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Department of mechanical engineering

Project on 3-wheeler trash collector

GROUP MEMBERS
1. Bernabas Solomon
2. Firew Teferi
3. Fitsum Hailu
4. Gizealew Nigussie

Advisor: Besufikad
Abstract
The project presents design of chassis, hydraulic excavator arm, break, gearbox and structural stability
analysis of the 3 wheels of trash collector design vehicle. The objective of this project are to design and
analysis the component of hydraulic arm and selected part of three wheeled vehicle. Since this design of
vehicle in this project is very non-conventional, adapting design procedure of designing a four-wheeler
into its design is very challenging task. To enhance the design of selected part of 3-wheeled vehicle, a
combination of various successful systems in hydraulic arm like mechanism to pick up the trash by itself
have been added to the vehicle. The hydraulic arm designed pick, hold and put to the trash collector
vehicle. This is the aim of the project to give a service for different facilities which have shortage of man
power, reduce man labor, and effective transportation of garbage. Mathematical modeling of various
designed parts was developed. Models were made in SOLID WORKS and ANSYS.
CHAPTER 1

1. INTRODUCTION
Since the evolution of human being, mankind has always been trying to make life easier and
vehicles have helped a lot in this process. Due to rapid growth in population and as the city is
developed, the need to design for this user group become increasingly important. Among the
various household chores, trash disposal is universal. Even though, the municipality of Addis
Ababa spends large proportion of its budget on collection, transport and disposal of solid waste.
There is still have a big problem on the primary collection, transport and disposal of solid waste
will be useful for the primary collection that is done by micro and small enterprises. Therefore, we
endeavored to create ergonomically sound and aesthetically trash collector that would provide
support for the existing primary solid waste collector.
The most important part of a vehicle is its chassis. It is a physical frame or structure of an
automobile to which all other components are attached, and it can be comparable to the skeleton
of a living organism. The components of the vehicle like axles, wheels, tires, suspension, a
controlling system like braking, steering, etc. and even electrical systems are mounted on the
chassis frame.
In this project, a 3-wheel vehicles of trash collector design are introduced which is more stable
dynamically, while braking simple in design. In the first step, design of each and every component
is discussed. in our design of the chassis eliminates a lot of complexity involved in vehicle design
which includes transmission system, front and rear axles, differential to name a few. The trash
collector 3- wheel vehicle is designed with the materials that can be manufactured in our country
providing the capability of supporting a person along with the driver. The dimensions were
determined using ergonomic engineering, economic and aesthetic optimization routines.
In the next step, the procedure of modeling kinematics and analysis in commercial software tools
used are CAD, CATIA V5 (SOLID WORK) and FEA of the chassis is discussed.
1.1 Background
Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities authorities in developing countries mainly
due to the increasing generation of waste. And as we all know the existing solid waste collector
trolley only two wheels on suspension system and because it’s weight is heavy, it requires a large
number of people for driving it. So this project is aimed to minimize the problems relating in
collecting and also by making it driven to vehicle, helping the workers to transport. And also by
providing a Hydraulic system to the trolley, then by controlling it from the driver’s cabin to rise
and lower in order to lift and put it to garbage.
Various method of trash collection are;
1. Muscle powered vehicles

Donkeys, mules, horses and buffaloes are used for pulling loads in many countries, including
Ethiopia . Animal carts can be effective in waste collection for distances up to 5 km. Attention
must be paid to the design of the carts and the harness to minimize the loads that the animals
must support and to simplify tipping. In steeply-sloping communities with unpaved access
roads, donkeys and mules can carry waste in panniers (a container on either side). In Faisalabad
in Pakistan, a recent study showed that the existing donkey carts were inefficient, due to their
small load capacity and slow emptying.
Advantages:
1. Particularly suited in densely populated areas with minimal street access or unpaved
streets
2. Suited for squatter settlements and in rough terrain.
3. Where a relatively small volume of waste from a relatively large number of densely
settled housing units must be collected.
4. Such vehicles are often inexpensive and easy to build or maintain.

Disadvantages
1. The public perception that the use of such vehicles is old-fashioned and inefficient.
2. Limited traveling range and slowness.
3. When vehicles are pulled by animals, waste materials from these animals must be
clean up
4. More greatly affected by weather conditions and exposure.
5. More susceptible to decreased efficiency due to animal temperament and health of
collectors.

2. Non-compactor trucks

Advantages:
1. Quite efficient when waste is generally wet or dense
2. Practical where labor is inexpensive
3. Practical where there is limited access to skilled maintenance for more complex vehicles
4. Collection routes are long and relatively sparsely populated
5. Tucks are potentially universally available from local sources
6. Trucks are flexible to perform a number of different collection tasks.
Disadvantages:
1. Waste loads often have to be covered while transporting waste to transfer, processing
or disposal points so as to prevent the deposition of waste from the trucks onto roads.
2. Some non-compactor trucks often do not have an automatic means for offloading solid
waste.
3. Many government officials believe that a modern efficient collection program must
include compaction vehicles and that non-compactor vehicles represent lower efficiency.
4. Donor agencies tend to recommend equipment used in their own countries and they tend
to assume that compactor trucks represent the best use of their donated money.

3. Compactor trucks
These trucks are the standard of sound practice in most industrialized countries where their
cost can be afforded. These trucks have been designed specifically for the purpose of
collecting solid waste.
Advantages:
1. Allow waste to be placed into the vehicle from either the rear or side of the vehicle.
2.Practical where labor is inexpensive
3. Practical where there is limited access to skilled maintenance for more complex vehicles
4. Collection routes are long and relatively sparsely populated
5. Tucks are potentially universally available from local sources
6. Trucks are flexible to perform a number of different collection tasks.
Disadvantages:
1. Waste loads often have to be covered while transporting waste to transfer, processing
or disposal points so as to prevent the deposition of waste from the trucks onto roads.
2. Some non-compactor trucks often do not have an automatic means for offloading solid
waste.
3. Many government officials believe that a modern efficient collection program must
include compaction vehicles and that non-compactor vehicles represent lower
efficiency.
4. Donor agencies tend to recommend equipment used in their own countries and they tend
to assume that compactor trucks represent the best use of their donated money.

4. Three-wheeler auto-trash collector vehicle


They have the advantages of narrow width and relatively high speed (up to 30 kph) and,
therefore, can operate in congested urban centers within a radius of about 5 km from a
transfer station. Earlier versions of this truck were fitted with two-stroke petrol
engines which had relatively high fuel consumptions and caused quite a lot of air pollution.
Later versions are now available fitted with more economical single-cylinder diesel engines
or four-stroke engines which are less polluting. In our project we have used robotic arm
(like the way the crane lifts up and down) that is used to collect trashes at the primary
collection process.

1.2 Problem statement


Even though, the municipality of Addis Ababa spends large proportion of its budget on
collection, transport and disposal of solid waste, there is still have a big problem on the primary
collection, transport and disposal of solid waste will be useful for the primary collection that
is done by micro and small enterprises. It also takes a lot of time during transporting to a place
where it is disposed. And since the trash cart is pushed by a number of peoples, it is hard to
control the cart during driving and turning. Therefore, we endeavored to create ergonomically
sound and aesthetically trash collector that would provide support for the existing primary solid
waste collector and it is very helpful.
1.3 Objective
1.3.1. General Objective

