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The mathematical concept of a matrix refers to a set of

numbers, variables or functions ordered in rows and

columns.

Such a set then can be defined as a distinct entity, the matrix,

and it can be manipulated as a whole according to some

basic mathematical rules.

A matrix with 9 elements is shown below.

Each element of matrix [A] can be referred to by its row

and column number.

For example,

a23=6

ORDER OF A MATRIX

The order of a matrix is defined in terms of its number of

rows and columns.

Order of a matrix = No. of rows × No. of columns

Matrix [A], therefore, is a matrix of order 3 × 3.

COLUMN MATRIX

A matrix with only one column is called a

column matrix or column vector.

ROW MATRIX

row vector.

[3 5 − 6]

SQUARE MATRIX

is called a square matrix.

RECTANGULAR MATRIX

columns is called a rectangular matrix.

UNIT MATRIX

diagonal are equal to 1 while all other elements are zero

is called the unit matrix.

DIAGONAL MATRIX

diagonal of a square matrix are

zero, the matrix is called a diagonal matrix.

Equality of Matrices

Two matrices are equal if all corresponding

elements are equal.

[A] = [B] if aij = bij for all i and j

Two matrices can be added (subtracted) by

adding (subtracting) the corresponding

elements of the two matrices.

[C]= [A]+ [B]= [B]+ [A]

cij = aij + bij

Matrices [A], [B] and [C] must have the same

order.

If a matrix is multiplied by a scalar k, each

element of the matrix is multiplied by k.

Two matrices can be multiplied together

provided they are compatible with respect to

their orders. The number of columns in the

first matrix [A] must be equal to the number

of rows in the second matrix [B]. The

resulting matrix [C] will have the same

number of rows as [A] and the same number

of columns as [B].

The transpose [A]T

of an m×n matrix [A] is

the n×m matrix obtained by interchanging

the rows and columns of [A].

Tri-Diagonal Matrix

elements only on the main diagonal, and the first diagonal

below this, and the first diagonal above the main diagonal.

Tri-diagonal Matrix Algorithm

Thomas’ algorithm, also called Tri-Diagonal Matrix

Algorithm (TDMA) is essentially the result of applying

Gaussian elimination to the tri-diagonal system of

equations.

Generalizing Tri-diagonal Matrix

Generalizing Tri-diagonal Matrix The Matrix can be

written as

−1 + + +1 =

: 1=0& =0

Why Thomas Algorithm is used ?

2-Tri-diagonal system of equations are most common.

3-Even most of them convert the general system of

equations to tri-diagonal system of equations.

4-It’s importance is clearly visible with a large number

of unknowns.

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