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Permeable Pavement

(1008)

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
Conservation Practice Standard

I. Definition
Permeable pavement systems may be used in
A pavement system designed to achieve water areas where infiltration is prohibited by
quality and quantity benefits by allowing regulations or limited by soil or groundwater
movement of stormwater through the pavement conditions when liners that inhibit infiltration,
surface and into a base/subbase reservoir. and subsurface drainage mechanisms, are
Examples include pervious concrete, porous installed. However, permeable pavement may
asphalt and permeable pavers/blocks. not be used in industrial storage and loading
areas or vehicle fueling and maintenance areas.
II. Purpose
IV. Federal, State and Local Laws
This practice may be applied individually or as
part of a stormwater management system to Users of this standard shall be aware of
support one or more of the following purposes: applicable federal, state and local laws, rules,
and regulations or permit requirements
• Promote stormwater infiltration, governing permeable pavement systems. This
groundwater recharge, and stream standard does not contain the text of federal,
baseflow preservation state or local laws.
• Reduce the discharge of stormwater
pollutants to surface waters V. Criteria
• Reduce stormwater discharge volumes and
rates A. Site Criteria – Evaluate and locate
• Reduce the temperature of stormwater permeable pavement systems in
discharges accordance with the following criteria:

III. Conditions Where Practice Applies 1. For systems that will infiltrate
water into the soil subgrade,
Permeable pavement systems are an alternative evaluate the site in accordance
to other pavements and stormwater control with WDNR Conservation
measures in areas where mitigating the adverse Practice Standard 1002 – “Site
impacts of stormwater discharges is an Evaluation for Stormwater
objective or requirement. Infiltration”.

Permeable pavement systems are most 2. For systems that will not infiltrate
effective in areas where subsoil and water into the soil subgrade,
groundwater conditions are suitable for conduct a site evaluation of
stormwater infiltration, and the risk for sufficient detail to establish site-
groundwater contamination is minimized. specific conditions, including soil
Appropriate conditions for infiltration are types and depth to seasonal high
identified in ss. NR 151.124 and NR 151.241, groundwater.
Wis. Adm. Code.
3. If a hydraulic connection is
possible, permeable pavement

Conservation Practice Standards are reviewed periodically and updated if needed. To obtain the current version of this standard, WI DNR
download it from http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/Stormwater/, or contact the Wisconsin Land and Water Conservation Association office at (608) 441-2677. 2/16

1Words in the standard that are shown in italics are described in X. Definitions. The words are italicized the first time they are used in the text.

shall be no lower than 10 in/hr. or National Asphalt Pavement Associations. Other Pavement Surfaces – For during the pavement life.. Pavement Surface Infiltration Design – A pavement surface infiltration design 3. The permeable pavement surfaces that are following model input parameters shall be not specifically mentioned in this used: technical standard. Permeable Pavers/Blocks . The model shall be Institute. Rainfall data that is appropriate for recommendations. by design.Comply with pavements. as structural instability. Note: Surface infiltration rates in excess of 100 in/hr have been documented for B. Pavement Surface Infiltration follows: Properties – Installed permeable pavement surfaces shall meet the a. The surface infiltration rate upon contamination or hydraulic completion of the installation shall be overloading. b. at least 100 in/hr.Comply analysis shall be conducted using an with recommendations published by accepted continuous simulation model the Interlocking Concrete Pavement (e. the site as determined by the administering authority. infiltration rate testing may be required by the administering authority when there are 2.2 2/16 . Brick Industry Association run over the entire anticipated pavement or National Concrete Masonry lifecycle to verify that the pavement Association. Pavement Surface Design – Permeable various permeable pavement surfaces. For to avoid adverse impacts such the purpose of this technical standard. D. for the purpose of this technical shall be in accordance with industry standard. to avoid adverse impacts such as cross 1. comply with the appropriate industry standards or 1. WinSLAMM). Porous Asphalt . Pervious Concrete . are used to protect against such impacts. WI DNR . American Concrete Institute Specification for Pervious Concrete Initial and in-service surface infiltration Pavement or recommendations of the rate testing is not mandatory per this Wisconsin or National Ready Mixed technical standard. No closer than 10 feet from 2. surface infiltration rate.Comply with questions or concerns regarding the recommendations of the Wisconsin. water permeable pavement surfaces with in basements or short circuiting measured surface infiltration rates of of the infiltration process. No closer than 50 feet from any following infiltration criteria: POWTS dispersal cell. the required initial and in service standards for their intended use: surface infiltration rates represent the minimum operating range for permeable 1. surface infiltration rate will be no lower than 10 inches per hour (in/hr) at any time 4. surface Concrete Associations. pavement surface materials and installation However.g. systems shall be located as C. less than 10 in/hr shall be considered unless liners or other measures failed. The in-service surface infiltration rate adjacent building foundations. However.

