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Industrial Training Report 1


As per the revised syllabus for B.Tech from Mahatma Gandhi University
every student is supposed to attend a 10 days internship program from any 2 reputed
industries. Our group comprising of 6 members got permission from TELK to
participate in their 3 day internship program. The program was from 13-06-2013 to
15-06-2013. We also got permission from KEL to participate in their 7 days internship
program. KEL internship program was from 17-06-2013 to 24-06-2013.

Dept of EEE VJCET , Vazhakulam

Industrial Training Report 2


The Transformer Division of KEL at Mamala, Ernakulam, was established in 1969

with the technical assistance of BHEL, to manufacture supreme quality transformers,
for various State Electricity Boards, Government Departments, Public and Private
Sector Companies. This division, ISO 9001 certified by TUV, boasts of a long
sustained list of extremely satisfied clients, many of whom who have stood by KEL,
for decades. A fitting testimony to the trustworthy performer - the robust energy
efficient transformers of KEL. Over the years, relying on the unmatched quality of
KEL transformers, electricity boards across lndia perfectly maintain a healthy power
distribution supply system.

The transformer division with an annual production capacity of 6,00,000 kVA soon
after its inception, emerged as a major player in designing and manufacturing
Distribution Transformers of ratings upto 5,000 kVA, 33 kV Class. Manufacturing
custom-built transformers, for specific requirements, is yet another specialty of KEL.
The KEL transformer factory is one of the first few transformer factories in India, to
get ISO 9001 Certification. KEL transformers, approved by the national test house,
various state electricity boards and power corporations in the country, are type tested
at Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore.


In-house R&D efforts, KEL transformers were customized to suit stringent

requirements and trends innovations continue as an on-going process to deliver
specific transformer types and designs of various ratings. In this pursuit of excellence,
the resourceful design department of KEL, uses state-0f-the-art software to design
world-class transformers, optimized for maximum reliability, durability, and energy
efficiency, compatible to the standards set by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE).

Dept of EEE VJCET , Vazhakulam

Industrial Training Report 3


Banking on its inherent strength, in technological excellence, and an uncompromising

commitment to quality, the Transformer division of KEL, is all set for substantial
growth. By forgoing new alliances. By exploring new vistas.


ISO 9001 Quality Management System for design, procurement, manufacturing,

testing, erection, commissioning and servicing of transformers. Certified by TUV.


Distribution Transformers of ratings upto 5,000 kVA, 33 kV class of types such as
oilfilled and resin impregnated dry type; on load tap changing with Automatic
Voltage Regulation.


KEL has successfully ventured into the manufacturing of Resin Cast Dry Type,
Special Application Transformers such as EMU, LOCO, Dynamic Reactive Power
Compensation and Furnace Transformers.

Dept of EEE VJCET , Vazhakulam

Industrial Training Report 4


Distribution transformer is an electrical transformer that is used to carry electrical

energy from a primary distribution circuit to a secondary distribution circuit. This can
also be used to transfer current within a secondary distribution circuit or to the service
circuit. These transformers minimize the voltage supply of the primary circuit to the
amount of voltage desired by the consumer. The amount of this voltage keeps on
changing and can be different for commercial consumers, residential consumers and
light industry consumers.



Distribution transformers can be single-phase or three-phase. Usually, single-phase
transformers are used for residential applications.

The three-phase transformers with a pad installed on them are used with an
underground primary circuit, whereas three single-phase pole type transformers are
used for overhead services

There are some distribution transformers, which can also offer network services. They
are usually mounted in an underground vault. In this type of transformers, power is
supplied through underground cables. Advantages of distribution transformer is that
they have excellent capacity to withstand overloads

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Industrial Training Report 5


4.1. CORE:

Core is mainly for introducing a low reluctance magnetic path.


It is through which voltage/current flows and treated as electrical circuit of


4.3. OIL:

Transformer oil is mineral oil and is hydro-carbon compound. This oil is getting from
refineries. Transformer oil is used as insulation medium and cooling. Low viscosity
oil provides better cooling.

