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CheI—I-Iical grouting —3"

by G.S. LITTLEJOHN>, BSc(Eng), PhD, CEng, FICE, MIStructE, FGS

Grouting operations placement into different horizons. conjunction in-line grout pumps, to
Once the purpose of grouting, choice of (i) Into an open hole in self supporting ground mixing/pump stations holding stock
grout and hole pattern have been defined, through pipes caulked at the surface. solutions and incorporating automatic
open grout holes are drilled and prepared for (fi) Through an injection pipe held in place in dosing systems, based on either volume
treatment or alternatively the grouting pipes the hole or casing by a packer (Fig. 18). dosing pumps or flow rate control valves (Fig.
are drilled or jetted to the appropriate depth. fiiif From a pipe driven into the ground and 19). AII these systems are based on in-line
Grout is normally introduced into the withdrawn as injection proceeds (Fig. 1). pumping of the grout but, as already
ground in one of four ways, choice being (iv) Through a pipe left in place in the ground, described, in hot ambient temperatures or
dictated by ground conditions and the as with a tube B manchette (Fig. 2). where short gel times are employed, in-line
degree of control required for grout Chemical grouting rates are not large and proportioning pumps are recommended (Fig.
injection hole diameters generally lie in the 20) where the constituent chemical solution
<Professor of Civil Engineering and Head of Dept. of Civil
and Structural Engineering, University of Bradford. range 20 to 100mm, with hole spacings of of two component systems are pumped
Formerly Technical Director, Colcrete Ltd., Wetherby, 0.5 to 2.5m. Where holes are divided into separately but in the correct proportions to a
Yorks. stages for localised treatment of horizons, mixing head at the injection point.
This is the third and final part of a three-part Paper. Part 1 lengths normally vary from Sm in deep rock Grout monitoring of flow and pressure
appeared in our March issue, pp13-16, and provided a to 0.25m in tube 5 manchette grouting of ranges from simple visual observation of
historical background, then dealing with ground
highly stratified alluvium. pressure gauges and pump stroke counters
investigation and with principles of injection. Part 2 was
published in our April issue, pp23-26, and considered In terms of grout batching, mixing and and manual recording, to sophisticated fully
grouting operations pumping, installations can vary from high automatic continuous recording systems.
1 2 3 4 5 6 speed colloidal mixers 'hich can be used During grouting operations it is important to
effectively for both powder compositions maintain on a daily basis the following
Ground and single fluid chemical grouts, in records for each stage of injection:


xx /I I

Fig. 18. Stage and packer grouting in

descending stages
~vd - ~ Q r

sk I (IF'
System 1
Fig. 20. In-line proportioning pump at Asprokremmos Dam, Cyprus


FIOwmeter 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 60 90 100 110 120 130

Pressure F low
Top soil
0+ 1.0
System 2
cs + +
c 00 ~ ~ ~
0c Q
Medium g. 0 2.0
~ ~ + + +
dense c.m.f.
cx I;
In- kne sandy,op + + + +
GRAVEL, ~ ~ ~
mixer with a few
~ ~
large stones ~ ~ ~ +
3.0 + +
o o) +

System 3
40 40~

o I(
vr Volume dispenser
Depth lmetresl

Compact r2''p
Agitatar tank GRAVEL ~fQ ~ Before Treatment + After Treatment

High - speed mixer

Other mixers Fig. 21. Standard penetrometer results before and after grouting at
Fig. 19. Typical grout hatching systems Rugeley Cooling Tower, England

May 1985 29
Date +196
Hole number
Depth of injection
Period of injection
Grout type and consumption

'. o, ',
Injection pressure at inlet
Remarks e.g., uplift and surface leakage
Surface leakages indicate that further
grouting will be ineffective and injection
...o -iI'. ''0m~ o
~ . o . Cl
a ~ o ~ 'ate tight curtain~ ' '
should cease until the grout in situ sets. ' o o
ez t
p Iezometers . 0
. o o
. 0
When these records are systematically '.
~ o '
'30m~ + '. ~
'oiezometers o

