AES Lal Pir Thermal Power Plant Lal Pir Distt Muzaffargarh Punjab Pakistan

Training Module:-TO-1 Turbine General Revision-0 (June 2009)
Prepared By Maqsood Ahmad Shad Reviewed By Approved By Haroon Rashid

AES Lal Pir Learning Centre

Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 22 23 Description Contents Steam turbine Basic turbine theory Impulse and reaction balding Turbine classification Condensing VS non condensing Single pressure VS Multi pressure Rehaet VS non reheat Single casing VS compound casing Exhaust flows Inter stage sealing Steam admission components Turbine expansion Turbine bearings Lubrication Turing gear Rupture Diaphragm Turbine Auxiliary systems Lube oil system components Gland Steam system Turbine Electro-Hydraulic Control oil system Turbine Supervisory Instruments LP/PG Turbines Turbine Protections Page no. 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 22


Because the turbine generates rotary motion. Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 HP (0. compressors and other shaft driven equipment.000. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. to 2. Power Plant Simple Cycle 3 .75 kW) units used as mechanical drives for pumps. and converts it into rotary motion. it is a common source to drive an electrical generator for electricity generation.000 HP (1.500 MW) turbines used to generate electricity.Steam Turbine Steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam.

there is an equal. As shown in this illustration. The operating principle of a reaction-type turbine uses Newton's Third Law of Motion. Both use nozzles and rotors. all expansion of the steam would occur in the rotating blades (think of the blades as rotating nozzles). The turbine 4 . In a pure reaction turbine. the steam jets are directed against buckets or blades mounted on a rotor. the more thermal energy available. making electrical energy. Knowing the difference between these two types of turbines is helpful in understanding how a turbine changes thermal energy from the steam into mechanical energy to drive the turbine. energy of motion. There are two basic types of turbine blade designs: impulse and reaction. The nozzle converts the thermal energy of a fluid. Since. The operating principle of the impulse turbine is illustrated here. the thermal energy is converted into kinetic energy of a steam jet by nozzles. kinetic energy is a function of the square of the velocity. The pressure is of particular importance for expansion. P2 and T2 but at a higher velocity V2. This is because some of the energy in the steam has been converted into kinetic energy. The kinetic energy in the jet of steam is not useful as it is and the nozzle by itself cannot convert the energy in the steam to useful mechanical energy without a means of transferring this energy to the rotating blades. so does kinetic energy. The accelerated steam jet then strikes the rotor buckets causing the rotor to turn. The mechanical energy from the turbine drives the generator. The higher the pressure and temperature. The force of the jets striking the buckets or blades produces mechanical energy by turning the rotor. the accelerated steam exerts a force on the blades. which states that for every action. as the velocity increases. much like a rocket engine.Basic Turbine Theory The steam entering a turbine has a great deal of thermal energy because of its pressure and temperature. First. in this case steam. As the steam expands in the rotating nozzles. The conversion of the thermal energy in the steam to mechanical energy in the turbine actually takes place in two steps. Some turbine manufacturers call them buckets and others call them blades. into kinetic energy by expanding the fluid. opposite reaction. The nozzle expands the steam to create an accelerated steam jet and directs it at the rotor buckets. The steam leaving the nozzle is now at a lower pressure and temperature. Second. Steam enters the impulse turbine through a stationary nozzle. It should be noted here that the terms buckets and blades are interchangeable. steam at temperature T1 and pressure P1 enters a convergent nozzle at velocity V1. but in different ways.

The second method of multistage an impulse turbine is by using what is commonly known as a Rateau or pressure compound stage. Impulse turbines can be multistage in two ways. It should be noted that there is a pressure drop through each set of nozzles (pressure-volume energy of steam is converted to kinetic energy). steam velocity increases while the pressure decreases.rotor is forced to turn by the force of the steam jet leaving the nozzle much like that of a rocket engine. its pressure is reduced and velocity is increased. The steam then passes through the stationary guide vanes. Impulse and Reaction Balding The illustration here is of a simple impulse turbine stage. In other words. The steam then strikes a second row of buckets that are attached to the same wheel as the first row. It consists of one set of nozzles and two or more rows of moving buckets with a row of stationary guide vanes between the two rows of moving buckets. In modern power plants there is considerable thermal energy in each pound of steam. Most turbines (after the first stage) use a combination of impulse and reaction blading in their design. multistage impulse turbines contain pressure and velocity compound stages. exerts an additional force on the rotating blades (reaction design). and the pressure remains the same. the steam is expanded in stationary nozzles. Large modern turbines are multistage turbines with each stage converting part of the steam's thermal energy to mechanical energy. where it is accelerated and impacts the rotating blades (impulse design). the steam velocity decreases as it gives up its energy to the blades. After passing through the first row of moving buckets the steam's velocity is reduced because of the work it did on the buckets. 5 . A Rateau stage consists of a set of nozzles and a set of rotating buckets. As the steam enters the blades. As the steam expands through the stationary nozzles of an impulse stage. The new steam direction is approximately parallel to the original steam direction leaving the nozzles. When the steam passes through the rotating buckets. Most Curtis stages are limited to two rows of moving buckets. and a velocity drop through each set of moving buckets (kinetic energy is converted to mechanical energy). The Curtis stage is what is known as a velocity compounded stage. Practically all large. The first is with what is commonly called a wheel. It is impractical and inefficient to build a single nozzle and rotor large enough to convert all of the steam's thermal energy into useful work. which change the direction of the steam without changing its pressure or velocity. Each set of stationary nozzles and rotor blades (buckets) is called a stage. it continues to expand and as a result. As the steam passes through the nozzle. It is not unusual to have as many as 20 stages in a turbine.