Impervious Source Areas aggregate shall be provided. E. areas. 5% and a flow length of at least 5 feet is provided between the 2.g. blocks). Construction sites and other pretreatment in accordance with s. infiltrate water into the soil subgrade shall be designed to provide acceptable c. NR disturbed lands. The permeable pavement surface strip with a slope of less than percent voids shall be less than 25%.Run-on to efficiency of 50%. 9 or 57 2. 89. Agricultural lands. accordance with Equation 1.124(7). An initial pavement surface F. Note: The required conditions for the underdrain discharge credit are the same as the underdrain discharge credit (see Criteria V.3 2/16 . pavers or permeable pavement. The aggregate storage reservoir depth b. Industrial storage and loading 1008 . Table 1. 3. from other source areas may be directed onto permeable pavement surfaces 3. a minimum of 5 inches of ASTM C-33 No.06 depending on the potential for surface pounds per square foot (lbs/sf) of clogging or groundwater contamination in permeable pavement surface area. Wis. WI DNR . Pretreatment for Subgrade Infiltration b. This aggregate layer can be installed a. A surface clogging capacity of 0. Unstable landscape areas excepting when a grass filter 1. 151. For permeable pavement surfaces landscape area and the with open joints (e. Code. Prohibited Source Areas .. 2. Adm. Permeable pavement systems that are designed to d. Pavement Surface Run-on – Run-on infiltration rate of 100 in/hr. meet the following criteria are considered acceptable pretreatment (see Figure 1): e. To minimize the potential for directly below the pavement units or pavement surface clogging.L. the as a combination of the joint filled ratio of impervious run-on area depth and the bedding course depth as to permeable pavement surface long as the total depth of aggregate is area shall be in accordance with at least 5 inches. permeable pavement surfaces from the following source areas is Note: A detailed description of the prohibited: model input parameters and sample calculations are found in the Standard a.). accordance with the following criteria: 4. A pavement surface cleaning 1.Technical Note. Vehicle fueling and – Permeable pavement systems that will maintenance areas. For run-on areas that consist of shall be a minimum of 12 inches more than one source area type. 8. regardless of the presence of an the permeable pavement underdrain or the underdrain invert surface area shall be in elevation.

A = Source Area Class A contributing drainage area Note: A surface cleaning frequency greater than twice per year can be included B = Source Area Class B contributing in the pavement surface infiltration design drainage area analysis and specified in the operation and maintenance plan. water into the soil subgrade. Table 1 – Run-on Ratio to Minimize of run-on area to effective infiltration Pavement Surface Clogging Potential area shall be no greater than 3:1 (see Source Figure 2). such as regenerative air or vacuum sweeping. Run-on from lawns shall be 1. the effective infiltration • Parking lots area will need to be larger than the • Rooftops permeable pavement surface area in B • Sidewalks ≤ 5:1 order to comply with the effective infiltration area requirement. • Residential Effective infiltration areas can be driveways increased by extending the aggregate Equation 1 storage reservoir under conventional pavement surfaces or in other PPSA ≥ 1/3 A + 1/5 B appropriate areas. Provide a minimum porosity of 4. VI. Impervious Source Run-on Area Area Type Ratio Note: In cases where the run-on ratio Class A • Roads ≤ 3:1 exceeds 3:1. Run-on from stable landscape structural requirements and stormwater areas shall be minimized. the ratio WI DNR . Aggregate Storage Reservoir – 3. and infiltrate Aggregate. Use open graded base consisting Note: Additional information regarding of crushed stone or crushed gravel run-on ratios and source areas is provided with no greater than 5% passing in Considerations (See Considerations the No. management goals: b.4 2/16 . 200 sieve.). Where: G. b. Aggregate Specifications – The determined based on an following specifications shall apply assessment of site-specific to pavement base and storage conditions and maintenance reservoir aggregate: plans.A through VI. Pavement Surface Cleaning – Cleaning of the pavement surface shall be conducted at PPSA = Permeable pavement surface least twice per year using industry area recommended methods. a. Pervious Source Areas Aggregate storage reservoirs shall be designed to achieve site-specific pavement a. H.D. Effective Infiltration Area – For 30% per ASTM C29 Standard permeable pavement systems that will Test Method for Bulk Density receive run-on from road and/or ("Unit Weight") and Voids in parking lot source areas.