.13bm - o o ~ '

plotted on sections as the work proceeds, the ~

' ', . permeable sands
o ~
'~ Very andgravels
charts provide an instant picture of progress
and tightening-up as the injection sequence
progresses (primary-secondary-tertiary).
For each major injection phase, pre- and
p ~ ~ o
~ II'
20m~,' - — S'0 '. ~ o ~
. o ., . o
~, ~, o . ' . o -

post-treatment water tests should be carried 'i x o x i o ax o i~~ix ~ ~,'<i~~<i xi~~i~~x xx x x x qxvery heterogeneous sandstone mixtures, lovv permeabi)ity'~+~
out where reduced permeability is the design
objective. For strength improvement, i;,ii;,iv xv i~ i~'~,;,~~~ii x xxx i~~~ii-'130 ms ex i< xx xxxxxx xiii'i+» x xiii'xiii~ i
penetrometer tests are most commonly I

employed (Fig. 21) and a two-fold increase Bedrock

reflects good grout treatment. Cross-hole Fig. 22. Grout curtain of the High Aswan Dam
shear wave velocity measurements have
been reported by Davidson Et Perez" to be Auber Street
effective in determining grout penetration in J~.2™IISix-storey building
soil. A back-analysis of grout consumption
against ground porosity is also useful for (Basement
comparison with the design assumptions. o 0 o,o
No 3 line 'o 0
. o''o
Applications Gro
Sand & gravels
lancient alluvia is )
To illustrate that chemical gouting is now a :o
well established geotechnical process for the o'o'.o o.'o ~

impermeabilisation and strengthening of the Grou

ground, case records are described which +16.00
have been drawn from mining and civil
engineering practice.
Dame Calcareous
One of the largest and deepest grouted marl
cut-offs in alluvium is at the Aswan Dam
across the River Nile (Fig. 22).
The permeability of the sands and gravels
was reduced from 2.5 x 10-4 m/sec to 2.3 x
10-'/sec. Cement with local clay was used ————2.00m
initially, followed by silicate-aluminate
treatment of the fine sand. A total grout
material volume of 2.1 million m'f grout
materials were injected". Fig. 23(aj. Auber StatiOn —1St phaSe Of treatment (after JanIn 8 le ScIellour )

Other successful, if less spectacular,

examples of dam cut-offs include Mangla Auber Street
(Pakistan), Mattmark (Switzerland)4', II
)six-storey building
Yermasoyia (Cyprus)~, Stenkullafors
(Sweden)", Rocky Beach (USA)ee and ) Basement o p U Q
Frauenau (West Germany)". No 3 line ooo'o
o o

Tunnels opp pe
c oo Sand & gravels
The Auber Metro station on the Rfsseau o (ancient alluvials)
Express Rfsgional runs beneath the Rue o'o'
Auber with the tunnel crown about 18m 0 o o
below street level and adjoining the Paris +16.00m
Opera. The station is 228m long, 20m high
and 40m wide (Fig. 23a) and Line No. 3 of the
Metro runs in the Seine alluvium above the
station tunnel. Calcareous
In the first phase, an adit was driven at marl
tunnel crown level and clay-cement was
injected through radial holes to treat the
ground beside and below the adit. In the
same phase silicate-acetate was used to
stabilise the alluvium adjacent to Line 3. Two Fissured
further adits were then driven through the coarse
treated zones and a complete mantle of limestone
Grouted area
grouted ground was formed to permit safe
excavation (Fig. 23b). Fig. 23(bj. Auber Station —2nd phase of treatment"
Adjoining the Opfsra, fine Beauchamp sand
was treated with phenol formaldehyde.
More recent examples of chemical treat-
ment of tunnels include, Victoria Line,
Dartford, Clyde, Tyne (UK), Pralognan,
Roseland (French Alps)", Pittsburg LRT and
Washington DC Metro (USA)", Polino Nord
(Italy), Helsinki Metro, Munich Metro, Hong
Kong MTR, Belgrade underground",
Budapest underground'4 and the Selken
tunnel (Japan).

