0 Up votes0 Down votes

1 views4 pagesSep 23, 2010

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

1 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Chapter - 6_Rotation
- Chapter # 05 Torque, angular momentum, and Equilibrium
- Physics Rotational Dynamics
- Abb robot project IRB 640
- Tutorial Chapter 4_question
- Lanze n Doer Fer
- Rotational Inertia
- Instantaneous center method
- DYNAMIC SYNTHESIS OF THE ROTARY CAM AND TRANSLATED TAPPET WITH ROLL
- Rest and Motion
- mobot
- Electrical Engg
- Structural Engineering
- AP Physics Equations
- assAs
- Phys1301_L32_11-April-2011_post
- UPSEE Full Paper 2006
- New Proof
- Sword Dynamics
- ;l

You are on page 1of 4

http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2007

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

18.02 Lecture 16. – Thu, Oct 18, 2007

Handouts: PS6 solutions, PS7.

Double integrals.

�b

Recall integral in 1-variable calculus: a f (x) dx = area below graph y = f (x) over [a, b].

��

Now: double integral R f (x, y) dA = volume below graph z = f (x, y) over plane region R.

�

Cut��R into small pieces ΔA ⇒ the volume is approximately f (xi , yi ) ΔAi . Limit as ΔA → 0

gives R f (x, y) dA. (picture shown)

How to compute the integral? By taking slices: S(x) = area of the slice by a plane parallel to

yz-plane (picture shown): then

� xmax �

volume = S(x) dx, and for given x, S(x) = f (x, y) dy.

xmin

In the inner integral, x is a ﬁxed parameter, y is the integration variable. We get an iterated

integral.

Example 1: z = 1 − x2 − y 2 , region 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 (picture shown):

� 1� 1

(1 − x2 − y 2 ) dy dx.

0 0

(note: dA = dy dx, limit of ΔA = Δy Δx for small rectangles).

How to evaluate:

1 3 1

� 1 � �

2 2 2 1 2

0 3 0 3 3

� 1 � �1

2 2 1 2 1 1

2) outer integral: ( − x2 ) dx = x − x3 = − = .

0 3 3 3 0 3 3 3

Example 2: same function over the quarter disc R : x2 + y 2 < 1 in the ﬁrst quadrant.

How to ﬁnd the bounds of √ integration? Fix x constant: what is a slice parallel to y-axis? bounds

for y = from y = 0 to y = 1 − x2 in the inner integral. For the outer integral: ﬁrst slice is x = 0,

last slice is x = 1. So we get:

� 1 � √1−x2

(1 − x2 − y 2 ) dy dx.

0 0

(note the inner bounds depend on the outer variable x; the outer bounds are constants!)

2 3

�√1−x2 2

= (1 − x2 )3/2 .

�

Inner: (1 − x )y − y /3 0

3

� 1

2 π

Outer: (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = · · · = .

0 3 8

(. . . = trig. substitution x = sin θ, dx = cos θ dθ, (1 − x2 )3/2 = cos3 θ. Then use double angle

formulas... complicated! I carried out part of the calculation to show how it would be done but

then stopped before the end to save time; students may be confused about what happened exactly.)

Exchanging order of integration.

�1�2 �2�1

0 0 dx dy = 0 0 dy dx, since region is a rectangle (shown). In general, more complicated!

1

2

√

1� x

ey

�

Example 3: dy dx: inner integral has no formula. To exchange order:

0 x y

√

1) draw the region (here: x < y < x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 – picture drawn on blackboard).

2) ﬁgure out bounds in other direction: ﬁxing a value of y, what are the bounds for x? here: left

border is x = y 2 , right is x = y; ﬁrst slice is y = 0, last slice is y = 1, so we get

� 1� y y � 1 y � 1

e e

dx dy = 2

(y − y ) dy = ey − yey dy = [−yey + 2ey ]10 = e − 2.

0 y2 y 0 y 0

(the last integration can be done either by parts, or by starting from the guess −yey and adjusting;).

Integration in polar coordinates. (x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ): useful if either integrand or

region have a simpler expression in polar coordinates.

Area element: ΔA � (rΔθ) Δr (picture drawn of a small element with sides Δr and rΔθ).

Taking Δθ, Δr → 0, we get dA = r dr dθ.

�� � π/2 � 1

Example (same as last time): (1 − x2 − y 2 ) dx dy = (1 − r2 ) r dr dθ.

x2 +y 2 ≤1, x≥0, y≥0 0 0

� �1 � π/2

1 2 1 4 1 1 π1 π

Inner: r − r

= . Outer: dθ = = .

2 04 4 0 4 24 8

��

In general: when setting up f r dr dθ, ﬁnd bounds as usual: given a ﬁxed θ, ﬁnd initial and

ﬁnal values of r (sweep region by rays).

Applications.

��

1) The area of the region R is R 1 dA. Also, the total mass of a planar object with density

δ = lim Δm/ΔA (mass per unit area, δ = δ(x, y) – if uniform material, constant) is given by:

ΔA=0

��

M= δ dA.

R

��

1

2) recall the average value of f over R is f¯ = f dA. The center of mass, or centroid,

Area R

of a plate with density δ is given by weighted average

�� ��

1 1

x̄ = x δ dA, ȳ = y δ dA

mass R mass R

3) moment of inertia: physical equivalent of mass for rotational motion. (mass = how hard

it is to impart translation motion; moment of inertia about some axis = same for rotation motion

around that axis)

Idea: kinetic energy for a single mass m at distance r rotating at angular speed ω = dθ/dt (so

velocity v = rω) is 12 mv 2 = 12 mr2 ω 2 ; I0 = mr2 is the moment of inertia.

