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Conditional Formatting

Reporter: Ann Marie Go

Conditional formatting quickly highlights important information in a spreadsheet. It


allows you to apply colors to cells based on certain conditions, like duplicate values,
values that meet certain criteria, like greater than 100, or equals “Revenue” with
Highlight Cells Rules and Top/Bottom Rules. You can also show how individual cells rank
against a range of values with Data Bars, Color Scales and Icon Sets. Conditional
formatting is dynamic, so as your values change, the formatting will automatically
adjust.
By applying conditional formatting to your data, you can quickly identify variances in a
range of values with a quick glance.

Steps:
1. Select the data that you want to conditionally format
2. Apply conditional formatting.
A. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the arrow next to Conditional
Formatting, and then click Color Scales.

B. Hover over the color scale icons to see a preview of the data with conditional
formatting applied.

In a three-color scale, the top color represents higher values, the middle color
represents medium values, and the bottom color represents lower values. This
example uses the Red-Yellow-Blue color scale.

3. Experiment with the conditional formatting


On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the arrow next to Conditional Formatting,
and then experiment with the available styles.
Different methods of applying pre-defined conditional formatting rules

1. Highlight duplicate values with color


2. Highlight the Top 10 items in a range
3. Show variances with Data Bars
4. Highlight positive, neutral and negative values with Icon Sets
5. Show variances with Color Scales
6. Formatting every other row with a table

Remove Conditional Formatting

On the Home tab, click Conditional Formatting > Clear Rules > Clear Rules from Entire
Sheet.

In a range of cells
1. Select the cells that contain the conditional formatting.
2. Click the Quick Analysis Lens button image button that appears to the bottom
right of the selected data.

Important:
Note that the Quick Analysis Lens will not appear:
If all of the cells in the selected range are empty, or
If there is an entry only in the upper-left cell of the selected range, with all of the other
cells in the range being empty.

3. Click Clear Format.

Find and remove the same conditional formats throughout a worksheet


1. Click a cell that has the conditional format that you want to remove throughout the
worksheet.
2. On the Home tab, click the arrow next to Find & Select, and then click Go To Special.
3. Click Conditional formats.
4. Click Same under Data validation. All of the cells that contain the same conditional
formatting rules are selected.
5. On the Home tab, click Conditional Formatting > Clear Rules > Clear Rules from
Selected Cells.
Financial Functions
Reporters: Alexander Cruz & Rodel Zacarias

Top Financial Functions in Excel

1. Future Value (FV)

If you want to find out the future value of a particular investment which has a
constant interest rate and periodic payment, use the following formula

=FV (Rate, Nper, [Pmt], PV, [Type])

Rate = It is the interest rate/period


Nper = Number of periods
[Pmt] = Payment/period
PV = Present Value
[Type] = When the payment is made (if nothing is mentioned, it’s assumed that the
payment has been made at the end of the period)

2. FVSCHEDULE

This financial function is important when you need to calculate the future value with
the variable interest rate. Have a look at the function below –

=FVSCHEDULE(Principal, Schedule)

Principal = Principal is the present value of a particular investment


Schedule = A series of interest rate put together (in case of excel, we will use different
boxes and select the range)

3. Present Value (PV)

=PV (Rate, Nper, [Pmt], FV, [Type])

Rate = It is the interest rate/period


Nper = Number of periods
[Pmt] = Payment/period
FV = Future Value
[Type] = When the payment is made (if nothing is mentioned, it’s assumed that the
payment has been made at the end of the period)

4. PMT

PMT denotes the periodical payment required to pay off for a particular period of
time with a constant interest rate.

=PMT(Rate, Nper, PV, [FV], [Type])


Rate = It is the interest rate/period
Nper = Number of periods
PV = Present Value
[FV] = An optional argument which is about the future value of a loan (if nothing is
mentioned, FV is considered as “0”)
[Type] = When the payment is made (if nothing is mentioned, it’s assumed that the
payment has been made at the end of the period)
5. NPER

It is simply the number of periods one requires to pay off the loan.

=NPER(Rate, PMT, PV, [FV], [Type])

Rate = It is the interest rate/period


PMT = Amount paid per period
PV = Present Value
[FV] = An optional argument which is about the future value of a loan (if nothing is
mentioned, FV is considered as “0”)
[Type] = When the payment is made (if nothing is mentioned, it’s assumed that the
payment has been made at the end of the period)

6. RATE

Through RATE function, we can calculate the interest rate needed to pay to pay off
the loan in full for a given period of time.