May 1985 31
1''2" Ground level
Sump location 10'C
Cover No 1
8 A

cover No 1
ually spaced
a. o
Clay cemen
location 0
Manifold M No 2 a o
—412m 0
o. o

0 o
ef wells no xo
Lower 0
I I +permian 0'
0 0
0 0 O'
ll Ace

II — Tubbing —433m 0

I 0
0 0
~~coal Sump
. gravel Oo
4rxmz~~ Grout cover
No 2 o
0 ~

o.' 0
0 ' 0
0 a.
Two rings of 48
.o. 0 ~

12 q equally spaced
o'0 '0.
spaced pressure grout holes 0 0
relief wells. ~ '0 0'

II a 00
f7 .0
.0 ..

Fig. 24. Grout covers for Riccall No. 2 shaft

Fig. 26. Grouting at Ru e de Monttessuy"
Drifts and shafts aquifers and grout treatment was required Excavations
At the Chain Valley Colliery in New South for ground water control during shaft and At Vogelgrun, in the alluvial deposits of the
Wales, inflows totalling 45 500 litres/hour drift construction. At the Riccall No. 2 shaft River Rhine, a grouted "box" (Fig. 25) was
through heavily fissured conglomerate for example (Fig. 24), clarified silicate- ormed to permit subsequent excavation.
threatened two new drifts". The solutionn was
w s oxalate grout was required to treat the Lower Initially a vertical diaphragm of grouted
t o caulk the large fissures with wedges and Magnesium limestone and Basal sands. material was formed to a depth of about
cement, after which acrylamide grout was After treatment of the particularly fine 40m. The base of the box was then formed b y
injected, relief wells being drilled to divert grained materials the estimated reduction in i njecting a 5m thick zone.
major water flows elsewhere. In some places inflow was 35:1 in the limestone and 3:1 in Grouting was carried out in two phases,
after the acrylamide had been injected for 2 the sands. clay cement grout was injected through
minutes to form a deep barrier, bentonite and Similar grouting methods have aided shaft t ubes 8 manchette at 3m intervals to fill the
cement was added to block up the fissures. In sinking and drift construction in other mining I arge voids, followed by injections of
one particularly bad zone, water ingress of areas, e.g. Monkton Hall, Boulby, Betws and stabilised clay and silicate at 2m centres. A
18200 litres/hour was reduced to 3400 Bewick (UK), Viburnum lead mines in otal of 3 500t of clay, 3 000t of cement and
litres/hour. Missouri 57 and also caisson construction 3 000t of silica gel were used to treat about
At the new Selby coalfield in North through water bearing silts and sands, as 230 000m'f ground. Excavation pro-
Yorkshire, England, the strata overlying the typically encountered in downtow
own own ceeded with the aid of groundwater lower'ng
Coal Measures contained several strong Chicago 58 and in Paris '. and for a 1 6 000m 2 excavation through 10
upstretan Oownstreom
188 60 Ornjtnal water level
P3 t9 P7


6 170

160 .

Infected orna
161 5,e-'el+

~ s
na ~

154 0

1610 155 0
164 6

530 0 1540
~ '..
5+~ '11 6'/o

161 0

156 0

'~" 153 0
158'Oo l ',
1600- --In~~n

155 0
. 11580
165 0%
ssr+ why.'id
5 0m~5 Qm

149 0 149 0
29 Om —-~l 1480 Lower limit nf 'he median line

—115 Om
Fig. 25. Grouting at Vogelgrun"