4. Underdrains. The hours following the cessation of a storage reservoir aggregate may be rain event. Drainage from the system shall occur 4.2.If necessary. water shall not be retained 3. Perforations – The total opening area pavement systems shall be designed to of all perforation holes combined ensure that the base and subbase drain shall be sufficient to allow the pipe to adequately: discharge at design capacity. equivalent mechanisms). If necessary. 2. Outlet – Discharges from the by infiltration to the soil subgrade underdrain or equivalent drainage and/or discharge from underdrains (or mechanism shall be non-erosive. Observation wells typically consist of 2.The slope of the drainage mechanism shall be designed and subgrade shall be as flat as possible installed at the appropriate elevation to but no greater than 2%.5 2/16 . At least one observation well shall be suspended solids (TSS) and total installed to allow for visual phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency for monitoring of pavement system permeable pavement system shall be drainage when the system does not determined as follows: include an underdrain. or the system includes an underdrain that is located 1. 1. and aggregate storage reservoir/subgrade fracture requirements listed in soil interface. ensure that the aggregate storage reservoir a series of aggregate storage reservoir will drain down in less than 72 hours: cells shall be designed and constructed to prevent seepage 1.5 . K. By design. Comply with construction in accordance with WDNR Conservation requirement in Wisconsin DOT Practice Standard 1002. L. A pollutant removal credit of 100% perforated pipes extended vertically shall be provided for the portion of from the pavement surface to the WI DNR . For permeable average annual runoff volume that pavement systems exceeding one does not infiltrate through the acre. I. wear. No pollutant removal credit shall be above the bottom of the aggregate provided for the portion of the storage reservoir. J. used for pipe protection. Pollutant Removal Credit . Standard Specifications Section 301. Pavement System Drainage – Permeable 2. Comply with soundness. infiltrate water into the soil subgrade. inches.3 or administering authority. Wisconsin DOT Standard Specifications Section 301.Total 3. the design infiltration rate shall be determined d. perforated underdrain piping or an equivalent 2. Size and Material – Perforated pipes through downgradient portions of the shall have a minimum diameter of 4 permeable pavement surface. Subgrade Slope . well per acre shall be installed. Pipe Protection – Perforated pipes in the system (including the aggregate shall have an aggregate bedding layer storage reservoir) for more than 72 of at least 4 inches on all sides. an additional one observation pavement surface. c. Soil Design Infiltration Rate – For Aggregate Base Physical permeable pavement systems that will Properties.

