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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF FOLDABLE

BRIDGE
Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of
“DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING”

SUBMITTED BY:

B. NITHYA SAGAR 15213429

R. NITHYANANDAM 15213430

S. PADMANABAN 15213431

M. PAVITHRAN 15213432

A. POOVARASAN 15213433

V. PRADEEP 15213434

Under the guidance of


Mr. A. SATHISH KUMAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SRI BALAJI POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE


KOLAPAKKAM, CHENNAI – 600 127
APRIL 2017
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF FOLDABLE BRIDGE

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of


“DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING”

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Project in the name of “DESIGN AND


FABRICATION OF FOLDABLE BRIDGE” is the bonafide record of
work done by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . student of VI semester
of mechanical engineering during the year 2016-2017 is in the requirement
for the award of DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.
REGISTER NUMBER

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT PROJECT GUIDE

Submitted for the examination held on ------------------- SRI BALAJI


POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, CHENNAI-600048.

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We sincerely and gratefully owe our heartfelt thanks to our


Principal Mr. J. DAVID SAMUEL LAWRENCE, M.E., for
providing good facilities to do project successfully.

We pledge and gratefully out thanks to our head of the


department, Mr. P.THIRUMAL, M.Tech., for kind cooperation with
us.

We are indebted to our guide Mr. A. SATHISH KUMAR , for is


inspiring guidance and enlargement that motivation us to higher
standard of performance.

We are much thankful to our staff members of our department

and our institution for helping us to complete this correct time.


CONTENTS
CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. SYNOPSIS

3. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

4. WORKING PRINCIPLE

5. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

6. SPARE PARTS DRAWING

7. SAFETY,CARE AND MAINTENANCE

8. FEATURES OF THIS PROJECT

9. PAINTING AND FINISHING

10. COST ESTIMATION

11. CONCLUSION

12. BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

This is a self – assessment test on the part of the students to assess his

competency in creativity.

During the course of study, the student is put on a sound theoretical

foundation of various mechanical engineering subjects and of course, to a

satisfactory extent. Opportunities are made available to him to work on

different kinds of machines, so that he is exposed to various kinds of

manufacturing process.

As a students learn more and more his hold on production technology

becomes stronger. He attains a stage of perfection, when he himself is able

to design and fabricate a device.

This is the project work. That is the testimony for the strenuous

training, which the student had in the institute. This assures that he is no

more a student, he is an engineer.

This report discuses the necessity of the project and various aspects of

planning , design, selection of materials, fabrication, erection, estimation and

testing.
SYNOPSIS
SYNOPSIS

This project is a model and a simplified version of Kattwyk Bridge


and has been made under the constraints of space, time and resources
available in the lab.
The Bridge mechanism has been divided in three sections. The central
section lifts above, while the two side parts remain intact with the supporting
angles. The lift mechanism used for the bridge is based on the pulley system
involving three pulleys. A string is passed through the two pulleys on either
side of middle section and the pulley at the centre synchronizes the motion
of two pulleys and makes the motion centralized.
The angles are used to restrict the motion of central section allowing
only the motion in vertical direction to occur and provide the stability to the
bridge structure. A chain is also used to stop the central section at any
desired height depending on the height of ship assuming a real case situation
thus saving the power.
The mechanism used to lift the central section is due to the constraint
of not using any electric motor or gears. In real case situation, the power can
be given by electric motors and cables can be used.
The four bridge supporting angles that connect the three sections of
the bridge will actually go till the bottom surface of the river.
OBJECTIVE
OBJECTIVE;

To fabricate a bridge for the use of road transport system and at the same
time to accommodate way to the ship.

To gain the knowledge in the field of fabrication using both field welding

and underwater welding and To lift the portion of bridge in order to give

the way to the ship .


DEFINITION OF PROBLEM
DEFINITION OF PROBLEM;

Many bridges are built across the river and sea in order to provide

the road transport system . But the height of the bridge is just above the

water flow level . There is no need of transport of ship or boat across the

bridge and under the bridge. But in some cases, the ship should transport

under the bridge in order to avoid the too much mileage covering distance.

For that it is necessary to raise the level of the bridge in order to give

way to the ship. Here a model of bridge is fabricated to raise the mid

portion of bridge to give the way to the ship.


SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT;

 By rotating the lever in clockwise direction , the mid portion only raises .

 The whole unit is fabricated using low cost mild steel material .

 Simple construction and less effort and costless maintenance and anybody can

work this unit.

 Operation is very smooth and in this system we can get more output by applying

less effort.
CONSTRUCTION
CONSTRUCTION

The project consist of

1. Hand operated wire drum

2. Wire Drum wheel lock unit

3. M.S. Fabricated fixed Stand

4. M.S. Fabricated lifting Stand


1. Hand operated wire drum;

This unit consists of one 50mm diameter cylindrical shape


roller made in mildsteel material and supported in two bushes for
the purpose of free rotation. The middle portion of the bridge
portion is tied with the rope and connected to drum unit. One end
of the drum unit is connected to handle for the purpose drum wheel
rotation. When the hand wheel is rotated , the drum unit rotated to
wind the rope and hence the mid portion of the bridge elevated.

