2 READING
to sell drugs a Read the article and answer the questions with the
mugging paragraph letter.
rapist In which technique ...
1 does the victim put himself in danger by
to steal
downloading files from the internet?
robbery 2 is the victim tricked into replying to an email?
stalker 3 does the thieflook through the victim's things
with his own hands?
to hack
4 is the victim tricked into making a phone call?
5 is the thief in control of the victim's electronic device?
c Complete the sentences with the correct form of
a word from a or b. 6 does the thief speak to the victim personally?

1 The kidnapper took the child while she was b Look at the highlighted words and phrases in the text and
playing outside her house. try to work out their meaning. Then use them to complete
the sentences.
2 Fortunately there were no customers in the bank
when the happened. 1 Please your name and email address.
3 The ______ followed the actress everywhere 2 I have your mobile number, but I don't have
she went. your _ _ _ _ _ _ __
4 They were trying to electronic goods 3 You can _ __ _ _ __ _ any of these items at our
into the country, but they were caught at customs. online store.
5 The Mayor accepted a in exchange 4 lf you room service, please press 1.
for allowing the company to build on that land. 5 Remember to use a shredder when you
6 Two men my friend at knifepoint _ _ __ _ _ _ _ any envelopes or letters that contain
yesterday. They took all her money. your personal information.
7 Someone managed to into her 6 With digital TV, you hundreds of
computer and find her personal details. different channels.
8 A broke into my house while [was 7 The police have asked for more time to
away and stole my laptop. - - - - - - - - evidence.
8 Tomorrow I'm going to my

wardrobe and throw away all my old clothes .
UNIT 1porr BLefler Wrifing
There are various types of letters, such as:
• letters of application • letters of complaint • letters to the editor etc.
The type of letter you should write depends on the reason for writing (i.e. to give
your news, to invite somebody to a party, etc to make a complaint, to apply for a job.
etc). Depending on the rubric. you may beasked 10 write a letter for more thanone
reason (i.e. 10 give your news and ask for advice.) The most common reasons for
writing a letter are:
• giving/asking about news • congratulating someone
• giving/asking for advice • inviting someone
• giving/asking for information • accepting/refusing an invitation
• apologising for something • making suggestions etc
• thanking someone

1 Read theextracts (A-F) and decide "hat typeof letter each is from (1 -6),
Which key words helped J OU decide'? Underline them. 2 The paragraphs in
the letterbelow arc in
A I really hope you can come [OJ I received your leaflet in the post. I am vel)'
interested in the course and would be grateful if
I jumbled order, Put
them into the correct
to my party. I'm sure we'll
have a wonderful time. you cou~e some more i~~rmatio~. . J order, then identify
the type of letter,
[]] I'm writing to ask vou what you E I have enclosed my CV. I would
think I sho~uld do ab~ut Robert.' I'd be grateful ifyou could consider
A Unfortunately. I won't

-- --
really like your advice ashe's been ...
I'm having a fantastic time on holiday. I wentJ
my application. I look forward to
hearing fromvou.
' ----
F I am writing to complain
be able to come asI'll be at
a seminar in Berlin that
week. It's a pity I'll miss
sailing yesterday and I'mgoing to take part in a about the dishwasherwhich your big day, but I promise
diving competition this afte rnoon. I can't wait! I purch ased from your to make it up to you,
_____ ~_ .. company last Monday,
'----'--'---- ---'--
IT:CJ lcttcr of application ITO letter asking for information B An)'\vay, thanks again
[II] leiter giving news GO letter of complaint for the invitation. 1
rn:=J letter of invitation []I] letter asking for advice \vish you both all the
best for the future.
All letters should include thefollowing: Margaret
a) an appropriate greeting (e.g. Dear Sir/Madam, Dear Aunt Claire, Dear Mrs Baker, etc); -~---'--
b) an introduction. in which you write your opening remarks (e.g. Hi! Howareyou?) and
reason(s) for writing (e.g. I'mjust writing to congratulate you onpassing your exams, C Dear Rachel.
I'mwriting toapologise for ... , We were thrilled to hearthat n. , f was sorry to hear.., etc);
I'mwriting to thankyou
c) a main body. in which you write about the specific topics of the letter in detail;
d) a conclusion, in which you write your closing remarks (e.g. Please forgive me - It very much for the invitation
won't happen agaIn, I promise; Looking forward to seeing you .,,1, Please write soon, to your wedding. I'm really
Take eate/, canl
wait to hear from rou,l'dbetlllr sign off now, 11Iafs all tor noWj ; and happy the Iwo of you are
e) an appropriate ending (e.g. Yours faithfulfy + your full name, Lars of love + your first finally tying the knot.

Unit 1 Pori BLeiler Wriling

• address & date
The writing style you should use (i.e. informal, formal or seml-tormal). i.e. youraddress in the top right-
depends on who you are writing to. More specifically: hand corner, followed by the date
• when you are writing to someone you know well (l.e. a close relative, • greeting
your bestfriend, etc.) you should use informal style. l.e. Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms+ person's
surname (e.g. Dear Mrs Marcus)
• when you are writing to someone you do not know, orto someone who
is in authority (Le. the manager of a hotel, a doctor, etc) you should use • semi-formal language
formal style. • ending
• when you are writ ing 10 someone you do not know very well , or (e.g. Regards/Best wishes/etc +
someone you want to bepolite and respectful to (i.e. a friend's parents, yourfirst name or full name)
yourteacher, etc) you should use semi-formal style.
(See Appendix II for examples of each style.)

CHARACTERISTICS OF: 3 Mark the phra ses as F (for

Formal) or I (for Informal).
I would also appreciate
• address & dale
i.e. your address in the lop, right-hand corner, followed bythe date.
some information about ...
2 Well, I must go now ...
• greeting
(e.g. DearJohn, Dear Mum, etc.)
3 Please accept my sincere
• Informal language
(e.g. I've been meaning to write to you tor ages; Don't worry; Bythe way;
4 You are cordially invited
It was a piece of cake; 1'1/ pick you up; We can give it a try, etc) to attend ...
5 I amwriting in response
• ending
(e.g. Yours/Love/Best wishes!Regards/etc + your first name) to your advertisement ...
6 Thanks for the invitation
to your dinner party ...
7 I am writing to express my
• address & date strong dissatisfaction with ..............
l.e. your address as well as the recipient's address. Your address in the
8 I look forward to meeting
top, right-hand corner, followed by the date. The recipient's position,
the name and address of the company, organisation, etc on the left- you in person
hand side. 9 Just a quick note to tell
• greeting (e.g. Dear Mrs Davis - when you know the person's name - you ...
Dear Sir/Madam - when you do not knowtheperson's name) 10 I amwriting to bring to
• formal language (e.g. I am writing with regard to your advertisement; I your attention the ...
would appreciate a reply at yourearliest convenience; The product II Please do not hesitate to
which was delivered, proved to be faulty; etc) contact me ...
• ending (e.g. Yours sincerely/ faithfully + yourfull name) 12 I'm so sorry to hear you're
having problems with ...
* Note: when you begin with Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms Marcus, you should end 13 Write back soon ...
with Yours sincerely + your full name. When you begin with
Dear Sir/Madam, you should end with Yours faithfully + yourfull
14 We regret to inform you
name. that ...
15 I won't take no for an
answer ...
Unit 1 PorI BleilerWriting

4 Read the situation belowand answer the questions that follow. 6) played a big parI !
was very important
This is your last year at school and you are unsure of what course to take at
7) making sure / ensuring
university. You have decided to write a letter to , asking for advice.
8) occasion / whole thing
9) went so well / was such a success
a) What style should ) 'OU use if JOu are writing to: Aa friend? 8 your
10) tell you how much I appreciate I
former teacher? C a careersadvisor?
thank you enough for
b) First match the beginnings and endings and then say which of
the people in part a) each letter is addressed to. Dear Gavin, 0
I) 10
2) for
3) with
1 Dear Karen, 4) for
Hi! How are you? I'm writing because I've no idea which course to take at the end-of-term party.
university next year. I really need your advice!
5) .
2 Dear Mrs Arnold, . 6) .
I hope thisletter findsyou well., am writing to askyou forsome adviceabout in 7) .
which course to take at university nextyear. --'''15=:;=::::''~ that the 8) .
3 Dear Sir/Madam , 9) .
I am Writing to enquire whether you can advise me on which course to apply I can't Ip) .
for next year at university. . all your hard work.

Dear Mr Conway, G
1) to
2) for
3) with
4) for
the end-of-term party.
5) .
6) .
in 7) .
that the 8) .
9) .
I can't 10) .
5 a) Read the pairs ofexpressions 0 -10) and the letters wh ich follow, ................ .
all vour hard work.
then choose the most suitable expression 10 complete each gap. Best wishes,
Beck)' Jones
1) Hi - just a quick note / I am writing
2) thank you very much / say thanks a lot
3) all your help / your kind assistance b) which letter is inform al, and
4) getting ready I preparations which letter is semi-fo rmal?
5) Your contribution / What you did What type of letter are the)'?
Unit 1 PorI BLeiler Writing

6 Match the beginnings to the endings, then identifywhat type oftetter 7 Read the rubr ics below and
each pair is from. Finally, saywhether each pair has been written in answer the questions.
formal or informal style.
A You have seen an
advertis ement in the local
newspa per for a teaching job.
' :1. Write a letter to the
headmaster of the school,
1 I'm writing to tell you my wonderful news ,..
II applying for the job .

B A friend you haven't seen for

2 ! would. greatly appreciate it if you could provide me with some months is getting married in
information regarding .., the summ er and has invited
you to the wedding. Write a
letter acce pting the invitation.
3 Thanks alotforyour invitation. We'd loveto come
C You have just returned from a
trip to South America. Write a
4 J can't tell you how sorry I am that I ruined ...
I letter to a friend telling him/her
all about it.
5 I am writing to draw your attention to the terrible treatment I received
D You are the secretary of a

::::-:,~~~ ~~=====::=:::::;1
languag e school and have
from ";' .... received a letter from someone
6 I am writing to apply for the post of music teacher as advertised in ... interested in learning French.
Write a letter in reply, informing
the person about the courses
offered at your school.

E You recently boug ht a box of

yo ur favourite breakfast cereal.
On opening it, you found that
the box was half empty and the
A Once again, I'dlike to say how very sony I am about... remai ning co ntents were no
longer fresh. Write a letter to the
manager of the cereal company
B 1 enclose my CV and would be glad to attend an interview at your com plaining about it.
earliest convenience.
F Your cousin has recently wo n
first prize in a short story
C Well, that's all for now, Write back and tell me what you've been up to, com petitio n. Write a letter
congratulating them on their
o let meknow if you wantus to bring anything to the party. See you on
the big day! I) What type of letter should you write
foreach rubric?
E I look forwardto receiving the information and would be grateful jf you 2) Who is going to read your letter?
could reply as soon as possible.
3) What style should you use in each
receive your letter?
F 1insist on a written apology. I trust this matter will ..I) Howwould you begin and end each
immediate attention. letter?
5) Can yousuggest appropriate opening
and closing remarks for each letter?
UNIT 2Informollellers
1m 1 Read questions I to 3, then listen to the cassette and choose the correct
answers. Finally, use your answers to talk about Monique's letter.
1 Who is Monique writing to? 2 What is her main reason for writing'!
Paragraph 1
A a complete stranger A to tell Jackie some good news
B someone she knows well B to apologise for not writing sooner opening remorks/ rsosontsl
for writing
3 Which of these statements are true'! Tick (v").
In her letter to Jackie, Monique ...
A mentions her future plans D0 complains about Jackie's last letter D Paragraphs 2 • 3 • 4 *
B invites Jackie to visit her 0 E asks Jackie (0 reply soon D development of the
C promises to write soon D F sends her regards to Jackie's parents 0 subjectlsl

Informal letters aresent to people you know well (e.g. friends, relatives, etc) about Final Parag raph
yourrecent news, personal problems, information you need, etc. They are written in
an informal style with a chatty, personal tone. closing remarks
• An informal letter should consist of:
a) an informal greeting (Dear Ken/Aunt Joan/etc); • The number of main body
paragraphs may vary,
b) an introduction in which you write your opening remarks (Le. asking about your
depending on the rubric.
friend's health, etc) and mention your reason for writing
e.g. Hi!How are you? I thought I'd write andlet you know that ... ;
c) a main body in which you write the main subject(s) of the letter in detail, starting
a new paragraph foreach topic;
d) a conclusion in which you write your closing remarks ( •• , Li k e s
e.g. That's all my news fornow. Write back soon ... ; \:::::;/ I like living here
e) an informal ending (e.g. Lots of love/Best wishes/ate + your first name).
because ...
What I like most is
2 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions. that there is/are ...
The best thing is that
You recently moved to a big city and have decided to write to a friend from there is/are ...
your old neighbourhood. Write a letter describing life in your new city and your
feelings about the change.

I Who is going to read your letter? • heavy traffic (negative) ( •• ,D I s lik e s

2 Where is this person now? • constant noise from cars \:::.,J I hate/can't stand .
3 Where arc you now? • ugly grey buildings J can't get used to .
4 Why are you writing the letter? • plenty of sports facilities
Unfortunately, there
5 What topics shouldyour letter include? • wide choiceof things to do
is/arc ...
• huge crowds
6 Ilowwill you begin and end the
letter'! • good public transport system
• large modern shops c.g. What I like most is that
7 Which of the followi ng are positive there are lots of cafes and
aspects of life in a big city'! Which are 8 Make sentences using the prompts cmemas.
negative'! above and the phrases in the boxes on I can't stand the collstallt
• lots of cafes, cinemas, etc (positil'e) the right, as in the example. noise from the cars.


What can you do in a big city? What can't you do? Use the prompts to b) Underline the topic sentences
make sentences, as in the examples. You can use your own ideas. in the main bodyparagraphs,
- £0 for a walk in the fields - make lots of new friends then suggest other appro-
go shopping in huge do lots of different things priate ones.
shopping centres - walk homesafely at night
get around easily 4 Use the prompts to make
lOll can't gofora walk in the fields. sentences, as in the example.
rOll can go shopping in huge shopping centres.

