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Engineering Mathematics 3

Tutorial 2
SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

Matrix Method

2 3  2  4
1. If AX  b , where A  3 5  4 and b  10 determine A and hence solve the set
  1
   
 1 2  3   9 

of equations.

2. Solve the following system:


3 x1  2 x 2  x 3  1
x1  x 2  3 x 3  5
2 x1  5 x 2  2 x 3  0

Rank of a Matrix

3. Determine the rank of a coefficient matrix and augmented matrix for the following sets of
equations. Then, determine the nature of the solutions. Do not solve the equations.
x1  3 x 2  2 x 3  6 x1  2 x 2  4 x 3  3
a) 4 x1  5 x 2  2 x 3  3 b) x1  2 x 2  3 x 3  4
x1  3 x 2  4 x 3  7 2 x1  4 x 2  x 3  3

Gaussian Elimination Method

4. By using method of Gaussian elimination, solve the equations AX  b , where:

 1  2  4  3
A  2 1  3  and b   4  .
 
1 3 2   5 

5. Solve the following sets of equations:


x1  3 x 2  2 x 3  8 x1  3 x 2  2 x 3  8
a) 2 x1  2 x 2  x 3  4 b) 2 x1  x 2  x 3  9
3 x1  4 x 2  2 x 3  3 3 x1  2 x 2  3 x 3  5

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Engineering Mathematics 3
Tutorial 2
SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

6. Solve the following sets of equations by Gaussian elimination.


a  2b  c  3d  4 2a  3b  2c  2d 2
2a  b  c  4d  3 4a  2b  3c  d 6
a) c)
3a  b  2c  2d  6 a  b  4c  2d 7
a  3b  c  d  8 3a  2b  c  d 5
a  2b  5c  d  4
3a  4b  3c  2d  7
b)
4a  3b  2c  d  1
a  2b  4c  d  8

Triangular Decomposition Method

1  2 1  7 
7. If Ax = b where A  3 1  2 and b   3 express A as the product A = LU where L
 
   
5 3 3   5 

and U are lower and upper triangular matrices. Then, determine the values of x1 , x 2 and .

x3 .

8. Use the method of triangular decomposition, solve the following sets of equations.

 1 4  1  x    2   1  2 3   x    2
a) 4 2 3   y     1  b) 2 1  5  y    17 
     
7  3 2   z   18 6  3 2   z   22 

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

1 3 0 
9. If A  3 10  3 , determine the three eigenvalues of A.

 
0  3 9 

 1 3 0
10. Determine the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of A   1 2 1  .
 
 2 1  1

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Engineering Mathematics 3
Tutorial 2
SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

11. Determine the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors in each of the following cases.

 3 0 6  4 10  8
 4 3 2  5 
a) A    b) A    c) A   4 5 3 d) A   1 2 1 
  
2 5  1  4  1 2 1  1 2 3 

 3 2
12. If x1 and x 2 are eigenvectors of A    , determine:
 4 1
(i) M  x1 x2 

1
(ii) M

1
(iii) M AM

Application

2
13. In a mass-spring-damper system, the acceleration x m s , velocity y m s and
displacement z m are related by the following simultaneous equations:

6.2x  7.9y  12.6z  18.0


7.5 x  4.8y  4.8z  6.39
13.0 x  3.5y  13.0z  17.4
By using Gaussian elimination, determine the acceleration, velocity and displacement for the
system correct to 2 decimal places.

14. The tensions T1,T2 and T3 in simple framework are given by the equations:

5T1  5T2  5T3  7.0


T1  2T2  4T3  2.4
4T1  2T2  4.0

Determine T1 , T2 and T3 using triangular decomposition method.

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Engineering Mathematics 3
Tutorial 2
SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

Past Year Examination Questions


1. Determine the rank of a coefficient matrix and augmented matrix for the following set of
equations. Then, determine the nature of the solutions. Do not solve the equations.
x1  2x 2  0
i.
2x1  4 x 2  2x3  2
x1  2 x 2  4 x 3  2
ii. 2 x1  3 x 2  5 x 3  3
3 x1  4 x 2  6 x 3  7
2. By using rank test, determine the value of k for the system of linear equations has unique
solution by assuming x1  x 2  x3  1 .

x1  x 2  x 3  1
x 2  2x3  0
 x1  2 x 2  k x 3  2
3. Solve the linear system by using Gaussian Elimination method. Subsequently determine
the value of x and y .

7 x  4y  2
5 x  3y  1

7 0 2
4. Given A   0 5 0  .
 
 4 0  2

i. Determine all the eigenvalues of A .


ii. Determine the eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalue obtained in
(i).
(January 2012)

2 0 1
5. Given matrix A  0 1 9 . V1 is an eigenvector corresponding to the smallest
 
0 1 1

eigenvalue obtained. Solve:


i. all the eigenvalues.

