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By Rituraj Tewari
Acknowledging debt is not easy to us as we are indebted to many people but firstly towards my father and mother those who have given me opportunity to be in such a professional course. My acknowledgement debt will be incomplete if I fail to give sincere thanks to my Project Guide Mrs. Jaya George as without her suggestion the final report would not have materialized of. I express my profound gratitude to her for making me the fortunate one to get the opportunity to work under her supervision and guidance. The keen interest, cooperation, inspiration, continuous encouragement and motivation provided by him enabled me to complete my research work in time. Last but not the least I would like to thank all the faculty members and the Principal of MSR Institute of Hotel Management, Bangaluru for their kind cooperation and guidance.
Rituraj Tewari Roll no. 68 BHM,1st Semester.
Housekeeping is the department that deals essentially with cleanliness and all ancillary service attached to that. The standard plays an important role in the reputation of the hotels. One feels comfortable only in the environment which is clean and well ordered, so cleanliness is important for health foremost also for well being. Accommodation in hotels tend to be the largest part of the hotel, it is the most revenue generating department, the housekeeping department takes care of all rooms is often largest department in hotels. The rooms in hotels are offered as accommodation to travelers/ guest as individual units of bedroom. Some interconnected rooms are also made which will be helpful to the guest and families. Many hotels offer suits to the guest. Hotel offer laundry, dry leaning facilities for guest clothes, shoe polishing facilities also. Hotel aims to make environment comfortable and offer specialised service to the guest. Hotel offer guest the choice of specialty restaurant, coffee shop. The bar also sells liquors which generate the revenue of the hotel. They are available in banqueting, meeting and private party facilities. Revenue can be generated from conferencing, meeting, seminar etc. These days shopping arcade also found in hotels. A health club is a part of facilities of most large hotels especially resort hotels this also include swimming pool and spa facilities. Hotels try to make the ambiance as pleasant as possible by nice colour scheme, attractive furnishing and a well kept efficient staff. House keeping is the department determines to a large extent whether guests are happy during stay and in turn mankind they return to the hotel. The fine accommodation and service are provided to the guest so they are pleased with the hotel. The guest satisfaction is its primary object and the hygiene factor must always be present in the hotel. In hotels major part of revenue comes from rooms, rooms which is not sold on any night losses revenue forever and reason for poor occupancy can be anything like hygiene factor, cleanliness, lack of modernizing etc. hence main purpose is to improve whole appeal of the room. A guest spend more time alone in his room than any other part of the hotel, so he can check up the cleanliness he wishes to as some of the guest are more health conscious these days. He may check up dusting, in-depth cleaning and losses confidence if properly not done e.g. If drawers are not cleaned he may generally won't feel like putting his clothes down. Decent room supplies are service like quick laundry and dry cleaning service shows guest that hotel is considering his comfort and wishes to please him. not only this from the cleanliness of lobby, public area, restaurant, cloakrooms, the state and cleanliness of uniform the guest can judge a lot about hotel. It can be positive or negative judgment we can conclude that housekeeping department contributes greatly to all guest impression of the hotel.
What is housekeeping?