10 Match thefeelings to the reasons, then makesentences, asintheexample.

I homesick a the city never sleeps
pleased b there's more crime in the city
3 unsafe because c there arc always new things to do
disgusted as d I miss myfriendsand myoId neighbourhood
• excited e there's rubbish everywhere
::...;.. 1 d Jfeel homesick because I miss myfriends andmyold neighbourhood. I. streets are crowded - I soon got
used to it (even though)
3 a) Read the letter and underline the correct tenses in bold. Then, • lots of things to do - heavy traffic
label the paragraphs with the headings below. makes it difficult to get around
• opening remarkslreason(s) for writing (however)
• writer's feelings about the change • plentyof sports centres -
• closing remarks • life in the new city expensive to join (although)

Dear Sharon, Para 1 e.g. Even though the streets are crowded, J
How are you? Sorry 1) I'm taklngave taken so long to opening remarks/ soon got used to it.
write, but I've been busy settling in. An)l\\'ay, [ thought rt:a.wm(.l) for
2) I'd drop/I've dropped you a line to let you know how writing
I'm getting on here.
Birmingham is a really exciting city with millions of
Para 2
things to do. There's so much tochoose from, Isometimes
find it hard to make up my mind where to go! Although I
still 3) didn't get! haven't got used to the traffic, the noise
and the huge crowds, I think it's a great city.
I likeliving here now, bul l sometimes feel homesick as
I miss lots of things about Gowrie. 4) I'll never/l don't
forget the beautiful countryside and the old stone cottages. Para 3
living inthe city means I can't gofor long wal ks bythe sea,
either. Most of all, I miss my friends - especially you, of not many shops - you can find
course! We always 5) had/were having such a great time almost everythingyou need (but)
together, 6) haven't! didn't we? • fe~ buse~ and trains - always
Well, that's all my news for now. Please write backand arnvc on tune (nevertheless)
let me know what 7)you were/you 've been up to since I Para 4
• no restaurants - a few inns that
8) heard/have heard from you last. Say "hi" to Tom and
serve delicious homemade food
joanna, too. Ipromise I'll come backand visitall ofyou as
soon as Ican.
Lots of love,
A ngela
e.g. There aren 't many shops, butyou can
findalmost el'ef}1Itingyounced
Unil 21nlorffiollellers

I . ~~
Opening remarks in informal letlersmay include:
a) questions/Wishes about recent events, the person's health, etc
ages, drop you a line, let you know, really,

Dear Bob.
b) a thank you tothe person fortheir last letter, comments about theirnews HOW are you? 1)1 apologise for the
c) an apology for a delay in writing/replying fact t"at I nuven't written fo r 2) a
d) the reason why you are writing considerable time, but I've been
• Closing remarks in informal letters may include: 3) extremely busy. Anyway, I tn~ught
e) thereason why you must end theletter I'd 4)communicate With you bTlefly
f) greetings 10 the person's family/friends to 5) inform you that I've just passed
g) wishes, a promise (e.g. to write again soon), an invitation, etc
my driving test! \
h) a request to the person to reply soon "---.. . . L. -....-......
5 Match sentences 1-8 to points a-h in the box above. can'twait to hear, lots oflove, thats all
fornow, write soon, you've been up /0
Hello - how areyou? I hope you're feeling better.
[ f ( .. '
I was sorryto hear that you aren't goingto ...
well, 6J I have no further news at
I'll write as soon as 1can and let you know about ...
present. Please 7J reply promptly - I
Please write soon and tell me all your news. 8) am anxious to learn what 9) your
Well, that's all my news. I'd better end now, because ... recent activities have been. rake care.
The reason I'm writing is to ask you if ...
10J Yours sincerely,
Give my best wishes to your parents.
Sorry I've taken so long to put pen to paper, but ... Karen

8 Suggest opening and closing

When writing friendly letters, you normally useinformal style.Informal writing remarks(or the letters below, as
is characterised bythe use of: in the example.
• everyday vocabulary (e.g. I hada great time)
congratulate a friend on passing
• colloquial expressionsjldioms (e.g. drop mea line)
his/her exams
• phrasal verbs (e.g. getan, settle in)
2 invite a friend to your birthday
• shortforms (e.g. can't, don't, I'm, I'm party
3 apologise to your friend because
6 Wh ich of the fo llowing sentences are wri tten in informal st)"le? you couldn't go to hislher birthday
I I'm writing to see how you're getting on in your new tlat. /nfonnal 4 ask your friend for advice on how to
2 I look forwardto receiving a prompt reply. lose weight
3 Give your sister a big hugfrom me.
4 What are you up to this summer? e.g, I Opening remarks:
5 We're having a fantastic time here at the camp. H4 how's everything going? I've
6 Would itbe possible foryou to attendthe club'sannual meeting next month? just heard that you passed all your
7 You'd never believe howwell I've been gettingon at school. exams. Congratulations.'
Closing remarks:
7 Some phrases in the following extracts are written in the wrong style. Well, I'd better go and do some
Read them and correct the mistakes using the words/phrases in the work.' Once again, well done.'
lists. Writesoon.

9 Corr ect the mistakes, as in the 10 Read the rubrics below. 1I0w man)' main body paragraphs would
example. each letter haw? What would each paragraph be about?

1 Congratulations k passing your

driving test! ...on... A You are about to visit a friend in another country and you are not sure
, Write and tell me how it's like in what clothes to take with you or how to get to their house.
Paris .
e.g. two IIUlin body parographs
J I still can't get used to wake up so
Paro 2 - askabout dotnes to take with you
early in the morning .
Paro 3 - askhow toget to friend's house
-I I thought I'd write and ask you 10
give me an advice .
~ I hope that everything will turn up B You have recently moved into a new house. Write a letter to your friend
all right. . describing your new house and inviting him/her to spend a weekend with
6 Sorry I haven't written from ages, you.
but I've beenbusy, .
I Write me a line and tell me allyour e Your uncle has invited you to attend his wedding in a month's time.
news . Write a letter thanking him for the invitation and asking him what you
8 I'm writing to apologise about not should buy as a wedding present.
coming to your wedding .
9 I look fo rward to hear from you
soon . D You've got two tickets for a week's crui~ i.n the M~d.iterrane~n. Writ~ a
letter to your friend, inviting him/her to JOIn you, grvmg details o~ which
10 Don't you think my news are
places you arc going to visit and suggestions as to what he/she Wi ll need
exciting? .
to take with him/her.

E Your cousin is moving to your city. He/She wants to attend the same
school as you. Write a letter to him/her, describing your school, teachers
and timetable, and mentioning extra activities the school offers.
In informal letters you usually talk
about more than one topic.
• The rubric gives you information
about the subject of the letter and Useful expressions for making suggestions
often tells you specific topics which • •
you [lust write about. - e.g. You • I think ltyoulwe should... • Howdoyoufeel about +... ing ...?
have just passedan important test or • Perhaps l/youlwe could ... • How about +... ing... ?
examination. Write a letter 2 telJ'ng a • What do yOIl think: about + • lVhy do" 'I Hyoulwe ...?
pen friend a/XJUt your success and .
... mg ....? • Wouldyou like me/us to ...?
3 describing your plans for the future.
• H'llat about +... ing...? • Would you like to... ?
• These topics will bediscussed in the
main body of your letter. You should
begin a new paragraphfor each topic.
11 Use the prompts below and expressions from the table above to make
Para 1: Opening remarks
Para 2: Tell friend about success
Para 3: Describe lans forfuture I come / dinner / my house / next Monday
Para 4: Closing remarks 2 spend / weekend / in / mountains
3 go shopping/ in / citycentre
4 visit / art gallery/ while/ be / in London

12 Look at the town map and, with a partner, suggest where and when 3 How many paragraphs should you
you could meet and what you could do there. include in the main body?
-I Which phraseswould you use to ask
e.g. A: What about meeting atthe Fairview Museum atnoon?
for advice?
B: That 's a good idea. We could admire the local art.
b) Read the letter and under-
line the phrases that l\fary
uses to ask for advice.

Dear Pam,
Sorry that J haven't written for
ages, but I've been very busy studying.
I'm writing because I'd reall y like your
advice abouta problem J have.
My frien ds and I have decided to
go away on holiday in the summer,
but I don 't have enough money. J was
13 a) Read the following rubric and answer the questions. wondering if you had any ideas
about earning some extra cash. If I
A friend of yours , who has been living in another country for some
don't save up enough money by
time, is going to visit you for a week. Write a letter suggesting what
August, J'II have to go away with
you might do tog ether and what sights you might visit.
Mum and Dad instead. Can you think
1 Where would you take your friend? of anything that would help me to
2 What is the most popular attraction in your city/town? make some money qUickly?
3 Are there any bazaars, outdoor markets, fairs, restaurants, etc which are , know that you alwa ys have lots
worth visiting? of great ideas! What would you
-I What kind of traditional dishes would you suggest your friend should try? advise me to do? Please write back as
soon as you can.
b) Use Jour answers from questions 1 to -I and appropriate
expressions to write the main body paragraphs or this letter. lots of love,


To ask for advice, you can use phrases such as:
Do you think I should ...1, Should / ... 1, What do you think I should do?
Do you have any idea about 7, I'd like to know what you think about ... GMNG AIlVlCE
Can you think of anything that ?, I was wondering ff you ... An intormalIet ter giving advice
What would you advise me to 7 etc should offer sympathy and
encouragement, aswell asspecific
advice with reasons. Each piece of
14 a) Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the advice is written in a separate
questions. paragraph.
You want to go on holiday in the summer but don't have enough • Opening remarks -
money. Write a letter to a friend asking for his/her advice about I was sorry to hear that ...
ways to earn extra money. Cheer up/Don't worry too much.
Don!/et n getyou down.
Why are you writingthe letter? I'monly too glad to help.
2 Who isgoing to read your letter?

16 a) Read Pam's reply and replace phrases 1-6 with phrases A·F.
• Giving advice -
If / were you/in your posmon, I'd!
u:IAJ I'd be happy OJ!] howthings go
I wouldnl ...
You should/shouldn 't n. CIID Don't let itget you down rn if / were you. I'd
ft would(nl)lmlght be a good Idea DTI Howabout CIT] Perhapsyou could also
(lor you) 10 ...
(/ think) the best thing would be Dear Mary,
(lor you) 10 ...
Why donl you ... ? Thanks very much fo r your letter, and of course 1) I'm only too glad to
Have you thought oflabout ... help. Here are a few things you can try to earn all the money you need.
(t -Ing)? First of all, 2) J think you should get a Saturday job. 3) Have you thought
Another good idea Is to ... of trying to get one in a local sho p so that you can be close to home? This
• Result - will mean that you won.'t have to travel so far on Saturdays.
This w1II/would mean that ... .4) An.other good idea is to get a job babys itting. Why don't you ask your
Then/That way ... nelghbours? My only advice is not to get ve ry young children, because they
If you do this, you would ... so that need all your attention.
you oould/would ...
~ hope my advice helps. 5) Don't give up if you can. 't fin.d ajob immediately.
• Closing remarks -
/ hope that this/my advice helps.
Wnte and let me know 6) what happens. r - 7
/ILet's hope that things gat bettar/ Yours, /
that everything tums outallright. Pam
Letme know what happens.

b) Wh at advice does Pam gin to 1\1a1)'? \\'hat other advice could

15 Match the problems to the you give to ~Ial)'? How else could )'ou start and end the letter?
advice, then make sentences.
17 Read the rubric, underline the key words, and answer the questions.
Jm I can't stop eatingjunk food
everyday. I'm overweight. Your pen friend has written you a letter askinq for advice on how to
improve his/her eating habits and get fit. Write a letter offering advice .
] I ] I haven't got any friends. I'm
lonely. 1 What isthe reason for writing? Who is going to readyour letter?
] I ] I'm very bad at Maths. I'm going 2 How many paragraphs should you include in the main body?
to fail my exam. 3 What opening and closing remarks should you write in your letter?
JIJ I haven't got much money. I can't 4 Match the advice in column A to the results in column B. Then, use
go out with my friends. appropriate expressions to make sentences, as in the example.
] I ] I argued with my friend. He! She
won't talk to me now. A B
I join a gym - exe rcise regularly a follow balanced diet, won't put
a Talk 10 your teacher. You will get 2 try not to eat so much junk food, on weight
extra help. sweets, etc b bodywon't become lazy
b Join a gym. You willlose weight. 3 eat plenty of fish, fruit and c body won't store so much sugar
c Apologise to him/her. You'J[ be vegetables and fat
friends again. 4 don't go everywhere by car/bus d soon get in shape and feel fitter
d Join a club. You will meet new
e.g. ld If I were you, I would join a gym and exercise regularly. This will mean
e Get a part-time job. You wi ll earn
some money. that you 'Il Sooll get in shape and fcel filter.

e.g, Why dOIl't you join a gym? If you do

this, you lllose weight.
18 Readthe rubric in Ex. I' again, thenwrite your letter (120-180 words).
Use the letter in Ex. 16 as a model, as well as your answers from Ex. 17.
UNIT 3formal Leiters
1!!1 1 a) Read the questions below, then listen to the beginnings and endings of
three letters and tick the correct box for each letter.

1 Why has the letter been written? Letter 1 letter 2 leiter 3

A to apply for a job . D D D
B to ask for information . D D D
C to make a complaint . D D D
b) Listen again and tick the correct boxes fo r each letter.

2 How does the letter begin? Le tter I Letter 2 Letter 3

A Dear Advertiser . D D D
B Dear Sir/Madam . D D D
C Dear Mr Will iams . D D D
3 Which of the followi ng expressions have been used
in the opening/closing remarks?
A With reference to your advertisement ... D D D
R I am writing to apply for the position .0 . D D D
C I amwriting to express my dissatisfaction ... D D D
D I look forward to hearing from you ... D D D
E I must insist on a full refund ... D D D
F Thank you in advance ... D D D
4 Howdoes the letter end?
A Yours faithfully . D D D
B Lots of love . D D D
C Yours sincerely . D D D Introduction
• ••••••••••••••••
Paragraph 1

Forrnal letters are normally sentto peoplein an official position or people you don't opening remarks!
know welt (e.g. Director of Studies, Personnel Manager, etc). They are written in a reosoorst for w riting
formal style with a polite, impersonal tone.
• You can write a formal letter to apply for a job/course, make a complaint, give/
Main Body
request official information, etc.
Paragraphs 2 ~ 3 ~ 4 •
• Aformalletter should consist of:
a) a format greeting (e.g. Dear Sir/Madam· when you do not know the person's development of subject(sJ
name; Dear Ms Green · when you know the person's name);
b) an introduction in which you write your opening remarks and mention your Conclusion
reason(s) for writing e.g. / amwriting to apply for the position of ...J;
c) a main body inwhich you write about the main subject(s) of the letter in detail, Final Paragraph
starting a new paragraph foreach topic;
closing remarks
d) a conclusion in which you writeyour closing remarks
e.g. / Iook forward to hearing from you assoon aspossible ... ; • The number of main body
e) a formal ending (Yours faithfully - when you do not know the person 's name; paragraphs may vary,
Yourssincerely · when you know the person 's name; + your full name). depending on the rubric.