depth and the bedding course depth as long as the total depth of O. 89. the average annual runoff volume that M. 25%. Model Results – For regulatory b. construction operations at the site shall be determined. Peak Discharge Rate Control . adverse impacts associated with construction operations shall be minimized If each of these conditions is met. 8. For permeable pavement surfaces purposes. inches regardless of the presence of an underdrain or the P.). pavers or anticipated pavement life shall be blocks).g.6 2/16 . Construction Practices – Potential underdrain invert elevation.. The aggregate storage reservoir reductions provided by permeable depth shall be a minimum of 12 pavement systems. divert runoff Criteria V.g.E. the average annual runoff volume that WinSLAMM) or other accepted passes through the pavement surface computational methods: and discharges through underdrain piping (or equivalent) if all of the 1. Where possible.Infiltration volume and/or pollutant load reductions provided by 3. N. Prior to the start of construction. TSS Removal Credit TP Removal Credit aggregate storage reservoir and 65% 35% pavement surface from construction site runoff until achieving final Note: The required conditions for the stabilization: underdrain discharge credit are the same as the infiltration pretreatment criteria (see a. of ASTM C-33 No. computational methods shall be used to determine stormwater temperature c. Thermal Mitigation – Accepted aggregate is at least 5 inches.C. Infiltration Volume and Pollutant Load infiltrates into the subgrade soils. Permeable Pavement Underdrain Discharge Credit 2. Pollutant removal credit shall be permeable pavement systems shall be provided (Table 2) for the portion of quantified using a model (e. a minimum of 5 inches annualized. Reduction . the Table 2 unless site-specific credit is schedule of permeable pavement determined using accepted system construction relative to other computational methods. 2. from disturbed areas away from WI DNR . or mitigated as follows: underdrain discharge pollutant removal credit shall be selected from 1. Model Input Parameters – The model following conditions are met (see input parameters identified for Figure 1): pavement surface infiltration design (see Criteria V.Accepted This aggregate layer can be stormwater hydrologic and hydraulic installed directly below the computational methods shall be used to pavement units or as a determine the peak discharge rate control combination of the joint filled provided by permeable pavement systems. model results for the with open joints (e. Protect the subgrade soil interface. 9 or 57 aggregate shall be provided.) shall be used for a. Table 2.. The permeable pavement surface infiltration volume and pollutant load percent voids shall be less than reduction calculations.

The susceptibility of permeable pavement system. through to the surface. such as regenerative air or consisting of crushed stone or crushed vacuum sweeping. When construction is complete. F. If runoff diversion is not possible. Caution should be used when discharging A. runoff containing significant sediment or Without proper energy dissipation.. 2 stone) for the aggregate storage aggregate storage reservoir and reservoir will reduce the rate of discharge pavement surface from other along the subgrade slope and the rate of construction site operations. For the aggregate storage reservoir. Protect the subgrade soil interface. gravel with no greater than 2% passing the No. Consider limiting run. 200 sieve if available. surfaces to clogging can increase with increasing run-on ratios. Selection of smaller sized aggregate (e. Runoff from run-on source areas should equipment. 57 stone rather than 3 inch 4. Protect the soil subgrade from over compaction by construction D.g. Aggregate shall be stored and G.. a. 3. roof downspouts). be distributed as evenly as possible across the permeable pavement area. clumping or other forms of compaction. Suspend construction if residual soil moisture contributes E. A higher cleaning frequency sediment and pollutants from may be required based on the site-specific entering to the maximum extent run-on ratio and source area practicable. The type of run- b. sidewalks or roofs. surface using industry recommended consider using open graded base methods. velocity/ high pressure discharges can on to source areas such as other displace the aggregate. clean the H. For systems that will infiltrate to the C. characteristics. No. Permeable pavement systems that will handled to keep sediment-free and infiltrate into the subgrade soil should be placed to avoid segregation of the located a sufficient distance from aggregate. leading to failure pavements. soil smearing. Permeable pavement surfaces are highly runoff directly to the aggregate storage susceptible to clogging from source area reservoir (e.7 2/16 . entering the permeable pavement B. ¾ inch No. 5. if necessary. due to seepage. inspect the permeable pavement surface and. on source area should be carefully protect the permeable pavement considered when the run-on ratio will system in a manner that prevents exceed 2:1. high particulate loads. Consider conducting surface cleaning significantly to the potential for operations during spring and fall. downgradient steep slopes to minimize the potential for slope failures or erosion 6.g. such as accumulation at the downgradient end of landscaping equipment operation or the system that can result in seepage material storage. High run-on ratios may reduce the subgrade soil: effective life of permeable pavement systems. VI. of the pavement. b. Considerations I. Further caution should be exercised to prevent the discharge of WI DNR .

