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allows you to apply colors to cells based on certain conditions, like duplicate values,

values that meet certain criteria, like greater than 100, or equals “Revenue” with

Highlight Cells Rules and Top/Bottom Rules. You can also show how individual cells rank

against a range of values with Data Bars, Color Scales and Icon Sets. Conditional

formatting is dynamic, so as your values change, the formatting will automatically

adjust.

By applying conditional formatting to your data, you can quickly identify variances in a

range of values with a quick glance.

Steps:

1. Select the data that you want to conditionally format

2. Apply conditional formatting.

A. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the arrow next to Conditional

Formatting, and then click Color Scales.

B. Hover over the color scale icons to see a preview of the data with conditional

formatting applied.

In a three-color scale, the top color represents higher values, the middle color

represents medium values, and the bottom color represents lower values. This

example uses the Red-Yellow-Blue color scale.

On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the arrow next to Conditional Formatting,

and then experiment with the available styles.

Different methods of applying pre-defined conditional formatting rules

2. Highlight the Top 10 items in a range

3. Show variances with Data Bars

4. Highlight positive, neutral and negative values with Icon Sets

5. Show variances with Color Scales

6. Formatting every other row with a table

On the Home tab, click Conditional Formatting > Clear Rules > Clear Rules from Entire

Sheet.

In a range of cells

1. Select the cells that contain the conditional formatting.

2. Click the Quick Analysis Lens button image button that appears to the bottom

right of the selected data.

Important:

Note that the Quick Analysis Lens will not appear:

If all of the cells in the selected range are empty, or

If there is an entry only in the upper-left cell of the selected range, with all of the other

cells in the range being empty.

1. Click a cell that has the conditional format that you want to remove throughout the

worksheet.

2. On the Home tab, click the arrow next to Find & Select, and then click Go To Special.

3. Click Conditional formats.

4. Click Same under Data validation. All of the cells that contain the same conditional

formatting rules are selected.

5. On the Home tab, click Conditional Formatting > Clear Rules > Clear Rules from

Selected Cells.

Financial Functions

Reporters: Alexander Cruz & Rodel Zacarias

If you want to find out the future value of a particular investment which has a

constant interest rate and periodic payment, use the following formula

Nper = Number of periods

[Pmt] = Payment/period

PV = Present Value

[Type] = When the payment is made (if nothing is mentioned, it’s assumed that the

payment has been made at the end of the period)

2. FVSCHEDULE

This financial function is important when you need to calculate the future value with

the variable interest rate. Have a look at the function below –

=FVSCHEDULE(Principal, Schedule)

Schedule = A series of interest rate put together (in case of excel, we will use different

boxes and select the range)

Nper = Number of periods

[Pmt] = Payment/period

FV = Future Value

[Type] = When the payment is made (if nothing is mentioned, it’s assumed that the

payment has been made at the end of the period)

4. PMT

PMT denotes the periodical payment required to pay off for a particular period of

time with a constant interest rate.

Rate = It is the interest rate/period

Nper = Number of periods

PV = Present Value

[FV] = An optional argument which is about the future value of a loan (if nothing is

mentioned, FV is considered as “0”)

[Type] = When the payment is made (if nothing is mentioned, it’s assumed that the

payment has been made at the end of the period)

5. NPER

It is simply the number of periods one requires to pay off the loan.

PMT = Amount paid per period

PV = Present Value

[FV] = An optional argument which is about the future value of a loan (if nothing is

mentioned, FV is considered as “0”)

[Type] = When the payment is made (if nothing is mentioned, it’s assumed that the

payment has been made at the end of the period)

6. RATE

Through RATE function, we can calculate the interest rate needed to pay to pay off

the loan in full for a given period of time.

PMT = Amount paid per period

PV = Present Value

[FV] = An optional argument which is about the future value of a loan (if nothing is

mentioned, FV is considered as “0”)

[Type] = When the payment is made (if nothing is mentioned, it’s assumed that the

payment has been made at the end of the period)

[Guess] = An assumption of what you think RATE should be

IF Function

Reporters: Nawrence Panyo & Medina Bodipo

The IF function is one of the most popular functions in Excel, and it allows you to make

logical comparisons between a value and what you expect. In its simplest form, the IF

function says:

IF(Something is True, then do something, otherwise do something else)

So an IF statement can have two results. The first result is if your comparison is True, the

second if your comparison is False.

The best way to start writing an IF statement is to think about what you are trying to

accomplish. What comparison are you trying to make? Many times, writing an IF

statement can be as simple as thinking through the logic in your head: “what should

happen if this condition is met vs. what should happen if it’s not?” You will always want

to make sure that your steps follow a logical progression, or else your formula won’t do

what you think it should. This is especially important when you create complex (nested)

IF statements.

Calculation operators

If you want to learn more about the different calculation operators you can use in

formulas, (< less than, > greater than, = equals, <> not equal to, etc.),

Common problems

Problem What went wrong

cell either value_if_true or value_if_False arguments. To see the right value

returned, add argument text to the two arguments, or add TRUE or

FALSE to the argument.

in cell

A word of caution

While Excel will allow you to nest up to 64 different IF functions, it’s not at all advisable to

do so. Why?