The general objective of this project is to Design, Analyze 3-wheeler trash collector vehicle
specially chassis, break, gearbox, hydraulic arm and hydraulic cylinder to decrease labor
involvements.
1.3.2 Specific objective
 design ergonomically sound and aesthetically trash collector 3-wheel vehicle by
considering all different aspects of environmental sustainability.
 To analysis detail design of each component of the hydraulic arm
 To design and analyze break and gear box of the vehicle
 To make detail drawing of each machine parts and assembly per the design
requirement using SOLIDWORK and ANSYS.
 To select an appropriate material based on design problems for each machine
components
 Designing the chassis, trash collector as to analyze the cost of the 3-wheeler trash
collector vehicle.
 To assembly and simulate
1.4 Significance of the project
This 3-wheeler trash collector benefits as reducing the challenge for primary collection process.
Because the robotic arm, it holds and puts the trash to the 3-wheeler vehicle; it reduces the amount
labor forces in performing such tasks. They have the advantages of narrow width and relatively
high speed (up to 50 kmh) and, therefore, can operate in congested urban countries within a radius
of about 5 km from a transfer station. Hence this 3-wheeler trash collector are helpful for the
society, workers and the municipal of the city by managing the waste collection, transportation
and disposal system within shortest time.
1.5 Scope of the study
The project aims at achieving sustainable waste collecting material, 3-wheeler trash collector with
hydraulic arm, in order to save labor cost, reduce job injuries due to repetitive heavy lifting and to
save their health retrieving expenses.
1.6 Methodology
1.6.1 Data collection
Primary data collection
 Taking observation
 Brain storming of individuals

Secondary data collection


 From internet
 Referring books, documents
 Journals

1.6.2 Data analysis method


 The concept generation stage is conducted by creating our owns ideas and asking other’s
friends opinion

 Machine design, fluid power, vehicle dynamics books and others are use to select material
properties, analyses the detail designs, selecting the standard equipment and solidworks
used to prepare part drawing.

Time schedule:-
# Activity Feb 2018 Mar 2018 Apr 2018 May 2018 Jun 2018
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 Literature review X
2 Preparing proposal X
3 Proposal defense
4 Data collection and X X
organization
5 Data modeling and X X
analysis
6 Simulation, X X X
experimental
investigation
7 Progress defense X
8 Result and X
discussion
9 First draft X
report/documentatio
n
10 Finalizing the final X
report
11 Final defense X

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

In this chapter, a brief study about the current collection of solid waste is introduced first to have the
basic idea. And then the history of waste collection vehicle is discussed.
2.1. GENERATION & COLLECTION OF SOLID WASTE
A waste collector is a person employed by a public or private enterprise to collect and remove refuse
(waste) and recyclables from residential, commercial, industrial or other collection site for further
processing and disposal. Specialized waste collection vehicles featuring an array of automated
functions are often deployed to assist waste collectors in reducing collection and transport time and for
protection from exposure. Waste and recycling pickup work is physically demanding and it exposes
workers to many occupational hazards. The City of Addis Ababa generates a solid waste of
0.4kg/c/day. More than 200,000t are collected each year. About 550t/day, 80% of the total waste
collected. The municipality increased the collection rate from 60% to 80%. Sources of Waste
Generated: - 76% households, 18% institutions, commercial, factories, hotels, 6% is street sweeping...
The Municipality Spends large proportion of its budget on collection, transport, and disposal of solid
waste. Solid waste collection services divided in to two sub-systems: primary and secondary Collection.
Primary collection is done by micro and small enterprises. Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia,
has one of the fastest growing populations in the world. The population has leaped from 15,000 to 4
million since its establishment 100 years ago (IGNIS, 2016). With all the socio-economic problems
growing parallel, waste management in the city can take a great portion. Due to the insufficient waste
management system in Addis Ababa, the habitants suffer the site and consequences of accumulated
waste piles on the streets and drains all around the city. These piles pollute the surrounding vegetation,
ground water and soil from the leachate. Due to weather variation and chemical reaction between
materials fire ignites. The emission from the smoke pollutes the atmosphere. Moreover, these piles
provide a breeding ground for insects and rats who can potentially cause the outbreak of an epidemic.
They also cause a nauseating smell and are quite unpleasant to see. The current solid waste management
system mainly relies on the municipality to address it and there are few private participants working on
a very small scale compared to the amount of work needed in the sector. The method used by the
municipality is crude open dumping after collection from households and institutions at a place called
Repi about 15 km from the city Centre. The dump has been running for the last 50 years without proper
management. There have been few approaches to solve the problem and no significant changes have
occurred. It can easily be seen that the city has expanded out of the government’s service capacity and
the aid of the private sector is needed. The solution to the waste problem requires the committed
participation of both parties with the proper partnership
2.2. History of Waste Collection Vehicles
In 500 BC, the Greek city of Athens established the first ever refuse removal system. The
Athenians consolidated their garbage in a dump that was located at a distance of one mile
from the city walls (Hadingham et al, 1990). In the 1800’s, the garbage hauling vehicles
consisted of two-wheeled carts drawn by horses. The carts were used to collect waste from
consolidation barrels. Waste collectors emptied these barrels into a wagon bed in order to
move waste away from the city. The first motorized collection trucks appeared in 1920. The
open-top trucks were not ideal for hauling garbage since they were prone to attracting insects
and emitting malodorous fumes. Later in the 1920’s, Britain manufactured the first covered-
body, motorized truck specially designed for hauling garbage. This model is considered to be
the first prototype for today’s waste collection vehicles (Montville, 2001). In the 1950’s post-
World War II America experienced strong economic growth together with an increase of
postwar births, which led to a significance increase in trash production and a concomitant
burden on waste collectors to consolidate and remove greater volumes of municipal waste.
To accommodate this increased volume, the garbage truck industry incorporated hydraulic
rams on its vehicles to compress trash as it was collected. Also, during this era, the US
collection fleet completely modernized, converting the fleet of the horse drawn carts into
motorized collection trucks (Montville, 2001). Up to this point, municipal waste had been
manually collected from commercial and residential clients, causing frequent injuries to the
collection workers. In the 1970s, the waste management industry developed automated and
semi-automated collection systems that were designed to enhance worker safety and reduce
injury, while simultaneously improving collection efficiency by facilitating high-speed
collection (Montville, 2001). The city of Phoenix was the first to introduce automated side-
loader collection vehicles in their fleet. The move was an attempt to minimize the back-
breaking nature of waste collection (Rogoff et al., 2010).
2.2 Literature Summary
The Old Model;

Figure 2.1: Old Model of Garbage Collecting Machine, Thorneycroft Steam Dust-Cart of 1897
with tripper body

Wagon and other means had been used for centuries to haul away solid waste. Among the first self
propelled garbage trucks were those ordered by Cheswick Steam Wagon and Carriage Company
in 1897 described as a steam motor tip-car, a new design of body specific for the collection of dust
and house refuse.

The 1920s saw the first open-topped trucks being used, but due to foul odors and waste falling
from the back, covered vehicles soon became more common. These covered trucks were first
introduced in more densely populated Europe and then in Northern America, but were soon used
worldwide.

The main difficulty was that the waste collectors needed to lift the waste to shoulder height. The
first technique developed in the late 20s to solve this problem was to build round compartments
with massive corkscrews that would lift the load and bring it away from the rear. A more efficient
model was the development of the hopper in 1929. It used a cable system that could pull waste
into the truck.
In 1937, George Dempster invented the Dempster-Dumpster system in which wheeled waste
containers were mechanically tipped into the truck. His containers were known as Dumpster,
which led to the word dumpster entering the language.

In 1938, the Garwood Loader Packer revolutionized the industry when the notion of including a
compactor in the truck was implemented. The first primitive compactor could double a truck’s
capacity. This was made possible by use of a hydraulic press which compact the contents of the
truck periodically.

Figure 2.2: RS-3 Lightning Rear Steer Truck

1955 saw the Dempster Dump master the first front loader introduced, however they didn’t become
common until the 1970s. The 1970s also saw the introduction of smaller dumpster, often known
as wheelie bins which were also emptied mechanically. Since that time there has been little
dramatic change, although there have been various improvements to the compaction mechanisms
in order to improve payload. In the mid-1970s Petersen industries introduced the first grapple truck
for municipal waste collection.