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Engineering Mathematics 3
Tutorial 2
SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

ii. matrix B  V1 , where V1 is an eigenvector corresponding to the smallest


eigenvalue obtained in part i).
(June 2012)

2 0 0
6. Given matrix A  0  1 0  .

 
1 2  1

i. Determine all the eigenvalues of A .


ii. Determine the eigenvector for the largest eigenvalue obtain in part i).
7. Given the following system of linear equation
x1  x 2  x 3  0
2 x1  4 x 2  1
6 x 2  5 x 3  2
i. Convert the given system of linear equation to matrix form.
ii. Solve matrix A in part a) as the product of a lower-triangular matrix, L and
upper-triangular matrix, U . Given A  LU .
iii. Calculate Y for LY  B .
(January 2013)

8. In a star-connected circuit, currents i1 ,i1 and i 3 flowing through impedances Z1 ,Z2 and

Z 3 are given:
i1  i 2  i 3  0
Z1i1  Z 2 i 2  e1  e2
Z 2 i1  Z3 i 3  e2  e3

Let Z1  10, Z2  8, Z3  3, e1  e2  65, e2  e3  160 . Solve the values of i1, i 2 , and i 3 by

using Gaussian Elimination method.


9. Currents of i1 ,i1 and i 3 in a network are related by the following equations:

2i1  4i 2  2i 3  2
3i1  3i 2  3i 3  2
i. Determine the rank of a coefficient matrix and augmented matrix.
ii. Determine the nature of the solution and do not solve the equations.
(June 2013)

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Engineering Mathematics 3
Tutorial 2
SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

2  5 
10. V1 and V2 are eigenvectors of A    . V1 is an eigenvector corresponding to the
 1  4
smallest eigenvalue and V2 is an eigenvector corresponding to another eigenvalue
obtained. Determine:
i. matrix V, where V  V1 V2  .
1
ii. matrix inverse, V .
(January 2014)

2 0 0
11. Given matrix A  0  1 0  .

 
1 2  1

i. Define A  I where I is an identity matrix of order 3  3 .


ii. Determine all the eigenvalues of A .
iii. Determine the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalues.
(June 2014)
12. Kirchoff’s law is used to determine the current equation(s) in an electrical network as
follows:
2i 1  i 2  4i 3  0
3i 1  2i 2  i 3  4
 2i 1  i 2  4i 3  6
i. State the above Kirchoff’s law in form AX  B .
ii. Express matrix A in part i) as the product of lower triangular matrix (L) and upper

l 11 l 11u12 l 11u13 
triangular matrix (U). Given: l 21 l 21u12  l 22 l 21u13  l 22u 23 ,
 
l 31 l 31u12  l 32 l 31u13  l 32u 23  l 33 
iii. Solve for X in part i) by using triangular decomposition method.
(January 2015)

5 6
13. Given matrix T   .
2 1
i. Define T  I where I is an identity matrix.
ii. Determine all possible values of  .
iii. Determine the eigenvector corresponding to the two eigenvalues in part b).
(September 2015)

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Engineering Mathematics 3
Tutorial 2
SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

14. The mesh equations of a two-loop circuit are given by:


5I1  I 2  4
6I1  8I 2  2
Where I1 and I 2 represent the current in a circuit.

i. Write the mesh equations into a matrix form AX  B .


ii. Transform the coefficient matrix, A in part i) as an upper and lower triangular

I11 0  1 u12 
matrix. Given L    and U   .
I 21 I 22  0 1 
iii. Solve I1 and I 2 by using triangular decomposition method.

(January 2016)

ANSWER FOR TUTORIAL

 7  5 2   4
1.  5 4  2 ,  2  .
   
  1 1  1   3 

  2
2.  2  .
 
 3 

3. a) Unique solution b) Infinitely many solution.


 3  1
4.  4  . 7.   2 .
   
 2  2 

3  4  3 5
5. a)  1  b)   2 . 8. a)  1  b)  2  .
       
 4   1  3    1

4  5 7  5  9.   13, 0, 7 .
2   2 7   4
6. a)   b)   c)   .
5   10 7   1
     
3   13 7 3 

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Engineering Mathematics 3
Tutorial 2
SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

 3  1 3  1
10. 1  3, v 1   2 , 2  2, v 2   1 3 , 3  1, v 1   0  .
 
 1   1   1 

3 1
11. a) 1  2 , 2  7 ; V1    , V2    .
  2 1
5 1
b) 1  1, 2  3 ; V1    , V2    .
1 1
 3    2  35 
     
c) 1  1, 2  3 , 3  7 ; V1   5 2 , V2   1  , V3  27 10  .
 1   0   1 

3 3  6
     
c) 1  2 , 2  4 , 3  7 ; V1   1 , V2  4 , V3  1 .
     
 1  5   1

 1 1 1  31 1
 1  1 0
12. M    , M   2
3
1  , M AM   .
 2 1  3 3   0 5 
 x   0.30
  
13. y  0.60 .

   
 z   1.20 

T1  0.8
   
14. T2   0.4 .
T3  0.2