4.4. TANK:

It is the container of a transformer which carries core, coil and oil.


A bushing is a means of bringing out and in electrical connection from inside to

outside and vice versa. It provides a necessary insulation between the winding
electrical connection and main tank which is at earth potential. They are generally in
two types 1. IS Bushing (up to 33 KV) 2. Oil Filled Condenser Bushing (66 KV and


It is a safety device mainly used in transformer to protect tank from bursting due to
excessive pressure developed inside in fault condition.

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Industrial Training Report 6


It conserves the oil inside the transformer. Usually it is in cylindrical shape. In high
voltage transformer inside conservator there is a rubber bellow/air cell to prevent the
ingress of moisture present in the air during breathing from outside. These rubber
bellow/air cells prevent the direct contact of air to the transformer oil inside the


It is one of the most important protective device used in transformer. It is placed in

between main tank and conservator. Using 3 inch pipe line which is arranged at an
angle 9 degree to 15 degree.


In many cases separately mounted cooler banks are used. It consists of cooler
connecting pipes, radiators, fans, pumps etc.



OLTC is used along with transformer for getting desired output voltage. The tap leads
of the tap winding are being connected to the OLTC Tap selector. The oil inside
OLTC will not allow mixing with the main oil. Since this oil will be contaminated
during the operation of OLTC. There is a separate conservator for OLTC in addition
to main conservator. OLTC is usually connected to the HV side.



These are used for measuring temperature of oil and for the temperature of winding.

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Industrial Training Report 7


This is used for breathing and for preventing the entry of moisture in the transformer
oil when the transformer breaths. The dust in the air sucking from the atmospheres
passes through an oil cup provided in the bottom of the breather. The dust in the air
will be collected in the oil cup. Silica-gel will absorb moisture content present in the
breathing air.


Usually two control panels are provided with power transformer for controlling
OLTC operation and cooling control action.


Thermosyphon filters are intended for prolonging Transformer oil life by abstracting
harmful constituents like water content from it.


These oil level indicators are used to indicate oil inside the transformer tank.

Types of cooling

1. ONAN- Oil Natural Air Natural

2. ONAF - Oil Natural Air Forced

3. OFAF- Oil Forced Air Forced

4. ODWF- Oil Directed Water Forced

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Industrial Training Report 8


Depending upon the rating of transformer different types of cooling are adapted.
Usually types of cooling adapted for a transformer at different load are being
indicated in the transformer name plate. Transformer cooling arrangement can be
done in various ways.

1.Arrangement with radiators

2.The surface areas of the radiators have enough area to dissipate heat to
theatmosphere while hot oil is passing through the radiators. Radiators are arranged in
two fashions. One is mounting to the tank directly (Tank mounted Radiators) and
Radiators can also arrange to form a bank. This is required for Transformer for higher
rating for more heat dissipations.


This type of cooling equipment is commonly employed were water is available in



OFAF and OFWF type of cooling methods require oil circulating pumps in the
cooling circuit of Transformer.

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Industrial Training Report 9




In an electrical power transformer there are primary, secondary and may be tertiary
windings. The performance of a transformer mainly depends upon the flux linkages
between these windings. For efficient flux linking between these winding one low
reluctance magnetic path common to all windings, should be provided in the
transformer. This low reluctance magnetic path in transformer is known as core of

Cores are made of grain oriented, low loss magnetic cold-rolled silicon steel. Both
sides of steel sheets are laminated with ceramic insulation. This is the section where
transformer core is being fabricated and assembled. Main core material (CRGO) is
getting in rolled condition and this material is being imported. At present there are no
Indian manufacturers producing CRGO. This core is also getting in fabricated
condition from different Indian companies like Mahindra, Nexus, Crips etc. (All
materials are importing). Thickness of CRGO sheet is 0.24~0.30 mm.