Unil 3 lormollellelS

When you write a letter applying for a job or a course, you should include
the following information:
A ~ -' ~

Yours foitlifully,
A) in the opening remarks/reasonts) for writing steven Davies
• the name of the job/course, where and when you saw ~ advertised.
e.g. ... the posmon of manager advertised inyesterday's Herald.
B) in themain body paragraphs (paras 2-3-4) B Dear Headteacher, ..... _
• age, present job and/or studies (e.g. / am a nineteen-year-old university
student )
• qualifications (e.g.I have a SA in French.) Kind regards,
• experience (e.g. 1have been working asa waiter tor the fast two yeaIS.) Steve
• skills and personal qualities thai are suitable for thejob/course
e.g. I am a goodandcareful driver. I consider myself to be mature and
C) in the closing remarks
• any otherimportant information (Le. when you are available forinterview,
Yours sincerely,
where and when you can be contacted, references you can send, a
remark that you hope your application will be considered, etc) steven Davies
e.g. I will be available for fnterview in September.
I enclose references from myfast two employers. 6 Which of thefollowing points should
I/ook Iorward to _ng from you. you include in your letter? Tick (I)
You usually use:
the present simpleto describeskills/personal qualities
A your favourite subjects at 0
e.g. f am a patient andreliabfe person. school
the past simpleto talk about past experiences B your qualifications 0
e.g. I left schoof in 1994. f worlced for General Motors forfour years. C your present and previous 0
the present perfect to talk about recentwork/studies jobs
e.g. I have been working 10, L1YlJ lor two yeaJS . D a description ofyour 0
I haverecently finished secondaIy school.
E your personal qualities 0
2 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the F your plans for the summer 0
7 What do you thinkthe successful
You saw this advertisement in a local newspaper and have decided candidate should be?
to apply for the job.._ --J:==r :::iii A patient D artistic
~. George's Primary School is looking for a B enthusiastic E hard-working
~ng energetic and experienced schoolteac.her C athletic F fair
'D join'usinSeptember. Must be agood orqaoser 8 What experience would someone
md keen on sports. . need fo r this kind of job?
:,easeapplyinwrtting toMrs ~unter, giving detaIls
A experience with children
c( qualifications, skills and prevIous expenence ~nd
saying why you think you are suitable for theJob. B experience in public relations
Closingdate 12th May. 9 What qualifications would someone
need to apply for this job?
Write your letter of application . Do not write any addresses. A a driving licence
B a BA in Education
1 Who isgoing to readyour letter? 4 Why arc you writing this letter? C a degree in Media Studies
, Do you know this person at all? 5 How should you begin and end D a certificate in gymnastics
3 What style should you use? the letter? Choose A to C. E a diploma in interior design
Unil3 lormollellers

3 Read the Jetter and label the paragraphs with the headings below. 5 Fill in the correct form of the
Sa)' what qualifications, experience and personal qualities Steven verbs in the list.
has. no JOu think he will get thejob?
study, be a member, graduate,
• closing remarks . personal qualities • age/present joh/qualifications join, attend, award
• opening remarkslreason(s) for writing . experience
I graduated from Lancers University
in 1998 a first class degree in
Dear Mrs Hunter, Para 1 Physical Education.
With reference to your advertisement in Thursday's 2 At the moment, J .
edition of the DailyStar, I am interested in applying courses at Southfield College.
for the position of primary school teacher.
Para 2
3 After leaving high school, I .
I am 28 years old and currently teaching in Margate. I ........................ Art at the School of
have a BSc degree awarded by GlasgowUniversity in Fine Art in Paris.
1997. I completed my certificate in Education at
Preston Teacher Training College in 1998. 4 I am keen on sports. I .
Para 3 Barton football club three months
I have been working for Margate Education
Department since 1999. Owing this lime, I have
enjoyed teaching a variety of subjects , including 5 I of the local
English, Gene ral Scie nc e and Games. orchestra, where I play the violin.
I consider myself to be punctual, hard-working and Para 4 6 I was agrade A
fair. I enjoy working with child ren and have good in Maths.
organisational skills.
I e nclose a reference from my present employer. I
would be grateful if you would consider my Para 5 FORMAL STYLE
application. I am available for intervie w any weekday Formal style is characterised by the use
morning. I look forward to hearing from you. of:
Yours sincerely, • advanced vocabulary
5fe.,;" n [)JtI;,,~ e.g. f am writing to enquire whether
m (not: I WMt t6 aSH j~
Steven Davies • formal linking words/phrases
(consequently, however, therefore,
for this reason)
4 Read the letter again and find formal expressions to match the e.g. I have worlred 8S. prl/1l8lY
school teacher forten ~
informal ones in the table, as in the example.
andtherefore have experience
working with children.
Informal Style Formal Style
• passive voice
About your adve rt . With reference toyour advertisement ... e.g. I can be contacted '"
I want to apply for . (not: You em} eontaet me ...J
J got my teachingcertificate ... • polite forms without contractions
I've had a job in e.g. I would be grateful if ""
I would appreciate ft if you
I think I'm always on time ... could...
I like working with kids ... I would like to apply ...
There's a note from my boss ... .' . l"e!llre
'not· "~ ...~
I'd like it if you hired me ... Colloquial expressions, phrasal verbs,
I'm free to talk to you ... idioms and short forms are not used in
formal style.
Drop me a line sometime ...
Unil 3fGrmnllellels

6 a) Read the letters belowand label the paragraphs with the headings.

• opening rematkslreasonts} for writing . experience, personal qualities

• closing remarks . age/qualificatiom • other ill/omlotioll

Dear Sir/Madam,
® Para 1 Dear Manager,
I am writing to apply for the position of part-time Hi! I've decided to drop you a line
shop assistant which was advertis ed in this week's reason(s) for about the job you advertised in the
edition of the Frankfurt English News. writing Frankfurt English News.
I ama I6-year-old student. In December I passed the I'm a Is-veer-old student, and my
examination for the First Certific ate in English with Para 2 English isn't bad. I got an A in the
grade A. It is my ambi tion to become a teacher of First Certificate exam! I want to be
English. Therefore , e mployme nt in an Enqlish- an English teacher, so it would be lots
language bookshop particularly appeals to me . of fun to sell English books.
Despite mylack offonnalworkexperience, I feel that I haven't worked before, but I'm sure
Para 3
I would be well-suited for the position. For the pa st I'd be good at the job. I've helped out
= twoyears I have been a volunteer helper in our school in our school library forages, and the
" library. In my school report I was described by the librarian says you can count on me
librarian as enthusiastic, dedicated and reliable. to work hard.
Since the school holidays include the monthsofJuly Para 4 I won't be doing anything in July and
and August, I will have no other conunitments and August.We've got ourschool holidays
would be available to work at any time, excluding then, so I can workany hours you like
Saturdays, for as manyhours as needed. (but not Saturdays).
I may be contacted at the above address, or by You can get in touch with me at the
Para 5
telephone on 435 1708. I look forward to receiving a above address, or give me a ring on
reply in due course. 435 1708. Let me know soon!
Yours faithfully, All the best,
Shffi I3ravn ShHi
Steffi Braun Steffi Braun

b) Compare the twe letters. Which one has an appropriate greeting 7 In which letter in Ex, 6 can you
and ending? Then, underline the phrases in Letter Awhich mean find each of these features?
the same as the phra ses in bold in Letter B. " lt ich style is more Label each point as A or B,
suitable in a formal letter applying for a job? "lty?
1 short forms
c) Read the advertisements below, \\bich job did Stem apply for? 2 passive voice
3 a friendly, personal tone
~ everyday vocabulary
.y Hard-working young assistant wanted fo r part-time work in a bookshop
during July/August. No sales experience needed, but a good 5 fo rmallinking words/phrases
understanding 01 English is essential. 6 phrasal verbs or idioms
Apply in writing to Bookworms. 7 longer, more complex
rlY Large department store seeking ambitious and experienced floor 8 advancedvocabulary
manager to work on a full time basis, Computer skills an asset.
9 colloquial expressions
For more information call J.T. Reeves at 217-3233. 10 a polite, impersonal tone
Unil3 lormollellers

8 Read the rubric, und erlin e the 9 write Jour letter of application (1 20· 180 words). Do not write any
key words, a nd answer th e addresses. Use your answers from Ex. 8 to help you. You can use the
questions. letter in Ex. 3 as a model.

You saw th is advertisement in

a local newspaper , and have
decided to apply for the job. LETTERS OF COMPLAINT

-- ---- --~
.'" Young helpE'ro:. (18 . 25) need ed in \
In a formal letter making a complaint, you may use a mild tone, for complaints
about minor problems, or a strong tone, for complaints about more serious
matters, especially when you are extremely upset or annoyed. However, the
our e;, ummf'f camp for 10 ~ 14 y~ar language you use should never berude or insulting.
olde. Ilutj es includE' helpinq wtth t • Intheopening remarks, you should stale your complaint, including
qames and ether acti\litie<;" ! details of what has happened and where/when the incident took place.
th.lper" must .:,peak Engl i":lh or \ e.g. (Mild) • f am writing in connection with .../to complain about ..• the
French and be able to work a~ any terrible behaviour/attitude/rudeness of .
time, including scme e " e m n g~ , f am writing to draw your attention to which ...
from 5th - 25th July. Apply m (Strong) • f wish to bring to your attention a problem which arose due
writing to Ben Carroll. to your staff/inefficiency " 'J
• 1am writing to express my strong dissatislaction at ...
• f wish to express my dissatisfaction/unhappiness wfth the
productJtreatmentI receNecf from ... on...
• In the main body paragraphs, you present each of the specific points you
are complaining about. You start a new paragraph foreach point and justify
these points bygiving examples/reasons.
e.g. • Although you adlertise "top quality", 1Ie" that the product1purchased
was well below the _ I expected.
• Inthe closing remarks, you should explain what you expect to happen
(e.g. to be given a refundjreplacementapoloqy/etc).
e.g. (Mild) I hope you will replace ...
1 What skills/qualifications and f feel/believe that f amentitled to a replacement/refund ...
personal qualities do you think I hope that /hIs matler can be resolved/dealt with promptly.
(Strong) f insist 00/1 demand a full refund/an immediate replacement/etc
would help you get the job?Circle.
or 1shall be forced to lake legal acfjon/the matter further.
A energetic and sociable
I hopethat I will not be forced to lake further action.
B can drive a car
C worked in a summer camp last year
D have worked as a waitress
E likeworking with children 10 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the
F good at outdoor activitiesand sport questions.
G good cook
H good organiser You recently bought a calculator, but you were given the wrong
I speak English and French model by mistake. When you complained, the shop assistant was
2 Which of the points above refer to rude to you. Write a letter to the company's complaints department,
skills, qualifications, experience or explaining the reasons for your dissatisfaction and saying what
personal qualities? action you expect the company to take.
3 Do you know the person you are I Who is going to read your letter?
writingto? 2 Do you know the personyou arc writing to?
-t What isyour reason for writing? 3 Why arc you writing this letter?
5 How shou ldyou begin and end the 4 Would you use a mild tone or a strong tone? Why?
letter? 5 What opening and closing remarkswould you write?
Unil3 lorffioilellers

11 a) Read the letter opposite,and

fill in the gaps with words/ Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to express my stro ng dissatisfaction at the Para 1
phra ses from the list. c

~_i disgraceful treatment I received at the Walford

butalso, furthermore, not :::: bra nch of Stimpson's Electronics yesterday afternoo n.
only, however, in addition to,
(1) , the product I was given was not
firstly, to makematters worse
the model I had asked for. T he new X-40 I calculator Para 2
was demonstrated to me by the sales assistant, and I
b) Read the letter again and ag ree d to bu y it. (2) , on
label the paragraphs with unpacking my purchase, I saw that. I had bee n given
these headings. the smaller X-20 I mod el instead.
- closingremarks (3) , this calculator was
Para 3
• opening remarks/reason(s) ~ mu ch cheaper than the model I requested and paid
for writing ': for. It didn't have man y of the features I need ed
• 1st complaint & examples! ~ and was much more basic than the one I was shown
rea.wm to begin with.
• 2nd complaint & examples! (4) , I was deeply offend ed by
Para 4
reasons the behaviour of the sales assistant. when I went back
- 3Td complaint & examples! to the shop to comp lain. He was (5) ..
reasons impolite, (6) unh elpful. He refused
to contact th e manager when 1asked to speak to him
about the inciden t.
c) Now answer the questions.
A~ you can imagine, 1 am extremely up sct. I must
1 Why is Mrs Adams complaining? § insist on a full refund , (7) .. Para 5

, What are her specific complaints? "0 a written apology from th e local manager, or else I
3 Docs she justify her complaints? If .3 shall be forced to take further action. I expect to
so, how does she justify them? hear fro m yOll as soo n as possible.
~ What is Mrs Adams expecting? Yours faithfully,
Tick (I ) (,,,,,,4< 114""
· A repl acement D Caroline Ad ams
• A full refund 0
-- - _I
· The calculator to be repaired D
· An apology 0 12 Read the followingextracts and saywhich of them are beginnings (8)
- What will Mrs Adams do if she is and which are endings (E). What tone has the writer used in each?
nol satisfied?
Has Mrs Adams used a mild or a o:I!J I am writing to complain about the quality of an appliance I recently
strong tone? Underline the words!
phrases that justifyyour answer.
purchasedfrom your company.
-- - --
mild tone

I [ill I demand an immediate replacement or a full refund. or I shall he

I forced to take the matter further. . .

@:D I would appreciate it if the faulty appliance could either be replaced or

repaired assoon as possible. . .

~ I am writing to inform you that I was absolutely horrified by the

rudenessof your shop assistants. .. .

Unit3 formoi lellers

13 Read the situations. and answer Opening remarks ... Closing remarks ...
the questions that folluw, as in
the examples. A Iwish to express my r feel completely cheated and
dissatisfaction with your mail- therefore demand a full refun d
J A month ago you ordered some order service. of the money paid to you.
skiing equipment from a sportsshop B I am writing to express my 1 I insist that the product be
and paid by credit card. Although disgust at the facilities and replaced or else I will be forced
you asked for it to besent by courier, service offered byyour travel to take further action.
you have received nothing. You agency. 3 Unless I receive the equipment
urgently need this equipment. C I feci r must complain about the by the end of this week, I will
misleading advertisement on have no choice but to cancel my
II You recently bought an air TV promoting your product. order.
conditioner which had been
advertised on television. On
receiving it, you discovered that it 14 Read the situation below and say:
was nothing like the product shown a) who you would address the letter of complaint tOj
in the advertisement. b) what complaints you would include in the letter; and
c) what opening and closing remarks you would write.
111 You have just come back from a
package holidaywhere you were very
disappointed by the lack of facilities You live near a secondary school. Latelyyou have been disturbed by
and poor services. noisy children who gather outside your house, playing loud music
and throwing litter into your garden.
1 Which of the following complaints
would you include in each letter?
Write full sentences. 15 Join the following complaints to their examples/reasons, using
A have already paid - equipment linking words/phrases from the list below, as in the example.
still not delivered - urgently el'en though, however, inspite of the fact, nevertheless, although, but
need it Letter I
1 The new game took fifteen minutes to load onto my computer.
The salesman said it would load instantly.
The new game took fifteen minutes to load onto my computet; even though
B contrary to advertisement - no the salesman said it would load instantly.
swimming pool rooms 2 I paid fora set of five compact discs. There were only threecompact discs
extremely small - no maid in the box.
servIce " ..
3 The advertisement said the tent waswaterproof. Rain continually dripped
into the tent.
C model not oneadvertised - huge
- ugly - old-fashioned model
~ The bicycle was brand new. The chain came off my bicycle the first time I
rode it.

5 The battery went flat after only two hours. The instructions said it lasted
2 Match the opening and closing for sixteen hours.
remarks, then say which letter of
complaint you would use them for.
Unil31orffiol lellers

16 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the 17 These paragraphs are written in
questions. the wrong style, Correct them by
using thewords in the list. Then,
You recently went for a meal at Benny's fast food restaurant, which
say which is an opening remark
is part of an international chain. Unfortunately, the service was very
slow and the food was badly cooked, so you complained to the and which is a dosingremark.
supervisor. However, he was very rude to you and insisted on your
paying for the meal. You have decided to write a letter of complaint A - asyou can imagine - afull refund
to the company's head office. Write your letter. explaining the - a written apology - J am extremely
reasons for your complaint and saying whatyou expect the company upset - l feel ]am entitled to - I
to do. look fOlWard to receiving your
prompt rep~'
1 What isyour reason for should you write'! What should
writing? the topic of each one be'! ~t,_t'
, Do you know the person you are 6 Read the advertisement and the 1) I'm sure you can guess 2) I'm
writing to? complaints in the speechbubbles. really cross. 3) I think I sho~!~ get
4) all my money back, in addttlOn. to
J Would you usc mild or strong Then, use the complaints and
5) a great big "sorry" fromthe local
language? Why? suitable linking words/phrases to
manager. 6) Write 500n.
explain the reasons why you are
of How would you begin and end
the letter?
.. HO\v many mainbody paragraphs B - complained - I am wnnng to
express . ] was served - my anger
J had to wait - my complete dissatisfaction - the
15 minutes to give my' behaviour of the supervisor
order. It took a further
20 minutes for the \ \
food to be
served. 1) Hi - r want to tell you 2) how
shocked and disgusted I was with
the meal 3) , had last night at the
local branch oj Benny's, and 4) how
reatly furious I was at 5) what the
The chips were supervisor did when I 6) said the
raw, the meat was food was horrible.
frozen in the middle
and the tomatoes
were rotten.
18 Read the rubric in Ex. 16 again.
Write Jour letter (120-180
I complained to the word s), using Jour answers
supervisor, who insisted on my from Exs. 16and 17 to helpJOu.
paying for the meal. When J refused,
You can use the Icttcr in Ex. II
he rudely told me to leave.
as a model.
e.g. ] Despite the restallrallt's claim offast Sell 'ice, ] had to wait

7 What would you expect the company to do'? (e.g. refund, dismiss the
supervisor, improve service, check on quality of food, etc) In which
paragraph would you write your demands?