Multiple IF statements require a great deal of thought to build them correctly and make

sure that their logic can calculate correctly through each condition all the way to the

end. If you don’t nest your IF statements 100% accurately, then a formula might work

75% of the time, but return unexpected results 25% of the time. Unfortunately, the odds

of you catching the 25% is slim.

Multiple IF statements can become very difficult to maintain, especially when you

come back some time later and try to figure out what you, or worse someone else, was

trying to do.

Multiple IF statements require multiple open and closing parentheses (), which can be

difficult to manage depending on how complex your formula becomes.

VLOOKUP Function

Reporter: Janyka Damasco

Use VLOOKUP when you need to find things in a table or a range by row. For example,

look up a price of an automotive part by the part number.

=VLOOKUP(Value you want to look up, range where you want to lookup the value, the

column number in the range containing the return value, Exact Match or Approximate

Match – indicated as 0/FALSE or 1/TRUE).

There are four pieces of information that you will need in order to build the VLOOKUP

syntax:

1. The value you want to look up, also called the lookup value.

2. The range where the lookup value is located. Remember that the lookup value

should always be in the first column in the range for VLOOKUP to work correctly. For

example, if your lookup value is in cell C2 then your range should start with C.

3. The column number in the range that contains the return value. For example, if you

specify B2: D11 as the range, you should count B as the first column, C as the second,

and so on.

4. Optionally, you can specify TRUE if you want an approximate match or FALSE if you

want an exact match of the return value. If you don't specify anything, the default

value will always be TRUE or approximate match.

Common Problems

Problem What went wrong

Wrong value If range_lookup is TRUE or left out, the first column needs to be

returned sorted alphabetically or numerically. If the first column isn't

sorted, the return value might be something you don't expect.

Either sort the first column, or use FALSE for an exact match.

#N/A in cell If range_lookup is TRUE, then if the value in the lookup_value is

smaller than the smallest value in the first column of

the table_array, you'll get the #N/A error value.

If range_lookup is FALSE, the #N/A error value indicates that the

exact number isn't found.

#REF! in cell If col_index_num is greater than the number of columns in table-

array, you'll get the #REF! error value.

Problem What went wrong

For more information on resolving #REF! errors in VLOOKUP.

#VALUE! in cell If the table_array is less than 1, you'll get the #VALUE! error value.

For more information on resolving #VALUE! errors in VLOOKUP.

#NAME? in cell The #NAME? error value usually means that the formula is

missing quotes. To look up a person's name, make sure you use

quotes around the name in the formula. For example, enter the

name as "Fontana" in =VLOOKUP("Fontana",B2:E7,2,FALSE).

Best Practices

Do this Why

references that it always looks at the same exact lookup range.

for range_lookup

Don't store When searching number or date values, be sure the data in the

number or date first column of table_array isn't stored as text values. Otherwise,

values as text. VLOOKUP might return an incorrect or unexpected value.

Sort the first Sort the first column of the table_array before using VLOOKUP

column when range_lookup is TRUE.

Use wildcard If range_lookup is FALSE and lookup_value is text, you can use

characters the wildcard characters—the question mark (?) and asterisk

(*)—in lookup_value. A question mark matches any single

character. An asterisk matches any sequence of characters. If

you want to find an actual question mark or asterisk, type a tilde

(~) in front of the character.

For example, =VLOOKUP("Fontan?",B2:E7,2,FALSE) will search for

all instances of Fontana with a last letter that could vary.

Make sure your When searching text values in the first column, make sure the

data doesn't data in the first column doesn't have leading spaces, trailing

contain erroneous spaces, inconsistent use of straight ( ' or " ) and curly ( ‘ or “)

characters. quotation marks, or nonprinting characters. In these cases,

VLOOKUP might return an unexpected value.

GOAL SEEK COMMAND

Reporter: Hassim Waclin & Berlyn Binwag

Goal Seek is a built-in Excel tool that allows you to see how one data item in a formula

impacts another. You might look at these as “cause and effect” scenarios. It’s useful to

answer “what if” type questions because you can adjust one cell entry to see the result.

The tool is often used in finance, sales, and forecasting scenarios, but there are other

uses.

Technically, Goal Seek is a process of calculating a value by performing what-if analysis

on a given set of values. For our purposes, Excel's Goal Seek feature lets you adjust a

value used in a formula to achieve a specific goal. Or, put another way, Goal Seek

determines input values needed to achieve a specific goal

2. Click the cell you want to change. This is called the “Set cell”.

5. In the Goal Seek dialog, enter the new “what if” amount in the To value text box.

(Remember to add the percentage sign if you have one.)

In this example,

we’re asking Excel

to replace the

contents of cell

D4 which is 63.90%

with 66.67%. This is

the percentage

needed to win the

election.

6. We also need to tell Excel which cell to change. Since we wanted to know the

number of YES votes, we’ll click C4.

7. Click OK. Excel will overwrite the previous cell value with the new one.

Meeting goals

Excel's Goal Seek analysis tool is easy to use and can help you make decisions for the

future based on today's data.