Windings form another important part of transformers. In a two winding transformer

two windings would be present. The one which is connected to a voltage source and
creates the flux is called as a primary winding. The second winding where the voltage
is induced by induction is called a secondary. If the secondary voltage is less than that
of the primary, then the transformer is called a step down transformer. If the
secondary voltage is more, then it is a step up transformer. A step down transformer
can be made into a step up transformer by making the low voltage winding its
primary. Hence it may be more appropriate to designate the windings as High Voltage
(HV) and Low Voltage (LV) windings. The winding with more number of turns will
be a HV winding. The current on the HV side will be lower as V-I product is a
constant and given as the VA rating of the machines. Also the HV winding needs to

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Industrial Training Report 10

be insulated more to withstand the higher voltage across it. HV also needs more
clearance to the core, yoke or the body. These aspects influence the type of the
winding used for the HV or LV windings. Transformer coils can be broadly classified
in to concentric coils and sandwiched coils. The former are very common with core
type transformers while the latter one are common with shell type transformers.

Conductor insulation:

In concentric arrangement, in view of the lower insulation and clearance

requirements, the LV winding is placed close to the core which is at ground potential.
The HV winding is placed around the LV winding. Also taps are provided on HV
winding when voltage change is required. This is also facilitated by having the HV
winding as the outer winding.

Horizontal winding machine:

KEL Mamala is associated with construction of transformers with disc type coils. The
HV and LV windings are done using vertical winding machine and horizontal
winding machine. Disc coils consist of at conductors wound in a spiral form at the
same place spiralling outwards. Alternate discs are made to spiral from outside
towards the centre. Sectional discs or continuous discs may be used. These have
excellent thermal properties and the behaviour of the winding is highly predictable.
Winding of a continuous disc winding needs specialized skills. The insulation used in
the case of electrical conductors in a transformer is varnish or enamel in dry type of
transformers. In transformers, to improve the heat transfer characteristics the
conductors are insulated using un-impregnated paper and the whole core-winding
assembly is immersed in a tank containing transformer oil. Around the HV winding, a
layer of Kraft paper is wound. Normally the Kraft paper acts as a paper, but when its
mechanical property comes in contact with the transformer oil changes and behaves
like an insulating material. In the winding section, all insulation work, coil winding,
coil assembly are assembled.


Here assembly of core, coil and tanks are being done. Core and core clamp assembly
will get from the core working shop and assembled coil per phase (HV, MV and LV

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Industrial Training Report 11

separately wound and then assembled together) from the C & I (Coil & Insulation)
shop. After dismantling upper yoke the assembled coil will insert over the three limbs
of core using EOT crane. After completion of coil insertion upper yoke will be rebuilt.

Next stage is internal assembly work. i.e. Tap-lead formation, bushing lead formation,
providing proper insulation at right place for getting insulation strength etc. All these
work are being done as drying to remove the moisture present in the insulation
material. Presence of moisture will reduce the insulation level (quality) of the
transformer. After drying, the next process is re-clamping (re-tightening of parts
which are shrinkage due to drying). After re-clamping the dried transformer and re-
clamped internal body.(Core and Coil) put in its tank. Components and accessories
like Transformer Bushing, conservator, relay line, protective devices such as Bucholz
relay, PRD/ Bursting head assembly, Pipe assembly, and Cooler bank assembly
including radiators which are being completed.


After completion of assembling, the work is inserted in the tank, hot, degassed oil is
then allowed into the transformer tank.

Oil is then circulated through the transformer until all gas trapped in the core,
windings, and the insulation is removed.



The Transformer Turns Ratio test is used to make sure that the Turns Ratio between
the windings of the transformer is correct. With this information, you can decide what
the output voltage of the transformer will be. The ratio is calculated under no-load


Winding resistance measured is required for computing load losses, regulation and
efficiency of transformer.