Housekeeping or housecleaning is the systematic process of making a home neat and clean in approximately that order. This may be applied more broadly than just to an individual home, or as a metaphor for a similar "clean up" process applied elsewhere such as a procedural reform. It can also be called household management, which is the act of overseeing the organizational, financial, day-to-day operations of a house or estate, and the managing of other domestic concerns. In the process of housekeeping general cleaning activities are completed, such as disposing of rubbish, storing of belongings in regular places, cleaning dirty surfaces, dusting and vacuuming. It is also the care and control of property, ensuring its maintenance and proper use and appearance. In a hotel, "housekeeping" is also a term for the cleaning personnel. • Some housekeeping is housecleaning and some housekeeping is home chores. Home chores are housework that needs to be done at regular intervals. • Housekeeping includes the budget and control of expenditures, preparing meals and buying food, paying the heat bill, and cleaning the house. • Outdoor housecleaning chores include removing leaves from rain gutters, washing windows, sweeping doormats, cleaning the pool, putting away lawn furniture, and taking out the trash. • Tools include the vacuum cleaner, broom and mop. Supplies such as cleaning solutions and sponges are sold in grocery stores and elsewhere. Professional
cleaners can be hired for less frequent or specialist tasks such as cleaning blinds, rugs, and sofas. Professional services are also offered for the basic tasks. Safety is a consideration because some cleaning products are toxic and some cleaning tasks are physically demanding. Green cleaning refers to cleaning without causing pollution. The history of housecleaning has links to the advancement of technology
To keep the hospital clean and hygienic various equipments and supplies are used. No work can be done without proper equipment. It is important that the housekeeper make a careful selection of equipment based on suitability for use in a health care institution, appropriate design and required size, rugged construction and finish, ease and availability of maintenance, initial and operating costs, on-the-job tested performance, safety, and overall efficiency. Supplies should also be studied, and basic procedures developed to use these supplies most effectively in maintaining desired standards of cleanliness Housekeeping property is broadly classified as either equipment or supplies. Items classified as supplies are consumables, and equipment is reusable. Thus, floor machines, brooms, mops, stools, vacuum machines, etc, are categorized as equipment, whereas dusters, detergents, germicides, etc. are supplies. Purchasing equipment: It is poor economy to buy less than high quality, timesaving equipment. It is also poor economy to buy good equipment and let it lay idle or to buy a product of better quality than is actually needed. If budget restrictions require it, expensive equipment can be programmed over the course of several years. Selecting new equipment is the responsibility of the housekeeper. Advice may be obtained from the purchasing agent, maintenance superintendent, laundry manager, microbiologist, or other personnel, but the final decision rests with the housekeeper. In order to ensure that no wrong purchase is made, the housekeeper needs to do independent
research in the market and on the job. A general checklist can be formulated to help the housekeeper and other personnel involved in the purchase of the equipment to remember every factor pertinent to the purchase of the equipment. The housekeeper also needs to evaluate a product before purchase. Very often the employees who use the product are the best people to consult for this. Maintaining equipment: When an employee is provided with high quality equipment, he must be trained in its proper care in use and in storage. All equipment should also be inspected daily by the housekeeper or his representative for cleanliness, indications of wear and tear, neglect or abuse. Periodic detailed inspection should be made to forestall breakdowns. Some institutions hold each worker responsible for the equipment assigned to him. Other equipment that is used by the department for general work, and which is shared by all the staff, is cared for and inspected regularly by the senior housekeeper, or a person assigned for the purpose. One method to ensure regular inspection is to set aside a specific room where equipment is turned in at the end of the day and made ready for use the next day. Another method is the systematic tagging of machines that have been inspected. This makes it easy for the housekeeper to make a quick check of machines that have not been inspected. A card file with separate card for the service history of the equipment should be kept in the housekeeping department. This will provide the department with important data whenever replacement of equipment is being considered. In case of failure, a tag stating “defective’ should be attached to the equipment, and the equipment should be sent to the maintenance department for a check. Space should be provided on the tag for a brief description of the defect, the department from which it was sent, the date on which it was sent, and the name of the person who discovered the defect. The manufacturer’s instructions concerning the operation, maintenance and adjustments of the equipment should be permanently kept in the housekeeper’s file. Copies should be
given to the maintenance department for making repairs and to use the parts list for stockpiling small replacement parts. Each employee should be given individual instruction in handling the equipment he uses, and should have a set of instructions framed and hung in the immediate work area. Observing the employee as he uses the equipment will show how closely he adheres to the instructions. If the maintenance department does not have workers with the skills required to repair particular equipment, it is advisable to use the services of the manufacturer’s local representative for systematic maintenance and overhauling. By contracting his services, the institution need not stock up any spare parts, and also avoids loss of time, as he can provide substitute equipment while repairs are being made.