The pure reaction turbine stationary blades would be "guide vanes" and the nozzles would be rotating. Nearly all large utility steam turbines are of this type. In a condensing type turbine. The reaction of this velocity upon the rotating blades powers the rotor. Each stage of a reaction turbine consists of a set of fixed nozzles and a set of moving buckets. the moving buckets would be the only nozzles and all steam expansion would occur in the moving buckets. in an ideal reaction turbine. the turbine exhaust pressure and temperature can be very low. reaction turbines are typically 50% reaction turbines. The pressure drop would occur over the fixed and rotating nozzles. Low exhaust pressure allows the turbine to make maximum use of the thermal energy in the steam and makes the power plant more efficient. In reality. Turbine Classification Impulse and reaction turbines can further be classified using other important characteristics. Large turbines use fixed nozzles to admit steam to moving nozzles and therefore use a combination of impulse and reaction principles. Being the same shape as nozzles with the steam expanding." This is the principle on which reaction turbine blading works. 6 . "For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. and losing pressure while passing through. This is impractical because it is difficult to admit steam to moving nozzles. the steam is exhausted to a condenser. gaining velocity. Non-Condensing One characteristic for classifying steam turbines is whether they are condensing or noncondensing turbines.Newton's Third Law of Motion says. Therefore. By condensing the steam. The turbine rotor is forced to turn by the active force of the steam jet leaving the nozzle. These characteristics are: • • • • • • Condensing versus non-condensing Extraction versus non-extraction Single-pressure versus multiple-pressure Reheat versus non-reheat Single casing versus compound Exhaust flows Condensing vs. and use a combination of impulse and reaction staging. Each pair of fixed and moving nozzles makes up one stage.

It makes the power plant more efficient thermodynamically. There are two advantages to reheating steam: 1. it is called a backpressure unit. Single-Pressure vs. the steam is reheated and piped back to the turbine. This arrangement is common in steam turbines in combined cycle plants because it is common to have a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that operates at more than one pressure. the extractions are referred to as non-controlled because the extraction pressure and flow is strictly a function of the operating load of the unit. In the boiler. The steam is typically used for some useful purpose such as heating a building. This type of turbine is most often seen in process plants such as steel mills. In cogeneration facilities. there are two common types of extraction used with steam turbines. Multiple-Pressure Most turbines have steam admitted to the first stage from a single source. 2. where the extraction pressure is controlled by an additional set of control valves located in the turbine's steam path. Extraction steam may be used for regenerative feedwater heating or other purposes. Non-Reheat A reheat turbine is a multistage turbine in which the steam is directed from some intermediate point of the turbine back to the boiler. On utility turbines. Extraction vs. it is common to have controlled extraction turbines. Non-Extraction Turbines may also be classified by whether or not they are extraction type turbines. and paper mills. The control system modulates the extraction control valves in addition to the admission control valves to obtain the desired combination of electric generation and extraction steam flow to the steam host. Extraction turbines are sometimes called "bleeder" turbines because steam is removed or bled from between stages. the exhaust is not condensed. An extraction type turbine is a multistage turbine where some of the steam is extracted or bled from between the stages at what is commonly referred to as extraction points. Some large turbines return the steam to the boiler a second time to be reheated and are called double reheat turbines. Some turbines also have steam admitted at a lower pressure in the steam path at some point after the first stage. In addition. It delays the onset of steam condensation in the turbine so that wet steam is only "handled" by the turbine in the last LP stage.In non-condensing turbines. If a non-condensing turbine exhausts to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. Reheat vs. 7 . refineries.

There are two different types of compound turbines: tandem compound and cross compound. Exhaust Flows Condensing turbines can be further classified by their exhaust flows. Nearly all large steam turbines are multiple casing units. For power plants. 8 . Turbines with as many as six exhaust flows are not uncommon. or nozzles. The tandem-compound arrangement is most common. some larger units use two stages of reheat. modern units may have as many as five sections Cross-compound turbines have different turbine sections on different shafts. however. this means that two separate generators are used. As turbines got larger. Compound A single casing turbine has all the turbine stages in one casing. Since the pure impulse blade has no pressure drop across the blade. The blue sections represent the rotating turbine blades or buckets. the low pressure sections had to be split up into more than one section because of design limitations related to the length of the last stage blades in the LP turbine. leakage around the blade tips is minimal. As turbines became larger. Turbines with two or more casings are classified as compound turbines. The tandem-compound unit shown here only has two sections but some larger. instead of flowing through the nozzles and buckets. The green sections represent the fixed blading. does have a pressure drop across the rotating blades and is therefore more prone to tip leakage. Most have only one stage of reheat. however.Nearly all modern. it was not practical to have all the stages in one casing. Single Casing vs. A single-flow condensing turbine passes all its exhaust steam to the condenser through one exhaust opening. large steam turbines use reheat. Interstage Sealing Interstage sealing prevents steam from bypassing the turbine buckets. The illustration on the right is the inner element of the study turbine. and would be a combination of cross-compound and tandem-compound. The reaction blade design. This is more critical in reaction blade design than in a pure impulse blade design. Some large cross-compound units have two or more turbine sections on each shaft. It is important to note that the rotating blades use seals at the blade tips to minimize leakage of steam over the blade tips. Tandem-compound turbines have the turbine sections in line with one another and are on the same shaft.