32 Ground Engineering
to 10-'/sec alluvium the effectiveness of References 24. Baker, W J. (1955): "Flow in fissured
the treatment was reflected by a flow record 1. Glossop, R. (1961):
"The invention and formations." Proc. World Petroleum Congress,
of only 150 litres/sec. of injection processes, Part II,
development Rome, Section 11, pp.379-393
Other excavation support applications 1850-1960." Geotechnique Vol. 11, No. 4, 25. Cambefort, H. (1961): "L'injection et ses
although on a lesser scale and combining pp.255-279 problbmes." Bull. Tech. Suisse Romande, Vol.
underpinning include the Main Post Office at 2. Atherton, FG. Et Garrett, WS. (1959): "The 87, p.329
the Hague, London Airport Control history of cementation in shaft sinking, 25. Skipp, B.O. (1 97 5): "Clay g routing and alluvial
building, Taikoo Shing City Plaza (Hong Symposium on Shaft Sinking and Tunnelling, grouting". Methods of Treatment of Unstable
Kong), and the Walt Whitman Bridge Pier Institution of Mining Engineers, London Ground (ed. F.G. Bell) Newnes-Butterworths,
(USA)4. 3. Portier (1905): "Cimentation des terrains London. Ch.8, pp.141-158
aquifbres en vue du creusement des puits." 27 Caron, C. (1965): "Etude Physico-Chimique
Underpinning Congres. Int. Mines, Liege. Sect. des Mines, des Gels de Silice." Annals de I'Institut du
At the rue de Monttessuy in Paris, a 3.5m Tome I Batiment et des Travaux Public. No. 207-208
deep excavation, required for a new electric Karol, R.H. (1983):Chemical grouting. Marcel
sub-station, was planned with multi-storey Dekker Inc., New York 28 Cambefort, H. (1977): "The principles and
blocks on three sides. Grouting was applications of grouting". Q.J.E.G.Vol. 10(2),
Durnerin, M. (1922): "Le Problem du Foncage
employed firstly to create an impermeable des puits sur le Prolonguement du Bassin
curtain round the site extending down to Houiller de la Sarre en Lorraine." Congres 29 James, A.N. (1963): Discussion to Session
impermeable marls (Fig. 26) and secondly to Scienti. Assoc. Ingens sortie de I'Ecole de 3 —Grouting Symposium on Grouts and
Drilling Muds in Engineering Practice.
strengthen the soil beneath the adjacent Liege
Butterworths, London, pp.168-169
foundations thereby underpinning the Joosten, H.J. (1954): "The Joosten process
buildings and reducing risk of settlement for chemical soil solidification and sealing and 30. Hilton, I.C.(1975): "Classification of Grout".
Methods of Treatment of Unstable Ground
during excavation. its development from 1925 to date." N.V.
Amsterdamsche Ballast Maatschappij. 46pp. (ed. F.G. Bell) Newnes-Butterworths, London.
Voids, which existed beneath the old Ch.6, pp.84-111
basement floors were filled with clay- Drouhin, M. (1938): "La lutte contre les
cement, followed by a strong silicate-acetate erosions souterraines au barrage de Bou-
31. Schiffman, R.L. Et Wilson, CR. (1958): "The
mechanical behaviour of chemically treated
injection into the sand and gravel Hanifia, etc." Trans. 2nd Congr. Large Dams, soils." Proc. ASTM Vol. 58,
immediately adjacent to the excavation. A Washington, Vol. 4, pp.29-49
pp.1 21 8-1 244
weaker silicate-aluminate grout was Mayer, A. (1958): "Cement and clay grouting 32. Warner, J. (1972): "Strength properties of
employed in the lower horizon of alluvium to of foundations French grouting practice." chemically solidified soils." Proc. ASCE Vol.
form the cut-off. Subsequent excavation Proc. ASCE Paper 1550 (February) 98, (SM2) pp.1163-1185
proceeded without difficulty and the silicate- 9. Cambefort, H. (1955): "Parafouilles spbciaux 33. Farmer, I.W. (1975): "Undrained strengths of
acetate treatment was so hard that side en terrains permbables." Cinquieme Congr. chemically grouted cohesionless soils." Proc.
trimming by pneumatic pick was necessary. Grands Barrages, Paris Vol. 1, pp.883-896 2nd Int. Cong. Int. Ass. Eng. Geol., Sao Paulo,
Other successful examples of under- 10 Maag, E. (1938):"Ueber die Verfestigung und Vol. 1, pp.1-6
pinning include Great Cumberland Place~, Dichtung das Baugrundes (Injektionen) 34. Krizefc R.J., Benltayf, MA. & Dimitrios, K.
Rugeley coolinq tower (UK), Wuppertal Erdbaukers der ETH (1982): "Effective stress-strain strength
(West Germany), Maryland National Bank ASCE (1957): "Chemical Grouting Report behaviour of silicate-grouted sand." Proc.
(USA)", Austrian National Bank (Vienna)". Proc. ASCE Vol. 83, (SM4), pp.1-106 ASCE Conf. on Grouting in Geotechnical
Improvement of the base resistance of piles Engineering, New Orleans, pp.482-497
by chemical grouting has also been reported
12 Caron, C. (1963):"The development of grouts
for the injection of fine sands." Symposium on 35. Clough, W., Kuck, W. Et Kassali, G. (1979):