Controlling When Workesheet is recalculated

Reporter: Louis Pascual

Normally, Excel 2013 recalculates your worksheet automatically as soon you change

any entries, formulas, or names on which your formulas depend. When Excel does

calculate your worksheet, the program recalculates only those cells that are affected

by the change that you’ve made.

1. Calculation Options button on the Formulas tab of the Ribbon and then;

After switching to manual recalculation, when you make a change in a value, formula,

or name that would usually cause Excel to recalculate the worksheet, the program

displays the message “Calculate” on the status bar.

When you’re ready to have Excel recalculate the worksheet, you then click the

Calculate Now (F9) command button (the one with a picture of the handheld

calculator) on the Ribbon’s FORMULAS tab or press F9 or Ctrl+=. This tells the program to

recalculate all dependent formulas and open charts and makes the Calculate status

indicator disappear from the status bar.

Option Purpose

embedded

charts every time you make a change to a value, formula, or

name.

This is the default setting for each new worksheet that you

start.

for Data Tables embedded

charts. Does not calculate data tables created with the Data

Table

feature. To recalculate data tables when this option button is

selected, click the Calculate Now (F9) command button on

the

Formulas tab of the Ribbon or press F9 in the worksheet.

Manual Calculates open worksheets and updates open or embedded

charts

only when you click the Calculate Now (F9) command button

on the

Formulas tab of the Ribbon or press F9 or Ctrl+= in the

worksheet.

Workbook before worksheets and updates open or embedded charts when you

Saving save them

even when the Manually option button is selected.

Enable Iterative When this check box is selected, Excel sets the iterations,

Calculation that is, the number of times that a worksheet is recalculated,

when

performing goal seeking or resolving circular references to the

number displayed in the Maximum Iterations text box.

Maximum Iterations Sets the maximum number of iterations (100 by default) when

the

Iteration check box is selected.

Maximum Change Sets the maximum amount of change to the values during

each

iteration (0.001 by default) when the Iteration check box is

selected.

PMT Function

Reporters: Jose Fernando Rivera & Jesus Rondina

PMT, one of the financial functions, calculates the payment for a loan based on

constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Pv = Required. The present value, or the total amount that a series of future payments is

worth now; also known as the principal.

Fv = Optional. The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last

payment is made. If fv is omitted, it is assumed to be 0 (zero), that is, the future value of

a loan is 0.

Type = Optional. The number 0 (zero) or 1 and indicates when payments are due.

0 or omitted At the end of the period

1 At the beginning of the period

Remarks

The payment returned by PMT includes principal and interest but no taxes, reserve

payments, or fees sometimes associated with loans.

Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper.

If you make monthly payments on a four-year loan at an annual interest rate of 12

percent, use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper. If you make annual payments on the

same loan, use 12 percent for rate and 4 for nper.

Tip : To find the total amount paid over the duration of the loan, multiply the returned

PMT value by nper.

PV Function

Reporter: Reniel Soriano

Summary

The Excel PV function is a financial function that returns the present value of an

investment. You can use the PV function to get the value in today's dollars of a series of

future payments, assuming periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Purpose

Get the present value of an investment

Return value

present value

Syntax

=PV (rate, nper, pmt, [fv], [type])

Arguments

rate - The interest rate per period.

nper - The total number of payment periods.

pmt - The payment made each period.

fv - [optional] A cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. If

omitted, assumed to be zero.

type - [optional] When payments are due. 0 = end of period, 1 = beginning of

period. Default is 0.

Usage notes

The PV function returns the value in today's dollars of a series of future payments,

assuming periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

1. A stream of cash flows that includes the same amount of cash outflow (or inflow)

each period is called an annuity. For example, a car loan or a mortgage is an annuity.

When each period's interest rate is the same, an annuity can be valued using the PV

function.

2. In annuity functions, cash you pay out, such as a deposit to savings, is represented

by a negative number; cash you receive, such as a dividend check, is represented by a

positive number. For example, a $2,500 deposit to the bank would be represented by

the argument -2500 for pmt if you are the depositor, and by the argument 2500 for pmt

if you are the bank.

References

https://www.wallstreetmojo.com/financial-functions-in-excel/

us/article/use-formulas-with-conditional-formatting-fed60dfa-1d3f-4e13-9ecb-

f1951ff89d7f

https://support.office.com/en-us/article/add-change-or-clear-conditional-formats-

8a1cc355-b113-41b7-a483-58460332a1af?ui=en-US&rs=en-US&ad=US

69aed7c9-4e8a-4755-a9bc-aa8bbff73be2

function-0bbc8083-26fe-4963-8ab8-93a18ad188a1

Anneh (2018). Find Quick Answers With Excel Goal Seek. Retrieved from

https://www.timeatlas.com/excel-goal-seek/

Harvey, Greg (2013). How To Control Formula Recalculation in Excel 2013. Retrieved

from http://www.dummies.com/software/microsoft-office/excel/how-to-control-

formula-recalculation-in-excel-2013/

0214da64-9a63-4996-bc20-214433fa6441

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