during startup these valves can be used." The main turbine stop valve is the first main steam isolation component. Any vibration or differential expansion in excess of the manufacturer's recommended limits is to be considered serious.The blade tip clearance on turbine blading is very minimal. to control the flow of steam to the turbine when the turbine is in what is known as full arc admission. the rotor assembly will experience higher than normal vibration as it passes through "critical" speeds. and immediate corrective action should be taken. As the name implies. and is designed to provide positive shutoff of steam flow to the turbine. 9 . If vibration or the difference in thermal growth between the rotor and the casing (differential expansion) become excessive. the stop valve is an isolation valve and the governor valve is a flow control valve." while GE uses the terms "stop valve" and "control valve. It is normally either fully open or fully closed. within a few tenths of a second. including removing the turbine from service. Main Steam Admission Components The control of high pressure. Although the normal position of the stop/throttle valve is fully open or fully closed. This is especially important in the event of an emergency trip of the turbine. Full arc admission refers to allowing the steam to flow the full 360 degrees of the turbine inlet .this facilitates even heating of the turbine and minimizes thermal stress. The stationary blade rows (nozzles) are sealed between the diaphragm (blade ring) and the rotor to avoid leakage of steam past this point. During start-up. Westinghouse uses the terms "throttle valve" and "governor valve. in some designs. and will expand at a faster rate than the casing due to being "immersed" in the steam and having less mass. This will result in increased steam seal clearances and a less efficient turbine section. For this purpose following steam admission components are discussed: • • • • Main turbine stop/throttle valve Main turbine control/governor valves Steam chest First stage nozzle block The main turbine stop valve and governor valve(s) work together with the turbine's control system to control the flow of steam to and through the turbine. The valve is hydraulically opened against large springs that can close the valve very quickly. This is done to maximize steam flow through the nozzle where the steam's pressure can be converted to velocity. high temperature steam flow through a turbine is one of the most critical functions performed by mechanical components associated with the steam turbine. The actual construction of these valves will differ from one turbine manufacturer to another and will be referred to by different names. the tip (radial) seals and the shaft packing seals will rub.

and internal passages when the steam chest is mounted on the turbine casing. the stop valves will open fully and turbine loading will be controlled by the control valves. synchronization. The steam chest is the area that receives steam from the turbine main stop valves and houses the control (governor) valve(s). Some turbines may have only one while others could have as many as 10 or 12. the throttle valves are used to roll-off and accelerate the turbine to a speed near synchronous speed. synchronize. As with the main stop valves. one of the stop valves is typically provided with an internal valve that is referred to as the full arc supplement valve. Full Arc Full arc admission occurs when all the governor (control) valves are 100% open. This is called partial arc admission. The governor valve controls the flow rate of steam through the turbine. From that point on. To increase turbine load. These are external pipes when the steam chest is not mounted on the turbine casing. but are used to throttle steam flow to the nozzle block. the full arc supplement valve can be opened and is used to control steam flow during the spin-up. With this type of design. 10 . At that point. the stop valves still play an important steam isolation role. The number of governor valves varies considerably with the turbine design and manufacturer. these valves have large springs to quickly close them in the event of an emergency. Steam leads direct the steam from the control/governor valves to the nozzle block. the control valves are modulated toward the closed position until steam pressure builds up adequately between the stop valves and control valves. admitting steam evenly around the turbine first stage nozzle block. Partial Arc Partial arc admission gets its name from the circle or arc of the nozzle block. Partial arc admission simply means only part of the arc or nozzle block (only one or two governor/control valves open) is admitting steam. The nozzles convert the thermal energy in the steam to kinetic energy to rotate the turbine rotor. On Westinghouse designs.In older GE machines. Full arc admission is normally used during startup of the turbine by admitting steam to the turbine through the throttle valve or stop valve bypass. and load the turbine. the control valves are used in full arc mode from the initial roll-off to synchronization and loading of the turbine. Notice the different openings on the control valves. After the turbine is on-line. but there is no internal bypass (full arc supplement) provided. The nozzle block contains the nozzles that direct the flow of steam to the first stage blades of the turbine rotor. The main stop valves are designed to prevent opening if there is a large differential pressure across the valves. and initial loading of the turbine. these valves open sequentially. These valves are also hydraulically opened. the governor valves are used to accelerate. On newer GE designs. The control system then closes the governor valves until they take over speed control. However.