In 1997, Lee Rathbun introduced the Lightning Rear Steer System. This system includes an
elevated, rear-facing cab for both driving the truck and operating the loader. This configuration
allows the operator to follow behind haul trucks and load continuously.
Back Ground of Waste Collection in Ethiopia
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia first recognized citizens’ rights to live in a “clean
andhealthy environment” in 1994, with the provisions of Articles 44.1 and 44.4 of the Constitution
(Alem, 2007). Ethiopia’s government first approved environmental policy provisions in 1997.
Theserecognized the need to promote conditions for domestic solid waste disposal, community
educationof sustainable waste management, standards for sanitation technologies across all
socioeconomicgroups, and partnerships among the government, communities, and NGOs for an
integratedsanitation system (Alem, 2007). In 2002, the government passed the Environmental
PollutionControl Proclamation, establishing pollution monitoring and environmental quality
standards for air, water and soil (Unifruit Ethiopia, 2011). Ethiopia established the most recent and
concrete federallaw related to waste management in 2007 as the Solid Waste Proclamation,
mandating safe, designated waste sanitation areas for people and the environment, as well as
household separation ofrecyclables and community-level waste management plans (Federal
Democratic Republic ofEthiopia, 2007). Although this proclamation also requires any person
transporting or treatingmunicipal solid waste to obtain a permit from the Environmental Protection
Agency, itsimplementation has lacked enforcement in many individual communities (Federal
DemocraticRepublic of Ethiopia, 2007; Fikreyesus, 2011; Regassa et al., 2011a).
Like in all urban centers, the evolution of Ethiopia’s formal government has significant effects
ontoday’s state of waste management. Addis Ababa has the longest history of formal waste
Management in Ethiopia, with a landfill system dating back to 1964 when the Repi landfill
wasestablished (Mahiteme, Management, Sustainability, & Ababa, 2005). However, relatively little
hasbeen done in other urban areas, with the exception of a few recent developments (Fikreyesus,
2011).The cities of Dire Dawa, Mekele, and Adama established municipal landfills in 2007, 2008,
and 2010,respectively (Fikreyesus, 2011). Unlike the Repi landfill, these secondary cities have
developedimproved environmental protection technologies in their landfills, such as the application
of covermaterial, a secured perimeter, and a leachate management system.

2.3 Types of Waste Collection Vehicle

1. Front Loaders
Front loaders generally service commercial and industrial businesses using large waste
containers with lids known as Dumpsters in the US. The truck is equipped with powered
forks on the font which the driver carefully aligns with sleeves on the waste container using
a joystick or a set of levers. The waste container is then lifted over the truck.
Once it gets to the top the container is then flipped upside down and the waste or recyclable
material is emptied in to the vehicle’s hopper. Once the waste is dumped, it is compacted
by a hydraulically powered moving wall that oscillates backwards and forwards to push
the waste to the rear of the vehicle. Most of the newer packing trucks have pack on-the-go
hydraulics, which lets the driver pack loads while driving, allowing faster route times.
When the body is full, the compaction wall moves all the way to the rear of the body,
ejecting it via an open tailgate. There is also a system called Curotto Can which is an
attachment for a front loader that has an automated arm that functions as an automated side
loader that allows the driver to dump carts.

Figure 2.3: Front Loader Dumping Sequence

2. Rear Loaders
Rear loaders have an opening at the rear that a waste collector can throw waste bags or
empty the contents of bins into. Often in many areas they have a lifting mechanism to
automatically empty large carts without the operator having to lift the waste by hand.
Another popular system for the rear loader is a rear load container specially built to fit a
groove in the truck. The truck will have a chain or cable system for upending the container.
The waste will then slide in to the hopper of the truck.
The modern loader usually compact the waste using a hydraulically powered mechanism
that employs a moving plate or shovel to scoop the waste out from the loading hopper and
compress it against a moving wall. In most compactor designs, the plate has a pointed edge
(hence giving it the industry standard name packer blade) which is designed to apply point
pressure to the waste to break down bulky items in the hopper before being drawn into the
main body of the truck.
A unique rear loading system involves a rear loader and a front-loading tractor (usually a
Caterpillar front loader with a Tink Claw) for yard waste collection (and in some cities,
garbage and recycling). The front loader picks up yard waste set in the street, and then
loaded into the back of a rear loader.

Figure 2.4: Rear Loader

3. Side Loaders
Side loaders are loaded from the side, either manually, or with the assistance of a joystick-
controlled robotic arm with a claw, used to automatically lift and tip wheeled bins into the
truck’s hopper. Lift-equipped trucks are referred to us automated side loaders, or ASL’s.
Similar to a front-end loader, the waste is compacted by an oscillating packer plate at the
front of the loading hopper which forces the waste through an aperture into the main body
and is therefore compacted towards the rear of the truck. An automated side loader only
needs one operator, where a traditional rear load garbage truck may require two or three
people, and has the additional advantage of reducing on the job injuries due to repetitive
heavy lifting. Typically an automated side loader uses standardized wheeled carts
compatible with the truck’s automated lift.
As with front loaders, the compaction mechanism comprises a metal pusher plate in the
collection hopper which oscillates backwards and forwards under hydraulic pressure,
pushing the refuse through an aperture, thus compacting it against the material already
loaded. On some automatic side loaders there is also a “folding” crusher plate positioned
above the opening in the hopper, that folds down to crush bulky items within reach of the
metal pusher plate. Another compactor design is the “paddle packer” which uses a paddle
that rotates from side to side, forcing refuse into the body of the truck.

Figure 2.5: Side Loader

4. Pneumatic Collection
Pneumatic collection trucks have a crane with a tube and a mouthpiece that fits in a hole,
usually hidden under a plate under the street. From here it will suck up waste from an
underground installation. The system usually allows the driver to “pick up” the waste, even
if the access is blocked by cars, snow or other barriers.
Figure 2.6: Volvo Pneumatic Collector Used for “Waste Suction”

5. Grapple Trucks
Grapple trucks enable the collection of bulk waste. A large percentage of items in the solid
waste stream are too large or too heavy to be safely lifted by hand into traditional garbage
trucks. These items (furniture, large appliances, branches, logs) are called bulky waste or
“oversized.” The preferred method for collecting these items is with a grapple trucks have
hydraulic knuckle booms, tipped with a clamshell bucket, and usually include a dump body
or trailer.

Figure 2.7: Grapple Truck


6. Roll-offs
Roll-offs is characterized by a rectangular footprint, utilizing wheels to facilitate rolling the
dumpster in place. The container is designed to be transported by special roll-off trucks.
They are relatively efficient for bulk loads of waste.

An improved side loading garbage truck that includes an improved packing method that utilizes a
packing blade that doubles as the hopper cover, that includes its hydraulic cylinders outside the
body of the truck, doesn’t have any potential leak points inside the body providing easier access
to the cylinders, blade and installation. The other improvement is the use of multi-point contact
rollers thereby reducing wear and tear and extending the life of the side loader arm.

An improved packing method for a side loader garbage truck wherein said side-loader garbage
includes a chassis cab, an automated side loader arm located proximate said chassis cab wherein
said side loader arm moves in a multi-directional fashion to accomplish the task of grasping a
garbage container, lifting said garbage container above said truck and tilting said garage container
to empty the contents of said garbage container, an opening for the placement therein of garbage
from said garbage container, a packing blade operated through hydraulic cylinders for packing said
garbage and a storage area located on the opposite end of said garbage truck from said chassis cab
for the storage of side packed garbage, said packing method comprising placement of garbage into
said opening in said garbage truck for packing therein through the utilization of said side loader
arm while said packing blade sits in a channel substantially parallel to the ground so that said
packing blade when in substantially parallel position is movable in a horizontal direction to
positions both distal and parallel chassis cab and wherein packing blade is located in channel in a
position distal chassis cab thereby creating an opening for the placement therein of garbage;
positioning of the packing blade in a position so that blade is proximate said chassis cab through
the movement of packing blade in said channel in a position wherein blade is substantially parallel
to the ground and wherein said blade acts as a cover to said garbage as it is in a position proximate
chassis cab and consequently over said opening, packing blade being actuated with hydraulic
cylinders that are located above chassis of garbage truck; positioning of packing blade in a second
position so that blade moves from position substantially parallel to the ground into a position
substantially perpendicular to the ground so that garbage is moved to a position distal chassis cab;
movement of packing blade through channel into a position proximate storage area and distal
chassis cab thereby packing garbage and moving garbage into storage area; and positioning of
blade into a substantially parallel position relative to the ground while remaining proximate said
storage area and distal chassis cab thereby revealing opening for the further placement therein of
garbage.

