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ENHANCING TEST ITEMS – CHEMISTRY

(for Physical Sciences majors)

1. Which of the following statements best describes the atomic radius of potassium atom and
the atomic radius of a calcium atom?
A. The radius of the potassium atom is smaller because of its smaller nuclear charge.
B. The radius of the potassium atom is smaller because of its larger nuclear size.
C. The radius of the potassium atom is larger because its nuclear charge is smaller.
D. The radius of the potassium atom is larger because its nuclear charge is also larger.

2. Which type of chemical reaction occurs when an iron nail rusts?


A. condensation C. oxidation-reduction
B. neutralization D. ionization-dissociation

3. Which electron dot symbol represents the atom in period 4 with the highest first ionization
energy?

A. B. C. D.

4. Which phase change is exothermic?


A. H2O(l) H2O(l) C. H2O(l) H2O(g)
B. H2O(l) H2O(s) D. H2O(l) H2O(g)

5. Given the diagram, which statement BEST describes the key?


A. It is negative and acts as the cathode.
B. It is positive and acts as the cathode.
C. It is negative and acts as the anode.
D. It is positive and act as the anode

6. Which technique is safest for diluting a concentrated acid with water?


A. Add the acid to the water quickly.
B. Add the water to the acid quickly.
C. Add the acid to the water slowly while stirring constantly.
D. Add the water to the acid slowly while stirring constantly.

7. Which elements combine to form an ionic bond?


A. sodium and potassium C. carbon and oxygen
B. sodium and oxygen D. carbon and sulfur

8. As the elements in group 16 are considered in order from top to bottom, the atomic radius of
each successive element increases. This increase is primarily due to an increase in
A. electronegativity C. the number of protons occupying the nucleus
B. ionization energy D. the number of occupied principal energy levels

9. An air pollution situation in which reactions occur on the surfaces of solid particles and
produce acidic irritation of lung tissues is called _____.

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A. Smog C. Acid rain
B. Global warming D. Ozone depletion

10. According to the kinetic molecular theory, which statement describes the particles in a sample
of an ideal gas?
A. The motion of the gas particles is random and straight-line
B. The force of attraction between the gas and the particles is strong.
C. The collisions between the gas and particles result in a transfer of energy between
the particles.
D. The separation between the gas particles is smaller than the size of the gas particles
themselves.

11. Given the balanced particle-diagram equation:

Which statement describes the type of change and the chemical properties of the product and
reactants? The equation represents a _____.
A. physical change, with product and reactants having different chemical properties.
B. chemical change, with product and reactants having different chemical properties.
C. physical change, with product and reactants having identical chemical properties.
D. chemical change, with product and reactants having identical chemical properties.

12. A change in the nucleus of an atom that converts the atom from one element to another
element is called _____.
A. combustion C. polymerization
B. neutralization D. transmutation

13. Which characteristics should a radioisotope have if it is to be used for medical diagnosis?
A. short half-life and slow elimination from the body
B. short half-life and fast elimination from the body
C. long half-life and slow elimination from the body
D. long half-life and fast elimination from the body

14. Which of these gases obtained from petroleum is also known as “bottled gas”
A. butane B. ethene C. propane D. propene

15. Several elements are obtained from its ore or natural source by electrolysis. Which of the
following can be obtained by Electrolysis?
Chlorine, Cl2; Magnesium, Mg; Aluminum, Al; Iron, Fe; and Silver, Ag
A. Cl2 and Ag C. Mg and Ag
B. Al and Mg D. Fe and Mg

16. Which substance has the largest potential for depleting ozone?
A. CH3CH3 C. CHCl3
B. CFCl3 D. CHF2Cl

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17. Which of the following descriptions does not illustrate physical properties?
A. Glucose is a white solid. C. Ethanol boils at 80oC.
B. Nitric acid discolors the skin. D. Sodium is a soft high melting solid.