The larger the turbine. Easing up on the accelerator is comparable to stopping steam flow to the turbine. which in turn increases the generator power output. These allowances are monitored by the operator using the Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation (TSI). Turbine Expansion Recall that a large utility boiler grows over six inches when brought up to normal operating temperature. it is electrically tied to the power grid and will hold turbine speed at 3600 or 1800 RPM depending on whether the generator is a two pole or four pole machines. This provides for even heating of the turbine during startup. and are called differential expansion and casing expansion. Allowances for growth must be made due to this thermal expansion experienced by the turbine. Because of tremendous centrifugal forces. This phenomenon also affects the turbine. Once this happens. compare what happens when the generator breaker opens to a car climbing a steep hill. there is nothing holding the turbine at a constant speed. turbine over speed conditions must also be avoided. This includes the stop/throttle valves. To better visualize this. As the car climbs the hill. In an over speed condition. If the generator output breaker opens. It is essential that turbine starting and loading guidelines be followed. the steam flows evenly to all of the sections of the turbine nozzle block. Now. if the transmission were to jump out of gear into neutral. It should be noted that all of these valves are designed to fail in the closed position by using large springs as well as steam pressure to help drive them closed. the engine RPM would red line and possibly destroy itself if the accelerator was not released. All the horsepower being supplied by the turbine will cause the turbine and generator to accelerate rapidly. intercept. the generator is no longer tied to the power grid. the accelerator is depressed further and further to maintain the car's speed until the engine is at its maximum horsepower output. If allowed to continue accelerating. Failure to do so will impose excessive thermal stresses on the turbine. starting is accomplished by opening the control valves 100% and then opening a small bypass (full arc supplement) valve that is built into the main stop valve. the control governor valves. When a generator is on-line. One of the worst situations that can occur is a loss of generator load. the forces will cause damage to the rotating elements. Increasing steam flow to the turbine under these conditions will not increase turbine speed. 11 . On older machines. the turbine control system will take rapid action to isolate all sources of steam to the turbine to prevent the turbine from accelerating to a destructive speed. This rapid acceleration will exert tremendous centrifugal forces on the turbine and generator rotating elements.Starting a GE turbine in full arc admission can vary depending on the design of the machine. Increasing the steam flow increases the horsepower output of the turbine. Once the bypass valve begins opening. and reheat stop valves. the more it grows.

Babbitt is a soft alloy made of lead. while a thrust bearing is provided to maintain the rotor's axial position. The journal bearing is split at the horizontal joint for assembly and fits into a circumferential slot or fits into a bearing standard or pedestal. 12 . the rotor would become longer than the casing and clearances between the rotating blades and the stationary components would cease to exist. Similarly. though exaggerated. are called differential expansion.If the rotor of a turbine were heated up to 650°F (343°C) but the casing were left at 100°F (38°C). In either of these cases. or keying one end of the turbine. reducing load or steam temperature too quickly will make the rotor go short (shrink faster than the casing). Journal bearings are used to support the weight of the rotor and maintain rotor radial alignment. Virtually all modern turbines have trips (emergency shutdowns) associated with excessive differential expansion. substantial damage to the turbine components would occur. the rotor would be far too short for the casing. the turbine case would not be able to expand or contract properly as it heats or cools. tin. either at a bearing or a casing. usually on the inactive face. if the turbine rotor were turning at its rated speed. and is softer than the steel journals. A journal bearing is also called a sleeve bearing. This growth differential is caused by uneven heating as a result of the difference in exposure to the hot steam as well as the mass between the rotor and the casing. Sometimes turbine casing binding is easily fixed by the addition of grease to the sliding feet. Abnormal turbine casing thermal growth indications or abnormal thrust bearing readings should always be treated seriously. Turbine load or main steam temperature should not be raised too quickly because the rotor will go long (grow faster than the casing). These two scenarios. This would cause differential expansion problems as well as excessive stress on the casing and thrust bearing assembly. Likewise. This increases differential expansion. the turbine is allowed to freely move axially due to thermal expansion. This is one of the reasons attention must be paid to abnormal or unusual thrust indications. Differential expansion is the difference in growth between the rotor and the turbine casing. By locking. Every power turbine is keyed or locked at one point and allowed to expand out from that point. and antimony. Casing expansion is an external measurement of casing thermal growth. Raising or lowering load too fast causes the rotor to heat or cool more quickly than the casing. Bearings Steam turbines have bearings to support and align the turbine rotor. If the sliding feet under a bearing pedestal or casing should bind in one position. The difference in types of materials used in the construction of the casing and rotor will also affect the differential expansion Rapidly changing load is a major factor in differential expansion. It is simply a cylinder of Babbitt cast into a cylindrical steel liner. if the casing were heated to 650°F (343°C) and the rotor left at 100°F (38°C). and placing the remaining bearings and casings on keyed sliding feet.