The present invention relates generally to the field of garbage trucks and particularly to an
improved garbage truck that utilizes unique, high-efficient packing method and multi-point contact
rollers.

2.4Types of Side Loader Garbage Truck

a. Automated Side Loader Truck


 Automated side loaders are feature automated arms or lift equipped o at the side of the
refuse collection vehicle, which pick up the waste container and empty its contents into the
truck’s hopper.
 Automated side loaders have assistant joy stick controlled robotic arm with a claw used to
auto lift and tip wheeled bins into the truck’s hopper. Waste is compacted by an oscillating
packer plate at the front of the loading hopper which forces the waste through an aperture
into the main body and is therefore compacted towards the rear of the truck.
 Automated side loaders only needs one people and has additional advantage of reducing
on the job injuries due to repetitive heavy lifting.
 Automated side loaders uses standardized wheeled carts compatible with the truck’s
automated truck.
 Automated side loaders improve efficiency in waste collection.

b. Manual/Semi Automated Side Loader Truck


 Manual/semi-automated side loaders load waste from the side of the truck. These units
feature a drop frame that allows collectors to remain curbside and empty trash containers
and load garbage bags left on the curb into the loader.
 The trash is manually dumped in to the rear of the truck opening.

Chapter 3
Conceptual design
3.1 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
3.1.1 Introduction
There are different lifting mechanisms for 3-wheel trash collecting vehicles, so in conceptual
design first all the alternatives of the machine and the selection criteria’s are described in table
form. Then a screening matrix and a scoring table are formed. From these tables the best alternative
for our project is selected. Finally detail design of the machine can be started for the selected
alternative machine.
3.1.2 Concept Generation
Alternative I(Alt I)
The first alternative is lifting by the Gear rack and pinion. rack and pinion is a type of linear
actuator that comprises a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. A
circular gear called "the pinion" engages teeth on a linear "gear" bar called "the rack"; rotational
motion applied to the pinion causes the rack to move relative to the pinion, thereby translating the
rotational motion of the pinion into linear motion. Hence the mechanism for lifting up and down
is by translating motion of pinion into linear motion.

Fig.3.1 lifting mechanism by rack and pinion


Alternative II (Alt II)
The second alternative is lifting by hydraulic system. Hydraulic systems are used to control and
transmit power. An actuator is used to convert the energy of fluid back into the mechanical power.
The amount of output power developed depends upon the flow rate, the pressure drops across the
actuator and its overall efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are devices used to convert pressure
energy of the fluid into mechanical energy. The main difference with the above is the latter uses a
hydraulic system mainly incompressible fluid. The function of hydraulic cylinder is to convert
hydraulic power into linear mechanical force or motion. Hydraulic cylinders extend and retract a
piston rod to provide a push or pull force to drive the external load along a straight-line path.

Fig.3.2 lifting up with hydraulic cylinder

Alternative III (Alt III)


The third alternative is by using X-bar like scissor lifting. A scissor lift is a type of platform that can
usually only move vertically. The mechanism to achieve this is the use of linked, folding
supports in a crisscross” X” pattern, known as a pantograph (or scissor mechanism). The upward
motion is achieved by the application of pressure to the outside of the lowest set of supports,
elongating the crossing pattern, and propelling the work platform vertically.
Fig. 3.3 lifting up by X bar

Alternative IV (Alt IV)


The fourth alternative is by using hydraulic cylinder with L- bar. In this system, the main
components that makes different from the hydraulic cylinder is the L-bar. The L-bar is inclined
at some degree that is welded to hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic cylinder is double acting
cylinder.

Fig.3.4 lifting with Lbar attached to hydraulic cylinder


3.2. Chassis
The chassis is considered to be the most significant component of an automobile. It is the most
crucial element that gives strength and stability to the vehicle under different conditions. It is as
a framework to support the body, engine and other parts which make up the vehicle. It usually
includes a pair of longitudinally extending channels and multiple transverse cross members that
intersect the channels. The transverse members have a reduced cross section in order to allow
for a longitudinally extending storage space.
Chassis should be light enough to reduce inertia and offer satisfactory performance. It should
also be tough enough to resist fatigue loads that are produced due to the interaction between the
driver, the engine and power transmission and the road, finally the safety of the chassis is a
major aspect in the design, and should be considered through all stages.
There is deferent types of chassis
i. Ladder Frame
ii. Backbone tube
iii. Monocoque
From above type of chassis we select ladder frame of rectangular cross section because of boxed
sections are structurally stronger than other types of sections.
Models
Ladder Frame Backbone Tube Monocoque
Selection Weight Rating Weighted Rating Weighted Rating Weighted
criteria score score score

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN ANALYSIS
CHAPTER-4
DESIGN CALCULATION

4.1.SPECIFICATIONS OF 3-wheeler trash collector

Engine
Type Cylinder four stroke, Diesel Engine
Max. power 8.0 bhp @ 3600 rpm
Torque 16.7 Nm @ 2200-2400
Max. Speed 50 Km/hr
Displacement 395 cc
Clutch Dry Clutch
Fuel Tank (reserve/ usable) 8L
Cooling Forced air cooled
Dimensions Ladder chassis with central beam and cross
member welded
Length 3500mm
Width 1493mm
Height
Wheel Base 2125mm
Ground Clearance 193mm
Kerb Weight and Hydraulic arm 550Kg
Suspension
Front Fork with swing arm and anti- dive link, twin
hydraulic shock absorbers and helical springs
Rear Sprung rear wheels by trailing arms helical
springs and hydraulic shock absorbers
Brake Type
Front and Rear Pedal operated by right foot
Parking Brake Hand operated
Tyres
Front 4.50 – 10.8 PR
Rear 4.50 – 10.8 PR
Electricals
System DC
Head Lamp 12V, 35/35W
Battery 12V, 32AH
Tail/ Stop Lamp 12V 21/5W or 18/5W
Bajaj RE Maxima Cargo Three-Wheeler Specifications (www. Goggle. Com)
4.2.Design Calculation for Hydraulic Cylinder
Design for Cylinder 1
Known data
 𝜎t = 450MPa
 𝜎y = 270MPa
 𝜏 = 0.5*270=135MPa
 𝜎all = 135/6 = 22.5MPa
 𝑓. 𝑠 = 1.5

Assume the optimum internal diameter of the cylinder at the load is 50mm. The maximum
internal pressure occurred at min lifting height.

Pascal’s Law
Pascal’s law states that when a confined fluid is placed under pressure, the pressure is transmitted
equally in all directions and on all faces of the container.

𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒
Pressure (P) = 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 , P=fluid pressure
𝐹 𝐹
P =𝐴= 𝜋𝑟𝑖 2 But, F=m*g, m=30+20=50kg
Thus, F=50*9.81=490.5N is the total force applied on the tip of the side loader or on the gripper.
𝑑𝑖 2 502
And, 𝐴 = 𝜋 =𝜋 𝑚𝑚² = 1,963.495𝑚𝑚²
4 4
490.5𝑁
P= 502
𝜋
4

P = 0.2495N/mm2= 0.24955MPa
Then we know that the thickness of the cylinder

𝑑𝑖 𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙+𝑃
t= 2 [√𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙−𝑃 − 1]

22.5+0.1388
t=25* [√22.5−0.1388 − 1]

t=1.5mm≈10mm for safety purpose.