recently for the Corniche Centre in Jeddah, "Silicate-stabilised sands." Proc. ASCE Vol.
Grouts and Drilling Muds in Engineering
Saudi Arabia~. Practice, Butterworths, London, pp.1 36-141 105, (GTI), pp.65-82
35. Stetzler, B.U. (1982): "Mechanical behaviour
Conclusions 13. ICE (1963): Grouts and Drilling Muds in of silicate-grouted soils." Proc. ASCE Conf. on
Engineering Practice, Butterworths, London
In fine grained, and fine fissured ground Grouting in Geotechnical Engineering, New
formations chemical grouting is an estab- 14. Skipp, B.O. Et Renner, L. (1963): "The Orleans, pp.498-514
lished engineering expedient for ground improvement of the mechanical properties of 37. Davidson, R.R. Et Perez, J- Y. (1982):
impermeabilisation and strengthening. In sands." Symposium on Grouts and Drilling "Properties of chemically grouted sand at
Muds in Engineering Practice. Butterworths, Locks and Dam No. 26." Proc. ASCE Conf. on
such circumstances, grouting can be indis-
London, pp.29-35 Grouting in Geotechnical Engineering, New
pensable in tunnels and deep excavations as
a temporary support and under dams and 15. 3M Company (1981):3M Sealing Gel System Orleans, pp.433-449
embankments as a permanent cut-off. Field Manual. 3M Company, St. Paul, 3B. Borden, R.H., Krizek, R.J. Et Baker, W.H.
Nevertheless after 60 years, grouting Minnesota 55101 (1982): "Creep behaviour of silicate grouted
remains an art where field experience counts. 15. Clarke, W J. (1982); "Performance sand." Proc. ASCE Conf. on Grouting in
Local variations in the ground cannot be characteristics of acrylate polymer grout". Geotechnical Engineering, New Orleans,
predetermined and a flexible attitude should Proc. ASCE Conf. on Grouting in Geotechnical pp.450-469
be maintained at the expense of rigorous Engineering, New Orleans, pp.418-432 39. Bell, L.A. (1982): "A cut-off in rock and
17. Berry, (1982): "Injectite 80 alluvium at Asprokremmos Dam." Proc. ASCE
specification of techniques, so that variations R.M.
polyacrylamide grout." Proc. ASCE Conf. on Conf. on Grouting in Geotechnical
can be implemented where appropriate, to
Grouting in Geotechnical Engineering, New Engineering, New Orleans, pp.172-186
improve the engineering results.
Orleans, pp.394-402 40. Thut A. (1983); "In situ tests in grouted soils."
Over the past two decades in particular
Proc. 8th European Conf. on Soil Mech. Et
with the introduction of more sophisticated 18 ASCE (1982): Proceedings of Conference on
Found. Engng. Vol. 1, pp.95-100
single fluid grouts and development of Grouting in Geotechnical Engineering. ASCE,
injection techniques, there has been a steady 345 East 47th Street, New York 41. Cambefort, H. Et Caron, C. (1 957): "Le
Delavage des Gels de Silicate de Soude." Proc.
reduction in grout material quantity injected 19 ISSMFF (1983): Improvement of Ground.
4th lnt. Conf. Soil Mech. Et Found. Engng. Vol.
per unit volume of ground and a reduction in Proc. 8th European Conf. on Soil Mech. Et
1 (Div. 1), pp.13-16
the number and intensity of grout holes Found, Engng., Helsinki. Vols. 1 and 2
42. Hewlett, P.C. Et Hutchinson, M. T. (1983):
considered necessary. Both these reductions 20 Raffle, J.F. Et Greenwood, D.A. (1961): "The "Quantifying chemical grout performance and
are indicative of a growing confidence in the relationship between the rheological potential toxicity." Proc. 8th European Conf.
efficiency and effectiveness of grouting characteristics of grouts and their capacity to on Soil Mech. Et Found. Engng. Vol. 1,
which augers well for the future. permeate soils." Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Soil pp. 361-366
Mech. Et Found. Engng. Vol. 2, pp.789-793
43. CIRIA (1981); A Guide to the Safe Use of
'However, there is still no relaxation in the quest by 21 Garcia-Bengochea, I. Lovell, C W. Et Chemicals in Construction. Special
Scottish engineers for a single fluid grout with the Altschaeffli, A.G. (1978); "Pore Distribution Publication 16, CIRIA, 6 Storey's Gate,
viscosity of water and strength of concrete, where water is and Permeability of Silty Clays." Proc. ASCE London
the most expensive constituent. Vol. 105 (GT7) 44. CIRIA (1982): "Health
and safety aspects of
22 Bell, L.A. (1978): Alluvial Grouting. IIASc ground treatment materials." Report 95.
Dissertation, University of Durham CIRIA, 6 Storey's Gate, London
23 Scott, R.A. (1957): "Fundamental conditions 45. Littlejohn, GS. (1983): "Plant and equipment
governing the penetration of grouts." for cement based grouts." SAICE Grouting
Methods of Treatment of Unstable Ground Course, Geotechnical Division, University of
(ed. F.G. Bell). Newnes-Butterworths, London Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