They must rely on a "dummy piston" or thrust bearing assembly to control the thrust. or side. They must be supplied with clean. the more it grows as it is heated. or the rotor would be pushed into the stationary diaphragms. this expansion must be accommodated by allowing the turbine to move on slides. The larger the turbine. 2. The pressure drop across the reaction blades or the steam impinging on the impulse blades produces an unbalanced axial force on the rotor. The turbine supervisory system provides the operator with indications to verify that the turbine is expanding properly. and an inactive face. and as previously discussed. Most turbines built in the last 20 years have a means of indicating thrust. On each side of the collar are bearing surfaces that prevent the collar (which is part of the rotor) from moving. If the thrust-loading forces change from the normal. The Kingsbury-type thrust bearing illustrated here is commonly used in turbines to contain. Water is 1600 times more dense than steam. or thrust. and the water is obviously much cooler than steam. An operator should monitor this for unusual indication. or collar machined into the turbine rotor. These are typically thermocouples mounted into the thrust bearing that measure the amount of thrust on each face of the thrust bearing. This is a serious condition where water enters the turbine through the main steam line or an extraction line. It consists of an oversized ring. Possible hang-up of the turbine casing sliding feet. This force. One method of counteracting the thrust in larger turbines is to oppose the steam flow in the different sections of the turbine. The thrust bearing is a simple device that holds the rotor axially stationary. Possible turbine water induction. The active face is the side that. 13 .A turbine can develop a tremendous amount of thrust. However. smaller turbines with only one section cannot use this method. The inactive face is the side that is normally not in contact with the thrust collar on the rotor. on GE turbines. is pushing against (or holding) the rotor in position. The impact of water on turbine blades can be damaging. It can also damage the thrust bearing due to the added thrust. On Westinghouse turbines. This added density and thermal shock can damage steam path components or permanently distort the casing. It is important to note that thrust direction can actually change while rolling the machine up to speed. forced oil lubricated bearings. under normal on-line conditions. requires some method of counteracting it. or balance thrust. Lubrication The bearings used in large steam turbines are Babbitt-type. a serious problem could be developing in the turbine. this force is toward the governor. the force pushes the rotor towards the generator end. Thrust bearings have an active face. relatively cool oil for proper operation. Changes in the thrust bearing loading could be indicative of: 1. or side.

Viscosity is the measure of the thickness or pour-ability of oil. the oil will build too much of a film. it is resting in the bottom of the bearing. Since the oil is thicker and slower moving at lower temperatures. This sequence is basic. When this happens. and then re-climbs the journal. oil that flows like water is said to have a low viscosity. the void under the rotor will not be replaced with oil quickly enough. and significantly worsened by bearing friction. even the most premium oils thin out with an increase in temperature. With the rotor in its stopped position. Just as too low of an oil temperature is a problem. This cycle repeats itself rather rapidly. and the outer circle is the clearance in the bearing. these problems should not occur. As the speed is increased the film grows thicker because of the hydraulic action of the rotor. Too high of an oil temperature allows the oil to thin out.The bearings are fed oil under pressure from the lubricating oil pump. but serves to illustrate oil wedge lubrication. or 41°C) when the turbine is rolling. This wedge will not remain because of the spinning action of the rotor hydraulically pushing it out. The reason oil temperature is critical to turbine operation is viscosity. so does the viscosity. The oil underneath forms a film between the bearing and the rotor. creating another thick wedge. it produces a pumping action that builds additional pressure to create a wedge of oil between the journal surface and the Babbitt. Oil whip can be avoided by keeping the oil temperature within the manufacturer's recommended limits. The rotor falls due to no oil wedge. This animation shows an exaggerated view of what the rotor of a turbine (or even a pump or fan shaft) looks like in its bearing. This is called an oil whip and is indicated by high radial vibration. or wedge under the rotor. the oil wedge will not adequately support the weight of the turbine rotor. As the rotor begins turning. In normal operation. Oil temperature is a major factor in turbine operation. If the turbine lube oil is allowed to get too cool (less than approximately 105°F. The rotor won't bounce as it did with oil whip. Oil that is so thick it can barely run out of a can when turned over is said to have a high viscosity. As oil temperature changes. 14 . The original high temperature will be compounded. violently shaking the turbine. The result is friction and an additional build-up of heat. As long as turbine lube oil temperatures are maintained within the turbine manufacturer's limits. However. Most turbines use a high grade. synthetic-type oil that resists viscosity changes. Although there is not this much clearance in actual bearings. Likewise. The inner circle represents the rotor. this exaggerated view provides an understanding of how lubrication works in the turbine bearings (or any other sleeve-type bearing). The rotor then slides down the bearing where comes in contact with the oil. it climbs the bearing wall and the void under the rotor fills with oil. the surfaces are separated by the film of oil and never touch. but will be too close to the bearing. as the rotor turns. too high of a temperature is a problem as well.