18. A loud popping sound was heard when a lighted stick was placed near the mouth of a test
tube containing a gas sample. What gas is present inside the test tube?
A. H2 B. O2 C. He D. N2

19. Which of the following formula is correctly written?


A. ZnCl B. H2S C. HgCl D. NH4SO4

20. Which of the following is a balanced equation?


A. H2 + O2 H2O
B. SO2 + O2 SO3
C. Mg + 2 HCl MgCl2
D. Zn + 2 H2SO4 ZnSO4 + 2H2

21. Dalton’s Atomic Theory explains the laws of chemical changes. Which of Dalton’s assumptions
explains the Law of Conservation of Mass?
A. An atom is the smallest particle of an element.
B. In ordinary chemical reactions, no new atoms are created and no old ones are
destroyed.
C. Atoms of a given element have the same properties of size, shape and mass.
D. Atoms combine in ratios of small whole numbers.

22. A fresh fruit shrinks when placed in a sugar solution. What factor explains this?
A. The sugar solution in the fruit has the same concentration as the surrounding sugar
solution.
B. The sugar solution in the fruit has a lower concentration than the surrounding sugar
solution.
C. The sugar solution in the fruit has a higher concentration than the surrounding
solution.
D. The fruit has no sugar solution, thus the surrounding sugar solution diffused into the
fruit.

23. Chlorofluorocarbons or freons are now banned for use as air propellants in air fresheners and
hair sprays. What is the reason for this ban?
A. Freons react with ozone in the stratosphere.
B. Freons react with metals and concrete.
C. Freons are highly toxic compounds.
D. Freons are acidic and corrosives.

24. The diagram at the right shows the changes on the


three phases of matter. Which change represents
sublimation?
A. arrow 1 C. arrow 4
B. arrow 3 D. arrow 6

25. The odor of frying garlic can be detected a few meters


away but that of fresh, peeled garlic cannot be detected from the same distance. What must
be the reason for this?
A. The heat causes odor molecules of garlic to move faster.

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B. The odor molecules of fresh garlic do not move.
C. The oil used for frying carries the odor molecules away.
D. The warm air carries the odor molecules to the observer.

26. Why does pressure build-up in a tire on a hot summer day?


A. As temperature increases, kinetic energy of molecules increases.
B. As temperature increases, kinetic energy of molecules decreases.
C. As temperature increases, gas pressure also increases.
D. Both A and C.

27. Copper has an atomic number of 29. Which is the most stable electron configuration of the
element?
A. 1s2, 2s2,2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s1, 3d10 C. 1s1, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10
2 2 6 6 1 10
B. 1s , 2s , 2p , 3p , 4s , 3d D. 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s1, 3d9

28. What is the correct number of subatomic particles in an atom of an element with atomic
number 48 and mass number 120?
A. 48 protons, 48 electrons, 72 neutrons
B. 72 protons, 48 electrons, 48 neutrons
C. 48 protons, 48 electrons, 120 neutrons
D. 72 protons, 48 electrons, 72 neutrons

29. Which of the following describes what happens when you hold an ice cube in your hand?
A. Heat flows from the ice to your hand; the melting of the ice is endothermic.
B. Heat flows from the ice to your hand; the melting of the ice is exothermic.
C. Heat flows from your hand to the ice; the melting of the ice is endothermic.
D. Heat flows from your hand to the ice; the melting of the ice is exothermic.

30. The chart below shows the spontaneous nuclear


decay of U-238 to U-234 to Pa-234 to U – 234. What
is the correct order of nuclear decay modes from U-
238 to U-234?
A. β-decay, α-decay, γ-decay
B. β-decay, γ-decay, α-decay
C. α-decay, α-decay, β-decay
D. α-decay, β-decay, β-decay

31. A metal spoon was left in a pot of boiling soup. The


cook burned his finger by the touching the spoon. Why did the finger get burned?
A. The metal spoon chemically reacted with the cook’s hand.
B. The metal spoon conducted electricity to the cook’s hand.
C. The metal spoon conducted heat to the cook’s hand.
D. The metal spoon insulated the cook’s hand.