UNIT 7 Describing Ploces/Buildings
m1 1 Look at the table below, then listen to the cassette and tick the
information mentioned. Finally, use the table to describe the city.

Name: B russels
0 Bue nos Aires
0 ecnn

Location: Arg entino

0 Africa
0 antcrcucc

ce ntre of the
co unt ry
0 south-east coast
0 north- ea st coast

Th ings to see
and do:
Plaza d e Ma yo 0 Notiona l Gallery 0 History Museum

Cathedral 0 Spa nish Tower 0 Coso Ro sado

Shopping: antiques fair

0 big market
0 superstore

Nightl ife: dance holts 0 cinemas 0 va riety of

restau ra nts

Comments: better In August 0 recommend it

0 too noisy

A descriptivecomposition about a place or building should consist of:

a) an introduction in whichyou give thename and location of the place or building
and/or the reason forchoosing it;
b) a main body in which you describe the main aspects of the place or building in Introduction
detail - for example, when you describe a place you should describe what you •••••• • ••••••••••
can seeand do there; when you describe a building you should describe its Paragraph 1
exterior and interior, as well as give historical facts about it;
c) a conclusion which includes your comments/feelings and/or a recommendation. name, location and/or
reaso n for choosing it
Descriptions of places or build ings can be found in tourist magazines, travel brochures,
stories, letters. etc. The style you use depends on the situation and the intended
reader. For example, in an article for a magazine you should use semi-formal style and
a polite, respectful tone. You normally use present tenses to describe a place/ Paragraphs 2 - 4 ·
building. You use past tenses to write about the historical facts.
main aspects in detail
IPlace: things to see/do,
2 Read the ruhric and underline the key words, then answer the questions. shopping, nightlife,
restaurants, etc
You have seen an advertisement in an international travel maqazine inviting Building: historical facts,
readers to send in articles about a town they have visited. Write your artic le exterior, interior!
describing a town, including things to see and do as well as information about
the town's shops and nightlife. Conclusion
• ••••••••••••••••
I What type of writing is this?Who isgoing to read this? Areyougoing to usechatty Final Paragraph
language/abbreviations/colloquial phrases? Why (not)? comments/ feelings and/or
, Which of the following points mlist you include? Tick (I). recommendation
A main sights D 0 entertainment D .. The number of main
body paragraphs may
B population and climate D E train schedules 0 vary depending on the
C shops D F restaurants D rubric.
Unil 7 DescribingPlaces/Buildings

b) Use the vocabulary from part a) and the phrases below to talk
about Jour town, as in the example.
• The most fascinating/livelyl • The town centre has ...
interesting/etc part ofthe city is; • The nightlife in ... is exciting,
• The most famous attraction is ... with ...
• There isplentyof ... • The town is well-known for its ...

e.g. The most interestingpart of the city is the open -air market.
The most famous attraction isthe botanical gardens.

5 a) Read the article and label the paragraphs with the correct
headings, then talk about Brighton.

• comments jrecommendation • nightlife • things to see and do

r P+fMSES OF LOCAllON • name, location, reason forchoosing it • shopping
Todescribe the location ofa placelbuilding,
you can use the following phrases. An Ideal Seas ide Resort by Sally Fu/lofl
- issituated/is located .. =
.2 Para 1
Brighton isalargetown on the seem-east coast ofEngland.
in (the) south/eas!/west!south-east!
north-west/etc (of .
on the soulh/east!west/north/etc

Located only an hour from London, it is a charming seaside
resort and the oerrect destination for a peaceful weekend.
coast of ... Brighton has several tourist attractions which are worth
- in the centre/heart/middle of ... Para2
visiting. Among these is the Royal Pavilion, a beautiful
Indian-style palace which was built in the early nineteenth ......................
3 look at the map, then use phrases century. Brighton's most famous attraction is the lively
Palace Pier, with its fantastic funfair and amusement
fromthe tableabove to talk about
arcades. Both young and old can have fun have while
the location ofeach town/city.
e.g. Brighton is situated 0/1 the south-
east coast of England.

admiring the spectacular view of Brighton's seafront.
There are plenty Df places togo shopping in Brighton. The
towncentre has a large modern shopping centre. There are
Para 3
'" also narrow lanesfull oflovelyantique shops that are always .....................
4 a) Match the words/phrases in bustling withtourists.
the list to the headings that The nightlife inBrighton isexciting . There are alot otmusic Para 4
follow. Can you add any and dance clubs which are extremely popular with younqer
people. The area is aiso well-known for its fashionable
ideas of your own? .. ....................
restaurants, whichoffer avariety 01 international cuisines.
museum, boutique, nightclub, Brighton is a town that has sDmething to offer everyone.
ancient theatre, open-air market, =
Para 5
= Whether you want to spend your time shopping and seeing
zoo, cafe, bazaar, temple, an 'u
= the sights, Dr simply relaxing and enjoying the fresh sea air,
gallery, restaurant, music hall, =
Brightonisthe ideal choice for afew days away from the city.
palace, botanical gardens, fair,
theatre, souvenirshop, monument,
statile, antique shop, shopping b) Underline the topic sentences in the main bod)' paragraphs.
centre, amusement arcade, multi- Suggest other appropriate topicsentences.
screen cinema, funfair
c) Read thearticle in Sa) againand match the adjectives in bold with
Things to see and do: their opposites in the Jist below. Then, makesentences using them.
Shopping: unknown, local, wide, oid-jashioned, ugly. boring: unattractive.
Xightlife: unpopular, hectic
Unit ) Describing Plnces/Buildings

To give thereader a more vivid picture ofthe placelbuilding you are describing,
you can refer 10 thesenses (i.e. sight, hearing, smell. taste and touch).
7 Use the words in brackets tojoin
the sentences below.
1 Sydney is a large and interesting city.
• Visitors can dine watching the moon rise over the mountains. (sight) It offers visitors a wide variety of
• You can hear the sound of church bells ringing.(hearing) sights to see andthings todo. (which)
• I remember the Far East with its aromas of exotic herbs and spices. (smell) 2 It is full of exotic restaurants. You
• Enjoy a cup of freshly-ground Italian coffee. {taste)
• Relax in the soothing warm waters of the Roman Baths. (Iouch)
can enjoy a meal there. (where)
3 Sydney is on the south-east coast of
Australia. It has one of the busiest
6 a) Match the pictures (A·C) to the sentences (1-3). One of the pictures harbours in the country. (located)
is not described. Which sense does each description refer to?
4 Sydneyis an ideal place for a holiday.
It has a wonderful blend of cultures
and friendly people. (with}

8 a) Fill in the blanks with the

correct adjectives.
delicious, friendly, south, live,
(l[] Stroll down the path and hear tropical, famous
1If.!,.....l!""-~1 the relaxing sound of the
leaves rustling.
fW" . ..._ (l[] Sit outside one of the many
charming cafes in the 'port
and smell the fresh sea au.
f1Il Enjoy a peaceful \valk t.hrough
L..:L-l the forest and admire the
unique colours of autumn.

b) 1\"owmake sentences about the picturewhich has not been described.

~ UNKING STRUCTURES • Join usin Rio in 1) ..

(/' !~"'j~~I:"'hlort
sentences you can use various linking structures. Study the
- east Brazil.
• No visit to Rio is complete without a
examples below: cable carride up Sugar l oaf Mountain!
• You should visit the old part of thecity. It Isfull of ancient temples. • Why not take the train up the
You should visit the old part of the city, which is tuff of ancient temples. Corvocado to seethe2) .
• Youngchildren will enjoy the local funfalr. They can go on exciting rides statue "Cristo Bedentor'?
and eat tasty toffee-applesthere.
• Don't missthe Botanical Gardens, wrth
Young children will enjoy the local (unfair, where they can goon excfting
almost 5,000 species of 3) ...
rides and eat tasty toffee-appfes. . plants and trees.
• Charlie's Lobster House Is one of the most popular restaurants In the
• Have dinner at a traditional restaurant
area It has delicious lobster dishes.
andtry "teiioada" - it's 4) !
With its delicious lobster dishes, Char/ie's Lobster House /s one of the
most popular restaurants in the area. • Goto a musical or a 5) show.
I Ranega Airport is on the east coastof the Island. It is one of the most
• Learn to dance the Brazilian way at
modern airports in the country. one of Rio's samba hans.
Situated on the east coast of the is/and, RanegaAirport is one of the • Rio has something to offer everyone,
most modem airports in the country. andthepeople arereally 6) !

Unll 7 Describing Plnces/Buildings

b) Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the b) Read the topic sentences,
questions. then use the information in
the table towrite appropriate
An international travel magazine is running a competition and has
supporting sentences.
asked its readers to submit descriptions of places worth visiting.
Write your article for the competition, describing a place and 1 In fact, the palace does not have a
including things to see and do as well as information about nightlife
very long history as the home of the
Royal Family.
1 Should you usc a very formal, impersonal style? Why (not)? 2 From the outside, the palace is
, What tenses should you use? certainly impressive.
J Which of the points in part a) would you include inthe main body of your 3 The interior, which can now be seen
article? by thepublic, is luxuriouslydecorated.
4 Read the phrases below. Which sense docs each refer to? Which of these
could you use inyour description?
• the scent of fresh flowers • the aroma of fresh coffee DESCRIBING BUILDINGS
• the blazing heat of the sun • clear blue sky When you write about a building, the
• people tal king • cold stone floo rs main body oftheessay shouldinclude:
• spicy food • snow-covered mountains • a paragraph on historical facts
about the building (when/why it
c) Use the information in Ex. 8a) and Jour answers in Ex. 8b) to was built, etc) using past tenses;
help ) 'OU write your article about Rio de Janeiro (120-180 words). • a separate paragraph on the
Use the article in Ex. Sa) as a model. exterio r (what it is made of,
appearance, grou nds/gardens,
etc) usingpresent tenses; and
;:g 9 a) Look at the table below, then listen to the cassetteand tick (I ) the • a paragraph on the interior
correct information. (rooms, furniture, pictures, etc)
using present lenses.
To give factual and/or historical
Name: Buckingha m Palace D Windsor Castle 0 information about the exterior and
interior of a'buildinq you can also use
Locatio n: cutsjoe London D in central London 0 the passive or prepos itional phrases
(e.q . all around, to the left, etc) .
Historical bum In the 18th centur y D built In the 8th cen tury 0 e.q. The palace', surrounded by high
offic ia l home since 1850 D official home since 1520
Facts: walls.
0 To theleft of the entrance there is
Exterior: made Of marble D made Of iron 0 a marble statue.
small windo ws D large windows 0
huge balcony D narrow balcony 0
gard en with poo l D garden with lake 0
Interior: 100 rooms D 600 roo ms 0
red carpets D red celUngs 0
priceless pho togr aphs D price less paintings 0
Comment: I not to be missed
il l DescribingPlnces/Buildings

10 a ) Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the 11 a) Fillin the boxes with words!
questions. phrases from below.
Youarea reporterfor an international travel magazine. The magazine
is publishing a series of articles about castles. Write an article red brick walL~, tiled floor, colourful mg.
describing a famous castle , including its historyand a description of well-kept garden, tall chimneys, staircase,
both the exterior and interior. bookshelves, wooden coffee table, little
1 \Vho will readyour article? pond, large windows, leather sofas, unusual
., Look at the picture in part b). Which of the following would you use to lamps, flower beds full of beautiful flowers,
modem paintings
describe the interior/exterior ofa castle?
• swimming pool • stone floors • thick carpets
• tall towers • modern paintings • wooden furniture
• thick stone walls • small attic • neon lights
• small windows • glass elevator • huge balconies

b) Read the art icle and put the verbs in brackets into the correct
tense, then sa)' which verbs arc actin and which are passive.

Bran Castle is one of themost legendary medieval INTERIOR

castles in Europe.It1) (situate) high
abovethe forest in tile Carpathian mountains in Romania.
Bran Castle 2) (build) in
1212, and nwas wherethe famous PrinceVlad Tepes
once 3) (live). The prince and his
majestic home were the inspiration for Bram Stoker's
The castle is certainly an amazing sight with its
breathtaking view over the countryside below. n has
tall towers and thick stone walls with small windows. b) Describeeach of the
In medieval times, such windows 4) . pictures using phrases from
(make) the castle easier todefend. the table above, as in the
The interior is dark and gloomy. Each room has a example.
huge fireplaceand 5) (lurnish) with simplewooden items .
Thereare no paintings on thewalls, andno carpetsonthe cold stone floors. It looks grand,
but6) (noVdesign) for comfort!
Although it may not be the typical tourist attraction, Bran Castle is certainly worth a
visit. It is atruly unique experience.

c) Read the text again and complete the table below with information
about the castle, then talkabout Bran castle.

built in 1212 - .
................................................................... .

e.g. There is a comfortable living room

..• with a tiled floor.
Unil] DesclibingPlnceslBui\~ings

b) Match the extracts to the

pictures. One of the extracts
and one of the pictures do not

t.g. From the outside, the building IS

impressive with its red brick walls.

12 a) Read theextracts.Which one

is from:
I an article in a travel magazine? ....
~ a story?
--l an estate agent's advertisement?

.-\ You will never be short of things

c) Use the notes below towrite part of a letter to a friend
10 do in the Algarve . If you are about the extra picture not described in a).
looking for a relaxing holiday,
I guess wherego/last day/our holiday ~ it/make/coloured marble
there are plenty of long sandy
beaches to choose from. For
2 visit/Leaning Tower of Pisa 5 be/amazing sight
those who prefer to be on the 3 itlbc/tailleight-storey/tower
move , there are also many
pretty mountain villages where 13 a) Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the
you can buy traditional Portu- questions.
guese craftwork , or just admire
the scenery. Your teacher hasasked you to write a description of the mostfamous
building in your town for the school magazine. Write your article
including historical factsas well as describing its exterior and interior.
b horne has
B This attractive subur an
T bedroo ms, two bathrooms , a
I Who is going to read your article? Are you going to use abbreviations/
fou . m with fireplace . a chattydescriptions? Why/Why not?
large family rOO d fully-
separate dining room an, a mall
2 Howmany paragraphsshould you write? What shouldyou write in each?
. ed kitchen. There IS a s 3 Which is the most famo usbuilding in your town/city? When was it built?
eqUlPP d the back garden is 4 What kind of building is it? A church? A museum? A castle? etc
front laurn, an
fenced all three sides. 5 What is it famous for? Is it the oldest building in your town/city? Did
somebodyfamous/important build it or live in it? etc
As Donald entered the castl e
6 What is it used for today? A school? A library? etc
through a stone archway he felt as 7 What does it look like from the outside? What is its inside like?
if he was in anot her age. A gentle 8 Is it worth visiting?
wind was blowing around the old 9 What topic sentences would you write for the main body paragraphs?
ruins. Slowly, he began to explore What supporting sentences would you write for each paragraph?
the area, trying to imagine how the
castle had once looked. b) Use your answers from part a) to writeyour description (110 . ISO
words) . You can use the article in Ex. lOb as a model.
UNIT 10 first-person Norrotives

l1li 1 a) Listen to the story and put the pictures into the correct order, then answer
the questions.
1 Who are the characters in the story? 3 What title wouldyou give this story?
2 Which of them is telling the story?
b) Li sten again, then look at the pictu res and tell the story.