Rupture diaphragms are used instead of safety valves because of the tremendous volume of steam they relieve. Some turning gear systems are automated. It is a rudimentary device that serves the same function as a safety valve. Rupture Diaphragm The turbine rupture diaphragm is located on the low-pressure turbine exhaust hood. Regardless of the vintage of the turbine. A safety valve with the relieving capacity of a rupture diaphragm would be very large and expensive. A high turning gear motor current could be the result of clearance problems in the turbine that are causing rubbing. and when the turbine rotor is hot. that can swing in towards and out away from the "bull gear" mounted on the turbine rotor. commonly called a "zero speed indicator" may be mechanicalhydraulic or electronic. The turning gear components are lubricated with oil from the turbine lube oil system. the turning gear motor starts. Turning gears are also referred to as jacking gears or turning devices. A typical turning gear consists of an electric motor driving a speed reducing gear train. On newer turbines. or anything happen to pressurize the condenser. A pressure switch in the oil line to the turbine prevents starting the turning gear motor unless there is adequate oil pressure to the turbine. The "bull gear" is normally mounted between the turbine and generator couplings. Depending on the age and design of the turbine. and/or automatically. Turning gears are used to slowly rotate the turbine rotor during shutdown. This device. Turbines with automated turning gears are equipped with a device to sense when the turbine shaft has come to rest. Normally turning gears rotate the turbine shaft at 3 to 5 RPM. Turning gear operation on many older units was totally manual and performed locally. The rupture diaphragm protects the low-pressure turbine casing from excessive pressure should the circulating water pump fail. prior to startup. the oil supply valve to the turning gear opens.Turning Gear The turbine turning gear is another important component associated with large steam turbines. The gear train drives a pinion gear or "clash pinion" as it is often called. Turning gear motor current alternating between a high value and a normal value is indicative of a rub in the turbine. When there is a vacuum in the low- 15 . the turning gear may be operated locally. turning gears are designed to be operated locally and from the control room. and the clash pinion is moved into engagement with the bull gear automatically when a zero speed signal is generated by the zero speed indicator. remotely. The typical rupture diaphragm has a diaphragm made of lead clamped around its circumference and supported by a grid underneath. manually. On an automated turning gear. an ammeter is usually provided to monitor turning gear motor current.

thereby relieving the pressure from the condenser and low-pressure turbine. 16 . a properly operated plant should never blow a rupture diaphragm.4 bar. the diaphragm is pulled downward against the grid. Rupture diaphragms are relatively inexpensive and are relatively easy to replace.pressure turbine casing. Most systems use guard piping. preventing the turbine from safely spinning down. Another interesting point about the turbine lube oil system is the piping. Piping is also guarded to reduce fire hazards. A leak in the supply piping could quickly pump the lube oil reservoir dry. Guarded prevents loss of oil from leaks in the supply piping. a major fire could result. Turbine lubes oil system components: • • • • • • Lube Oil Reservoir Motor (AC and DC) Driven Pumps Vapor Extractor Lube Oil Coolers Lube Oil Filters Supply and Return Piping The turbine lube oil reservoir serves as the suction source for the turbine lube oil pumps. the soft lead diaphragm lifts against a cutting edge and ruptures. or 20 psia). where the supply piping is located inside the drain piping. Turbine auxiliary systems • • • • Turbine Lube Oil System Turbine Steam (Gland) Seal System Turbine Electro-Hydraulic Control (EHC) System Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation (TSI) System Because lubrication of the bearings is critical to turbine operation. for example). It is sized so that it maintains an adequate suction to the pumps during normal operation. Placing the supply piping in the drain piping reduces this risk. However. When pressure in the exhaust hood increases above about 5 psig (1. It also has adequate storage capacity to contain the oil when the system is shutdown and all the oil drains to the reservoir. backup pumps are provided to maintain oil flow to the bearings in case the primary oil pump fails or is not available due to operating conditions (when the turbine is on turning gear. If a leak in the supply piping were to spray on hot steam lines.

The typical turbine lube oil system will have Ac & DC motor driven oil pumps. The purpose of oil conditioning systems is to remove water and particulate matter from the oil that could score the shaft journal. such as a turbine trip or main shaft-driven oil pump failure. Turbine Gland Steam Seal System The steam seal system arrangement shown here is similar to almost all of the steam seal systems found on condensing steam turbines. This means sealing against steam outward leakage on the highpressure end of the turbine and air in-leakage on the low-pressure (condenser) end of the turbine. This pump serves as the last line of defense against a loss of lube oil event. The vapor extractor is a blower that draws the oil mist and vapor off the reservoir and maintains a negative pressure at the bearing housing. The first pump is normally an AC motor-driven pump capable of supplying all of the system's oil requirements during startup. and emergency conditions. Condensing type steam turbines have to seal against leakage anywhere the rotor penetrates the casing. This mist and vapor can be explosive. The turbine lube oil system typically supplies and receives oil from the generator seal oil system. the seal steam header and the steam seal leak-off header. The emergency oil pump will only supply oil to the bearings and is strictly for coast down protection of the turbine. The second pump always uses a direct current (DC) electric motor and is normally called the emergency DC oil pump. The oil returning from the seal oil system can contain some hydrogen gas and release it in the turbine lube oil reservoir. Turbine lube oil systems normally have some kind of oil conditioning system to maintain oil quality. It is not meant for normal service. It provides power to the emergency oil pump if plant electrical power fails. Hydrogen gas is extremely explosive. These pumps are usually submerged suction pumps with the motor mounted on top of the reservoir. especially in systems where the generator is hydrogen-cooled. Turbine lube oil systems normally have two 100% capacity oil coolers. and require the vapor extractor to operate when the oil system is in service. shutdown. Normally the coolers have special valve assemblies on the oil side of the cooler that allow swapping coolers without interrupting oil flow to the bearings. It consists of two headers. These coolers are used to control the temperature of the oil being supplied to the bearings. The negative pressure at the bearing housing prevents oil mist from leaking out around the bearings. the oil mist and vapors in a turbine lube oil system are very flammable. This pump is typically called the auxiliary oil pump. Regardless of whether the generator is hydrogen-cooled or not. The emergency DC oil pump electrical supply originates from the plant battery system. 17 .

