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English for Specific Purpose

Direct and Inditerct Qoutations


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By :
Nur Alfadila Pane
VI-C
151244053

Universitas Muslim Nusantara Al - Washliyah


Tahun Akademik 2017/2018
1. LANGUAGES

Direct Qoutations :

1. Ronald Wardaugh (1972:3) says “ Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols


used for human communication”.

2. Asep Ahmad Hidayat (2009:23) says ” Bahasa pada dasarnya merupakan sistem
simbol yang ada di alam ini. seluruh fenomena simbolis yang ada dialam semesta
pada dasarnya adalah bahasa”. (“Language is basically a symbol system that exists in
nature. The whole symbolic phenomenon that exists in the universe is essentially a
language”).

3. Henry Guntur Taringan (1984:19) says “ Dalam bahasa manusia, hubungan antara
simbol dan ‘sesuatu’ yang dilambangkannya itu tidaklah merupakan sesuatu yang
terjadi dengan sendirinya atau sesuatu yang bersifat alamiah seperti yang terdapat
antara awan hitam dan turunnya hujan, ataupun antara tinggi panasnya badan dan
kemungkinan terjadinya infeksi”. (“In human language, the relationship between the
symbol and the "thing" it represents is not something that happens by itself or
something natural like that between black clouds and rain, or between the height of
body heat and the possibility of infection”)

Indirect Qoutations :

1. Ronald Wardaugh (1972), a western linguist in the book of ‘Introduction to


Linguistics’ said that Language is a vocal symbols used for human communication.

2. Asep Ahmad Hidayat (2009) said that Language is symbolic phenomenon that exists
in nature. (bahasa adalah fenomena simbolis yang ada di alam ini.).

3. Henry Guntur Taringan (1984) said that In human language, the relationship between
the symbol and the "thing" it represents is not something that happens by itself.
(Dalam bahasa manusia, hubungan antara simbol dan ‘sesuatu’ yang
dilambangkannya itu tidaklah merupakan sesuatu yang terjadi dengan sendirinya).
2. EDUCATION

Direct Qoutations :

1. Dr. Dimyati & Drs. Mudjiono (2010:7) says “ Pendidikan adalah proses interaksi
yang bertujuan. Interaksi terjadi antara guru dengan siswa, yang bertujuan
meningkatkan perkembangan mental sehingga menjadi mandiri dan utuh”.
(“Education is a process of purposeful interaction. Interaction occurs between
teachers and students, which aims to improve mental development so that it becomes
independent and intact”).

2. Sudirman (1987:4) says “ Pendidikan berarti usaha yang dijalankan oleh seseorang
atau sekelompok orang untuk mempengaruhi seseorang atau sekelompok orang agar
menjadi dewasa atau mencapai tingkat hidup dan penghidupan yang lebih tinggi
dalam arti mental”. (“Education means an undertaking operated by a person or group
of people to influence a person or group to become mature or to achieve a higher level
of living and livelihood in a mental sense”).

3. John Dewey (1992:1) says “ Pendidikan adalah proses pembentukan kecakapan-


kecakapan fundamental secara intelektual dan emosional ke arah alam dan sesama
manusia”. (“Education is the process of forming intellectual and emotional
fundamental skills toward nature and humanity”).

Indirect Qoutations :

1. Dr. Dimyati & Drs. Mudjiono (2010) said that Education is a process of purposeful
interaction to improve mental development. (Pendidikan adalah proses interaksi yang
bertujuan untuk meningkatkan perkembangan mental peserta didik).

2. Sudirman (1987) said that education means the efforts undertaken by educators to
learners to become mature and achieve a high level of living in the mental sense.
(pendidikan berarti usaha yang dilakukan oleh pendidik kepada peserta didik agar
menjadi dewasa dan mencapai tingkat hidup yang tinggi dalam arti mental)

3. John Dewey (1992) said that education is the process of forming intelectual and
emotional toward nature and humanity. (Pendidikan adalah proses pembentukan
intelektual dan emosional ke arah alam dan sesama manusia).
3. THE PROCESS TEACHING AND LEARNING

Direct Qoutations :

1. Thomas M. Risk (1958:7) says “ Teaching is the guidance of learning experiences”.

2. Anthony (1963:96) says “ Teknik dalam bidang pembelajaran bersifat apa yang
sesungguhnya terjadi antara guru dan murid”. (“Techniques in the field of learning is
what really happens between teachers and students”).

3. Nasution (1982:8) says “ Mengajar merupakan suatu aktifitas mengorganisasi atau


mengatur lingkungan sebaik-baiknya dan menghubungannya dengan anak, sehingga
menjadi belajar mengajar “.(“Teaching is an activity to organize or manage the
environment as well as possible and connect with children, so that it becomes learning
to teach”).

Indirect Qoutations :

1. Thomas M. Risk (1958) said that teaching is the guidance of learning experiences.

2. Anthony (1963) said that learning techniques used when a teacher can apply it
appropriately it will happen the process of learning and teaching. (teknik
pembelajaran yang digunakan apabila seorang guru dapat mengaplikasikannya
dengan tepat maka akan terjadi proses belajar dan mengajar.

3. Nasution (1982) said that teach is an activity to organize or manage the


environment as well as possible and connect with children. (Mengajar merupakan
suatu aktifitas mengorganisasi atau mengatur lingkungan sebaik-baiknya dan
menghubungannya dengan anak).
4. GRAMMAR/STRUCTURES

Direct Qoutations :

1. Barbara Dykes (2007: 5) in the book of Grammar for Everyone, says "grammar is a
language to talk about language"

2. Goeffrey Leech (1982: 3) the book of English Grammar for Today says "Grammar
refers to the mechanism according to which language works when it is used to
communicate."