External diameter (Do) = Di+ (2*t) =50+ (2*10) =70mm

To determine the type of cylinder at the load is

𝐷𝑖 50
= 10=5mm
𝑡

This means,

 If 5< 10 the cylinder is a thick cylinder and this type of shell used in high pressure
cylinder production. Check for longitudinal stress

pDi 0.1388∗50
𝜎𝐿 = = =0.1735MPa
4t 4∗10

Check for hoop stress of the cylinder part

pDi 0.1388∗50
𝜎𝐻 = = =0.347MPa
2t 2∗10

After having both hoop and longitudinal stress produced due to the internal pressure it possible
to determine the maximum shear stress created in the internal part of the cylinder.

σ1−σ3
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ,
2

When,

𝜎1 = 𝜎𝐻, 𝜎2 = 𝜎, 𝜎3 = 0 and𝜎1 >𝜎2 >𝜎3


σH−0 0.347−0
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = =0.1735MPa
2 2

From our given data

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥<𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 0.1735MPa<22.5MPa…………safe!

Letting from the above force analyses max length of cylinder is 500mm. The induced shear stress
created over the cylinder surface is given by

𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑= 𝐹/ (𝜋∗Di∗ L sin𝜃)= 490.5𝑁 / (𝜋∗50𝑚𝑚∗500sin50)= 490.5𝑁 /60,134.489mm*mm


𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑 = 0.00815MPa
Since, the induced shear stress is less than the allowable shear stress it is safe!

𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑 <𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥, 0.00815MPa<22.5MPa………safe!


Design for Cylinder 2
Known data
 𝜎t = 450MPa
 𝜎y = 270MPa
 𝜏 = 0.5*270=135MPa
 𝜎all = 135/6 = 22.5MPa
 𝑓. 𝑠 = 1.5

Assume the optimum internal diameter of the cylinder at the load is 60mm. The maximum
internal pressure occurred at min lifting height.

Pascal’s Law
Pascal’s law states that when a confined fluid is placed under pressure, the pressure is transmitted
equally in all directions and on all faces of the container.

𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒
Pressure (P) = , P=fluid pressure
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎
𝐹 𝐹
P =𝐴= 𝜋𝑟𝑖 2 But, F=m*g, m=30+10=40kg

Thus, F=40*9.81=392.4N is the total force applied on the tip of the side loader or on the gripper.
𝑑2 602
And, 𝐴 = 𝜋 =𝜋 𝑚𝑚² = 2,826𝑚𝑚²
4 4
392.4𝑁
P= 602
𝜋
4
P = 0.1388N/mm2= 0.1388MPa
Then we know that the thickness of the cylinder

𝑑 𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙+𝑃
t=2 [√𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙−𝑃 − 1]

22.5+0.1388
t=30* [√22.5−0.1388 − 1]

t=1.8mm≈10mm for safety purpose.

External diameter (Do) = Di+ (2*t) =60+ (2*10) =80mm

To determine the type of cylinder at the load is

𝐷𝑖 60
= 10=6
𝑡

This means,

 If 6< 10 the cylinder is a thick cylinder and this type of shell used in high pressure
cylinder production. Check for longitudinal stress

pDi 0.1388∗60
𝜎𝐿 = = =0.2082MPa
4t 4∗10

Check for hoop stress of the cylinder part

pDi 0.1388∗60
𝜎𝐻 = = =0.4164MPa
2t 2∗10

After having both hoop and longitudinal stress produced due to the internal pressure it possible
to determine the maximum shear stress created in the internal part of the cylinder.

σ1−σ3
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ,
2

When,

𝜎1 = 𝜎𝐻, 𝜎2 = 𝜎, 𝜎3 = 0 and𝜎1 >𝜎2 >𝜎3

σH−0 0.4164−0
= = =0.2082MPa
2 2

From our given data

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥<𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 0.2082MPa<22.5MPa…………safe!
Letting from the above force analyses max length of cylinder is 700mm. The induced shear stress
created over the cylinder surface is given by

𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑= 𝐹/ (𝜋∗Di ∗ L sin𝜃)= 392.4𝑁 / (𝜋∗60𝑚𝑚∗700 sin20) = 392.4𝑁 /4,510.56mm*mm


𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑 = 0.087MPa
Since, the induced shear stress is less than the allowable shear stress it is safe!

𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑 <𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥, 0.087MPa<22.5MPa………safe!

Cylinder 3
Known data
 𝜎t = 450MPa
 𝜎y = 270MPa
 𝜏 = 0.5*270=135MPa
 𝜎all = 135/6 = 22.5MPa
 𝑓. 𝑠 = 1.5

Assume the optimum internal diameter of the cylinder at the load is 60mm. The maximum
internal pressure occurred at min lifting height.

Pascal’s Law
Pascal’s law states that when a confined fluid is placed under pressure, the pressure is transmitted
equally in all directions and on all faces of the container.

𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒
Pressure (P) = 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 , P=fluid pressure
𝐹 𝐹
P =𝐴= 𝜋𝑟𝑖 2 But, F=m*g, m=30+5=35kg

Thus, F=35*9.81=343.35N is the total force applied on the tip of the side loader or on the
gripper.
𝑑𝑖 2 602
And, 𝐴 = 𝜋 =𝜋 𝑚𝑚² = 2,826𝑚𝑚²
4 4
343.35𝑁
P= 602
𝜋
4

P = 0.1215N/mm2= 0.1215MPa
Then we know that the thickness of the cylinder
𝑑𝑖 𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙+𝑃
t= 2 [√𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙−𝑃 − 1]

22.5+0.1388
t=30* [√22.5−0.1388 − 1]

t=1.8mm≈10mm for safety purpose.

External diameter (Do) = Di+ (2*t) =60+ (2*10) =80mm

To determine the type of cylinder at the load is

𝐷𝑖 60
= 10=6
𝑡

This means,

 If 6< 10 the cylinder is a thick cylinder and this type of shell used in high pressure
cylinder production. Check for longitudinal stress

pDi 0.1388∗60
𝜎𝐿 = = =0.2082MPa
4t 4∗10

Check for hoop stress of the cylinder part

pDi 0.1388∗60
𝜎𝐻 = = =0.4164MPa
2t 2∗10

After having both hoop and longitudinal stress produced due to the internal pressure it possible
to determine the maximum shear stress created in the internal part of the cylinder.

σ1−σ3
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ,
2

When,

𝜎1 = 𝜎𝐻, 𝜎2 = 𝜎, 𝜎3 = 0 and𝜎1 >𝜎2 >𝜎3

σH−0 0.4164−0
= = =0.2082MPa
2 2

From our given data

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥<𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 0.2082MPa<22.5MPa…………safe!

Letting from the above force analyses max length of cylinder is 600mm. The induced shear stress
created over the cylinder surface is given by
𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑= 𝐹/ (𝜋∗Di ∗ L sin𝜃)= 343.35𝑁 /(𝜋∗60𝑚𝑚∗600sin90) = 343.35𝑁 /113,040mm*mm
𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑 = 0.003037MPa
Since, the induced shear stress is less than the allowable shear stress it is safe!

𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑 <𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥, 0.003037MPa<22.5MPa………safe!

Cylinder 4
Known data
 𝜎t = 450MPa
 𝜎y = 270MPa
 𝜏 = 0.5*270=135MPa
 𝜎all = 135/6 = 22.5MPa
 𝑓. 𝑠 = 1.5

Assume the optimum internal diameter of the cylinder at the load is 40mm. The maximum
internal pressure occurred at min lifting height.

Pascal’s Law
Pascal’s law states that when a confined fluid is placed under pressure, the pressure is transmitted
equally in all directions and on all faces of the container.

𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒
Pressure (P) = 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 , P=fluid pressure
𝐹 𝐹
P =𝐴= 𝜋𝑟𝑖 2 But, F=m*g, m=10+10=20kg

Thus, F=20*9.81=196.2N is the total force applied on the tip of the side loader or on the gripper.
𝑑𝑖 2 402
And, 𝐴 = 𝜋 =𝜋 𝑚𝑚² = 1,256𝑚𝑚²
4 4
196.2𝑁
P= 402
𝜋
4

P = 0.15621N/mm2= 0.15621MPa
Then we know that the thickness of the cylinder

𝑑𝑖 𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙+𝑃
t= 2 [√𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙−𝑃 − 1]

22.5+0.1388
t=20* [√22.5−0.1388 − 1]
t=1.2mm≈10mm for safety purpose.