First-person narratives arewritten in the first-person (I/we) about a series of events,

real or imaginary, which happened to us, Afirst-person narrative should consist of: Introduction
a) an introduction in which you set thescene (who was involved, time, place, etc) in •••••••••••••••••
an interesting way 10 make the reader wantto continuereading; Paragraph 1
b) a main body, consisting of two or more paragraphs, where you deve lop your
story, presenting the events in the order they happened; and Set the scene
c) a conclusion wh ich includes what happened at the end of the story, as well as {who - w here - whe n -
people's feelings, final comments or reactions, Asurprising ending makes a long- what)
lasting impression on the reader.
• You should normal lyuse past tenses in such pieces of writing, as well asa variety Main Body
of adjectives or adverbs to make your story more attractive to the reader. •••••••••••••••••
Narratives can be found in articles, letters, novels, etc. To attract the reader's Paragraphs 2 - 4
attention, give interestingandcatchy titles to yourstories, especially if they are for a
magazine, newspaper, etc. Develop the story
det aile d descrip ti on of
2 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions. events in the order they
A local newspaper is holding a story competition and you have decided to
enter. Your story should start with: "t stood on the deck staring at the huge Conclusion
waves. " Write your story for the competition. • ••••••••••••••••
1 Who isgoing to readyour story? Final Paragraph
3 What should your story be about?
2 Who should your story be about? A a boat trip end of stor y, f eeli ngs,
A your brother B yourself B a train accident comments or reactions
C a warm summer'sdayin the mountains -'11=0=========1=
Unill0 first-oerson Norrolives

3 a) Look at the picture in the story below and answer the questions. c) Read the story; again and
1 Where did the story take place: on a ship? on a train? number the events intheorder
, What was the weather like: cold andwindy? warm and sunny? in which the)'happened.Then.
3 What doyou think the problemwas: a hijacking? a fire in the engineroom? use the list to retell the story'
-l What happened in theend: the ship reached the port? the ship sank? as if it had happened to )"OU.
S Which of the fo llowing can you fi nd on a ship? Tick (/):
deck (I) , bedroom _ , loudspeakers _ ' engine room _ ' platform , [AD We were asked to go to the
lifeboat station _ ' cabin_ ' sitting room - ,lifejackets - , bus station-- nearest lifeboat station.
[]I] We put on lifejackets.
b) Read the story and underline the correct tenses. Then, label the [9]] A fire started in the engine
paragraphs with the following headings.
• del'elopment of 5(01)' . setting the scene • end of SIOIY, feelings lliD The ship slowed.
[]I] We reached port.
[![] We went to the lifeboats.
lliD The engines stopped.
[jj]I] The ferry left port.
DO The engines started again.

d) Read the story again and fill

in the correct adjectives,
then make sentences using
the completed collocations.

An Unforgettable Journey" 1 waves

by Jan" Fe/don 2 ....................... ................ ........ clouds
I stoodonthedeck, staringat the hugewaves. Fromthe moment we Para 1 3 ....................................................... sea
1) had letVwere leaving port and sailed into the English Channel, the
weather hadgot worseand worse. Now, lightning flashed across the sky,
4 .....................................................boat
whichwas covered in dark clouds. 5 ................................................. ground
Suddenly, thenoise of the engines 2) had stopped/ stopped . The ship Para 2
3) slowed/ was slowing, rolling heavily inthe rough sea. Avoice over the
loudspeakers 4) told!were telling us to remain calm - then added that
afire had started inthe engineroom, and said that all passengers must go
immediatelytothe nearest lifeboat station. Para 3 Before you start writing your sto ry
We all 5) ran/had run onto the deck, following the signs to the
you should decide on the plot tine.
lifeboats. The ship's officers arrived, made sure we had Iifejackets and
i.e. the main events which make up
- 6) showed/were showing us how to put themon.
the story.
I 7) looked/was looking again in horror at the wild, stormy sea. The
Para 4 You should make sure that you write
thOllght of being out there in a tiny boat was terrifying. Minutes 8) had
these events in the order they

passed/ passed like hours, until at last a voice 9) was announcing!
announcedthat everything was under control and thedanger was over. We happened. To show the sequence of
all 10) cheeredlhad cheered as the engines started again and the ship even ts you can uselinking words
11) moved/was movingforward into the waves. Para 5 such as: as soon as, while. before.
I stilt couldn't believe it was over, though - not until we had reached first, next, then. etc.
t port and112) was standing/had stoodon solidground again!
UnillO Firsl-person Norrolives

4 a) Read the rubrics below and matchthem to the plot lines. Can you at first, soon, suddenly, finally,
suggest alternative plot lines? then, as
1 A magazine is holding a competitionforthebest short story endingwith [[] 1) we were driving
"We wouldn't fose our house." home down thewinding mountain road ,
rt started to snow. Soft white snowflakes
2 Your teacher has asked you to write a short story endingwith "The boy were tailing lightly onto the road and it
looked at me andsmiled. I hadsaved his life." 2) became very slippery.
3) , a deershot outin
A • I walked down the railwaytracks. B • My brother and I were looking front of the van and I had to swerve
• I saw a young boy listening to a at some bills. violentlyto avoid it. I heard a loud thump
walkman playing on the tracks. • The phone rang. and managed to stop. I quickly jumped
• The traincame. • A lawyer invited us to his office. out of the van and ran back to see if the
• I ran towards the boy. deer was hurt.
• He told us a distant relative of I found it lying in the road. 4)
• I pushed him off the tracks. ours had died. .. , I thought it was dead. Then ,
• The train went by. • She left us £100,000. thedeer opened its eyes and I realised
that it was alive. I jumpedback, relieved
b) Read the rubric and the plot line, then put the events in the order as the deer struggled to its feel. For a
they happened. Finally, use the plot line to tell the story as if it moment it stood looking at me with its
large soft brown eyes, 5) .
had happened to you.
.. it ran offinto the forest and
A magazine has asked its readers to submit short stories starting 6) disappeared
with these words. HAs soon as J got off the train I knew this would be from view.
a special day in my life."

1 got off the train. l'!!J 6 a) Match the phrases below to

~:+:9 I picked the wallet up. pictures (A-D) on page 63.
c I found the owner's address. There is one extra picture
d He was very happy. which JOu do not needto use.
~ He offered me a reward. Finally, listen to the cassette
.~ I found a walleton the station floor. and check Jour answers.
I was able to buy myself a watch.
I gave him the wallet. o waves thundering and crashing
I went to the owner's house. D shiny green leaves
I opened it and looked inside. D calm water

5 Read the extracts below and fill in the gaps with the linking words
D salty sea spray

and phrases from each list. D smell of damp ferns

before, eventualiy, meanwhile, as soon as) suddenly, after a while D white foamy water

A 1)
I arrived at the bank r joined the queue and
D sparkling lights
waited formyturn. 2) , two men burst throughthe door D loud car horns
and ran to the cashier, shouting loudly. 3) we knew it
themen had forced the cashier to open the security door. 4) :
the bank manager called the police. 5) , we heard the b) Which of the senses (l.e.
police car siren blaring, but by the time they arrived, the robbers had left the sight, hearing, smell, taste
building. The police chased them and 6) .., caught them .
and touch) han been used
to describe each picture?
Unil lOfirsI-person Norrolives

You can usevarious past tenses in your story:
- past simple, to describe actions which started and ended in the past, or
actions which happened oneafter the other in the past.
e.g. I went to Paris last month.
I walked pastthe bank andslopped 81 thepostoffice to buy some sfBmps.
past continuous, 10 setthesceneor 10 describeevents/actions in progress at
a certain limein the past.
e.g. It was pouring wfth rain that evening. We were allsitting Inthe fMng room,
past perfect, for actions which happened before other past actions, or 10
givethe background of the story. e.g. f decfdedto call MrJones andtef/ him
the truth about what had happened.

7 Read the extract belowand underline the correct past tense.

---...._- •
.Atfirst, I I) w~sn't/hadn't been frightened by the noise as I 2) was
th mkingltho~ght It 3) had been/was just the wind which 4) was rattling/
rattled the windows. Then I 5) WIi S freezing/froze when J 6) heard/had
hea.r~ the w?oden stairs creaking outside my bedroom door. I 7) was
~eCldmgldcclded to be brave and 8) went/was going downstai rs to see if
It 9) had been~vas re~l!y a burglar. A few minutes later. I 10) had
stood/was standing terrified at thebottom of thestairs. looking round for
a burglar. It was then that I 11) was seeing/saw that the 'buralar' 12)
was/had been my little brother, who 13) was getting/had got upto ge t a
glass of water. ~

• _.
An interesting beginning is as important as an interesting end ing. An interesting
beginning will catch the reader's attention and make him/her want to continue
reading. A good ending will make him/her feel satisfied.
You can START your story by:
a) using your senses to set the scene and describe the weather, atmosphere,
s.uIToundings or people's actions to create mystery or suspense.
e.g. f couldhear thewind howling around me. ft was quite dark that night
andit feft strange to be out In the wilderness allalone.
b) using direct speech. e.g. M AAvays look on the bright side of life, k{ds ~, Mr
Frisbain used to ref{ us.
c) asking a rhetorical question. i.e. a question that does not require an
answer. e.g. Have you ever travelled by train on a warm summer niglrt?
d) addressing the reader directly. e.g. f am sure you allknow what a batl;afJ is.
e) referring to your feelings or moods. e.g. I was exhausted because I rea
been painting waJ~ allday.
UnillO firsl-Derson Norrolives


/ " YOUcan END your story by:
b) \\1tieh techniques have been
used in each beginning and
a) using direct speech. e.g. 7hankyou, sir,~ the boysaid to me. e) Write a suitable beginning
b) referring to your feelings or moods. e.g. We were shivering but we were and ending for a story with
happy to have mad. it.
the title "M)' Worst Day".
c) asking a rhetorical question. e.g. 'Why did f have to suffer so much?~
d) describing people's reactionsto/feelings aboutthe events developed
in the main body. e.g. Mybrother had become the hero of the day and I 9 a) Read the beginnings. Which
was ext!emfJ1f proud. one do )'OU think is the least
interesting? WIt)'?

8 a) .\Iatch the beginnings to their endings. 1 As I sat down at my deskandstared

at the pile of revision notes, all I
could think was, "Why me?"
2 It was a warm, sunny morning and I
woke up to the sound of the phone
1 It was a coot Aug~st night. All was quiet and peaceful in my house as m
pa:ents and two esters were sleeping in their rooms. I was lying in
trying to fall asleep. '
bed ringing. Thevoice on the other end
of the line simply said, "Juan, it's
me. Meet me on the corner in half
. J e and I were packing for our trip to an hour."
2 It was a treezin.g cold mlorn~ng'lat~~~~at afternoon. "I can't wait to enjoy the
Bermuda. Our flight was eavmq 3 I'm sure you all knowwhat it's like
hot and sunny weather," said Joanne. when you have to sit an exam that
you haven't studied for. Well, last
3 t ggie
an~ I had been bored all day atschool. As we wandered home we decided
o sneak Into the old abandoned house atthe edge of the forest Althou hour
May I was getting ready to ...
4 One day I went to school. On the
pare~s had told us never to go in there, we COUldn't resist the te~ptationg I am
sure at you wouldhave done the same if you had seen this house. . way, I crashed my bike into a tree.
The bike was badly damaged ...
5 I was really tired and was looking
, fo rward to a good night's sleep.
Suddenly, I heard a strange sound
coming from the garden.
A ~el~eved ~o be back home, I lit the flra While Joanne unpacked our things We
at realeeo how lucky we had been. Wnhout having to sa anythin .
under,stood what the other was thinking. There's no place like h~me don~t yW
agree , ' OU' h) which of the above