(sodium chloride) on permeable pavement and run-on surfaces to reduce the c. allowing for the and to render a stable structure for determination upon completion of supporting vehicular traffic. grades. Signage should also of sediment during construction identify any activities that should not and clogging of any portion of the occur on permeable pavement surfaces permeable pavement installation. as well as sequence. Plans and specifications that identify 12 to 20 inches. Consider conducting subgrade inspections report and this standard. The use of geotextile filter fabrics. dimensions. removal calculations for the design of the permeable pavement L. flow paths and run-on ratio(s) for M. Consider the potential impact of seasonal system. Documents or reports that support potential for the development of sodic soil any infiltration design parameters. high groundwater on all permeable pavement systems.. The following design and construction elevations (if applicable). elevations of all components of the to reduce the risk of surface settlement system. Consider minimizing the use of road salt the permeable pavement system. Erosion and sediment control location and purpose of the permeable measures to prevent the discharge pavement system. Plan views of the permeable pavement system showing its VII. b. compliance of the permeable pavement system with the design O. seal-coating) and run-on areas. Plans and Specifications shape. Consider constructing the permeable a. (e. A plan showing the tributary area. Include the following on plans: P. requirements for applying the underdrain check valves or underdrain permeable pavement system to clean-out ports may be considered where achieve its intended use and appropriate. during construction.8 2/16 . underdrain locations and A. construction processes and aggregate may be needed. organic and other debris directly to the in accordance with the criteria in this aggregate storage reservoir that can standard: potentially clog the system. objectives. location. 1. results and soil boring logs that identify the depth to seasonal high N. If the subgrade soil is over compacted groundwater. Hydrologic and hydraulic pavement system as late in the site computations and pollutant construction schedule as possible.g. material handling. conditions that could reduce subgrade soil including infiltration rate field test infiltration rates. including the following: K. 3. A design report that describes the J. b. size and additional compaction of these materials. Consider installing signage to identify the a. and documents shall be prepared for each site observation wells and control WI DNR . Additional base/subbase materials. to verify compliance with design parameters prior to system installation. consider refracturing or ripping the soil subgrade to a depth of 2.

Outfalls . deformation or cracking.5 technician by the National Ready inches or greater to verify that the Mix Concrete Association. such VIII. Examples 3. 1. of soil or other material that can potentially cause or contribute to 4. Requirements for system system shall be conducted as follows: acceptance at the conclusion of construction. construction of permeable pavement systems.G. prohibited from occurring on the permeable pavement surface: Note: A single cross-section may provide sufficient detail in some 1. interlocking concrete pavement technician from the Interlocking 4. A description of the contractor’s responsibilities. D. b. Descriptions of applicable 5. Clean the pavement surface using industry recommended methods. material requirements for adequate cover and stability. or a aggregate storage reservoir is draining certificate for a permeable down effectively. structures. showing locations and depths of system B. be written for the intended life of the permeable pavement system. locations for obstructions and erosion. pavement system.9 2/16 . Longitudinal and/or cross. demonstrating training in construction of the permeable 2. and installation procedures. A requirement for the contractor to permeable pavement surfaces for provide documentation settlement. Application of sand for deicing. The following activities shall be components. Surface Infiltration – Inspect pavement systems or acceptable permeable pavement surfaces for experience and references in the sedimentation or evidence of ponding. Maintenance of the permeable pavement e. Run-on Areas – Inspect run-on areas standards. An operation and maintenance plan shall pipe invert elevations. The plan c. a. d. Include the following in clogging. Pavement Condition – Inspect c. Application of pavement seal-coating. Inspection of the permeable pavement submit test reports and other system shall be conducted at least once evidence that materials for the per year to evaluate the following: project meet the specifications. Operations and Maintenance as regenerative air or vacuum sweeping. at least twice per year in accordance with Section V. 3. including surface and A. Temporary or permanent stockpiling cases. shall include an inspection checklist and sectional views of the pervious schedule. WI DNR .Inspect underdrain outfall Concrete Pavement Institute. A requirement for the contractor to C. Drainage – Inspect observation wells include pervious pavement 72 hours after a rain event of 0. specifications: 2. 1.