=RATE(NPER, PMT, PV, [FV], [Type], [Guess])

Nper = Number of periods


PMT = Amount paid per period
PV = Present Value
[FV] = An optional argument which is about the future value of a loan (if nothing is
mentioned, FV is considered as “0”)
[Type] = When the payment is made (if nothing is mentioned, it’s assumed that the
payment has been made at the end of the period)
[Guess] = An assumption of what you think RATE should be
IF Function
Reporters: Nawrence Panyo & Medina Bodipo

The IF function is one of the most popular functions in Excel, and it allows you to make
logical comparisons between a value and what you expect. In its simplest form, the IF
function says:

=IF(logica_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])


IF(Something is True, then do something, otherwise do something else)

So an IF statement can have two results. The first result is if your comparison is True, the
second if your comparison is False.

How to get started

The best way to start writing an IF statement is to think about what you are trying to
accomplish. What comparison are you trying to make? Many times, writing an IF
statement can be as simple as thinking through the logic in your head: “what should
happen if this condition is met vs. what should happen if it’s not?” You will always want
to make sure that your steps follow a logical progression, or else your formula won’t do
what you think it should. This is especially important when you create complex (nested)
IF statements.

Calculation operators

If you want to learn more about the different calculation operators you can use in
formulas, (< less than, > greater than, = equals, <> not equal to, etc.),

Common problems
Problem What went wrong

0 (zero) in There was no argument for


cell either value_if_true or value_if_False arguments. To see the right value
returned, add argument text to the two arguments, or add TRUE or
FALSE to the argument.

#NAME? This usually means that the formula is misspelled.


in cell
A word of caution

While Excel will allow you to nest up to 64 different IF functions, it’s not at all advisable to
do so. Why?

Multiple IF statements require a great deal of thought to build them correctly and make
sure that their logic can calculate correctly through each condition all the way to the
end. If you don’t nest your IF statements 100% accurately, then a formula might work
75% of the time, but return unexpected results 25% of the time. Unfortunately, the odds
of you catching the 25% is slim.

Multiple IF statements can become very difficult to maintain, especially when you
come back some time later and try to figure out what you, or worse someone else, was
trying to do.

Multiple IF statements require multiple open and closing parentheses (), which can be
difficult to manage depending on how complex your formula becomes.
VLOOKUP Function
Reporter: Janyka Damasco

Use VLOOKUP when you need to find things in a table or a range by row. For example,
look up a price of an automotive part by the part number.

=VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup])

In its simplest form, the VLOOKUP function says:


=VLOOKUP(Value you want to look up, range where you want to lookup the value, the
column number in the range containing the return value, Exact Match or Approximate
Match – indicated as 0/FALSE or 1/TRUE).

How to get started

There are four pieces of information that you will need in order to build the VLOOKUP
syntax:

1. The value you want to look up, also called the lookup value.

2. The range where the lookup value is located. Remember that the lookup value
should always be in the first column in the range for VLOOKUP to work correctly. For
example, if your lookup value is in cell C2 then your range should start with C.

3. The column number in the range that contains the return value. For example, if you
specify B2: D11 as the range, you should count B as the first column, C as the second,
and so on.

4. Optionally, you can specify TRUE if you want an approximate match or FALSE if you
want an exact match of the return value. If you don't specify anything, the default
value will always be TRUE or approximate match.

Common Problems
Problem What went wrong
Wrong value If range_lookup is TRUE or left out, the first column needs to be
returned sorted alphabetically or numerically. If the first column isn't
sorted, the return value might be something you don't expect.
Either sort the first column, or use FALSE for an exact match.
#N/A in cell  If range_lookup is TRUE, then if the value in the lookup_value is
smaller than the smallest value in the first column of
the table_array, you'll get the #N/A error value.
 If range_lookup is FALSE, the #N/A error value indicates that the
exact number isn't found.
#REF! in cell If col_index_num is greater than the number of columns in table-
array, you'll get the #REF! error value.
Problem What went wrong
For more information on resolving #REF! errors in VLOOKUP.
#VALUE! in cell If the table_array is less than 1, you'll get the #VALUE! error value.
For more information on resolving #VALUE! errors in VLOOKUP.
#NAME? in cell The #NAME? error value usually means that the formula is
missing quotes. To look up a person's name, make sure you use
quotes around the name in the formula. For example, enter the
name as "Fontana" in =VLOOKUP("Fontana",B2:E7,2,FALSE).