usc(s) the senses 0 C

uses(s) direct speech 0 C
address(es) the reader directly 0 C
refer(s) to feelings or moods 0 C
C Back in my room, I leI! confused and exhausted. , wasn't sure jf it was a
~~~~~~:~~n~~'~f~~~uaih~ ~h~ny~~,~.d been trying to fal!asleep. "' must have c) Rewrite the least interesting
introduction using any of
the techniques mentioned.
Unlf 10 firsl-oerson Horrolires

10 a) Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the
A popular magazine is holding a short story competition and you
have decided to enter. Your story must end withthe words "It was the
best day of my life. ~ Write your story.
1 Who is going to read your story?
., Who is the story going to be about?
3 What should your story be about?
A a disastrous incident you'll never forget
B your weekly routine at work
C a day with an unexpectedly good ending

b) Look at the pictures, then read the plot line and put the
sentences into the correct order.
A woman stopped me. I helped her change the tyre.
I waved goodbye and left. She got me a front-row seat.
- I arrived too late for the concert. I was driving to a concert.
I saw the woman I had helped at After the concert I met the band.
the entrance of the concert hall. She was the band's manager.

c) Lookat the pictures and use

the plot line to complete the
sentences below. Then. retell
the story in yourown words.

• One night last year, I was on my \vay

to see my favourite rock band.
• Suddenly, .

• The woman thanked me, then got in

her car and drove away.
• I .

• When I arrived at the concert hall.

the doors were closed.
• I was about to leave when I saw ....

• When it fi nished, the woman took

me backstage to meet .

11 Read the rubric in Ex. 10again

then write your storyin 110·180
words. Use your answers From
Ex. 10to help you. You can use
the story in Ex. 3b as a model,
UNIT 11 Third-person Norrotives
l1li 1 The pictures below are from a story about a n embarrassing incident. Try to J ;

put them in the correct order, then listen to the cassette and check your
answers. Finally, look at the pictures and retell the story using the words!
phrases in the list.
late, rushed; ina hurry, relieved, slight delay, embarrassed

Third-person narratives are written in the third person (he/she/they/elc) and are real or Introduction
imaginary stories about another person or other people. Like a first-person narrative, a •••••••••••••••••
third-person narrativeshould consist of: Parag raph 1
a) an introduction inwhich you set thescene (who was involved, time, place, etc) inan
interesting way to help the reader imagine the scene and want to continue reading; Set the scene
b) a main bod y consisting of two or more paragraphs in which you develop your {who - w here whe n-
story presenting theevents in the order that they happened; and what)
c) a conclusion in which you say what happened at the end and refer to people's
feelings, final comments or reactions. Main Body
• ••••••••••••••••
Paragraphs 2 - 4
2 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions.
Develop the story
A popular magazine has announced a short story competition. The story must detailed description of the
begin withthe words: ~Are you sure it's safe?" Josh asked his friend. Write your events in the order they
story for the competition. happened

I Who is going to read your story? Conclusion

2 Which of the following character(s) shouldyour storybe about? Final Paragraph
A you and your friend, Josh B a man/boy called Josh and his friend
end of story,
3 What should your story be about?
fee lings, comments and
A Josh's parents 8 anaccident that happened to Josh and hisfriend reactions
C Josh's autobiography
4 What should the first sentence of your story be?
Unilll Third-personNorrolileS

3 a) Look at the picture and answer the questions.

1 Where were Josh and his friend Marty?

A By a lake. B On a mountain.
~ What did they want to get across?
A A river. B A mountain.
.3 How did theyreach the other side?
A By climbing a fence. B Bywalking across a rope bridge.
4 What happened when Josh began to walk on the bridge?
A One of the ropes snapped. B The wind started blowing strongly.
~ How do you think he felt? "
A Scared. B Relieved.
6 What do you think happened to him in the end?
A Marty helped him get across. B He fell in the river.

b) Read the story and find out what happened to Josh in the end.
Then, label the paragraphs with the headings below. Finally,
number the events in the plot line in the order they happened.
• end of story, feelings and commellts • sellingthe scene
• development ofstory

"Are you sure it's safe?" Josh asked his friend Marty, Para 1
who was just about to step onto the little rope bridge. ......................

Josh looked down at the river far beneath them and ......................
~ swallowed hard. Unfortunately, it was the only way to ......................
~ reach the other side, so he knew they had to get across
before it began to get dark.
"Look, it's as safe as houses." said Marty confidently Para 2-3
as he put his foot onto the bridge. Once Marty was safely ......................
on the other side. Josh began to cross. The little bridge .................
creaked under his weight, making him even more nervous ...................... [AIl] One of the ropes snapped.
than he already was. He was almost half way across the ......................
- bridge when suddenly one of the ropes snapped. ......................
[jilJ Marty grabbed Josh.
~ Joshstarted to cross the ropebridge.

Josh screamed as the bridge fell toone side, leavinghim ......................


...................... [QL} Marty crossed thebridge safely.
hanging over the fast-flowing river far below his feet.
Terrified, he clung to the other rope. "Keep calm! Hold onl"
rn:o Joshclung to the other rope.
Marty called tohim. Josh looked across towherehis friend [![] Marty and Josh walked awav from
................. the bridge. •
stood. Slowly, hand over hand, Josh moved carefully along
the rope until he was close enough for Marty to grab him. (TI[J Josh moved carefully along the
Safely on the other side, Josh lay panting on the Para 4 rope.
ground. He felt exhausted, but he was glad to be alive. ......................
= Marty asked him if he feft he could go on. "Yes, I'm ...................... c) Choose the best title for the
okay," he replied bravely. "We'd better go. It will be dark ...................... story.
u• soon". They both set off, leaving the bridge and the
terrifying incident behind them.
a An Underwater Adventure
b An Accident in the Air
,.. c A Nasty Experience
-"''''- 67
Unil ll Ihird-person Norrolives

WRmNG TECHNIQUES 5 Complete the sentences with

verbs from the list, as in the
To make your narrativemore interesting 10 the reader, you should:
• use a variety of adjectives or adverbs, such as imaginative, wonderful,
cautiously, etc instead of simplistic ones such as nice, good, well, etc. wondered, threatened, promised,
e.g. Insteadof: John is a good boy with nice ideas. admitted, screamed, reminded
you can write: John Is a great boy with wonderlul ideas,
• Use a variety of verbs such as wondered, screamed, whispered, etc to "Who sent me these beautiful
avoid using "said" all thetime. flowers?" Anne wondered, as she
e,g. Instead of: "Helpl- he said. opened the small card attached to
you can write: -Helpr he screamed.
the bouquet.
• Use similes i.e. expressions which describe people or things by comparing
2 "Of course I'll help you paint the
them to someone or something else.
e.g. She ran like the wind. He was as quIetas a mouse. cabin," Carl , ", his
• Use present or pastparticiples to join two simple sentences into onelonger,
sister when she called.
more sophisticatedsentence, 3 "Now, don't forge t to pick up the
e.g. Instead of: He turned on the light He saw someone in the room. tickets from the travel agents,"
you can write: TurnIng on the light, he saw someone in the room. Susan Bob.
Instead of: She was relieved. She left the police station. 4 "Run, Terry! Run faster!" Tom
you can write: Relieved, she leftthe police station.
. as the lion leapt
overthe rock.
4 a) The following adjectives or adverbs can he used instead of other S "If you tell anybodywhat happened.
simplistic ones. Put them in the correct box, as in the example. I'll come afteryou," the man .
. Dave and Ben before
slight, great, ev~ highly, happily, massive, delightful, extremely, successfully, he drove away.
horrible, miniature, tiny, remarkably, gigantic, satisfactorily, absolutely, 6 "Yes, I took the disc but I had no
fabulolls. pleasant, huge. terrific, terrible, wicked, enonnous, attractive choice!" Mr Perry .
to Rachel when she saw it lying on
BIG his desk.
S~!AL L slight
q 6 a) Match Column A to Column
BAD B to complete the similes, as
GOOD/NICE in the examples.
VERY Column A Column B
WELL 1 as white as A a leaf
2 to swim lik~ 8 a baby
3 to cry like C a sheet
b) Replace the words in the extract belowwith suitable ones from the 4 to run like
boxes above. D a bee
5 as black as
E night
Melissa stepped out into the fresh and I ) nice April morning. Her 2) good 6 to shake like
7 as fresh as F an ox
mood brightened her 3) nice face as she walked 4) well to her newworkplace.
8 as strongas G a fish
Upon reaching the 5) big skyscraper, she looked up and felt 6) small. As she
entered the building, she was nervousbut 7) very excited. This jobwas a dream 9 as busy as H a daisy
come true for her. 10 to have a I a steve
memory like J the wind
3 . 5 .. 7 ..
, 4 6 e.g. 1 = C
Unllll Third-nersonHorrolives

b) Use similes to complete the sentences, as in the example. I'm really

lookingforward to
Grace dived in the sea and started swimming. She was a very good my holiday!
swimmer. She swam like a fish .
2 It was night inside the cave. Jeff looked for
his torch.
3 She cried like when she heard the
bad news.
-I The children were bees helping their
parents prepare the garden for the party.
5 Sally was soscared that she was shaking like .

7 a) Fill the correct synonymor antonym from the list. Can you think
or any others to add to the table'!

bored, excited, worried, scared, sure, angry, depressed

thrilled 1) . disappointed
anxious 2) . relaxed
miserable 3) . glad e.g. 1 She was relieved because it was
unsure uncertain 4) . all ora.
entertained amused 5) .
frightened 6) . unafraid 8 a) Fill in the gaps with the
annoyed 7) . calm correct adjective or adverb
from the lists.
eagerly, beautiful, colowful,
b) Match the adjectives (1·6) to the feelings ofthe speakers (A-F).
Then, makesentences in the past simple, as in the example.

1 relieved [!] 3 worried o 5 confused

2 amazed o 4 amused o 6 excited
o A I could see the 1)
sunlight streaming through the
·· ·

2) hedroom
curtains and I knew it was going
tohe a3) ·······················
summer'sday. I laythere feeling
sleepy for a moment until I
suddenly remembered what day
it was. 4) .
I jumped out of bed and got
dressed. I was ready for my
adventure to begin.
Unilll Ihird-personNorrollves

wonderful, wann, unbelievable, extremely 11 a) The following paragraphs

are from a story about a

8tfelt ~" ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' : ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ~'~~~f~;::b~:~~::~~~~ti~t~e~~:
journey, Put them in the
correct order, then answer
;L;~~h~·i·;d·~·~·~·~~~i~·.· ·Fiii~d·~;~·h ·; ~i;~f that it was finally over, ~ tried to the questions.
put theday's 3) : events out ofmy mind.Who
would have guessedthata day with such a4) " .
! [AD A helpful air steward helped
Sharon intothe icy water. Sharon was I
beginning couldhave turned into such a nightmare?
L- -~~-------"-- ~---.- '-- I· frightened
b) Answer the question s.
I because she knew the
nightmare was not over yet. She
I started swimming towards the lights I
I Which part of a story is eachparagraph from?
I on the shore w ith all her strength. I
2 How docs the writer feel in each paragraph? i D!LJ Horrlftec, Sharon realised that I'
the plane was going to cras h.
Passengers were screaming and
9 Underline the correct adverb. shouting. Sharon put her head
t between her knees to protect herself. I
I Ellen screamed angrily/politely at the bus driver to move out of her way.
2 Billy spoke rudely/casually to the headmaster, so he was suspended from
school for a week.
3 The thief crept noisily/silently through the house, hoping that no one I There was a deafening noise as the '
plane crash-landed in the sea.
[!lJ She grabbed her lite jacket I

would hear him.

4 The young man's hands shook nervously/confidently as the policeman I from under her seat and pulled it over (
her head. The inside of the plane was
dark but she managed to follow the

asked to see his driving licence.
S Before the plane took off, the passengers chatted excitedly/miserably floor lights to theexit. I
" __ , " O u
about their holidays.
6 James calmly/hurriedly grabbed his sandwich box, kissed his mum
goodbye and ran to the school buswhich was already waiting outside. 1 Who is the main character of the
story? Where is he/she?
2 What is happening?
10 Join the sentences using present or past participles. 3 How is he/she feeling?
I He closed the door. He heard someone screaming. 4 Which part of the story are the
Closing the door, he heard someone screaming. paragraphs from?
2 Shewas worried. She decided to call the local hospital.
Worned, she decided to callthe local hospital. b) Choose appropriate phrases
3 He fell to his knees. He startedcrying. from below towrite the
conclusion ofthe story,
4 Theywere whispering. They walked up the stairs.
• shivering with cold
5 He was frightened. He realised no one ",'Quid help him . • relaxed and calm
• dance the night away
6 He stood at the edge of the cliff. He watched the magnificent sunset. • crawl onto the beach
• reach the end of the tunnel
7 Shewas covered with a warm blanket. She fina lly feltsafe. • exhausted but relieved
• one of the happiest days in his/her
8 Shewas annoyed. She gathered her things and left the room. life
• terrifying experience
Unilll Third-personNorratives

12 a) Read the beginn ings (l . 3) and match them with the correct
endings (3 • c). Which pair doyou consider to be the worst? Why?

]I] Tina and her brother watched in horror as the water rose higher and
higher around them."Don'tworryl I'll think of something," saidTina's
]I] I'm sure you all knowwhal it feels like to fi nally reach the end of a
journey, hungry and tired. onlyto find that nobody iswaiting foryou.
]I] Joe suggested that he and his friends go camping for the weekend. 10 How do you think they fel t?
It seemed like a good idea. II What do you think they said to the
a As I waited for the taxi driver, I looked around meone last time, hoping
to sec a familiar face. "Where is everyone'! " I wondered. b) Read the notes below and
b As the rescue worker helped them off the roof and into the boat, he put the events in the order
said, "Thai was smart thinking on your part, son," they happened. Look at the
e The next morning. they took down their tents and went back home. pictures, then use the notes
and Jour answers from Ex.
13a to retell the story.
b) Which writing techniques (if any) han been used in each one?

Rewrite the worst pair using suitable writing techniques.

a) Look at the pictures and answerthe questions.

[A[] late afternoo n- de cide leave -
Look, start cro55ing rocks - realise -
Daddy! This is a great sea too far in - trapped
spot to spend the day. m Mother. "lt's like pa radise]" -
pa rents sunbathe - children
play and swim
m boat arrives harbour- incredibly
relieved - thank captain
[QIJ hot sunny day - Ha rdy fam ily -
trip to seaside - find dese rted
What time of year was it? 3 What were the people doing? bea ch
.2 Who do you think the people in
the picture were'!
4 Do you think they were having a
good time?
m see small tourist boat passing
You're lucky by - wave arms - boat pick
them up
I was passing byand
saw you. -
14 Read the rubric and underline
the key words. Then, write your
essay. Use your answers to Ex.
Oh, my
13 to help you. You can use the
goodness! The tide
story in Ex. 3b as a model.
iscoming in!
Your teacher has asked you to
5 What time do you think it was? 9 Who found them? write a story which must end
6 What happened? with the words: "They decided to
7 Do you thinktheywere in danger? be more careful next time. ~ Write
8 Howdo you think they fel t? your story (120 -180 words).
UNIT 12b Reviews
1 Look at the pictures and answer the questions:
a) Would you rather read the book, or watch the film? Why?
b) What kind of book is it? What kind of film is it? Tick (I)

Book Film
I romance
2 science fiction

c) Canyou think of any other types of books and films?

d) What's your favourite book/film?
c) What would you say10 a friend to recommend a book or a film?

Reviews are short descriptions of books, films, plays, TV programmes, etc.

They are written to inform readers and viewers, and to give them your
opinion/recommendationabout whether (or not) they should read a book or
see a film/play/etc.
A review should consist of:
a) an introduction in which you summarise all the background information
ofthebookJfilm/etc. (i.e. title, name of author/director, type, setting, etc):
b) a main body consistingoftwo paragraphs: one about the mainpoints of
the plot, presented in chronological order, and another including general
comments onthe plot, themain characters, the acting, the directing, etc.
.., Note: You should not revealtheend of the story to the reader.
c) a conclusion in which you recommend or do not recommend the
book/film/play/etc, giving reasons to support your recommendation.
• Reviews are normallyfoundin newspapers, magazines or asparts of a
leller. The style you use depends on the publication and the intended
reader and can beformal or semi-formal.
• You normally use present tenses and avariety ofadjectives to describe

theplot and make your comments more clear and to the point. Paragraph 1

background informatio n
(title, name of authorl
2 Read the rubric and underline the keywords, then answer the questions. director, type, setting, etc!

The editor of the magazine you work for has asked you to write a review Main Body
about a book you have recently read. Write your review, giving a brief •••••••••••••••••
summary of the plot and saying why you think other readers might Paragraph 2
enjoy it.
main points of the plot
1 Who is going to read the review? G who the main characters
2 Which of the following must you are D Paragraph 3
include'! Tiek (.f). H how many of your friends
A what type of book it is D have read it so far 0 general comments
I whether or not you
B the author's biography 0 Conclusion
C the title of the book D recommend it 0 •••••••••••••••••
D how the story ends D J general comments 0 Paragraph 4
E the name of the author D 3 Which tenses would you use?
F main points of the plot 0
Unil12b Reviews

3 a) Read the book review 4 a) Read the useful vocabulary box

and label each below. Which phrases refer to
paragraph with books? which refer to films?
the headings below. Which refer to both'!
• recommendation
• general commellts
• main points ofplot
• background infonnation

The Hound of the

TheHound of Baskervilles. bySir Arthur Conan Doyle. is an Para 1