External diameter (Do) = Di+ (2*t) =40+ (2*10) =60mm

To determine the type of cylinder at the load is

𝐷𝑖 40
= 10=4
𝑡

This means,

 If 4< 10 the cylinder is a thick cylinder and this type of shell used in high pressure
cylinder production. Check for longitudinal stress

pDi 0.1388∗40
𝜎𝐿 = = =0.1388MPa
4t 4∗10

Check for hoop stress of the cylinder part

pDi 0.1388∗40
𝜎𝐻 = = =0.2776MPa
2t 2∗10

After having both hoop and longitudinal stress produced due to the internal pressure it possible
to determine the maximum shear stress created in the internal part of the cylinder.

σ1−σ3
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ,
2

When,

𝜎1 = 𝜎𝐻, 𝜎2 = 𝜎, 𝜎3 = 0 and𝜎1 >𝜎2 >𝜎3

σH−0 0.2776−0
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 2
= 2
=0.1388MPa

From our given data

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥<𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 0.1388MPa<22.5MPa…………safe!

Letting from the above force analyses max length of cylinder is 300mm the induced shear stress
created over the cylinder surface is given by

𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑= 𝐹/ (𝜋∗Di∗ L sin𝜃)= 196.2𝑁 /(𝜋∗40𝑚𝑚∗300sin10) = 196.2𝑁 /6,543.06mm*mm


𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑 = 0.0299MPa
Since, the induced shear stress is less than the allowable shear stress it is safe!

𝜏𝑖𝑛𝑑 <𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥, 0.0299MPa<22.5MPa………safe!


4.2.1.Bolt Design
The design includes six bolts which attaches the hydraulic arm with the base cylinder that is
attached to the frame of the vehicle.

Material:-ASTM 307
Property:-min proof strength (𝜎𝑦 =227.53MPA
-min tensile strength (𝜎𝑡 =413.69MPA
Analysis
Assuming the bolt to be subjected to shear only

σy 227.53
Shear stress, τ = = = 113.77Mpa
F.S 2

Therefore, shear load carried by the bolt is;

𝑃𝑠 = 𝑚 ∗ 𝑔 = 54 ∗ 9.81 = 529.74 𝑁

𝜋
𝑃𝑠 = ∗ 𝑑² ∗ 𝜏 ∗ 𝑛
4

From the formula we can calculate diameter

4𝑃𝑠
𝑑=√ , n = number of bolts which is; n= 6
𝜋∗𝜏∗𝑛

d= major diameter of the bolt.

4 ∗ 529.74
𝑑=√
𝜋 ∗ 113.77 ∗ 6

𝑑 = 9.94 ≈ 10mm for safety purpose.

From standard bolt table, I chose regular Hex Head with diameter, d=10mm.
Figure 4.1: regular Hex Head F Bolt

I also select plain type of washer from the table with diameter d=M10

4.2.2. Design of Nut

PROCEDURE

1. Number of threads in engagement is found.


2. Height of the nut is determined.
3. Shear stress produced at the threads of the screw at the core diameter and at threads of the nut
at the major diameter is studied.
4. For safe design, these shear stresses are compared with the allowable stresses.
MATERIAL SELECTION

 phosphor bronze
PROPERTIES

 𝜎𝑦𝑡 = 126𝑀𝑃𝑎
 𝜎𝑦𝑐 = 112𝑀𝑃𝑎
 𝜏𝑦 = 105𝑀𝑃𝑎
ASSUMPTION

 Bearing pressure 𝑃𝑏 = 15.05𝑀𝑝𝑎


 Factor of safety =2
𝜎𝑦𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 63𝑀𝑃𝑎 , 𝜎𝑦𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 56𝑀Pa , 𝜏 = 52.5𝑀𝑝𝑎

ANALYSIS

 Dimension of the nut:


Wear of the nut

Since, n= number of the thread


do= outer diameter
dc= core diameter.

𝜋
𝐹 = 4 (𝑑𝑜² − 𝑑𝑐²) ∗ 𝑃𝑏 ∗ 𝑛
4𝐹
𝑛 = 𝜋(𝑑𝑜²−𝑑𝑐²)∗𝑃𝑏

4∗784.8
𝑛 = 𝜋∗(24.8−13.7)∗15

𝑛=6 Therefor, the number of threads on the nut is 6.


4.2.DESIGN OF CHASSIS
Static Analysis of Chassis Frame
Here in static analysis a typical ladder frame chassis is considered. The different load
considerations are taken for analysis. The chassis is designed analytically by varying materials
and cross section of beam.
 The different cross sections are considered as
Rectangular Section
Square Section
Tube Section

CHASSIS FRAME
Ladder frame: The chassis consisted of two parallel beams mounted down each side of the car
where the front and rear axles were leaf sprung beam axles. The beams were mainly channeled
sections with lateral cross members, hence the name.
In the present project, ladder type chassis was chosen with two side members and seven transverse
members which are beam elements of box sections. The rectangular cross section has a length of
3750 mm and width 1200mm with a thickness of 110 mm. The bending moment and torsional
advantages of boxed section over all other available sections enabled the criteria of its choice

fig.1 various beam of chassis frame Fig.2 comparison between various beam shapes
As per the above Figure, a comparative study [1] shows that boxed sections are structurally
stronger than other types of sections.
 The different materials are chosen as
Aluminum Alloy
Structural Steel

Table.1 Mechanical properties of Stainless steel and Aluminium Alloy


Stainless steel is selected as engineering material mainly because of their excellent corrosion
resistance in many environments. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is due to their high
chromium contents.
Here analytical approach is considered for deciding the dimension of chassis cross section. During
static condition the chassis frame is only subjected to bending loads due to the weight of the
members over here. By considering the equation of bending the cross sections are decided.

Input Data
Let us consider the condition for designing the chassis
 Kerb weight= 500 Kg
 Gross vehicle Weight= 1158 kg
Factor of Safety = 1.8
 Total load to be applied= 1158x 9.81 = 11360 N
 Capacity of the truck with 1.25 % = 11360 x 1.25 = 14200N.
 As the chassis frame has two members so load acing on each side member is half of the total load.
 Load acting on each member of frame
=Total load acting on the chassis frame / 2= 14200 / 2 =7100 N

Now considering loads of different components which causes bending in chassis frame is
NO component Total Load per Load(N) Type of
Load(Kg) each load
member(Kg)
1 Engine 40 20 9.8*20=196 Point load
2 Gear box 30 15 9.8*15=147 Point load
3 Body weight 700 350 9.8*350=3430 U.D.F
4 Hydraulic 42 21 9.8*21=205.8 Point load
crane
5 Driver and 130 65 9.8*65=637 U.D.F
Passenger
weight
6 Wight of 500 250 9.8*250=2450 U.D.F
trash
Table.2 loads on chassis

3740N/m
1544N/m
1780N/m
80mm
110mm
60mm
900mm 650mm 1600mm 600mm

Fig.3 Chassis as a simply supported beam with distributed loads


80mm

 Changing uniformly distributed loads to concentrated load

1602N 1003.6N 8228N

0.45m 0.775m 1.425m 0.5m 0.6m

𝑅𝐴 c d e 𝑅𝐵

Fig.4 Chassis with concentrated load


 To find reaction force
+ ∑ 𝑀𝐵 =0

𝑅𝐴 ×3.15= 1602×2.7+1003.6×1925+8228×0.5
𝑅𝐴 = 3292.5 = 3.29𝐾𝑁
+ ∑ 𝐹𝑌 =0

3.29KN – 1.602KN-1.0036KN-8.228KN+𝑅𝐵 =0

𝑅𝐵 = 7.54𝐾𝑁

 To find bending moment

+ ∑ 𝑀𝐴 =0

+ ∑ 𝑀𝑐 =0.45m×3.29KN=1.48KNm

+ ∑ 𝑀𝑑 =3.29KN×1.225m-1.602KN×0.775m=2.78KNm

+ ∑ 𝑀𝑒 =3.29KN×2.65m-1.602KN×2.2m-1.0036KN×1.425m=3.76KNm

+ ∑ 𝑀𝐵 =0

Maximum Normal stress is occurs at E, where M is largest.