Equipment and supplies needed for Housekeeping (in short)
DUSTER: This is used to clean dust from tables, chairs, and other articles. BROOM (hard bristle): This is used to clean the surroundings, the toilets, and to remove water after washing the floor. SOFT BROOM: This is used to sweep dust and waste on a smooth floor. WASTE BASKET: This is placed in the patients’ rooms, office area and common areas of the hospital for dropping waste materials. DUST BIN: All the garbage collected from different areas of the hospital is put into the dust bin. DUST PAN: This is used to pick up and remove dust and waste collected at a place. RUGS: These are placed at the entrances to absorb all the dust particles from our footwear when we come in from the outside. DOOR MAT: These are placed in front of the operation theatre, laboratory, other rooms, toilets and bathrooms, in order to absorb moisture and dust. DISINFECTANT: Different disinfectants are used for cleaning floors and toilets. FLOOR CLEANING LIQUID: It is used to remove dirt from the floor and make it shine. It is used to clean and wipe the floor. BUCKET: This is used for carrying water and while swabbing the floor.
THREAD MOP: It is used to clean and mop the verandah and rooms. SWABBING CLOTH: This is used to wipe bathrooms and keep them dry. WASHING LIQUID /POWDER: This is used to clean bathrooms, toilets and washbasins. LIQUID SOAP/SOAP SOLUTION: This is used to clean walls and tiles. BLEACHING POWDER: Bleaching powder is used to clean moss-covered places. It is also used to clean sewage tanks and water tanks. NYLON BRUSH: This is used to scrub washbasins and vessels. It is also used to remove stains. WC BRUSH: This is used to clean the outlet for sewage water. WOODEN BRUSH: This is used to clean the footrests and tiled flooring in the toilets. This is also used to clean water tanks. The wooden brushes that are used to clean toilets should not be used for any other purpose. CURVED BRUSH: It is used to clean the inside of the commode and toilet bowl, as well as corners and edges. NYLON SPONGE: This is used to clean walls. NUVON: This is an insecticide, which is sprayed to prevent cockroaches, mosquitoes, ants and flies. This is also placed in septic tanks to prevent breeding of cockroaches INSECTICIDE: This is sprayed or used in powder form to prevent cockroaches, flies, and other insects. NAPHTHALENE BALLS: These are placed in the drains of washbasins to prevent insects from coming up through the drains, it also helps to keep away bad odour. AIR FRESHENER: It is used in the toilets or in rooms to drive away odour HYDROCHLORIC ACID: It is used to remove stains in washbasins and toilets. It is also used to remove any clogging in the washbasins and sinks. HARPIC / TOILET CLEANER: When used on tiles and in the toilets it removes stains, and leaves them sparkling. BRASSO: It is used to polish brass articles. MANSION POLISH: This is used to polish floors. STAIN REMOVER: This is used to remove stains and dirt from clothes.
VARNISH: This is used to polish wooden furniture, and thus protect it from termites. FLOOR STAIN REMOVING STONE: This is used to remove salt stains from mosaic flooring. TOILET PAPER: A roll of toilet paper is placed in the toilets. VACUUM CLEANER: a machine used to remove dust from places that are not easily reached. This is also used to remove cobwebs, dust from corners of walls and ceilings, window grills, etc. POLISHING MACHINE: This is used to polish floors and keep them shining and looking new MULTI-ACTION MOP: This is used to clear water from the floor. It is used in the bathrooms to dry up the floor, as well as to clean it thoroughly.
Equipment and supplies needed for Housekeeping (in detail)
The powered Sweeper is used for cleaning large areas in no time. It has consistent high quality of cleaning. This machine works out to be cheaper than existing cleaning systems. Benefits: it has fair acceptability of the machine with used – eliminates fatigue, adds dignity to monotonous work achieving constant will to work; economical and efficient due to large area coverage in short time with least manpower; complete collection and disposal of garbage; and dust free sweeping due to vacuuming on sweeping brushes makes the machine environment friendly.