the Resources Research 14:601-604. Rowe. Michael. Pervious conventional impervious materials if Concrete. pavers/blocks or other methods approved by the administering authority. 2010. Empirical questionable at any time during the equations for some hydraulic properties. not exceed 10% of the original permeable surface area and runoff Borst. For permeable pavers/blocks with joints that are filled with aggregate: G.” the total impervious repair areas do Farmington Hills. appropriate action 2. All inspection. infiltration testing and b.. O’Connor. remediate the system maintenance activities shall be by extracting accumulated debris documented in written reports. Repair blocked. Amy A.W. “522-R10: ACI 522 Committee Report. Thomas P. E. or cracking that are significant conduct pavement surface infiltration rate enough to adversely impact the water testing per ASTM C1701 Standard Test quality function of the system. mitigate clogging. recommendations. R.epa. References 7.M. Standard Test Method of Surface Infiltration Rate of Permeable Unit 5. If the pavement surface infiltration rate is Clapp. Chapter NR 151. Surface adjacent permeable areas. IX. repairs may be done with American Concrete Institute (ACI). . Installation. Qualified personnel. G.10 2/16 . Repair and/or replant eroding run-on Pavement Systems for permeable areas. loading for which it was originally designed. Repair any settlement. as determined by the administering authority. F. MI. If verification of in place pavement 3.. restricted or eroding and porous asphalt. “Comparison of Permeable 10 in/hr. For porous asphalt and pervious concrete. Replenish the joint aggregate in inspection. H. Stander.. rate to an acceptable level based on the clean the pavement surface to remaining effective life of the pavement. infiltration testing and accordance with industry maintenance work. Method for Infiltration Rate of In Place Pervious Concrete for pervious concrete 4. ASTM C1781 underdrain outfalls. If the surface infiltration rate is Pavement Types: Hydrology.gov/nrmrl. The 10% Infiltration Rates of Permeable Surfaces: Six threshold may only be exceeded if Month Update (November 2009 through April design calculations confirm that the 2010). and Hornberger. EPA /600/R-10/083 | June 2010 | system is still able to accept the full www. administering authority may require infiltration rate testing to verify that the CTC & Associates LLC and WisDOT Research & surface infiltration rate is no lower than Library. 2012. shall perform a. 2010. deformations surface infiltration rates is necessary. Emilie from the repair areas will run on to K. 1978. joints with new aggregate. All and aggregate from the joints written reports shall be made available on using a vacuum and re-filling the request by the administering authority. 6. If necessary. lower than 10 in/hr. Design. WI DNR . If water ponding persists on the shall be taken to restore the infiltration pavement surface after a storm event. Water effective life of the pavement. Wisconsin Administrative Code.

.bae. K. Portland Cement Association. Chapter 18 Stormwater Construction..C.): The infiltration rate Vol. Environmental Protection Agency.L. and Saxton.. Design. Gimenez. 1998. Administering Authority (V. P.” Pavement Institute. Florida. 2012. 1982.bmpdatabase.ncdenr. Wis. been completed and a uniform perennial vegetative Environmental Protection Agency. Discharge Elimination System. Rowe. Vol. Wisconsin Department of Transportation. WisDOT Southeast Maintenance. Manual.J. Permeable Wisconsin. R.): A computer model that continuously tracks system response Rawls. http://www.. Hansen. U.edu/info/permeable- pavement/publications. Code. Minnesota Stormwater Control Manual.S. September and Maintenance Guide.P. Department of Environment and Natural Specifications for Highway and Structure Resources (DENR).J. 5 pp.html. Adm. 41(2). Conservation Practice Standards. B. Design.R. 2005. Malcom.002(12).2.4. 983-988. W. Pavement.R..): All land disturbing Pavement as a Low Impact Development construction activities at the construction site have Installation in Urban Regions”. Estimation of Soil Water Properties. Herndon. Site Evaluation for Stormwater Infiltration (1002) Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. 1316 –1320 and 1328. Porous Pavements. the native soil as defined in s.Maintenance and Cost. Standard The N.gov/npdes/stormwater/menuofbmp Leming. Continuous Simulation Model (V.E. D. Construction. Porous Pavement. ASAE. pp. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Use of Soil Texture. Virginia. Bulk Density and Slope of Water Effective Infiltration Area (V. K.cfm?action=browse&Rbutton=detail&bmp “Hydrologic Design of Pervious Concrete.” =136&minmeasure=5.S.11 2/16 . Infiltration (II): Entry and movement of precipitation or runoff into or through the soil. M. Porous Asphalt Pavements for Stormwater Management. Permeable pavement.D. No. WI DNR . Ferguson. NJ. 2004. EB303. International Stormwater BMP Database. USA. “Environmental Effects of Pervious Final Stabilization (V. Smith. Urban cover has been established with a minimum Watershed Management Branch. IL. http://cfpub.. Edison. Rawls. Raton. National Asphalt 2009. Amy.C. 4th edition..org/index. NR 151.htm. D. Brakensiek. Construction U. Boca U. Madison. CRC Press.J. W. over time according to a set of equations. http://portal.): State and/or local units of government with stormwater management North Carolina State University.epa. and Tennis.S. 2012. Interlocking Concrete Region.. of the native soil selected as a basis to size an infiltration device per Reference 1002. http://www. William Hunt.org/c/document_library/get_fil X. H.): The area of the Retention Curve to Predict Saturated Hydraulic infiltration system that is used to infiltrate runoff to Conductivity. Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements: Selection. s/index. 2008. National Pollutant Pavement Association. Skokie. and Grossman. regulatory authority. 2007. density of 70% for unpaved areas and areas not covered by permanent structures.ncsu. Definitions e?uuid=473e686c-ac2a-4a09-9f2c- fcb709bceb6b&groupId=38364. 2013. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.F. 2011.. Environmental Protection Agency. 25. Design Infiltration Rate (V.

