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1 0,15 M larutan dari asam HA (biru dan 4 Gambar molekuler berikut

hijau) terdisosiasi sebanyak 33%. menggambarkan larutan berair dari dua


Manakah dari gambar berikut pasangan asam-basa konjugasi: HA/A-
mempresentasikan contoh setelah larutan dan HB/B-. Basa di pasangan pertama
tersebut diencerkan dengan air? diwakili oleh bola merah dan basa di
Jelaskan! pasangan kedua oleh bola hijau. Molekul
pelarut dihilangkan untuk kejelasan.
Manakah yang termasuk asam kuat?
Basa Kuat? Jelaskan!

A B C

2 0,1 M larutan HX (biru dan hijau)


mempunyai pH = 2,88 dan 0,1 M larutan
HY (biru dan orange) mempunyai pH
3.52. dari gambar berikut, pilihlah salah
satu gambar terbaik yang
5 The beakers shown contain 0.300 L of
mempresentasikan kesetimbangan
aqueous solutions of a moderately weak
campuran setalah eqimolar larutan HX
acid HY. Each particle represents 0.010
dan Y- dicampurkan? Jelaskan!
mol; solvent molecules are omitted for
clarity. (a) The reaction in beaker A is
at equilibrium. Calculate Q for B, C, and
D to determine which, if any, is also at
equilibrium. (b) For any not at
A B C
equilibrium, in which direction does the
reaction proceed? (c) Does dilution
3 Dua gambar molekuler di bawah ini
affect the extent of dissociation of a
menggambarkan konsentrasi relatif dari
weak acid? Explain.
H3O+ (ungu) yang terdapat dalam larutan
yang memiliki volume yang sama (dengan
ion counter dan molekul pelarut yang
dihilangkan untuk kejelasan. Jika pH
pada gambar A adalah 4.8, berapakah A B C D
pH pada gambar B? 6 The beakers below depict the aqueous
dissociations of weak acids HA (blue and
green) and HB (blue and yellow); solvent
molecules are omitted for clarity. If the
HA solution is 0.50 L, and the HB
solution is 0.25 L, and each particle
represents 0.010 mol, find the Ka of
each acid. Which acid, if either, is
A B stronger?
9 The scenes below depict solutions of the
same HA-A- buffer (with counterions
and water molecules omitted for
clarity). (a) Which solution has the
greatest buffer capacity? (b) Explain
how the pH ranges of the buffers
A B compare. (c) Which solution can react
with the largest amount of added strong
7 The molecular scene depicts the relative
acid?
concentrations of H3O+ (purple) and OH-
(green) in an aqueous solution at 250C.
(Counter ions and solvent molecules are
omitted for clarity.)
(a) Calculate the pH.
A B C D
(b) How many H3O+ ions would you have
10 The scenes below depict the relative
to draw for every OH- ion to depict a
concentrations of H3PO4, H2PO4, and HPO42_
solution of pH 4? during a titration with aqueous NaOH, but
they are out of order. (Phosphate groups are
purple,hydrogens are blue, and Na _ ions and
water molecules are not shown.) (a) List the
scenes in the correct order. (b) What is the
pH in the correctly ordered second scene (see
Appendix C)? (c) If it requires 10.00 mL of
the NaOH solution to reach this scene, how
8 The following scenes represent three much more is needed to reach the last scene?
weak acids HA (where A = X, Y, or Z)
dissolved in water (H2O is not shown):

(a) Rank the acids in order of increasing


Ka. (b) Rank the acids in order of
increasing pKa. (c) Rank the conjugate
bases in order of increasing pKb. (d)
What is the percent dissociation of HX?
(e) If equimolar amounts of the sodium
salts of the acids (NaX, NaY, and NaZ)
were dissolved in water, which solution
would have the highest pOH? The lowest
pH?
11 The beaker on the left below represents 13 The three flasks shown below depict the
a buffer solution of a weak acid HA and titration of an aqueous NaOH solution
its conjugate base, A-. (Water molecules with HCl at different points. One
and spectator ions have been omitted represents the titration prior to the
for clarity.) equivalence point, another represents
a. Which beaker on the right, X or Y, the titration at the equivalence point,
depicts the solution after the addition and the other represents the titration
of two formula units of NaOH? past the equivalence point. (Sodium ions
b. How many HCl molecules can be and solvent water molecules have been
added to the original buffer solution omitted for clarity.)
before the buffer capacity is exceeded? a. Write the balanced chemical equation
c. Draw a picture of the solution where for the titration.
the buffer capacity has been exceeded b. Label each of the beakers shown to
by the addition of HCl. indicate which point in
the titration they represent.
c. For each solution, indicate whether
you expect it to be acidic, basic, or
neutral.

12 Which of the following beakers best


represents a container of a weak acid, HA, in
water? (Water molecules have been omitted
for clarity.)