I Background:
The film/book tellsthe story of ...
excellent SIOH that take ~ pI3.ce.1.o London and Oartmoor. This The film/story isset in ...
fascinating---.PQQk.Jubout tile famous detective, Sherlock Thebook/novel was writtenby ...
Holmes, who with his trusted assistant, Watson, tries to solve The film isdirected by ...
the mysterious death of Sir Charles Baskerville. It is a comedy/horror film/love story.
The mystery_begins when Or. Mortimer, Si r Charles' Main points of the plot:
personal doctor, relates the circumstances surrounding his The story concemsss about/begins ..
patient's death to Holmes and Watson. The doctor believes The plot is (rather) boringlthrilling.
that his death has something to do with the legend of the Para 2 The plot has an unexpected twist.
hound, which is an enormous, evi l, hunting dog thatterrori ses General Comments:
the people of Baskerville. Soon, it becomes clear that Si r It is rather long/boring/confusing/slow.
The cast is excellentJawful/unconvincing.
~ Henry, who is Sir Charles' nephew, and theonly surviving heir
The script is dull/exciting.
~ to the Baskerville fortune, is also in danger. Holmes and
JI is beautifully/poorly/badly written.
::E Watson have to move quickly in order to protect Sir Henry's It has a tragic/dramatic end.
life and to solve the mystery. Recommendations:
The book is full of thrilling moments as the author creates Para 3 Don't miss it. It is well worth seeing.
tension with unexpected twists and vivid descriptions. What I wouldn't recommend it because ..
gives the book its dark atmosphere, however, isthe silent, evil 1highlylthoroughly recommend it.
presence of the legendary hound which dominates the story It'sbound tobea box-office hit.
throughout. Wait until it comes out on video.
I tho rou Q.tlly~c ommend The HouOcl. jlf the B as ke'!yi lle~ Para 4 It isa highly entertaining read.
Readers will haveadifficult timeputting this masterpiecedown It's a bore to read.
as theyare kept in suspense until the very end of the book.
b) Read the reviewin Ex. 3a again
and replace the underlined
b) Answer the questions. sentences in the review with
Which paragraph includes the writer's recommendation? What phrases other appropriate ones.
does she usc to recommend the book?
, Whichparagraph includesa shortdescription ofthe main pointsof the plot? 5 Underline the correct Word/ph rase.
Does the writer reveal the end of the story? The starring role/character is played
3 In which paragraph does the writer include information about where the by Jack Nicholson.
S(OIY takes place and what it is about? 2 The reader/audience screamed when
~ Which paragraphincl udes general comments on thebook'! What arc they? the murderer appeared.
5 Which of the following has the writer used'! Tick (/). 3 Angela5Ashes is a well-written! acted
passive voice _ ; variety of adjectives _ : colloquial expressions _ ; book that tells the struggleof a poor
abbreviations _ ; complex sentences _ " Irish fam ily.
Unil12b Reyiews

4 The plot has an unexpected mist/cast when littleJohn finds out the truth. 7 Look at the chart and use
5 The story hasa dullaraglcendwhen the helicopter crashes on a mountain. words/phrases from the useful
6 The script/cast of thefilm includessome ofthe hottest names in Hollywood. vocabulary box on p. 79 to write
7 The book is based on/set in the incredible life storyof Charlie Chaplin. your recommendation for each
g The Matrix hasthe most spectacular special effects/premieres infilm history. book/film, as in the example.
9 Mad Park isa box officehit/dull read.You'llfallasleepafterthe second page.
10 Captain Cotrelli's Mandolin plays the part/tells the storyof a youngItalian BOOKS Retukrs' Poll
soldier who falls in love with a Greek girl. 1 The English Patient, by
Michael Ondaatje
6 a) Match the types of books/films to their definitions. Romance
2 20,000 Leagues Under Ihe--.( [ __
Column A Column B Sea, by Jules Verne _
1 comedy A a film in which cartoons are brought to life Adventure -
2 romance B an exciting film full of adventure and danger FI rs' Poll
3 animated film C a bookor a film abouta frightening story 3 Sleep Weil' r \z,
4 mystery D a film that makes people laugh directed by Jack Miller '-d
5 action fil m E a book or a film about life in space/the future Drama
6 science fiction F the story of a person's life written by sb else
4 Stuart Little, directed
7 horror G a book or a film about a love story
by Rob Minkoff
8 biography H a book or a fil m about strange events that are
not solved until the very end of the story Comedy

e.g. I highly recommend The English

Patient. II is a well-written and
b) Fill in the table belowwith adjectives from the list.
touching romance.
dull, excellent, terrible, moving, superb, awful, fantastic, fascinating,
touching, dreadful, thrilling, hilarious, entertaining, amusing
I ,A
i good/
interesting To make your review more interesting to
the reader you can add details about
~citing the plotusing relative clauses.
e.g. DetectIve latch wants tocatch Scar.
3@! funny
Scar is a diamond smuggler.
Detective Larch wants to catch scar
who Is a diamond smuggler.
48; sad Wilfiam discovers a secretpath. It
leads to the castle.
~::..-/ ..... Wifliam discovers a secret path
5 8 b;ing which leads to the casU• .
Claire is a teacher. Herson wins a

68 had
scholarship to study biology.
- . Claire is a teacher whose son wins
a scholarship to studybiology.
1IJeytrawilto York. In Yorl<tIley meet
c) Useadjectives from the table totalk about films/plays you have seen a vel}' unusual taxi driver.
and booksyou have read, as in the example. -J They travel to YOM where they meet

8 velY unusual taxi driver.

e.g. Dr Doolittle isone of the most amusing comedies I have ever seen.
Unil 12bReviews

8 Rewritetheextract using relative

pronouns/adverbs. The words in
bold showwhere Jon should add
the relative clauses.
\ [I] Armageddon is an action packed
The story is about a young woman adventure about an enormous
named Emily. She is hired by a
mysterious lady. Emily's assignment i asteroid and the desperate efforts
\ of mankind to stop it from
takes her to Rio de Janeiro, Theman
destroying the world, Directed by
takes her on a dangerous journey.
Jerry Bruckheimer, the cast
includes Bruce Willis as Harry
1 She is a private detective. Stamper, an oil rig owner, liv Tyler
2 The lady's uncle disappeared in I,, as his daughter, Grace, and Ben
Brazil. , Affleck as Stamper's employee,
3 In Rio de Janeiro, she meets a { AJ., who is in love with Grace.
strange man called David Travis. , [2J The story begins when NASA discovers that the gigantic asteroid
-t The dangerous journeyeventually f is only eighteen days away from destroying the Earth. NASA asks
leads them into the heart of the ~ Harry to prevent the deadly asteroid from reaching our planet. Harry
Amazon Rainforest. ~ >- and his oil rig crew are given intensive training by NASA astronauts
' ~ before they travel to space.
.:'.;; [3] The film is filled with suspense as the men race against time to
save the planet. The special effects and computer graphics are so
9 a) Read the rubric and
underline the key words, l . :E

spectacular that the audience will be amazed, The actors give a
brilliant performance and the directing is superb. What is more, the
then answer the questions.
1 soundtrack, mostly by Aerosmith, is fantastic.
A magazine has asked its readers ;! J [!] I thoroughly recommend this film. If you like excitement, it will
to submit reviews of films that they
have recently seen and think would
,. <.:1
definitely keep you on the edge of your seat. Don't miss it!
be of interest to other people. ,
1 Who is going to read your review?
2 Which of the following must you 10 a) Read the rubric, underline the key words, then answer thequestions.
include? Tick (I).
A main points of the plot Your teacher hasasked youto write a film review for the school magazine.
B ,. number ofscatsin the cinema Write your review for the magazine, mentioning the main points of the
plot, general comments about the acting, the directing. the prot, etc, as
C type of film. name ofdirector well as your recommendation(1 20· 180 words).
D recommendation
E main characters and names I Who is going to read your review? What tenses should you use?
of actors who portray them 2 Which of the following shouldyou use? Tick (v").
F ...... general comments about passive voice _: variety of adjectives _; colloquial language _
acting, soundtrack, etc complex sentences _; abbreviations _ ;
3 a) What type of film is it? b) Who directed it? c) Who stars in it?
b) Read the film review. What
d) What characters do they play? e) What is the film about'?
is each paragraph about?
How does the writer 4 What are themain points of the plot? What general commentswould you
recommend the film? make? Howwould you recommend the film?
If JOu were to recommend
this film, how would JOU b) Use your answers in Ex. lOa to write your film review. You can U5<"
recommend it'! the review in Ex. 9 as a model.
UNIT 13 "For ond Agoinsl" Essoys
1 a) Look at the pictures and talk about the pros and cons of eating out at
restaurants. Think about the sen-ice, the menu. the prices, and the

ag b) Read the points below, then listen to the cassette and tick those mentioned.
whi ch these points are advanta ges and which are disadvantages?

A fun to eat out

o D expensive
B not as tiring as cooking o E unhealthy
C have to book in advance o F not hygienic

"For and against" essays are one type of discursive writing in which you discuss the
advantages anddisadvantages of a specific topic. A "For andagainst" essay should
a) an introduction in which you present the topic, making a general remark about
it without giving your opinion ;
b) a main body in wh ich you present the points for and the points against, in
separate paragraphs, supporting your argumentswith justifications/examples;
c) a conclusion which includes your opinion (e.g. In myopinion/vie w, I believel
think, etc) or a balanced summary of the topic.
• You must not include opinion words (I believe, I think, etc) in the introduction or the
main body. Opinion words can only be used in the final paragraph, where you may '--"====--.....:=====~
state your opinion on thetope.
• "For and against" essays are norm ally written in a formal style; therefore you
should avoid using strong language (I know, I am sure, etc), short sentences, Introduction
colloquial expressions or idioms. • ••••••••••••••••
You can tnd this type of writing in articles in newspapers, magazines, etc. Paragraph 1

present topic lw ithoul

stating your opinionl
2 Read the rubric and underline the key word s, then answer the questions.
Main Body
You have had a class discussion about different forms of travel. Your teacher
Paragraph 2
has now asked you to write an essay presenting the arguments for and
against travelling by boal.
arguments for. with
1 What type of essay shouldyou write?
2 Should you use short sentences, colloquial expressions and idioms? If not, why? Paragraph 3
3 Wh ich of the following points could be included in your essay? Tick (I ). Which
arguments against. w ith
points arc pros and which are cons? Can you add any other ideas? justifications/examples
cheaper than otherforms D 4 journeys can take a long time D Conclusion
of travel 5 more comfortable and •••••••••••••••••
2 can be unpleasant in bad D enjoyable than other D Final Paragraph
weather forms of transport
3 lots of people go on sailing D 6 famous explorers travelled D your opinion/balanced
holidays the seven seas

Unll13 "lorond Agoinsr' ESSDYS

3 a) Read the article and label the paragraphs with the correct headings. \\bat is the writer's opinion on the
topic? Finally, replace the topic sentences in the main body paragraphs with alternative ones•
• arguments against • opinion
• arguments for • present topic

Did you know theboat was one of the first forms of transport?
Para 1
Ahundred years ago, the only way to make ajourney across the
sea was by boat. Nowadays, however, when it ispossible to fly
from one continent to another inthe space of afewhours, is there
any reason to travel by boat?
Alttlough the boat is arather old-fashioned way of travelling, it
has certain advantages. To begin with, boats are usually more
comfortable than planes or cars. Instead of staying in your seat for Para 2
the whole journey, you can go for awalk on the deck, eat in a
restaurant, or even go shopping. Having more space 10 move Useful expressions and
around makes along joumey much more pleasant Furthermore,
boats are often cheaperthanother forms of travel. For example,
aboat ticket usually costs lessthan aplane ticket Finally, boats
are a safe alternative to cars and planes. There are fewer
• - linking words/phrases
a Q

• to list and add points: In the first place,

To start/begin with, Secondly, Thirdly,

accidents at sea thanin the air or on the roads. f inally, Inaddition (tothis), Furthermore.
However, travelling by boat does have its disadvantages. It Moreover, Besides, etc.
Para 3
usually takes muchlonger thanother forms of travel. Asaresult. • to introduce or list advantages: The
itcan be more Uring. lnaddition,boat tripscan be very unpleasant main/first/most important advantage
when the weather is bad or the sea is rough, making journeys of..., One/Another /An additional
uncomfortable or even frightening. advantage of..., One point of view in
All things considered,although there are some disadvantages favour of..., It is often suggested/
Para 4 believed/argued that..., Some/Many
to travelling by boat, I believe rt is avery enjoyable experience.
people suggest/feel argue rhat..; Some/
Journeys maytake 10llger, but nyou havetime to spare, you can Many people are in favour of fare
take advantage of themanyfacilities whichboats haveto offer and convinced that.. etc.
enjoy apleasant voyage. • to introduceor list disadvantages: The
main/most important disadvantage/
drawback of..., One/Another/An
b) Read the article again and fill in the blanks below. Then, using:
additional disadvantage of..., One
expressions from the box on the right, talk about the pros and cons point/argument against.; Some/Many
of travelling by boat. people areagainst... , etc.
• to introduce examples/reasons/results:
for example/instance, such as, like, in
Arguments Justificalions/Examples particular, therefore, for this reason,
1) more comfortable than other gofor awalk, eat in arestaurant, go because, as, since, asa result. etc.
• forms of travel shopping, have more space10 move around • to showcontrast: On the other hand,
. However, still, but, Nonetheless,
Nevertheless, Although, Even though.

Despite/In spite of(thefact that), etc.
"" ~
AGAINST • to introduce a conclusion: Inconclusion,
Arguments To conclude/sum up, All in all, Finally,
~"• 1) .
JustlficatlOns/ExamPI" ..... Lastly, All things considered, Taking
2) . everything into account/consideration, etc.

Unil13 "for ond Agoins'" Essoys

4 Read the article again and replace the linking words/phrases in bold 7 a) Read the extract below and
with synonymous ones fromthe table on p. 83. Then, say which ofthe choose the correct topic
linking words/phrases in the article are used to: sentence to fill in the blank.
a) list/add points c) showcontrast
b) introduce reasons/results d) introduce a conclusion 1 There are many advantages to using
the Internet.
2 However, there arc many arguments
5 Underline the correct linking word/phrase. against using the Internet.
3 Computers have become the most
1 Besides/Despite, television affects the way we think. important means ofcommunication.
2 Many people are against/argue that we need advertisements in order to
keep up to date with the latest products on the market.
3 One point of view against/in favour of travelling is that it allows you to
meet peoplefrom different cultures.
4 EnDthough/Nevertheless most people nowadays use a computer at work,
it will be a while before we stop putting our ideas down on paper.
S For instance/Still, people who know howto playa musical instrument arc
usually popular and make friends more easily than others.

6 Read the paragraph below and underline the correct linking word/
There are many advantages to having children at an early age. 1) To hegin
with/In addition to this, when you are young, you have a lot of energy.
This means you can cope quite easily with children'sdemands for constant care
and attention. 2) To conclude/Secondly, young parents can relate to their
children and 3) therefore/nevertheless understand thembetter. 4) Yet/Finally,
when you become a parent at an early age, you are still youngenough to enjoy First of all, you spend hours and hour~
life whenyour child becomes independent. sitting in fron t of a computer screenw
This can lead to severe backache a ~
problems with your eyesight. More
over, using the Internet can be ve
MAIN BODY PARAGRAPHS expensive, because the members h~ ..
You should start each main body parag raph with a topic sentence which fees and phone bills are often hig
introduces or summarises the main topic of the paragraph. The topic Finally, using the Internet requires
sentence should be followed by supporting sentences which justify the ,, lot of patience. Getting onto t h ~
argument presented in the topic sentence, by giving exam ples or reasons. Internet is not always easy and thi
You should use linking words/phrases to present your justifications, such as:
first ofall, what is more, for example, because, since, inparticular, etc.
means you sometimes have to wait
e.g. Travelling bytrain has a lot of advantages. } topicsentence
long time to get access.
First of all. it is comfortable as trains are spacious so
there is plenty of room to walk about. What Is more, trains
are corwenient. For example, you donothave to take any supporting
food or beverages with you, because most trains have a sentences b) What is the topic of the
restaurant. Finally, when you travef by train you reach
paragraph? List the
your destination felrly quickly.
arguments mentioned.

Unil13 "for ond Agoinsl" Essoys

8 a) Match each argument about

modelling to its correspond- TECllNIQUES 10 BEGIN OR END VOIlR ESSAY
ing justification. Which To attract the reader's interest and make the beginning or ending of your
points are "for' and which essay more effective, you can use some of thefollowing writingtechniques:
are "against"? a) address the reader directly e.g. "you take the time to train your dog, it
wiJIleam to obey you.
b) include a quotation (i.e.a sentence or phrase taken from a book, play, etc.)
Arguments ...... When we use a quotation, it is necessary to mention the name of the
-::--"'::-_ - ~
person who said/wrote it. e.g. As George Orwell wrote, -All animals are
]I] be an exciting career equal, but some are more equal than others.-
] I ] opportunity to cam a lot of c) include a rhetorical question e.g. Is ittrue that a dog is man's best friend?
] I ] models must constantly watch
what they eat 9 Readthe extracts belowand sa)' which are beginnings and which are
:J:LJ no privacy endings. Then identify wh ich writing technique(s) has/have been
used in each.
- - "'>---------------
a expected to stay thin so that they