Best Practices
Do this Why

Use absolute Using absolute references allows you to fill-down a formula so


references that it always looks at the same exact lookup range.
for range_lookup
Don't store When searching number or date values, be sure the data in the
number or date first column of table_array isn't stored as text values. Otherwise,
values as text. VLOOKUP might return an incorrect or unexpected value.
Sort the first Sort the first column of the table_array before using VLOOKUP
column when range_lookup is TRUE.
Use wildcard If range_lookup is FALSE and lookup_value is text, you can use
characters the wildcard characters—the question mark (?) and asterisk
(*)—in lookup_value. A question mark matches any single
character. An asterisk matches any sequence of characters. If
you want to find an actual question mark or asterisk, type a tilde
(~) in front of the character.
For example, =VLOOKUP("Fontan?",B2:E7,2,FALSE) will search for
all instances of Fontana with a last letter that could vary.
Make sure your When searching text values in the first column, make sure the
data doesn't data in the first column doesn't have leading spaces, trailing
contain erroneous spaces, inconsistent use of straight ( ' or " ) and curly ( ‘ or “)
characters. quotation marks, or nonprinting characters. In these cases,
VLOOKUP might return an unexpected value.
GOAL SEEK COMMAND
Reporter: Hassim Waclin & Berlyn Binwag

Goal Seek is a built-in Excel tool that allows you to see how one data item in a formula
impacts another. You might look at these as “cause and effect” scenarios. It’s useful to
answer “what if” type questions because you can adjust one cell entry to see the result.
The tool is often used in finance, sales, and forecasting scenarios, but there are other
uses.
Technically, Goal Seek is a process of calculating a value by performing what-if analysis
on a given set of values. For our purposes, Excel's Goal Seek feature lets you adjust a
value used in a formula to achieve a specific goal. Or, put another way, Goal Seek
determines input values needed to achieve a specific goal

How to Use Excel Goal Seek

1. Create a spreadsheet in Excel that has your data.

2. Click the cell you want to change. This is called the “Set cell”.

3. From the Data tab, select the What if Analysis…button

4. Select Goal seek.. from the drop down menu

5. In the Goal Seek dialog, enter the new “what if” amount in the To value text box.
(Remember to add the percentage sign if you have one.)

In this example,
we’re asking Excel
to replace the
contents of cell
D4 which is 63.90%
with 66.67%. This is
the percentage
needed to win the
election.
6. We also need to tell Excel which cell to change. Since we wanted to know the
number of YES votes, we’ll click C4.

7. Click OK. Excel will overwrite the previous cell value with the new one.

8. If you wish to accept the new value, click OK.

Meeting goals

Excel's Goal Seek analysis tool is easy to use and can help you make decisions for the
future based on today's data.
Controlling When Workesheet is recalculated
Reporter: Louis Pascual

Normally, Excel 2013 recalculates your worksheet automatically as soon you change
any entries, formulas, or names on which your formulas depend. When Excel does
calculate your worksheet, the program recalculates only those cells that are affected
by the change that you’ve made.

To control when Excel calculates your worksheet, you click the

1. Calculation Options button on the Formulas tab of the Ribbon and then;

2. click the Manual option button or press Alt+MXM.

After switching to manual recalculation, when you make a change in a value, formula,
or name that would usually cause Excel to recalculate the worksheet, the program
displays the message “Calculate” on the status bar.

When you’re ready to have Excel recalculate the worksheet, you then click the
Calculate Now (F9) command button (the one with a picture of the handheld
calculator) on the Ribbon’s FORMULAS tab or press F9 or Ctrl+=. This tells the program to
recalculate all dependent formulas and open charts and makes the Calculate status
indicator disappear from the status bar.

The Calculation Options

Option Purpose

Automatic Calculates all dependent formulas and updates open or


embedded
charts every time you make a change to a value, formula, or
name.
This is the default setting for each new worksheet that you
start.

Automatic Except Calculates all dependent formulas and updates open or


for Data Tables embedded
charts. Does not calculate data tables created with the Data
Table
feature. To recalculate data tables when this option button is
selected, click the Calculate Now (F9) command button on
the
Formulas tab of the Ribbon or press F9 in the worksheet.
Manual Calculates open worksheets and updates open or embedded
charts
only when you click the Calculate Now (F9) command button
on the
Formulas tab of the Ribbon or press F9 or Ctrl+= in the
worksheet.