instrumentation is provided to monitor various 18 .2 bar). Upon low header pressure (typically below 3 psig. The design and operation of these hydraulic control systems vary with turbine manufacturer. only with more seal steam supplies. A blower mounted on the shell exhausts the air that is pulled in from the outer seal region to atmosphere. It is important to avoid steam leakage to the atmosphere around shaft seals not only for "housekeeping" purposes. leakage from the pressurized sections of the turbine meets or exceeds the requirements of the seal system for the LP section seals. low loads. The steam seal supply system illustrated here is a typical system.The purpose of the gland steam condenser is to maintain a slightly negative pressure at the outer portion of the shaft seals to avoid steam flowing out of the seals during normal operation. The air and steam from the outer seal region flows to the gland steam condenser where the steam is condensed by condensate flowing through the tube side of the heat exchanger." The steam seal supply valve closes and the steam seal unloading valve opens to maintain the proper pressure on the steam seal header. which directs the steam to the individual labyrinth seals on the turbine shaft. Turbine Supervisory Instruments Turbines are large. Many of the turbines found in power plants today have multiple casings to house low-pressure and high-pressure sections. The gland steam condenser is a shell and tube type heat exchanger. or 1. As previously mentioned. Turbine Electro-Hydraulic Control Oil System EHC systems supply high-pressure oil for positioning the various valves on the turbine. To protect this equipment. the excess steam will be relieved to the condenser. As turbine load increases. and leak-off lines for the additional seals. If header pressure should increase too much due to the leakage rate from the pressurized seals exceeding the sealing needs of the LP turbine seals.The turbine illustrated here is a single casing type turbine and therefore has only one steam seal on each end. but all provide similar functions. the bearing housings are maintained at a negative pressure by the vapor extractor on the lube oil reservoir. the main steam supply valve opens. but more importantly to avoid steam blowing around the bearing housings. gland steam condenser. The seal steam supply valve provides sealing steam from the main steam system during startup. expensive pieces of equipment that operate at high temperatures and speeds. At this time the turbine is said to be "self-sealing. The steam seal leak-off system typically consists of piping. Steam leaking from the shaft seals will be drawn into the lube oil system and result in water contamination of the lube oil system. and a vent blower for the non-condensable gases that are drawn off the steam seal system. The turbine gland seal system for those turbines would be the same. which are usually in close proximity to the shaft seals. and shutdown. supplying high-pressure steam to the steam seal header.

Because the mass and the material from which the turbine casings and rotor are made are different. If turbine speed were not monitored and controlled. the centrifugal forces produced by the rotating elements of the turbine could cause it to come apart during excessive overspend conditions.operating parameters. Rotor eccentricity is monitored when the turbine is on turning gear prior to startup to ensure that the rotor has not bowed. This difference in expansion rate must be monitored and controlled because the axial clearances between the stationary and rotating elements of the turbine are very close. such as the internal steam path seals. If the casings are heated or cooled too rapidly. For this reason. undesirable thermal stresses will result. Excessive vibration will cause damage to the bearings and/or other turbine components. If the bearings are damaged. This means they expand at different rates when starting and loading the turbine. Because these casings are thick pieces of metal it takes time for temperatures to equalize. Failure to monitor and control differential expansion will result in metal-to-metal contact between the rotating and stationary parts of the turbine. they heat up and cool down at different rates. and damage will result. 19 . Turbines casing metal temperatures are monitored so the operator can control how fast the casings are heated or cooled. Thrust bearings are used to maintain the axial alignment of the turbine rotor. Some of the parameters monitored by this system include: • • • • • • • Turbine rotor speed (rpm) Turbine casing metal temperatures Rotor eccentricity Shaft (bearing) vibration Casing expansion Differential expansion Bearing metal temperatures Turbine speed is one of the most important operating parameters that is monitored and controlled. the eccentricity monitor switches to another function. the chances of rotating and stationary element damage are substantially increased. Good operating practice calls for an acceptable level of eccentricity before accelerating the turbine from turning gear speed to operating speed. such as differential expansion or vibration monitoring. the design of the speed control system is such that it will never allow the turbine to exceed 110% of rated speed following a tripped condition. Bearing metal temperatures are also monitored to prevent equipment damage. This will eventually lead to metal fatigue and shorten the life of the equipment. Rotor bearings support the rotor and maintain its radial alignment. Failure to do so will result in high vibration and damage to the close steam path seal clearances. Once the rotor rolls off turning gear. These instruments are commonly referred to as the Turbine Supervisory Instrument (TSI) System.

