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A matrix, in general sense, represents a collection of

information stored or arranged in an orderly fashion.

The mathematical concept of a matrix refers to a set of
numbers, variables or functions ordered in rows and
Such a set then can be defined as a distinct entity, the matrix,
and it can be manipulated as a whole according to some
basic mathematical rules.
A matrix with 9 elements is shown below.

Matrix [A] has 3 rows and 3 columns.

Each element of matrix [A] can be referred to by its row
and column number.
For example,
The order of a matrix is defined in terms of its number of
rows and columns.
Order of a matrix = No. of rows × No. of columns
Matrix [A], therefore, is a matrix of order 3 × 3.

A matrix with only one column is called a
column matrix or column vector.

A matrix with only one row is called a row matrix or

row vector.
[3 5 − 6]

A matrix having the same number of rows and columns

is called a square matrix.

A matrix having unequal number of rows and

columns is called a rectangular matrix.

A square matrix in which all elements of the principal

diagonal are equal to 1 while all other elements are zero
is called the unit matrix.

If all elements except the elements of the principal

diagonal of a square matrix are
zero, the matrix is called a diagonal matrix.
 Equality of Matrices
Two matrices are equal if all corresponding
elements are equal.
[A] = [B] if aij = bij for all i and j
Two matrices can be added (subtracted) by
adding (subtracting) the corresponding
elements of the two matrices.
[C]= [A]+ [B]= [B]+ [A]
cij = aij + bij
Matrices [A], [B] and [C] must have the same
If a matrix is multiplied by a scalar k, each
element of the matrix is multiplied by k.
Two matrices can be multiplied together
provided they are compatible with respect to
their orders. The number of columns in the
first matrix [A] must be equal to the number
of rows in the second matrix [B]. The
resulting matrix [C] will have the same
number of rows as [A] and the same number
of columns as [B].
The transpose [A]T
of an m×n matrix [A] is
the n×m matrix obtained by interchanging
the rows and columns of [A].
 Tri-Diagonal Matrix

A tri-diagonal matrix is a band matrix that has nonzero

elements only on the main diagonal, and the first diagonal
below this, and the first diagonal above the main diagonal.
 Tri-diagonal Matrix Algorithm
 Thomas’ algorithm, also called Tri-Diagonal Matrix
Algorithm (TDMA) is essentially the result of applying
Gaussian elimination to the tri-diagonal system of
 Generalizing Tri-diagonal Matrix
Generalizing Tri-diagonal Matrix The Matrix can be
written as
−1 + + +1 =
: 1=0& =0
 Why Thomas Algorithm is used ?

1-This type of computation is quick.

2-Tri-diagonal system of equations are most common.
3-Even most of them convert the general system of
equations to tri-diagonal system of equations.
4-It’s importance is clearly visible with a large number
of unknowns.