driveways.): An area that is covered with over the volume of solids.Infiltration includes water that may be subsequently evapo-transpired.F.G. drain through.1.4. However.3. such as clay or high density polyethylene (HDPE).1. materials.) – Crushed stone.D.): use including rooftops.12 2/16 .a.): Runoff from pavement or other of water.F. WI DNR . sidewalks. Source Areas (V. Seasonal High Groundwater (V. crushed gravel or crushed concrete as described in Run-on Ratio (Table 1): The ratio of the run-on Wisconsin DOT Standard Specifications Section source area to permeable pavement surface area.H. Open Graded Base (V.3.a.3. (V. pavement surface.D. generated during periods of snow melt and rainfall runoff. 310. density of 70% and no erosion rills or gullies. concentration of fine aggregates allowing water to The grass cover shall be uniform with a minimum drain through. source areas that drains onto the permeable pavement surface. beds that consist of annual and/or perennial vegetation with no areas of bare soil or application Permeable Pavement Surface Percent Voids of wood-based mulch. hole.): A private on-site waste Liners (III): Barriers made of appropriate treatment system. Porosity is or overflow devices.b. POWTS (V. Permeable (Title): For the purposes of this standard.A. Infiltration does Porosity (V.3.F.P. or the elevation to which the soil has been seasonally or periodically saturated (hydric) as Pavement Surface Cleaning (V.E. that minimize the migration Run-on (V. sometimes referred to as void ratio. Unstable Landscape Areas (V. Percent voids can also be Surface Clogging Capacity (V.H. storage areas.e. when assembled into a pattern allowing water to drain through the joints.a.A.): A component of urban land Pavement Surface Cleaning Efficiency (V.): Densification of soil of either the elevation to which the soil is saturated where porosity and/or permeability are reduced as observed as a free water surface in an unlined below design values. The percentage of the reduction in surface parking lots.F.): The area of the voids over the total area expressed as a percent.): The higher Over Compaction (V. streets and lawns from infiltration rate that occurs between cleaning which urban runoff pollutants and volumes are events that is restored after cleaning.): The capacity referred to as percent open area.): Routine indicated by soil color patterns throughout the soil removal of material accumulated on or near the profile.): Planting beds that consist of annual and/or perennial Pervious Concrete (I): Concrete with a lower vegetation with areas of bare soil or application of concentration of fine aggregates allowing water to wood-based mulch. of the permeable pavement surface to accumulate pollutants to the point where void spaces are full Permeable Pavers/Blocks (I): Paver or block units and surface infiltration can no longer occur. such Porous Asphalt (I): Asphalt with a lower as routine mowing and compaction mitigation.2 Open Graded Base.a.1.3. grass and maintained in a healthy condition by conducting necessary maintenance activities.): Planting the words pervious and porous.F.): The volume of voids over the not include water discharged through underdrains total volume expressed as a percent.2. void ratio is technically defined as the volume of voids Lawns (V. permeable is used interchangeably with Stable Landscape Areas (V.b.1.