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Industrial Training Report 12


These two tests are performed on a transformer to determine:(i) Equivalent circuit of

transformer (ii) Voltage regulation of transformer (iii) Efficiency of transformer. The
power required for these Open Circuit test and Short Circuit test on transformer is
equal to the power loss occurring in the transformer

Open Circuit Test on Transformer:

The pupose of this test is to determine no loaad loss or coreloss and no load current
which is helpful in finding Xo and Ro.The wattmeter ,ammeter and voltmeter are
connected to the LV side.The HV winding is kept open and LV winding is connected
to supply of normal voltage and frequency.By autotransformer the apllied voltage is
made equal to voltage rating of LV side. Therefore it is seen that the open circuit test
on transformer is used to determine core losses in transformer and parameters of shunt
branch of the equivalent circuit of transformer.

Short Circuit Test on Transformer:

A voltmeter, wattmeter, and an ammeter are connected in HV side of the transformer .

The voltage at rated frequency is applied to that HV side with the help of auto

The LV side of the transformer is short circuited . The applied voltage is slowly
increase until the ammeter gives reading equal to the rated current of the HV side.
After reaching at rated current of HV side, all three instruments reading (Voltmeter,
Ammeter and Watt-meter readings) are recorded.

The Short Circuit test on transformer is used to determine copper loss in transformer.

Dept of EEE VJCET , Vazhakulam

Industrial Training Report 13



Transformers and Electricals Kerala Limited (TELK) is located at Cochin, Kerala

State, in the southern tip of India. TELK manufactures Extra High Voltage Power
Transformers (upto 315MVA, 420kV) and other equipment’s (CT, PT, SF6 Circuit
Breakers and reactors). The company has technical as well as financial collaboration
with Hitachi Ltd., Japan from 1965.

TELK is renowned for the quality of its products, earned through the last 3
decades of impeccable supply and services all over India and outside India. The
company supplies its equipment’s to all over India as well as Oman. Malaysia,
Indonesia, Nigeria, etc.


 First 420kV transformer in India in 1978

 4 x 150 MVA 420/220kV single phase Auto transformers to Panipat

Substation, BCB

 4 x 83.3 MVA 420/220kV single phase Tie Transformers to Slapper, BCB

 600 MVA (3 x Single Phase Bank) for India’s first 500MW Thermal Power
Station at Trombay for TATA

 India’s First 420kV SF6 breaker in 1979 to MHSEB/MPEB

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Industrial Training Report 14





CT with primary current up to 2000A has been manufactured. Specific design

will be used for current ratings over 2000A. The standard rated secondary current is
5A or 1A. However, CT with any other secondary current rating can also be
manufactured. The CT consists of primary and secondary coils and core. The
magnetic circuit is constructed in the form of rings with CRGO or Ni alloy. Each
secondary coil is wound over an insulated core and the insulation passes through this
ring. Insulation is provided by wrapping high quality insulating papers. The primary
has high volt type construction. The insulated primary winding pass through the
porcelain and primary leads are taken out through small terminal bushings fixed to the
sides of expansion chamber on the upper end of the porcelain. The secondary
terminals are brought out and terminated in a term box fitted in a board. The CT can
be provided with up to five cores depending upon the auxiliary circuits and current
ratings required.


PT manufactured is suitable for connection between the line and effectively earthed
systems. The standard secondary voltage is 110V and 110/√3V. The grounding type
PT consist of primary and secondary/tertiary winding, core, lower tank and expansion
chamber/ The core is made of CRGO steel and has three limbed construction. The
secondary/tertiary and primary terminals are wound concentrically around the core.
The assembly is placed in a tank. The secondary/tertiary terminals are brought out and
terminated in a terminal box fitted to the side of the tank. The terminals of the primary
winding is brought out through a small bushing and connected to the tank.


The Oil impregnated paper insulated bushings are used to connect overhead lines to
transformer. This is mounted on transformer in vertical or horizontal position at a
maximum inclination of 30º from vertical. The active part of bushing consists of a

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Industrial Training Report 15

condenser body build up around a centre tube using high quality Kraft papers. A disk
spring assembly is located in the top housing holds all synthetic rubber gaskets and O-
rings between porcelain and metal parts under controlled pressure, completely sealing
the bushing.. An oil sight window is provided in the expansion chamber for observing
the oil lever. The space in the expansion chamber above oil is filled with dry nitrogen
gas. Due to the hermetic sealing the bushings are maintenance free and non-
susceptible to aging. Oil Impregnated Paper (OIP) type high voltage condenser
bushings were manufactured by TELK in 1970.


