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You are on page 1of 8

Tutorial 2

SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

Matrix Method

2 3 2 4

1. If AX b , where A 3 5 4 and b 10 determine A and hence solve the set

1

1 2 3 9

of equations.

3 x1 2 x 2 x 3 1

x1 x 2 3 x 3 5

2 x1 5 x 2 2 x 3 0

Rank of a Matrix

3. Determine the rank of a coefficient matrix and augmented matrix for the following sets of

equations. Then, determine the nature of the solutions. Do not solve the equations.

x1 3 x 2 2 x 3 6 x1 2 x 2 4 x 3 3

a) 4 x1 5 x 2 2 x 3 3 b) x1 2 x 2 3 x 3 4

x1 3 x 2 4 x 3 7 2 x1 4 x 2 x 3 3

1 2 4 3

A 2 1 3 and b 4 .

1 3 2 5

x1 3 x 2 2 x 3 8 x1 3 x 2 2 x 3 8

a) 2 x1 2 x 2 x 3 4 b) 2 x1 x 2 x 3 9

3 x1 4 x 2 2 x 3 3 3 x1 2 x 2 3 x 3 5

1

Engineering Mathematics 3

Tutorial 2

SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

a 2b c 3d 4 2a 3b 2c 2d 2

2a b c 4d 3 4a 2b 3c d 6

a) c)

3a b 2c 2d 6 a b 4c 2d 7

a 3b c d 8 3a 2b c d 5

a 2b 5c d 4

3a 4b 3c 2d 7

b)

4a 3b 2c d 1

a 2b 4c d 8

1 2 1 7

7. If Ax = b where A 3 1 2 and b 3 express A as the product A = LU where L

5 3 3 5

and U are lower and upper triangular matrices. Then, determine the values of x1 , x 2 and .

x3 .

8. Use the method of triangular decomposition, solve the following sets of equations.

1 4 1 x 2 1 2 3 x 2

a) 4 2 3 y 1 b) 2 1 5 y 17

7 3 2 z 18 6 3 2 z 22

1 3 0

9. If A 3 10 3 , determine the three eigenvalues of A.

0 3 9

1 3 0

10. Determine the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of A 1 2 1 .

2 1 1

2

Engineering Mathematics 3

Tutorial 2

SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

11. Determine the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors in each of the following cases.

3 0 6 4 10 8

4 3 2 5

a) A b) A c) A 4 5 3 d) A 1 2 1

2 5 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 3

3 2

12. If x1 and x 2 are eigenvectors of A , determine:

4 1

(i) M x1 x2

1

(ii) M

1

(iii) M AM

Application

2

13. In a mass-spring-damper system, the acceleration x m s , velocity y m s and

displacement z m are related by the following simultaneous equations:

7.5 x 4.8y 4.8z 6.39

13.0 x 3.5y 13.0z 17.4

By using Gaussian elimination, determine the acceleration, velocity and displacement for the

system correct to 2 decimal places.

14. The tensions T1,T2 and T3 in simple framework are given by the equations:

T1 2T2 4T3 2.4

4T1 2T2 4.0

3

Engineering Mathematics 3

Tutorial 2

SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

1. Determine the rank of a coefficient matrix and augmented matrix for the following set of

equations. Then, determine the nature of the solutions. Do not solve the equations.

x1 2x 2 0

i.

2x1 4 x 2 2x3 2

x1 2 x 2 4 x 3 2

ii. 2 x1 3 x 2 5 x 3 3

3 x1 4 x 2 6 x 3 7

2. By using rank test, determine the value of k for the system of linear equations has unique

solution by assuming x1 x 2 x3 1 .

x1 x 2 x 3 1

x 2 2x3 0

x1 2 x 2 k x 3 2

3. Solve the linear system by using Gaussian Elimination method. Subsequently determine

the value of x and y .

7 x 4y 2

5 x 3y 1

7 0 2

4. Given A 0 5 0 .

4 0 2

ii. Determine the eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalue obtained in

(i).

(January 2012)

2 0 1

5. Given matrix A 0 1 9 . V1 is an eigenvector corresponding to the smallest

0 1 1

i. all the eigenvalues.

4

Engineering Mathematics 3

Tutorial 2

SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

eigenvalue obtained in part i).