32. Water boils, therefore if a liquid boils it must be water. This statement is:
A. correct, because boiling water is a liquid.
B. correct, because water is a liquid that boils.
C. wrong, because water does not always boil.
D. wrong, because not all liquids is water.

33. Many people confuse mass with volume. Which of the statements below will illustrate the
relationship between mass and volume?

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A. Mass and volume are both measured in kilograms
B. Objects with large mass always have large volume
C. Objects with greater mass has greater inertia and hence will have greater volume
D. Volume is a measure of space; mass is a measure of the actual amount of matter in
a body

34. As the elements in group 16 are considered in order from top to bottom, the atomic radius of
each successive element increases. This increase is primarily due to an increase in ____.
A. electronegativity C. the number of protons occupying the nucleus
B. ionization energy D. the number of occupied principal energy levels

35. What type of solid is silicon carbide (SiC)?


A. Ionic C. Molecular
B. Salt D. Metallic

36. Which statement describes a chemical property of bromine?


A. Bromine is soluble in water.
B. Bromine has a reddish-brown color.
C. Bromine combines with aluminum to produce AlBr3.
D. Bromine changes from a liquid to a gas at 332K and 1 atm.

37. A change in the nucleus of an atom that converts the atom from one element to another
element is called ____
A. combustion C. neutralization
B. polymerization D. transmutation

38. Which of the following descriptions does NOT illustrate physical properties?
A. Glucose is a white solid. C. Ethanol boils at 80ºC.
B. Nitric acid discolors the skin. D. Sodium is a soft high melting solid.

39. From the series on nuclear transformation, an atom of uranium-238 changes an atom of
uranium-234 by the emission of ____.
A. one alpha particle C. one gamma particle
B. one beta particle D. one beta particle and alpha particle

40. A 96 g sample of a radioactive nuclide is placed in a container. 6 g of the sample was left after
12 hours. What is the half-life of the sample?
A. 2 h B. 3 h C. 6 h D. 12 h

41. Which is the correct set of base properties?


A. Sour taste, corrosive, change litmus from red to blue
B. Bitter taste, corrosive, change litmus from blue to red
C. Bitter taste, slippery, change litmus from red to blue
D. Sweet taste, slippery, change litmus from blue to red

42. In which beaker will sugar dissolve easily?

A. B. C. D.
A. A B. B C. C

43. Which statement is TRUE of gases?

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A. The particles that make up gases are packed together in a relatively fixed position.
B. Gases expand to fill all the space available.
C. Gases have a definite volume.
D. Gases have a definite shape.

44. Sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water combine to produce sulfuric acid
(2 SO2 + O2 + 2 H2O 2 H2SO4). This chemical reaction is
A. a synthesis reaction. C. a decomposition reaction.
B. a replacement reaction. D. an example of combustion.

45. Which of the following is a balanced chemical equation?


A. H2O2 2O + O 2 C. SO2 + O2 + 2 H2 2SO4
B. 2 + H2 D. 2 Fe2O3 2

46. An alloy called amalgam, which is used by dentists to fill cavities, is made with
A. mercury and silver. C. nickel and chromium
B. lead and gold. D. iron and carbon.

47. Aluminum is used to make saucepans because of its being less reactive. Which
property of aluminum explains this?
A. It belongs to Group III in the Periodic Table of Elements
B. It has a high electrical / thermal conductivity
C. It has a surface layer of oxide
D. It has a low density

48. What is the total number of moles of atoms represented by the formula Al(C2H3O2)2?
A. 22 B. 11 C. 8 D. 4

49. A 2.5L sample of gas is at STP. When the temperature is raised to 273ºC and the
pressure remains constant, the new volume of the gas will be
A. 1.25 L B. 2.5 L C. 5.0L D. 10.0 L

50. What characteristics should a radioactive isotope have if it is to be used for medical
diagnosis?
A. short half-life and slow elimination from the body
B. short half-life and fast elimination from the body
C. long half-life and slow elimination from the body
D. long half-life and fast elimination from the body