��

For a solid with density δ, I0 = r2 δ dA (moment of inertia / origin). (the rotational energy

R

is 12 I0 ω 2 ).

3

��

Moment of inertia about an axis: I = (distance to axis)2 δ dA. E.g. about x-axis, distance

R

is |y|, so ��

Ix = y 2 δ dA.

R

Examples: 1) disk of radius a around its center (δ = 1):

� 2π � a � 4 �a

2 r πa4

I0 = r r dr dθ = 2π = .

0 0 4 0 2

2) same disk, about a point on the circumference?

Setup: place origin at point so integrand is easier; diameter along x-axis; then polar equation of

circle is r = 2a cos θ (explained on a picture). Thus

� π/2 � 2a cos θ

3

I0 = r2 r dr dθ = ... = πa4 .

−π/2 0 2

- Chapter - 6_RotationUploaded byMohammed Aftab Ahmed
- Chapter # 05 Torque, angular momentum, and EquilibriumUploaded bySIR USMAN KHAN
- Physics Rotational DynamicsUploaded bySayan Kumar Khan
- Abb robot project IRB 640Uploaded bysongoku925
- Tutorial Chapter 4_questionUploaded byNilofer Nisa
- Lanze n Doer FerUploaded byAsemota Oghogho
- Rotational InertiaUploaded byquytruyenkiep
- Instantaneous center methodUploaded byHafiz Asfahan
- DYNAMIC SYNTHESIS OF THE ROTARY CAM AND TRANSLATED TAPPET WITH ROLLUploaded byPetrescu Florian
- Rest and MotionUploaded byMohsin Baig
- mobotUploaded bypatil_don@yahoo.co.in
- Electrical EnggUploaded byapi-3827000
- Structural EngineeringUploaded byMartin Ennis
- AP Physics EquationsUploaded byAlvin Gao
- assAsUploaded byMukesh Bisht
- Phys1301_L32_11-April-2011_postUploaded byAmin Borji
- UPSEE Full Paper 2006Uploaded bykapil
- New ProofUploaded byVladimir Kozlik
- Sword DynamicsUploaded by0_misterx_0
- ;lUploaded byjohnnybravo69
- Keep 307Uploaded bysecret2016
- TBSBal-UserGuide-Version1Uploaded byvj
- On the Influence of Liquid Elasticity on Mixing in a Vessel Agitated by a Combined Ribbon Screw ImpellerUploaded byMabel Ginestar
- Manuveribility AuvUploaded bybendisudhakar3536
- Notas MecánicaUploaded byJohas David Morales
- Moment of InertiaUploaded byMaxwell Mensah Opoku
- 11 Physics Notes Ch7Uploaded bysagar sutradhar
- solution11.pdfUploaded byReinel Rodriguez
- torqueangular_momentumequillibriumUploaded byMalaika Chaudhary
- Dynamics of Rotors.pdfUploaded byJon Lee

- D12008Uploaded byye ye
- Batch_2017_3rd_Semester_CSE.docxUploaded byAnkur Giri
- Echo From the PastUploaded byWalt Shumate
- 223944409-Game-Audio.pdfUploaded byd-fbuser-63607130
- QuizUploaded bynihara
- Mlmsoftworks.com Software FeaturesUploaded byKarthik Swot
- Divine Origin of the Quran Proven From Modern ScienceUploaded byIbrahim Yu 賈明泰
- 1. ODR50221 NE40E-XA Series Routers 400G Platform Hardware IntroductionUploaded byGilmar Orozco
- IDSEM-UG1648Uploaded byRicky Thomas
- Preparation of Microplan of Routine Immunization and Consolidation at Block-District LevelUploaded byNational Child Health Resource Centre (NCHRC)
- RNA Structure and TypesUploaded byshubham sachdeva
- CRM Project SynopsisUploaded byhairavi10_Scribd
- Biology NotesUploaded byPrasan Nanda
- JKSSB Shortlisted Candidates for Exam held on 18th OctUploaded byAnonymous xdetBXSaot
- Front Matter Word 2013Uploaded byNabil Abidal
- Tallentex 2018 BrochureUploaded byKripa Baruah
- Engine CoolingUploaded byAnjas Asmara
- PQR 작성(영).pptUploaded byhunghoanglong
- Roles and Responsibilities of CRO and SponsorUploaded byShilpi Paliwal
- Multi Currency ManagementUploaded byLefter Telos Zaka
- Baseline Document OutlineUploaded byOlsjon Baxhija
- [Bookflare.net] - MS Excel Let's Advance to the Next LevelUploaded byComan Flavius-Alin
- m MmmmmmmmmmUploaded byDavid R Paucara
- Atkinson 2001Uploaded byalfredoibc
- 1-s2.0-S1877042812016771-mainUploaded byRizal Setiyono
- S-002Uploaded bygtambax
- cloudComputingSec_p3.pptxUploaded byRohit
- d Itg ManualUploaded byJuank Andrade
- Acute Exacerbation of Copd by Dr Irappa MadabhaviUploaded byIrappa Madabhavi
- List_Bushlength and Thread LoadsUploaded bytylerstearns

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.