2. Wire drum wheel lock unit;


When the bridge unit is elevated to particular height and it should be
held at this position by locking drum shaft by tightening the screw which is
passed through the bush .

M.S.Fabricated fixed Stand;

This unit fabricated in M.S. ‘L’angle of size 25 x 25 mm and having


thickness 3 mm .The size of the unit is 600x600x 300mm (WXHXD) .The
whole material is purchased in hardware shop nearby residential area and
cut the entire material with the help of abrasive cutting machine .
This abrasive cutting machine working in 230VAC supply and rotated
in 3000rpm having 300mm diameter abrasive wheel. The cutting wheels are
made in different materials for the purpose cutting different materials .
The whole set up is fabricated to the required size with the help of 230vac
single phase arc welding machine using 10 gauge mild steel arc welding
coated electrode .

M.S. Fabricated Lifting Stand.


This unit fabricated in M.S. ‘L’angle of size 25 x 25 mm and having
thickness 3 mm .The size of the unit is 600x300x 300mm (WXHXD) and
equally portioned in three units . the middle portion is only connected to
rope for the purpose of elevating to give the way to ship.
WORKING PRINCIPLE
WORKING PRINCIPLE

The project consist of

 Hand operated wire drum

 Wire Drum wheel lock unit

 M.S. Fabricated fixed Stand

 M.S. Fabricated lifting Stand

The elevating portion of the stand is held inside the fixed stand . this
fixed having one wire drum unit which winds the rope on both sides of the
mid portion of the bridge when the hand lever is rotated.

The elevating unit is 600x300x 300mm (WXHXD) and equally portioned in


three units . the middle portion is only connected to rope for the purpose of
elevating to give the way to ship.

When the bridge unit is elevated to particular height and it should be held
at this position by locking drum shaft by tightening the screw which is
passed through the bush
SPARE PARTS AND
ASSEMBLY DRAWING
ADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES

1. Single person is enough to operate this efficiently

2. Easy and efficient handling of this unit without wastage or damage

to unit, rope and to any other parts.

3. low maintenance cost and life of equipment also increased..

4. Least maintenance of the equipment.

5. Need not require any individual work place.


DISADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES

 Manual power required to operate .

 The time taken for lifting the middle portion is more when

compared to power unit.

 It cannot be used for real mode for manual operation of lifting...


APPLICATION
APPLICATIONS

1.By using this concept fuel cost reduced

2.installed wherever possible in river and sea to accommodate the

way to ship.
PAINTING AND FINISHING
FINISHING AND PAINTING

JOB PREPARATION

Before welding, remove any bend in the L angle with the sludge

hammer on the anvil block. Then it is cut to the required length with the

hacksaw blade and fabricated to required dimensional shape with arc

welding.

FINISHING OPERATION BEFORE PAINTING

After welding, any slag on the welded area is removed with the

chipping hammer and cleaned with the metal wire brush. Then all the

surfaces are rubbed with the emery sheet.

Metal primer is applied on the surfaces with the brush. After drying the

metal primer, the second coating is applied with the paint.


SAFETY,CARE AND
MAINTENANCE
SAFETY,CARE AND MAINTENANCE

Before using the machine, some of the points to be noted for safety purpose,

1. Before starting the operation, check the following items

(1) Check the mechanism for proper operation .

(2) Check the alignment of rope in the unit.

(3) Don’t insert the any material or object between the during

operation of elevating the bridge.

(4) Check the brokening of rope strands and lock in the unit.

(5) lift carefully while elevating the bridge .


FEATURES OF THIS PROJECT
FEATURES OF THIS PROJECT

 It is compact in size

 It can be move

 No electrical power consumption

 It can be utilized in water flowing area

 It is simple in construction

 Low cost

 Less weight and easy to handle

 It reduces the fuel cost

 It is simple in operation..
COST ESTIMATION
COST ESTIMATION

1.Hand operated wire drum---------------------600.00

2.Wire Drum wheel lock unit ------------------400.00

3.M.S. Fabricated fixed Stand ----------------1800.00

4.M.S. Fabricated lifting Stand---------------1200.00

5. welding rod and abrasive cutoff weel-------600.00

6. transport cost ----------------------------------400.00

Total cost ---------------------------5000.00


CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION

We make this project entirely different from other projects. Since

concepts involved in our project is entirely different that a single unit is used

to various purposes, which is not developed by any of other team members.

By doing this project we gained the knowledge of fabrication work

and how the welding is doing and material selection for particular

components etc.,

It is concluded that any fabrication work can be done with the help of

welding.

We have successfully completed the project work on using welding

work at our Institute.

Once again we express our sincere thanks to our staff members.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY -HAJRA CHOWDRY

2. PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY -R.S. KHURMI

3. MACHINE SHOP TECHNOLOGY -S.S.MANIAN

4. JIG AND FIXTURE DESIGN - R.K.JAIN

5.FLUID POWER BY -E.SUNDRAMOORTHY