. ......... IP Turbine………………… Reaction………10 Stages.. such as high vibration or excessive rotor axial movement. Turbines consist of double 20 ...169kg/cm2 Inlet temperature…………….....Single Reheat condensing tandem .……………538 C0 (Main steam and reheat) Exhaust pressure …………………. 8 Blading: HP Turbine…………………Impulse ………1 Stage (Rateau)..... LP Turbine HP-IP turbine is of combination impulse (Rateau stage) and reaction type while LP turbine is of reaction double flow type. Lal Pir/PG Turbines Specification Type………………………………………. Clockwise (from GV end) Inlet pressure………………………........ Reaction………11Stages. LP Turbine………… ……...Reaction………6 Stages.The instruments in the TSI System not only provide indication. 3000 rpm Direction of rotation………………..………..……….362 MW Speed………………………………. but many of them will annunciate alarms and trip the turbine if unsafe conditions exist.…………692 mmHg No of Extractions………………….…..Two cylinder double flow exhaust MCR……………………………………….....

any floating of the rotor.casing. With this arrangement. Inner casing having fixed blades and outer casing serves to minimize heat losses. can occur towards the exhaust end only thus temporarily increasing the axial running clearance by the amount of clearance in the thrust bearing but maintaining at least the desired minimum clearance at all times. The balance piston labyrinth seals are of the radial clearance type. Labyrinth seals are fixed between outer casing and rotor to minimize steam leakage. A thrust bearing is installed at governor pedestal that absorbs axial thrust. such as is possible in case of loss of load. A 2-stage dummy piston is installed at steam inlet zone of HP turbine that is designed to balance the thrust on the blades and thus produce a thrust towards the inlet end of the machine under normal operating conditions. 21 .

The protections are as follows:- 1. Over speed trip In case of emergency. The steam returns from the re-heater to the intermediate pressure element through two reheat stop-interceptor valve assemblies. Mechanical trip mechanism is also available that trips the turbine when its speed reaches 10% above its normal speed (3300 rpm).There are 2 no of MSVs and 4 no of GVs in HP turbine while IP turbine is equipped with 2 RSVs and 2 ICVs. which is located on the generator end of the HP-IP turbine. Ultimate result is the turbine trip. through two exhaust openings in the outer casing base.pressure balding forward to the reheater. The turbine governor senses the increase in speed and immediately begins to close the control valves to decrease the steam flow to the turbine. installed in the mezzanine floor in front of the HP pedestal.Second defense line is the Electrical over speed. The first response to an over peed occurs in the turbine control system. trip value is 111% (3330 rpm) 22 . The low pressure turbine is a reaction. turbine is put on turning gear that rotates at very slowly to avoid eccentricity. which are located on each side of the turbine. hence downward into a combined exhaust to the condenser. HP and IP turbines are coupled with LP turbine and LP turbine with generator by means of rigid couplings. A turning gear is installed in-between LP turbine and generator. double flow type element with steam entering at the center of the blade path and flowing towards an exhaust opening at each end. During start up and shut down. Turbine Protections To assure safe operation of plant. each connected to its nozzle chamber by a slip joint. The steam enters the high-pressure element through 2 MSV-steam chest assemblies. The steam passes through the impulse stage and high. different protection systems have been employed all over the plant where necessary. The chest outlets are connected with HP-IP casing through four inlet sleeves. Two outlets of these valve assemblies are connected to the LP casing bottom. Two of these inlet sleeves connections are in the base and two are in the cover. The steam passes through the intermediate pressure element (Reaction balding). the turbine may over speed. Turbine protections are designed to protect the turbine automatically during any emergency conditions. for example when the generator suddenly is disconnected from the power system.

the turbine will trip. turbine may also be tripped by means of a hand lever located on the turbine or by means of a push button located near CRTs in control room.1 kg/cm2 corresponds to a rotor displacement of 0. 6. High vibration Turbine also trips due to high vibration on turbine bearings. 5.2.56 kg/ cm2).0 mm (trip) 4. 23 . Thrust bearing is the turbine component that maintains the axial thrust of the shaft and helps to absorb the thrust of the turbine. Turbine trips if a low vacuum condition exists in the condenser. Hand trip/push button trip During emergency conditions. Low Lube oil Pressure protection The function of the lube oil protection system is to initiate action if a low lubricating oil pressure occurs. Following are the values for alarm and trip: • • At 615 mm of Hg (alarm) At 500 mm of Hg (trip). If the pressure decreases to a minimum value (0.6 kg/cm2 corresponds to a rotor displacement of 1. Following thrust bearing wear pressures produce upon rotor axial displacement of. 5. • • 2.9 mm (alarm). 3. Low vacuum protection 5. Thrust bearing protection This system protects the turbine from excessive thrust.

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