Recalculate When this check box is selected, Excel calculates open


Workbook before worksheets and updates open or embedded charts when you
Saving save them
even when the Manually option button is selected.

Enable Iterative When this check box is selected, Excel sets the iterations,
Calculation that is, the number of times that a worksheet is recalculated,
when
performing goal seeking or resolving circular references to the
number displayed in the Maximum Iterations text box.

Maximum Iterations Sets the maximum number of iterations (100 by default) when
the
Iteration check box is selected.

Maximum Change Sets the maximum amount of change to the values during
each
iteration (0.001 by default) when the Iteration check box is
selected.
PMT Function
Reporters: Jose Fernando Rivera & Jesus Rondina

PMT, one of the financial functions, calculates the payment for a loan based on
constant payments and a constant interest rate.

=PMT(rate, nper, pv, [fv], [type])

The PMT function syntax has the following arguments:

Rate = Required. The interest rate for the loan.

Nper = Required. The total number of payments for the loan.

Pv = Required. The present value, or the total amount that a series of future payments is
worth now; also known as the principal.

Fv = Optional. The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last
payment is made. If fv is omitted, it is assumed to be 0 (zero), that is, the future value of
a loan is 0.

Type = Optional. The number 0 (zero) or 1 and indicates when payments are due.

Set type equal to If payments are due


0 or omitted At the end of the period
1 At the beginning of the period
Remarks

The payment returned by PMT includes principal and interest but no taxes, reserve
payments, or fees sometimes associated with loans.

Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper.
If you make monthly payments on a four-year loan at an annual interest rate of 12
percent, use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper. If you make annual payments on the
same loan, use 12 percent for rate and 4 for nper.

Tip : To find the total amount paid over the duration of the loan, multiply the returned
PMT value by nper.
PV Function
Reporter: Reniel Soriano

Summary
The Excel PV function is a financial function that returns the present value of an
investment. You can use the PV function to get the value in today's dollars of a series of
future payments, assuming periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Purpose
Get the present value of an investment

Return value
present value

Syntax
=PV (rate, nper, pmt, [fv], [type])

Arguments
rate - The interest rate per period.
nper - The total number of payment periods.
pmt - The payment made each period.
fv - [optional] A cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. If
omitted, assumed to be zero.
type - [optional] When payments are due. 0 = end of period, 1 = beginning of
period. Default is 0.
Usage notes

The PV function returns the value in today's dollars of a series of future payments,
assuming periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

1. A stream of cash flows that includes the same amount of cash outflow (or inflow)
each period is called an annuity. For example, a car loan or a mortgage is an annuity.
When each period's interest rate is the same, an annuity can be valued using the PV
function.

2. In annuity functions, cash you pay out, such as a deposit to savings, is represented
by a negative number; cash you receive, such as a dividend check, is represented by a
positive number. For example, a $2,500 deposit to the bank would be represented by
the argument -2500 for pmt if you are the depositor, and by the argument 2500 for pmt
if you are the bank.
References

Vaidya, Dheeraj (2018). Top 15 Financial Functions in Excel. Retrieved from


https://www.wallstreetmojo.com/financial-functions-in-excel/

Use formulas with conditional formatting. Retrieved from https://support.office.com/en-


us/article/use-formulas-with-conditional-formatting-fed60dfa-1d3f-4e13-9ecb-
f1951ff89d7f

Add, change, or clear conditional formats. Retrieved from


https://support.office.com/en-us/article/add-change-or-clear-conditional-formats-
8a1cc355-b113-41b7-a483-58460332a1af?ui=en-US&rs=en-US&ad=US

IF Function. Retrieved from https://support.office.com/en-us/article/if-function-


69aed7c9-4e8a-4755-a9bc-aa8bbff73be2

VLOOKUP Function. Retrieved from https://support.office.com/en-us/article/vlookup-


function-0bbc8083-26fe-4963-8ab8-93a18ad188a1

Anneh (2018). Find Quick Answers With Excel Goal Seek. Retrieved from
https://www.timeatlas.com/excel-goal-seek/

Harvey, Greg (2013). How To Control Formula Recalculation in Excel 2013. Retrieved
from http://www.dummies.com/software/microsoft-office/excel/how-to-control-
formula-recalculation-in-excel-2013/

PMT Function. Retrieved from https://support.office.com/en-us/article/pmt-function-


0214da64-9a63-4996-bc20-214433fa6441

Excel PV Function. Retrieved from https://exceljet.net/excel-functions/excel-pv-function