𝑀𝐶 𝑀 𝐼 1 1
𝜎𝑚 = =𝑆 since S=𝐶 , I=12 (𝑏1 ℎ13 − 𝑏2 ℎ23 ) , C= 2 (ℎ1 − ℎ2 )
𝐼
𝑏1 =80mm ℎ1 =110mm 𝑏2 =60mm ℎ2 =80mm
1
I= (0.08×0.113 − 0.06 × 0.083 )= 6.31×10−6 𝑚4
12

1
C=2 (0.11 − 0.08)= 1.5×10−2m

6.31×10−6 𝑚4
S= = 9.64×10−4 𝑚3
1.5×10−2 𝑚

3.76𝐾𝑁𝑚
𝜎𝑚 = 9.64×10−4 𝑚3 =39Mpa
We note that normal stress on chassis is less than ultimate tensile stress 70Mpa. So the chassis is
safe and the cross sections of chassis is good enough to resist the applied lode.
4.3.DESIGN CALCULATION FOR PINS
Design for pin 1
1. Effective length of pin = 200 mm
Half position insert in piston and rest of position hold the vertical piston linkage.
Design the pin for bending, shearing, crushing
2. Main load acting on pin in bending
3. Shearing and crushing load both are combine
4. Load/weight of crane arm -70 Kg
5. Load of / weight of trash -30 Kg
6. Total weight for design of pin is 100 kg.
This load will share by both pin and hydraulic Cylinder
Calculate the load on pin
Force = weight of crane + material carrying capacity of crane.
F=W
𝑊𝐿 1000×200
Bending moment = 𝑀𝑏 = =
2 2

= 100,000Nmm
𝑀𝑏
𝜎𝑏 = 𝑍
𝜋
Since, Z = 32 𝑑3

Table 1 Material Table


SN MATERIAL BENDING STRESS SHEAR STRESS
1 St 42- alloy/bending steady 74MPa 46MPa
2 En -8 (c-40) hardened and tempered 147MPa 93MPa
Consider material IS 1507 – St 42 high carbon steel EN8
Design for Steel;
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

100,000
73.575= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =13,851.284𝑚𝑚3
D=24.015mm
Design for EN8
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

100,000
1477= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =6,932.709𝑚𝑚3
D=19.067mm
As the diameter of EN8 is less as compared to st42 and material property of EN8 is suite to the
pin capacity and manual removal of pin due to this criteria EN8 is select as pin material. Now
checking pin for shear failure and crushing failure.
Shear failure of pin
𝑑
𝑊
2
𝜏= 𝜋 3
𝑑
16

19.07
1000
2
𝜏= 𝜋
19.073
16

𝜏=7.008MPa
Since the induced shear stress (7.008MPa) is less than the permissible stress (93MPa) of EN8.
Hence the design of pin is safe under shear.
Crushing stress is 2 times the shearing stress therefore
𝜎𝑐𝑟 =2*93 =186MPa
Checking for crushing of pin
F = Surface area of pin*𝜎𝑐𝑟
F = (L*𝜋𝑑)𝜎𝑐𝑟
1000N= 220*𝜋*20.9*𝜎𝑐𝑟
𝜎𝑐𝑟 = 0.083MPa
Since the induced crushing stress (0.083MPa) is less than the permissible stress (186MPa) of
EN8. Hence the design of pin is safe under crushing
Design for pin 2
1. Effective length of pin = 250 mm
Half position insert in piston and rest of position hold the vertical piston linkage.
Design the pin for bending, shearing, crushing
2. Main load acting on pin in bending
3. Shearing and crushing load both are combine
4. Load/weight of crane arm -85 Kg
5. Load of / weight of trash -35 Kg
6. Total weight for design of pin is 120 kg.
This load will share by both pin and hydraulic Cylinder
Calculate the load on pin
Force = weight of crane + material carrying capacity of crane.
F=W
𝑊𝐿 1200×250
Bending moment = 𝑀𝑏 = =
2 2

= 150,000Nmm
𝑀𝑏
𝜎𝑏 =
𝑍
𝜋
Since, Z = 32 𝑑3

Table 1 Material Table


SN MATERIAL BENDING STRESS SHEAR STRESS
1 St 42- alloy/bending steady 74MPa 46MPa
2 En -8 (c-40) hardened and tempered 147MPa 93MPa
Consider material IS 1507 – St 42 high carbon steel EN8
Design for Steel;
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

150,000
73.575= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =20,776.927𝑚𝑚3
D=27.49mm
Design for EN8
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

150,000
147= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =10,399.06𝑚𝑚3
D=21.82mm
As the diameter of EN8 is less as compared to st42 and material property of EN8 is suite to the
pin capacity and manual removal of pin due to this criteria EN8 is select as pin material. Now
checking pin for shear failure and crushing failure.
Shear failure of pin
𝑑
𝑊
2
𝜏= 𝜋
𝑑3
16

21.82
1200
2
𝜏= 𝜋
21.823
16

𝜏= 6.417MPa
Since the induced shear stress (6.417MPa) is less than the permissible stress (93MPa) of EN8.
Hence the design of pin is safe under shear.
Crushing stress is 2 times the shearing stress therefore
𝜎𝑐𝑟 =2*93 =186MPa
Checking for crushing of pin
F = Surface area of pin*𝜎𝑐𝑟
F = (L*𝜋𝑑)𝜎𝑐𝑟
1200N= 250*𝜋*21.82*𝜎𝑐𝑟
𝜎𝑐𝑟 = 0.070MPa
Since the induced crushing stress (0.07MPa) is less than the permissible stress (186MPa) of EN8.
Hence the design of pin is safe under crushing.
Design for pin 3
1. Effective length of pin = 220 mm
Half position insert in piston and rest of position hold the vertical piston linkage.
Design pin for bending, shearing, crushing
2. Main load acting on pin in bending
3. Shearing and crushing load both are combine
4. Load/weight of crane arm -85 Kg
5. Load of / weight of trash -35 Kg
6. Total weight for design of pin is 120 kg.
This load will share by both pin and hydraulic Cylinder
Calculate the load on pin
Force = weight of crane + material carrying capacity of crane.
F=W
𝑊𝐿 1200×220
Bending moment = 𝑀𝑏 = =
2 2
= 132000Nmm
𝑀𝑏
𝜎𝑏 = 𝑍
𝜋
Since, Z = 32 𝑑3

Table 1 Material Table


SN MATERIAL BENDING STRESS SHEAR STRESS
1 St 42- alloy/bending steady 74MPa 46MPa
2 En -8 (c-40) hardened and tempered 147MPa 93MPa
Consider material IS 1507 – St 42 high carbon steel EN8
Design for Steel;
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

132000
73.575= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =18283.695𝑚𝑚3
D=26.344mm
Design for EN8
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

132000
1477= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =9151.176𝑚𝑚3
D=20.9mm
As the diameter of EN8 is less as compared to st42 and material property of EN8 is suite to the
pin capacity and manual removal of pin due to this criteria EN8 is select as pin material. Now
checking pin for shear failure and crushing failure.
Shear failure of pin
𝑑
𝑊
2
𝜏= 𝜋 3
𝑑
16

20.9
1200
2
𝜏= 𝜋
20.93
16

𝜏=7MPa
Since the induced shear stress (7MPa) is less than the permissible stress (93MPa) of EN8. Hence
the design of pin is safe under shear.
Crushing stress is 2 times the shearing stress therefore
𝜎𝑐𝑟 =2*93 =186MPa
Checking for crushing of pin
F = Surface area of pin*𝜎𝑐𝑟
F = (L*𝜋𝑑)𝜎𝑐𝑟
1200N= 220*𝜋*20.9*𝜎𝑐𝑟
𝜎𝑐𝑟 = 0.083MPa
Since the induced crushing stress (0.083MPa) is less than the permissible stress (186MPa) of
EN8. Hence the design of pin is safe under crushing