(June 2012)

2 0 0

6. Given matrix A 0 1 0 .

1 2 1

ii. Determine the eigenvector for the largest eigenvalue obtain in part i).

7. Given the following system of linear equation

x1 x 2 x 3 0

2 x1 4 x 2 1

6 x 2 5 x 3 2

i. Convert the given system of linear equation to matrix form.

ii. Solve matrix A in part a) as the product of a lower-triangular matrix, L and

upper-triangular matrix, U . Given A LU .

iii. Calculate Y for LY B .

(January 2013)

8. In a star-connected circuit, currents i1 ,i1 and i 3 flowing through impedances Z1 ,Z2 and

Z 3 are given:

i1 i 2 i 3 0

Z1i1 Z 2 i 2 e1 e2

Z 2 i1 Z3 i 3 e2 e3

9. Currents of i1 ,i1 and i 3 in a network are related by the following equations:

2i1 4i 2 2i 3 2

3i1 3i 2 3i 3 2

i. Determine the rank of a coefficient matrix and augmented matrix.

ii. Determine the nature of the solution and do not solve the equations.

(June 2013)

5

Engineering Mathematics 3

Tutorial 2

SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

2 5

10. V1 and V2 are eigenvectors of A . V1 is an eigenvector corresponding to the

1 4

smallest eigenvalue and V2 is an eigenvector corresponding to another eigenvalue

obtained. Determine:

i. matrix V, where V V1 V2 .

1

ii. matrix inverse, V .

(January 2014)

2 0 0

11. Given matrix A 0 1 0 .

1 2 1

ii. Determine all the eigenvalues of A .

iii. Determine the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalues.

(June 2014)

12. Kirchoff’s law is used to determine the current equation(s) in an electrical network as

follows:

2i 1 i 2 4i 3 0

3i 1 2i 2 i 3 4

2i 1 i 2 4i 3 6

i. State the above Kirchoff’s law in form AX B .

ii. Express matrix A in part i) as the product of lower triangular matrix (L) and upper

l 11 l 11u12 l 11u13

triangular matrix (U). Given: l 21 l 21u12 l 22 l 21u13 l 22u 23 ,

l 31 l 31u12 l 32 l 31u13 l 32u 23 l 33

iii. Solve for X in part i) by using triangular decomposition method.

(January 2015)

5 6

13. Given matrix T .

2 1

i. Define T I where I is an identity matrix.

ii. Determine all possible values of .

iii. Determine the eigenvector corresponding to the two eigenvalues in part b).

(September 2015)

6

Engineering Mathematics 3

Tutorial 2

SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

5I1 I 2 4

6I1 8I 2 2

Where I1 and I 2 represent the current in a circuit.

ii. Transform the coefficient matrix, A in part i) as an upper and lower triangular

I11 0 1 u12

matrix. Given L and U .

I 21 I 22 0 1

iii. Solve I1 and I 2 by using triangular decomposition method.

(January 2016)

7 5 2 4

1. 5 4 2 , 2 .

1 1 1 3

2

2. 2 .

3

3 1

4. 4 . 7. 2 .

2 2

3 4 3 5

5. a) 1 b) 2 . 8. a) 1 b) 2 .

4 1 3 1

4 5 7 5 9. 13, 0, 7 .

2 2 7 4

6. a) b) c) .

5 10 7 1

3 13 7 3

7

Engineering Mathematics 3

Tutorial 2

SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

3 1 3 1

10. 1 3, v 1 2 , 2 2, v 2 1 3 , 3 1, v 1 0 .

1 1 1

3 1

11. a) 1 2 , 2 7 ; V1 , V2 .

2 1

5 1

b) 1 1, 2 3 ; V1 , V2 .

1 1

3 2 35

c) 1 1, 2 3 , 3 7 ; V1 5 2 , V2 1 , V3 27 10 .

1 0 1

3 3 6

c) 1 2 , 2 4 , 3 7 ; V1 1 , V2 4 , V3 1 .

1 5 1

1 1 1 31 1

1 1 0

12. M , M 2

3

1 , M AM .

2 1 3 3 0 5

x 0.30

13. y 0.60 .

z 1.20

T1 0.8

14. T2 0.4 .

T3 0.2

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