look good all the time
b designers andfashion magazines arc
willing to pay high fees for popular
c reporters arc always chasing them
d models usually travel to interesting
places andoften meet famous people

b) Use linking words/phrases

to complete the main bod)'
paragraphs below. A Doyoufancy yourself as ahandyman or handywoman? For peoplewhoare
good withtheir hands, home decoratingis certainly anoption. Withthe wide
e.g. There are certain arguments in
range of maienals available in the shops, and the increasingly high cost of
favour of a career in modelling.
professional decorating,the trend istowards DIY. So what are the advantages
and disadvantages of 'do IT yourself'?

B Tosum up, although thereare many points against beingareporter, I believe

there are certainly aspects in favour of IT. Besides, as JohnHerseyonce said,
On the other hand, many people "Journalismallows ITS readers to witness history:
believe that a career in modelling
also has drawbacks, C More and more couples today choose to have only one child. Most of us
imagine that being an only child must betenibly lonely, but is that reallythe
case? Havingno brothers or sisters has both advantages anddisadvantages.

D All things considered, I believe that there are more disadvantages than
advantages to dieting. Perhaps that was why wnter and lournallst Geoffrey
Cannon believed that "Dieting makes you fat" After all, If you eat sensble,
well-balanced meals and keep fit and active, youare more likely tostay slim.
Unil13 "for nnd Agnins!" Essnys

10 a) Read the topic sentences and think of appropriate supporting 11 Read the topic sentences, then
ones. The prompts below will help you. write appropriate supporting
ones. Join the sentences with
1 Thereare certain drawbacks to being a appropriate linking words!
doctor. phrases in order 10 write a
• have to study all their lives in order complete paragraph.
to keep up with the latest medical

-, f \.
2 Watching television has certainly got its There is no doubt that going on
advantages. holiday during the winter is an
• keepup to date withcurrent news attractive option.

3 Thereare many arguments against being

afamous rock star.
• never home because they travel all
over the world giving concerts

On the other hand, there are
• drawbacks to being a firefighter.

h) Match the quotations to the topics above. Use the quotations to

write appropriate endings for each topic.

rn "Everybody wants to be
, fa mous until they arc .,, ~
Keith Richards
(musician, songwn'ter)
[II] "We are humble men in

u r profession. We do our best" I
"Television! A Dickson Wright 3 There are certain disadvantages to
IT] The entertainment (Eri/ish surgeon) owning a dog.
which flows like tapwater)" r

(Elitish playwright)

Unil13 "for ondAgains!" Essays

12 a) Discuss the following ques-

tions in pairs.

• Do many peopl e in your country

use bicycles instead of cars?
• What are the advantages and
I cycling isan inexpensive form of transport 0 [4]
disadvantages of using a bicycle?
2 fumes from cars and lorries arc bad for your health 0 0
• What are the differences between J there arc lots of different bicycles in the shops 0 0
cycling in the cityand in the country?
• cycling helps you to stay fit 0 0
• Do you think more people should 5 cycling on busy roads is not very safe 0 0
cycle to work instead of usingother
forms of transport'! Why?
6 my cousi ns go cycl ing at weekends 0 0
7 cycling is an environmentally-friendly way to travel 0 0
S bicycles arc unsuitable for long journeys 0 0
b) Read the rubric and under-
line the kCJ word s, then
answer the questions.

A health and fitness magazine

has askedits readers to writean
article discussing the advantages
and disadvantages of cycling
as a form of transport. Write
your article for the magazine.

What type of essay is this?

2 Which of the following should IlOt
be included in your introduction?
Tick (I) .
A your opinion
B general remarks D
C statemenl about the topic
D d) Match the relevant points from above to the justifications below.
Then, make sentences using appropriate linking words/phrases.
o a quotation D A it is a good form of exercise, particularly for the legs, heart and lungs
J In which part of the essay should B it docs not create air pollution
you write about the advantages and C you do not have to spend moneyon thingssuch as petrolor costly repairs
the disadvantages of cycling? D drivers do not always give way to cyclists
• In wh ich paragraph can you include
your opinion about cycling?
E there is a limit to the distance a cycl ist can reasonably travel in one day
F in some cities the fumes are so bad that cyclists have to wear masks to
protect them from pollution

13 Use your answers from Ex. 12 to write yourarticle on the advantage-

and disadvantages of cycling as a means of transport I1 ~ O - l
words). You can use the text in Ex. 3a as a model.
UNIl140 Opinion Essoys
sm 1 Listen to a discussion about free healthcare and match the viewpoints with the
reasons.Then, saywhich points JOu agreewith and whichones JOu disagree with.

[ Viewpoints Reasons
A free healthcare is a basic human D people would learn to have healthier
~ght lifestyles, so fewer people would beill
B pe'oCp-'-le-w
d =it-S;-hO-U;-ld;"";'D
2 everyone deserves free medical ,• • • •
pay fo r their treatment treatment when they are ill
C more time and money should be 0 3 more money could be spent on
spent on health education treating those who really need it

Opinion essays are discursive essays in which you present your personal opinion on a
particular topic. Your opinion must be stated clearlyand supported byjustifications. You Introduction
should also present the opposing viewpoint(s) in a separate paragraph. • ••••••••••••••••
An opinion essay should consist of: Paragraph 1
a) an introduction. in which you introduce thesubject and stateyour opinion clearly;
b) a main body, consisting of two or more paragraphs (each presenting a separate introduce the subject and
viewpoint supported byreasons/examples), including a paragraph giving the opposing state your opinion clearly
viewpoint supported by reasons/examples; and
c) a conclusion, in which you restate your opinion using different words. MaIn Body
• You normally use present tenses inthis type of Writing, andphrases such asI believe , • ••••••••••••••••
In my opinion, I think, It seems to me that, I stronglydisagree wfth , etc to express your Parag raph 2
opinion. You should list your viewpoints with Firstly, Furthermore, Moreover, Also, etc,
and introduce the opposing viewpoint using However, On the otherhand, etc. first viewpoint
and reasons/examples
• Opinion essays are normally written in a formal style, therefore you should avoid
using colloquial expressions, short forms or personal examples. You can find thistype Paragraph 3·
ofwriting inthe form ofan article in newspapers, magazines, etc.
second viewpoint
and reasons/examples
2 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions.
Paragraph 4 ·
You have had a class discussion about the following statement:
English and Maths are more important subjects than Artand Music. opposing viewpoint
Now your teacher has asked you to writean essay giving youropinion and reasons to and reasons/examples
support your view(s).
1 Who is going to read your essay? Conclusion
2 Should you usc colloquial expressions and short forms? Why (not)? Final Parag raph
3 What does the statement in the rubric mean? Tick (I )
A Art and Music are easier than Englishand Maths. o restate your opinion, using
different words
B Art and Music are not as important as Englishand Maths. o • The rvrrber of parCX}faphs
4 Whichof the following should you include in your essay? Tick {I }
A reasons why Art and Music can be boring o in II'e rooin body depeOOs
on the rwJber of view-
B your views about whether English and Maths arc important o points included.
C reasons or examples to support your views o
D opposing views and supporting arguments o
Unll140 Opinion (sSOYS
.. Which of the fou r subjects mentioned in the rubric do/did you study at Wi"i 11\"
"I''' , I ,'
school? Which is/was your favourite, and why?
6 What are the benefits of studying these subjects? Use the notes to
complete the table. You can add fu rther ideas of your own.
tools to deal with everyday matters provide well-rounded education
help you communicate clearly necessary in order tofind ajob

" ... 0>
. tr r t ('~;r
Zl"tU~ 111::151e

Do you agree or disagree with the statement in the rubric? Give reasons.
3 a) Read theessay and label the paragraphs with the headings below.
• second viewpoint & examples • subject & opinion
• restate opinion • opposing viewpointts}
• firs! viewpoint & examples

English and Malhs are more importanl sUbjects than Art and Music
Isn't it unfortunate that in today's society there are so
Para 1
=: many people who cannot read, write or even do
~ arithmetic? [ strongly believe that, although subjects such
~ as Artand Music are important, English and Maths are the
most fu ndamental part of our education.
In the first place, when you know how to read, write
and do simple calculations, you have the tools requ ired in
Para 2
order to deal with everyday matters. For example, being
able to read and write can help you communicate and
express yourself dearly. Moreover, you need basic maths
for such dai ly chores as doing your shopping, paying your
bills and managing your money.
Furthermore, it is essential to have a good knowledge of Para 3
English and Maths in order to find even the simplest job.
Reading, writing and mathematical skills are the mi nimum
requirements that most employers demand.
On the other hand, it can be argued that Art and Music
are just as significant as English and Maths. For instance, Para 4 b) Read the essay again and underline
learning how to draw or play an instrument can introduce
a child to a whole new world. In addition to this, subjects
the viewpoints the writer mentions.
such as Art and Music can provide children with a well- What reasons/exa mples are glven
rounded education rather than just basic skills. to support each viewpoint? what
All things considered, though, it seems to me that linking words! phrases are used to
: Para 5 introduce the writer's viewpoints and
:g English and Maths are vital subjects. Without learning to
g read, write or do arithmetic, people may have difficulties the opposing viewpoint? what is the
cs writer's opinion? Do you agree or
coping with even the simplest tasks in dai ly life.
disagreewith this opinion?
Unil14n Opinion Essoys

4 Usc the linking words/phrases from the list below to fill in the table
B 1) All in all, I don 't believe that
that follows, as in the example.
theatre is an outdated form of
in the first place, a/so, forexample, tosum up, moreover, firstly, although, entertainment, 2) since new ideas
10 begin with, all things considered, such as, therefore, on the otherhand, are often presented on the stage.
however, apart from this, in other words, in panicuiar; for instance, in 3) While television may be more
addition, because, taking everything into account, furthennore, for one convenient, it is theatre that offers
thing. since, lastly, secondly, nonetheless, while qualityentertainment.

To Jist points: in the first place, .

2 To add more points:

6 Underline the correct word

3 To introduce opposing phrase, as in the example.
1 It is argued/One reason that testing
4 To introduce new drugs on animals is necessary
examples/reasons: before giving them to humans.
2 In my view, we can all do something
5 To conclude: to protect the environment. f or
example/In addition, we can recycle
newspapers and magazines.
3 Taking holidays abroad is usually 00
5 Read the extracts and replace the linking words/phrases with suitable more expensive than taking them in
ones from Ex. 4. whlch paragraph is each extract from? your own country. What is more
However, it gives you the opportu-
nity to experience other cultures.
4 Secondly/Especially, regular exercise
helps you to stay in good health.
5 On the other hand, it can be argued
A 1) On the other hand, computers that what individuals do to protect
save us time and energy and make the environment makes very little
o~r daily lives easier. 2) For one difference, in particular/since it is
thmg, most of us are grateful to be factories and power stations which
able t.o withdraw money from cash create the most pollution.
machines rather than wait in long
queues inside the bank. 3) What is
more, :o~puters have made many
peo~ le s Jobs easier by doing Each main body paragraph shou ld
ro.utme tasks that in the pas! were start with atopic sentence whichclearly
tiring and time-consuming.
states the main idea of the paragraph.
This should befollowed byappropriate
supporting sentences which justify
themain idea and/orgive examples.

Unil 140Opinion[ssoys

7 Read the extract below and Useful expressions for gh'ing opinions
answer the following questions.
• I believe/think/feel (that) ". • My opinion is that .
I strongly believe n, • As far as I am concerned, .,.
• In my opinion/view, '" • I (completely) agree that;.... .ith ..
• The way I see it, ... I (strongly) disagree tharwith ..
• It seems/appears to me (that) . • I am totally against ..
• To my mind, n. • I couldn't agree more that/with ...
• I (do not) agree thatjwitb . I couldn't disagree more that/with ,..

On the other hand, thereare certain 9 Use the prompts below to write sentences, as in the example.
disadvantages to havingyour own car.
1 we / help I elderly ~ their lives be easier
Firstly. carshave to be maintained and
e.g 1 strongly believe that we should help the elderly, If we wen' to do
repaired on a regular basis. Therefore,
this, then their lives would be easier.
you need to spend a considerable
2 all students/ learn / foreign language ~ have better career
amount of money to keep the car in
good condition. Moreover, driving can
sometimes be extremely stressful. For
example, being caught in a traffic jam 3 people / give up smoking ~ have fewer health problems
is not only irritating but also time-
... teenagers / get I part-time job ~ learn to be more responsible
a) What isthe main idea ofthe para-
graph? Which sentence is it in?
b) What supporting sentences does . 5 we / alldo / voluntary work 0::::::::;. ourcommunity be a betterplace to live
the writer give?
c) Which linking words/phrases has
the writer used? Suggest other
suitable words/phrases which 10 Use appropriate expressions to expand the prompts below to make
sentences expressing an opinion, as in the example.
could replace these.
in order to / protect / environment / people / stop use / plastic bags
8 Read the topic sentences and It seems to me that, in order to protect the environment. people should stop
suggest suitable supporting using plastic bags.
2 spending money / set up / space stations/ be / completely I unjustified
1 Television may have a harmful
effect on youngpeople. 3 in order to reduce / pollution I traffic / be / ban from / enter / city centre

2 Looking after a pet from an early ... organic vegetables / be / much / healthy / than / vegetables / grown with
age develops a person's character. chemical fertilizers

5 children / be encouraged / participate in I after-school activities

3 Life in a large city isveryinteresting.
Unil140 Opinion hsoys

11 a) Read the sentences below. 12 a) Imagine you hal e had a class discussion about the following
Then. use appropriatewords! question: "Should morc people give up meal and become
expressions to gin Jour vegetarians?" Read the viewpoints (1-5) and match them to the
opinion, as in the example. reasons (A-E), as in the example.

I A part-time job is the bestoption for

1 Eating meat is bad for you (BJ 4 Meat is an essential part of our
someone who is a working parent.
diet; we cannot do without it 0
I completely agree that apart-timejob
is the best option for someone who is 2 There are many healthy and 5 Vegetarian food is often
a working parent. tasty alternatives available 0 boring and tasteless 0
2 Package holidays are ideal for people 3 Eating meat is cruel to
who do not like to travel alone. animals D
D Animalsare
A Soya beans kept in terrible
and lentils arc conditions just so
delicious and are good they can be killed
3 Becoming more aware of sources of protein. and eaten.
environmental concerns is the only
way 10 help save OUf planet.

There aren't
4 Educational standards in private dishes that actually
schools are usually higher than taste nice.
those in state schools. Meat provides
us with the protein
and vitamins that we
C n".'ee~

5 Boxing is an extremelyviolent sport b) Read the viewpoints again and say which you agree with and
and should be banned. which you disagree wi th. .\lake sentences using appropriate
linking words/phrases.

c) Complete the parts of the essay below, using your answers from
parts a) and b) as well as your own ideas.

Nowadays, we are often told what we should or should not eat. However, I
personally believe .

To begin with, .

In addition, ..

On the other hand, .

Unil 14nOpinion[ssors

13 Read the extracts below and saywhich are beginnings and which are
endings. Which writing techniques have been used in each'! Viewpoints
A addressing the reader directly A fast food easy solution
B asking a rhetorical question for peoplewith busy
C using direct speech/a quotation lives DO
B fast food unhealthy DO
C fast food expensive
for consumerand
environment DO
...- ---- -
! To sum up, competition has a negat ive effect on children, as the only Reasons I Examples
:=J thing that really matters is winning. Imagine how you would feel if you
were always expected to be the best. I high in fat and salt; not fresh
2 packaging non-biodegradable,
damages environment
3 many ingredients are genetically
4 ordering fast food saves time and
5 people who work long hours can
pick up phone and order takeaway
6 money spent on fast food for a
week isenough to buy groceries for
two weeks
14 Read the rubric and underline the keywords, then answer
the questions.
b) Which of the viewpoints
You have had a class discussion about the following statement:
agree with the statement in
Fast food is a good alternative to cooking foryourself.
Now yourteacherhas asked you to writean essay expressing your opinion the rubric? Which disagree?
and giving reasons for your point of view.
c) Use the notes in part a) to
1 What does the statement in the rubric mean? talk about fast food, as in
A Fast food is cheap, delicious and good for you. Ihe example.
8 Fast food is a goodsolution for those who have no time to cook. e.g. In the first place, fast food is l'CIy
e Cooking is easier than ordering takeaway. unhealthy. "
2 Which points must you include in the essay?
A your opinion 8 your friend's opinion
e reasons to justify your points of view 16 Read the rubric in Ex. l~ again,
then write your essay (120 - 180
3 Which style is not suitable for this essay - formal or informal? words). Use your answers from
Ex. 14and your notes from h .
15 a) Read the rubric in Ex, 14 again and match the viewpoints (A - C) IS to help you. You can use the
to their reasons/examples (l . 6). There are two justifications for eSS3)' in Ex. 3 as a model.
each viewpoint.