Design for pin 4


1. Effective length of pin = 263 mm
Half position insert in support metal and rest of position hold the longitudinal arm linkage.
Design the pin for bending, shearing, crushing
2. Main load acting on pin in bending
3. Shearing and crushing load both are combine
4. Load/weight of crane arm -5 Kg
5. Load of / weight of trash -25 Kg
6. Total weight for design of pin is 30 kg.
This load will share by both pin and hydraulic Cylinder
Calculate the load on pin
Force = weight of crane + material carrying capacity of crane.
F=W
𝑊𝐿 300×263
Bending moment = 𝑀𝑏 = =
2 2

= 39,450Nmm
𝑀𝑏
𝜎𝑏 = 𝑍
𝜋
Since, Z = 32 𝑑3

Table 1 Material Table


SN MATERIAL BENDING STRESS SHEAR STRESS
1 St 42- alloy/bending steady 74MPa 46MPa
2 En -8 (c-40) hardened and tempered 147MPa 93MPa
Consider material IS 1507 – St 42 high carbon steel EN8
Design for Steel;
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

39,450
73.575= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =5,464.33𝑚𝑚3
D=17.61mm
Design for EN8
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

39,450
147= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =2,734.5𝑚𝑚3
D=14mm
As the diameter of EN8 is less as compared to st42 and material property of EN8 is suite to the
pin capacity and manual removal of pin due to this criteria EN8 is select as pin material. Now
checking pin for shear failure and crushing failure.
Shear failure of pin
𝑑
𝑊
2
𝜏= 𝜋
𝑑3
16

14
300
2
𝜏= 𝜋
143
16

𝜏= 3.906MPa
Since the induced shear stress (3.096MPa) is less than the permissible stress (93MPa) of
EN8. Hence the design of pin is safe under shear.
Crushing stress is 2 times the shearing stress therefore
𝜎𝑐𝑟 =2*93 =186MPa
Checking for crushing of pin
F = Surface area of pin*𝜎𝑐𝑟
F = (L*𝜋𝑑)𝜎𝑐𝑟
300N= 263*𝜋*14*𝜎𝑐𝑟
𝜎𝑐𝑟 = 0.025MPa
Since the induced crushing stress (0.025MPa) is less than the permissible stress (186MPa) of
EN8. Hence the design of pin is safe under crushing

Design for pin 5


1. Effective length of pin = 221 mm
Half position insert in piston support arm and rest of position hold the longitudinal linkage arm .
Design the pin for bending, shearing, crushing
2. Main load acting on pin in bending
3. Shearing and crushing load both are combine
4. Load/weight of crane arm and cylinder -10 Kg
5. Load of / weight of trash -25 Kg
6. Total weight for design of pin is 35 kg.
This load will share by both pin and hydraulic Cylinder
Calculate the load on pin
Force = weight of crane + material carrying capacity of crane.
F=W
𝑊𝐿 350×221
Bending moment = 𝑀𝑏 = =
2 2

= 38,675Nmm
𝑀𝑏
𝜎𝑏 = 𝑍
𝜋
Since, Z = 32 𝑑3

Table 1 Material Table


SN MATERIAL BENDING STRESS SHEAR STRESS
1 St 42- alloy/bending steady 74MPa 46MPa
2 En -8 (c-40) hardened and tempered 147MPa 93MPa
Consider material IS 1507 – St 42 high carbon steel EN8
Design for Steel;
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

38,675
73.575= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =5,356.98𝑚𝑚3
D=17.5mm
Design for EN8
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

38,675
147= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =2,681.22𝑚𝑚3
D=13.89mm
As the diameter of EN8 is less as compared to st42 and material property of EN8 is suite to the
pin capacity and manual removal of pin due to this criteria EN8 is select as pin material. Now
checking pin for shear failure and crushing failure.
Shear failure of pin
𝑑
𝑊
2
𝜏= 𝜋 3
𝑑
16

13.89
1200
2
𝜏= 𝜋
13.893
16

𝜏= 11.224MPa
Since the induced shear stress (11.224MPa) is less than the permissible stress (93MPa) of
EN8. Hence the design of pin is safe under shear.
Crushing stress is 2 times the shearing stress therefore
𝜎𝑐𝑟 =2*93 =186MPa
Checking for crushing of pin
F = Surface area of pin*𝜎𝑐𝑟
F = (L*𝜋𝑑)𝜎𝑐𝑟
350N= 220*𝜋*13.89*𝜎𝑐𝑟
𝜎𝑐𝑟 = 0.0363MPa
Since the induced crushing stress (0.0363MPa) is less than the permissible stress
(186MPa) of EN8 . Hence the design of pin is safe under crushing
Design for pin 6
1. Effective length of pin = 180 mm
Half position insert in support metal and rest of position hold the hook or crane end.
Design the pin for bending, shearing, crushing
2. Main load acting on pin in bending
3. Shearing and crushing load both are combine
4. Load/weight of crane arm -5 Kg
5. Load of / weight of trash -25 Kg
6. Total weight for design of pin is 30 kg.
This load will share by both pin and hydraulic Cylinder
Calculate the load on pin
Force = weight of crane + material carrying capacity of crane.
F=W
𝑊𝐿 300×180
Bending moment = 𝑀𝑏 = =
2 2

= 27,000Nmm
𝑀𝑏
𝜎𝑏 =
𝑍
𝜋
Since, Z = 32 𝑑3

Table 1 Material Table


SN MATERIAL BENDING STRESS SHEAR STRESS
1 St 42- alloy/bending steady 74MPa 46MPa
2 En -8 (c-40) hardened and tempered 147MPa 93MPa
Consider material IS 1507 – St 42 high carbon steel EN8
Design for Steel;
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

27,000
73.575= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =3,739.85𝑚𝑚3
D=15.5mm
Design for EN8
𝑀
𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋𝑑𝑏3
32

27,000
147= 𝜋 3
𝑑
32

𝑑 3 =1,871.83𝑚𝑚3
D=12.34mm
As the diameter of EN8 is less as compared to st42 and material property of EN8 is suite to the
pin capacity and manual removal of pin due to this criteria EN8 is select as pin material. Now
checking pin for shear failure and crushing failure.
Shear failure of pin
𝑑
𝑊
2
𝜏= 𝜋
𝑑3
16

12.32
300
2
𝜏= 𝜋
12.323
16

𝜏= 5.03MPa
Since the induced shear stress (5.03MPa) is less than the permissible stress (93MPa) of
EN8. Hence the design of pin is safe under shear.
Crushing stress is 2 times the shearing stress therefore
𝜎𝑐𝑟 =2*93 =186MPa
Checking for crushing of pin
F = Surface area of pin*𝜎𝑐𝑟
F = (L*𝜋𝑑)𝜎𝑐𝑟
300N= 180*𝜋*12.32*𝜎𝑐𝑟
𝜎𝑐𝑟 = 0.043MPa
Since the induced crushing stress (0.043MPa) is less than the permissible stress (186MPa) of
EN8. Hence the design of pin is safe under crushing
REFERENCE
[1 Autocar E3 Hybrid Garbage Trucks Debut in FL. (2010, September 2010). MSW Magazine.
Retrieved from http://www.mswmanagement.com/the-latest/autocar-e3-hybrid.aspx
[2] Blaikley, D., Smith, A., Feest, E., & Reading, A. (2001). UG219 TRAMAQ- cold start. AEA
Technology plc. Retrieved from http://ukair.defra.gov.uk/reports/empire/summary0638.pdf
[3] Bueno, B. (2011). Waste Collection Services in the US. IBISWorld. Retrieved from
http://www.ibisworld.com/industryus/default.aspx?indid=1506.