A carpet sweeper is a mechanical device for the cleaning of carpets. These were popular before the introduction of the vacuum cleaner and have been largely superseded by them. However, some restaurant chains continue to use them (e.g. Perkins) as they are lightweight and quiet, enabling the wait staff to quickly clean crumbs up from the floor without disturbing other diners. Carpet Sweepers are still available from major USA retail chains. Patent illustration of the underside of a Bissell carpet sweeper A carpet sweeper typically consists of a small box. The base of the box has rollers and brushes, connected by a belt or gears. There is also a container for dirt. The arrangement is such that when
pushed along a floor the rollers turn and force the brushes to rotate. The brushes sweep dirt and dust from the floor into the container. Carpet sweepers frequently have a height adjustment that enables them to work on different lengths of carpet, or carpet less floors. The sweeper usually has a long handle so that it can be pushed without bending over.
It’s a compact, robust and handy scrubber drier with two counter rotating brushes, designed for effective cleaning of floors and joints. It has two squeegees with independent suction for both wet scrubbing and dry cleaning, both in forward and reverse directions. This product needs only limited space for storage and transport as the operating handle is foldable – an ideal machine for commercial and industrial cleaning. Features Twin cylindrical brushes for optimum cleaning of structured floors Easy and quick brush replacement Portable solution tanks eliminate the need for buckets and pipes for filling or emptying Small size enables the machine to clean restricted spaces and under furniture; and Optimal utilization of squeegees for effective suction
A floor buffer or floor polisher is an electrical appliance that is used to clean and maintain noncarpeted floors, such as hardwood, marble or linoleum. Somewhat resembling a large upright, wide-based vacuum cleaner with handlebar controls and requiring two-handed steering, a floor buffer uses one or more variable-speed circular rotary brushes to dislodge dirt and dust from flat surfaces. It can also be used in conjunction with chemical cleaning products to restore the floor to a smooth, glossy finish. Larger powered floor buffers are used in schools, hospitals, offices and public buildings. These have wheels and are powered to allow user to easily move and clean items stuck on floors. Scaled-down versions are available for home use and often sold as hard floor cleaner.
A bucket, also called a pail, is a watertight, vertical cylinder or truncated cone, with an open top and a flat bottom, usually attached to a semicircular carrying handle called the bail. A bucket is distinguished from other containers by being unlidded. Their main purpose is the carrying of
water, but they may also have other purposes. Elaborate ceremonial or ritual buckets in bronze, ivory or other materials are found in several ancient or medieval cultures and are known by the Latin for bucket, situla. Other buckets include those attached to Loader (equipment) and Telehandler for agricultural and earthmoving purposes. They can also be used to transport items other than water such as sand, rocks, gumbo, and fish.
A vacuum cleaner (sometimes referred to as a Hoover, a generic trademark) is a device that uses an air pump to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt, usually from floors. The dirt is collected by either a dust bag or a cyclone for later disposal.
Modern front loads tumble clothes dryer for the home. Click image to enlarge A clothes dryer or tumble dryer is a household appliance that is used to remove moisture from a load of clothing and other textiles, generally shortly after they are cleaned in a washing machine. Most dryers consist of a rotating drum called a tumbler through which heated air is circulated to evaporate the moisture from the load. The tumbler is rotated to maintain space between the articles in the load. Using these machines may cause clothes to shrink, become less soft (due to loss of short soft fibers/ lint) and fade. For these reasons, as well as environmental concerns, many people use open air methods such as a clothes line and clotheshorse.
A broom with bristles made from broom corn. Sorghum-made brooms with long and short handles A broom is a cleaning tool consisting of stiff fibers attached to, and roughly parallel to, a cylindrical handle, the broomstick. It is commonly used in combination with a dustpan. In the context of witchcraft, broomstick is likely to refer to the broom as a whole. A smaller whisk broom or brush is sometimes called a duster. An old form of broom was the besom, which was made simply of twigs tied to a handle, and was relatively inefficient as a cleaning implement. Flat brooms, made of broom corn, were invented
by Shakers in the 19th century. Today, they are also commonly made with synthetic bristles. Another common type is the push broom, consisting of a wide brush with short bristles, to which a broomstick is attached at an angle.
8-dishwasher A dishwasher is a mechanical device for cleaning dishes and eating utensils. Dishwashers can be found in restaurants and private homes.