3. According to Michael Swan (2005:29) in the book of Practical English Usage,


“Grammar is the rules that show how words are combined, arranged or changed to
show certain kinds of meaning."

Indirect Qoutations :

1. Barbara Dykes (2007) said that grammar is a language and always talked aboud
language too. It means that for each languages in the world always using grammar or
structure to makes learners easy to learning about language.

2. Goeffrey Leech (1982) said that grammar refers to a mechanism according to which
language will work when used to communicate with others.

3. According to Michael Swan (2005) said that grammar is a rule that shows how words
are combined, arranged or changed to be a sentence that has a certain meaning. "
5. ENGLISH for SPECIFICS PURPOSE

Direct Qoutations :

1. ESP according to Hutchinson and Waters (1987:19), “ ESP is an approach to language


teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner’s
reason for learning”.

2. Dudley-Evans (1998) says “ ESP may not always focus on the language for one
specific discipline or occupation, such as English for Law or English for Engineering”.

3. Based on Tom Hutchson and Alan Water (1987) in his book English for Specific
Purpose says “ ESP perpetrators are people who are engaged in a particular field that
uses a direct connection of the application of special English”.

Indirect Qoutations :

1. ESP according to Hutchinson and Waters (1987) said that ESP is a language teaching
approach where content and methods are based on learners' reasons for learning".

2. Dudley-Evans (1998) says that ESP may not always focus on English alone but also
has its own goals in learning English in accordance with more specific subjects or
objectives, such as English for Law or English for Engineering.

3. Based on Tom Hutchson and Alan Water (1987) in his book English for Specific
Purpose said that ESP players are people who are involved in a particular field
according to the department that uses a direct connection from a special English
application ".
6. TENSES

Direct Qoutations :

1. Mien Kasimini (2017) says “ Tenses show the time generally done that we know
include the past, present, and future”. (tenses menunjukkan waktu kejadiaan dilakukan
umumnya yang kita kenal meliputi masa lalu, masa sekarang, dan masa yang akan
datang ).

2. Siwi Kadarmo (2017 ) says “ Verbs that experience changes in shape or pronunciation
for each different time”. (kata kerja yang mengalami perubahan bentuk atau
pengucapan untuk setiap waktu yang berbeda).

3. Agus Priyanto (2017) says “ Tenses are different verb forms, used to indicate the
difference in the use of time in an action / event “. (tenses merupakan bentuk-bentuk
kata kerja yang berbeda, digunakan untuk menunjukkan perbedaan penggunaan waktu
pada suatu tindakan/kejadian).

Indirect Qoutations :

1. Mien Kasimini (2017) sais that tenses show the time generally done that we know
include the past, present, and future. (tenses menunjukkan waktu kejadiaan dilakukan
umumnya yang kita kenal meliputi masa lalu, masa sekarang, dan masa yang akan
datang ).

2. Siwi Kadarmo (2017 ) said that verbs that experience changes in shape or
pronunciation for each different time. (kata kerja yang mengalami perubahan bentuk
atau pengucapan untuk setiap waktu yang berbeda).

3. Agus Priyanto (2017) said that tenses are different verb forms, used to indicate the
difference in the use of time in an action / event. (tenses merupakan bentuk-bentuk
kata kerja yang berbeda, digunakan untuk menunjukkan perbedaan penggunaan waktu
pada suatu tindakan/kejadian).
REFERENCES

1. Wardhaugh, Ronald. 1972. Introduction to Linguistics. New York : Mc Graw-Hill,


Inc.
2. Hidayat, Asep Ahmad. 2009. Filsafat Bahasa. Bandung : Rosda Karya.
3. Taringan, Henry Guntur. 1984. Psiko Linguistik. Bandung : Angkasa.
4. Dimyati. 2010. Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta.
5. Syafril. 2017. Dasar-Dasar Ilmu Kependidikan. Depok : Kencana.
6. Ramayulis. 2015. Dasar-Dasar Kependidikan (Suatu Pengantar Ilmu Pendidikan).
Jakarta : Radar Jaya Offset Jakarta.
7. Rohani, Ahmad. 2010. Pengelolaan Pembelajaran. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta
8. Arsyad, Azhar. 2008. Media Pembelajaran. Jakarta : Rajawali Pers.
9. Suryosubroto B. 2009. Proses Belajar Mengajar di Sekolah. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta.
10. Dykes, Barbara. 2007. Grammar for Everyone. New York : ACER Press
11. Leech, Geoffrey. 2005. English Grammar For Today, England : Palgrave, Inc.
12. Hutchson,Tom and Alan Water. 1987. English for Specific Purpose. Inggris :
Cambridge University Press.
13. Swan, Michael. 1980. Practical English Usage. Inggris : Cambridge University Press.
14. Evans-Dudley. 1998. Developments in English for Specific Purpose. Inggris :
Cambridge University Press.
15. Hutchson,Tom and Alan Water. 1987. English for Specific Purpose. Inggris :
Cambridge University Press.
16. Kasimini, Mien. 2017. Modul English Grammar. Jakarta : Cmedia Inprint Kawan
Pustaka.
17. Kadarmo, Siwi. 2017. Pocket Book Grammar. Jakarta : Cmedia Inprint Kawan
Pustaka.
18. Prianto, Agus. 2017. Smart Book of Grammar. Jakarat : Cmedia Inprint Kawan
Pustaka.