May 1965 33
46. Bowman, W. (1968): "Record grout curtain
seals Nile's leaky bed." Engineering News
Record. Vol. 168, 22 (Feb 29)
Underground Services-
47. Einstein, H.H. & Schnitter, G. (1970):
"Selection of chemical grout for Mattmark
Dam". Proc. ASCE Vol. 96 (SM6) pp.2007-
in tunnels,
Widing, S,G, (1983). "Decreasing
permeability in heterogeneous non-cohesive
and, now, micro-tunnels
soil by means of grouting". Proc. 8th European
Conf. on Soil Mech. Et Found. Engng. Vol. 1,
pp. 1 81 -1 86 AT ONE TIME when a sub-surface passage considerable compressive forces to
49 Wagner, J.E. (1961): Construction and was required for an underground service— overcome the resistance offered by soil
performance of the grouted cut-off Rocky anything from a road or railway to a friction. Methods such as the use of
Reach Hydroelectric Project. PhD Thesis, telecommunication cable —the practical lubricants and intermediate jacking stations
University of Illinois, Urbana, USA alternatives for construction (apart from the may reduce the magnitude of these forces,
50 Janin Er Le Sciellour (1970): "Chemical rare submersed tube) lay between tunnelling but the lining employed may have to be
grouting for Paris Rapid Transit Tunnels." and pipe-jacking. The recent Tunnelling 85 designed more with an eye to resisting
Proc. ASCE, Vol. 96 (CO1), p.61 and No-Dig 85 Exhibitions demonstrated installation forces than with those acting on it
51 Ischy, E. 8
Glossop, R. (1 962); "An that the choices have become more in service, for whatever duty it is installed.
introduction to alluvial grouting." Proc. ICE, numerous, with their displays of the latest Some years ago, it was realised that there
Vol. 21, pp.449-474 international techniques. would be a requirement for underground
In soft ground, using permanent linings, service connections installed by tunnelling
52 Clough, C W., Baker, W.H. Et Mensah-
Dwumah, F. (1978): Development of design the distinction between tunnelling and pipe- and yet of a size and cost of installation
procedures for sta bilised soil support systems jacking becomes blurred. The diameter of the comparable to open trench installation and
for soft ground tunnelling. Final Report (Oct), lining might at one time have indicated which reinstatement, particularly in congested
Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA technique would be more suitable, but there areas. This led to the developments by the
53. Anagnosti, P. (1983):"Fissured clay improved
is considerable overlap. For example, Krings Rees Group of the Mini-tunnel —basically a
International of Germany supply pipe-jacking miniaturised tunnelling system in which the
by chemical grouting". Proc. 8th European
Conf. on Soil Mech. Er Found. Engng. Vol. 1, equipment for diameters up to 3.5m, and limiting size depended virtually on the
pp.115-120, Helsinki Delta Construction has recently completed working space available inside the shield.
two drives in connection with the Lytham The minimum diameter is about 1m but the
54. Greschik, G. (1983): "Injected soil
Road Relief Sewer of 2.5m internal diameter system can be used for diameters up to 3m.
stabilization constructing the Budapest
Underground". Proc. 8th European Conf. on pipes (manufactured by C.V. Buchan). Both This is a patented system operated under