This section deals with the procedure of fabrication CRGO, lamination, assembly of
transformer core and manufacture of ring core for current transformer, tank sheet and
lamination for PT. the various activities in the core section are listed below.

 Receiving the CRGO material from authorized suppliers through stores

department, with RV (Receipt Voucher) and supplier’s test report.

 Study the production program issued by production planning department and

accordingly arrange the material, man, machine, space, etc., for the optimum
utilization to achieve the target.

 Receiving all the manufacturing drawings, specification from production

planning department.

 Study of core details from related drawing of each manufacturing order,

specification or deviations.

 Corrections are found out and brought to notice.

 Study of slitting schedule issued by production planning department and issue a

short slitting.


This is the process of cutting the CRGO coil into different widths. This process is
done in gang slitting line. After slitting operation separate tags will be affixed inside
and outside of the coil containing all the details for identification.

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Industrial Training Report 16


The is the process of cutting slit widths into required design shape such as the
trapezium, parallelogram, rectangle, etc., are specifies in the core cutting drawing.
The selection of Mitre Shear Line (MSL) is done according to the angle specification
detailed in the core cutting drawing. There are five numbers of MSL in core shop.

MSL I and MSL IV - 45º angles

MSL II and MSL V - 40º, 45º, 50º angles

MSL III - 90 º, 40 º, 50º, 45 º angles

ASL (Automatic Shear Line) is used for rectangular shape sheets.


Nibbling of corner as per core cutting drawing is called shearing. Square shear are
used for this purpose.


A process to remove burrs on mitred portion is called de-burring. Check the burr after
every 200 lamination with a tolerance level less than 0.02 mm.


Stresses are introduced into silicon steels whenever they are slitted or sheared into
laminations. These stresses have an adverse effect on magnetic properties, such as
core loss and permeability in order to relieve the stress and restore the original
magnetic properties annealing is necessary. It also reduces the effect of sharp work
edges and improves flatness.


The finished laminations for transformer assembly are arranged in wooden planks in
order to the sequence of steps as per sheet arrangement drawing. This process is
called sorting. The fabrication stage of core is completed when the sorting job is over.


Generally, rectangular Paper Covered Copper Conductors (PCC) is used for winding.
For vary high power transformers continuously transposed conductors (CTC) are
used. CTC is made of a bunch of rectangular enameled copper conductors which are
transposed and then covered with electrical grade Kraft paper. This reduces the

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Industrial Training Report 17

copper loss and size of winding. The copper conductors are made from Electrolytic
Tough Pitched (ETP) copper and are of high annealed copper.


Transformer coils can be classified as circular or rectangular depending on the cross-

section of core limb. According to the arrangement of coils it can be classified as
concentric or sandwich coils. As far as large transformers are concerned only
concentric windings are used which are mainly classified as helical, cylindrical and
continuous disc winding.

Helical winding

 Used for relatively low voltage and high current rating transformers
 Coils are wound like a helical spring with several conductors arranged in single or
multiple groups and connected in parallel.
 The conductors are transposed at intervals.

Cylindrical winding

 Used for low voltage coils of low voltage transformers

 Similar to helical winding with no separation between groups or turns with radial
spacers and this represents a cylindrical form.

Continuous winding

 Used for high voltage windings.

 Coils sections are separated by radial spacers

 Radial spacers locked to the axial spacers separate disc coil sections and establish
oil directs branching from the main axial ducts inside the winding.


Kraft Paper

The Kraft paper is made entirely from wood pulp. The tensile strength of paper shall
not be less than 55MN/m2 in the longitudinal direction and 20MN/m2 in the transverse

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Industrial Training Report 18

Press Board

Used in insulating transformer windings. Press board is used for making winding
cylinders, axial and radial spacers, oil ducts, oil guide rings, etc. The breakdown
voltage of the press board is greater than 20kV/mm (in oil)

Tetron Cord

It is used in power transformer to tie together various leads and insulating structures.
The cord has high shrinkage property to avoid loose knot. The minimum shrinkage
must be 5%.

Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) Solution

It is used as an adhesive agent for pasting various insulation items. It is a derivative

of acetylene family and soluble in water.


Oil and Drying shop is assigned with the task of oil impregnation, proper drying and
cleaning of the transformer and its various parts. Drying is done using vacuum as well
as hot dry air. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of transformer
winding and core. Hot air circulation is continued till the temperature rises to 100º C
at the top of the coil. Time required for vacuum drying varies depending on type
insulation required.

Oil filling is done under vacuum. Before filling the quality of the oil has to be
checked. In order to remove foreign materials trapped in the coil during
manufacturing and processing stages like cotton treads, dust, etc flushing of oil is
done. The temperature is maintained at 60º to 80º.


On Load Tap Changer (OLTC) consist of a high speed resistor transition diverter
switch tap selector, driving mechanism and external driving shaft. Tap changers
manufactured by TELK are of 14 types. Classification is done on the current rating
and number of poles. In single pole type, the shaft from the driving mechanism is
directly connected to the diverter switch while in multi pole type, the individual poles
are coupled by a common shaft and it is this shaft which is connected to the driving

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Industrial Training Report 19

Tap change operation requires two rotatory switches per phase. The odd numbered
tapping ate connected to one switch and even numbered tapings are connected to the
other in such a way that the two switches come into use alternatively. The odd and
even tappings are selected by the diverting switch using roller type intermittent gear
mechanism instead of usual Geneva gear mechanism for reducing friction.
Simultaneously with operation of tap selector, the spring mechanism which is the
energy accumulated mounted on the top of the diverter switch will be changed.

Figure 7.4.1: OLTC


TELK has got the whole range of equipment’s for conducting tests for power and
instrument transformers. 3 million volts impulse Generator, 800kV EHV testing
transformer, 500kV testing transformer, 900kV peak volt meter, Partial discharge
detectors on all the test systems to automatically monitor partial discharge of the
products, Material laboratory, Oil laboratory etc. are some of the facilities at the test

laboratory for tests conducted as per Indian standards/ IEC/ or British Standards/


Insulation resistance is a useful indication as to whether the apparatus is in a suitable

condition for performing dielectric test. The test voltage shall be selected such that it
does not exceed the rated line to earth voltage of the winding.

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Industrial Training Report 20


BCT continuity check is done using a continuity tester. OLTC continuity check is
done using voltmeter in one winding keeping the other winding placed as a
convenient level.


Winding resistance measured is required for computing load losses, regulation and
efficiency of transformer.


A partial discharge is an electrical discharge following ionization that only partially

bridges the insulation between conductors. The test is performed at a higher frequency
to reduce the excitation level.



Voltage ration error measurement is done using a transformer turns ration meter. A
low voltage is applied to the low voltage side of the transformer under test and the
standard transformer and the voltage induced on the low voltage side is compared
with a galvanometer. The fine tapping of the standard transformer is adjusted until the
galvanometer indicates minimum deflection. The % ratio error (% ratio error =
(Design ratio – Measured ratio x 100)/Design ratio) can be read directly on the
instrument dials.


The body of the transformer and other equipment’s are manufactured in the plate
works shop. Mild steel are used for making the different parts. They are cut into the
desired shapes by employing gas cutting or shear cutting. The pieces are welded
together to form the structure. For the protection of the tank surface a protective
coating is provided. The surface is grit blasted to remove rust.

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Industrial Training Report 21

The training provided by KEL and TELK provides a comprehensive coverage of
various products manufactured such as distribution transformers, power transformers,
current transformers and potential transformers of different types. It’s operation,
product information about the nature, characteristic of material and also imparted
knowledge of various technologies used by the company. The industrial exposure
gave a sense of knowledge about the day to day activities and workings of a fully
fledged electromechanical component of manufacturing company.

Dept of EEE VJCET , Vazhakulam