9-Mop A mop in a bucket with a wringer A mop is a mass or bundle of coarse strings or yarn, etc., or a piece of cloth, sponge, or other absorbent material, attached to a pole or stick. It is used to soak up liquid, for cleaning floors and other surfaces; or for other cleaning purposes. The word (then spelled mappe) is attested in English as early as 1496, but new refinements and variations are constantly being introduced; for example, American inventor Eddy Key received U.S. patent #241 for a mop holder in 1837. Types of mops # Classic yarn mop for wet use # Dry-mop, dust-mop # Wet-mop, moist-mop # Mops for pre-moisting # Hot mop # Syntho-mop 10-steam cleaners Hot water extraction The Hot Water Extraction (HWE) method is a method used in chemistry for extraction and for "steam cleaning" (e.g. carpets. as listed by the IICRC to be the primary method
for cleaning carpets (Residential, and Commercial). The pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) process uses a combination of high water pressure for agitation, and hot water to increase reaction rate. Though commonly called "Steam Cleaning", no actual steam is involved in the HWE cleaning process, apart from steam that may escape incidentally from hot water. When the cleaning solution comes in contact with the carpet/rug, it is anywhere between 120250 degrees Fahrenheit, according to the heat available from the cleaning unit. For instance, in a modern truck-mounted carpet cleaning machine, water can be heated to 300+ degrees (F), but after passing through high pressure steel braided hose and several manifolds, the water loses much of its heat. The typical cleaning method involves a preconditioning of the soiled surface with an alkaline (7 or above on the pH Scale) agent, followed by light agitation with a grooming brush and appropriate dwell time. Next, the surface is passed over several times with a cleaning tool (either manual or automatic) to thoroughly rinse out the preconditioned and, using an acetic acid solution, lower the pH of the fibers to a neutral state. Finally, the surface is dried sufficiently to avoid any possibility of saturation.
11-Brush Cleaning brushes The term brush refers to devices with bristles, wire or other filaments, used for cleaning, grooming hair, make up, painting, surface finishing and for many other purposes. Configurations include twisted-in wire (e.g. bottle brushes), cylinders and disks (with bristles spread in one face or radial). A common way of setting the bristle in the brush is the staple or anchor set brush, in which the filament is forced with a staple by the middle into a hole with a special driver and held there by the pressure against all of the walls of the hole and the portions of the staple nailed to the bottom of the hole. The staple can be replaced with a kind of anchor, which is a piece of rectangular profile wire that is anchored to the wall of the hole, like in
most toothbrushes. Another way to attach the bristles to the surface can be found in the fused brush, in which instead of being inserted into a hole, a plastic fiber is welded to another plastic surface, giving the option to use different diameters of bristles in the same brush. 12-Sponge A sponge is a tool, implement, utensil or cleaning aid consisting of porous material. Sponges are used for cleaning impervious surfaces. They are especially good absorbers of water and water-based solutions.
Sponges are commonly made from cellulose wood fibers, or foamed plastic polymers. Some natural sponges are still sold for the same purpose, although most natural sponges are now used either as body/facial sponges or as decorating tools used for sponge painting. There are three other categories of available synthetic sponges, low-density polyether (known as the rainbow packs of non-absorbent sponges), PVA (very dense, highly absorbent material with no visible pores) and polyester. Polyester sponges are also sub-divided into a variety of types, some being reticulated (artificially broken-in) for ease of use. Other types are double-blown polyester, meaning that they have a high water retention ability, approaching or equaling PVA, but with visible pores and more flexibility of applications.
13-Dustpan A dustpan is a cleaning utensil (also known as Dustpan and brush (UK)), commonly used in combination with a broom. The dustpan may appear to be a type of flat scoop. It is often hand held for home use, but industrial and commercial enterprises often use a hinged variety on the end of a stick to prevent the user from constantly stooping to use it. Handheld dustpans may be used with either a full-size broom or with a smaller whisk broom or brush sometimes called a duster. This second combination may be sold as one unit. It was invented by the American inventor T.E. McNeill in 1858 .Lloyd P. Ray invented the more complex stand-up variant of the dustpan. This was one of almost 200 variants
of McNeill’s dustpan that were granted patents by the turn of the century.
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