Soil Mech. 8 Found. Engng. Vol. 1, pp.147- tunnelling and pipe-jacking can employ licence by specialist contractors in the UK
149 similar techniques, but the essential and twelve other countries. The company
difference is that in tunnelling the lining is now operates as Mini Tunnels International
55 Janus, Z.L. (1963): "Chemical grouting cuts
constructed immediately behind the shield, Ltd. Presumably one of the advantages of this
water flow in colliery drift." Mine and Quarry
Mechanisation, Australia, pp.119-124 whereas in pipe-jacking the cylindrical lining system is that the segmental linings can be
is placed in sections from a thrust pit, where purpose-designed, since the compressive
56 Black, J.C., Pollard, CA. & Daw, GP. (1982): hydraulic rams push forward the entire string loads applied are confined to the reaction of
"Hydrogeological assessment and grouting at of lining sections. Thus the lining sections the rams which thrust the shield forward.
Selby." Proc. ASCE Conf. on Grouting in the standard
have to be strong enough to withstand By comparison, Krings
Geotechnical Engineering, New Orleans,
57 Reed, J.J. 6- Bilheimec L.B. (1960): "How
research advances grouting techniques at St.
Joseph Lead." Mining World (Nov. issue)
58 Baker, C.N., Echevarria, F A. 8 Gnaedinger, J.P.
(1982): "Use of grouting in caisson
construction." Proc. ASCE Conf. on Grouting
in Geotechnical Engineering, New Orleans,
pp.874-891 t
59. Leonard, M. W. 8 Moiiec K (1963):"Grouting 1 9
for support, with particular reference to the
use of some chemical grouts." Symposium on
Grouts and Drilling Muds in Engineering
Practice, Butterworths, London, pp.156-163 'I'!'
60. Neelands, James, A.N. (1 963):
R.J. Er
II)~",weg4ei",',:„,',;,", „";„'~',.'; I',:.':,'','" g
"Formulation and selection of chemical grouts
with typical examples of their use."
Symposium on Grouts and Drilling Muds in
Engineering Practice. Butterworths, London,
Above: Kring's "unmanned" pipejacking cutter and spoil disposal system. 1, Shield; 2, Drilling
pp. 1 50-1 55
head; 3, Hardmetal pins; 4, Holes for rock chips; 5, Cleaning pins; 6, Agitator; 7, Mixing
61. Zeigiec E 6- J.L. (1 982): "So>l
Wirth, chamber; 8, Motor dri ve; 9, Laser target system; 10, Steering jack; 1 1, Raw water pipe; 14,
stabilisation grouting
by on Baltimore
Subway." Proc. ASCE Conf. on Grouting in
Dredge pump; 15, Trailer. Below: Diagram showing how steeljacking pipeis removed and
Geotechnical Engineering, New Orleans, replaced by insi tu concrete pumped between the soil and a central lining
62. Stadlec G. 6
Comte, C.H. (1983): "Specific
grouting in the Pre-Alpine Region."
Proc. 8th European Conf. on Soil Mech. Er
Found. Engng. Vol. 1, pp.163-166
63. Bally,RJ. 8 Klein, R. (1983):"Some research
works and applications of grouting of fine
grained soils in Romania". Proc. 8th European
Conf. on Soil Mech. tt Found. Engng. Vol. 1,
pp.1 27-1 30
64 Littlejohn, G.S., Ingle, J. 8 Dadasbilge, K.
(1983): "Improvement base resistance of
large diameter piles founded in silty sand".
Proc. 8th European Conf. on Soil Mech. Er
Found. Engng. Vol. 1, pp.153-156
34 Ground Engineering

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