You are on page 1of 16

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)

The Story of Bathala

(Luzon Creation Myth)

In the beginning of time,/ there were three powerful gods who lived in the universe:/
Bathala was the caretaker of the earth;/ Ulilang Kaluluwa (Orphaned Spirit),/ a huge serpent
who lived in the clouds; /and Galang (Wandering spirit), /the winged god who loves to travel./
These three gods did not know each other./ Bathala often dreamt of creating mortals/ but the
empty earth stops him from doing so./ UlilangKaluluwa /who was equally lonely as Bathala,/
liked to visit places and the earth was his favorite./ One day, the two gods met./ Ulilang
Kaluluwa, seeing another god rivaling him,/ was not pleased.
He challenged Bathala/ to a fight to decide/ who would be the ruler of the universe./
After three days and three nights,/ Ulilang Kaluluwa was slain by Bathala./ Instead of giving
him a proper burial,/ Bathala burned the snake's remains./ A few years later,/ the third god,/
Galang Kaluluwa,/ wandered into Bathala's home./ He welcomed the winged god/ with much
kindness/ and even invited him to live in his kingdom./ They became true friends/ and were
very happy for many years/. Galang Kaluluwa became very ill/.
Before he died./ he instructed Bathala/ to bury him on the spot where Ulilang
Kaluluwa’s body was burned./ Bathala did exactly as he was told./ Out of the grave of the two
dead gods,/ it grew a tall tree with a big round nut,/ which is the coconut tree./ Bathala took
the nut and husked it./ He noticed that the inner skin was hard./ The nut itself/ reminded him
of Galang Kaluluwa’s head/. It had two eyes,/ a flat nose,/ and a round mouth./ Its leaves
looked so much like the wings of his dear winged friend./ But the trunk was hard and ugly,/
like the body of his enemy,/ the snake Ulilang Kaluluwa./ Bathala realized/ that he was ready
to create the creatures/ he wanted with him on earth/. He created the vegetation,/ animals,/
and the first man/ and woman./

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 1

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
Conversation of the gods

Situation no. 1

One day, the two gods met./ Ulilang Kaluluwa, seeing another god rivaling him,/ was not
pleased. He challenged Bathala/ to a fight to decide/who would be the ruler of the universe./
After three days and three nights,/

Ulilang Kaluluwa: Are you the most powerful god in the universe?

Bathala: If I am? What can you do?

Ulilang Kaluluwa: I will not allow you to be the most powerful god in the universe. Whoever
you are, I challenged you to a fight to decide who would be the ruler of the Universe.

Bathala: If then, I accept your challenge.

Situation no. 2

After three days and three nights, Ulilang Kaluluwa was slain by Bathala. Instead of giving him
a proper burial, Bathala burned the snake's remains.

Situation no. 3

A few years later, the third god, Galang Kaluluwa, wandered into Bathala's home./ He
welcomed the winged god/ with much kindness/ and even invited him to live in his kingdom./
They became true friends/ and were very happy for many years/.

Galang kaluluwa: I was lost. And I couldn’t find the way back home.

Bathala: I can help you. And you are highly welcomed to live in my kingdom.

Galang kaluluwa: I am very pleased that you welcomed me.

Situation no. 4

Galang Kaluluwa became very ill. Before he died. he instructed Bathala/ to bury him on the
spot where Ulilang Kaluluwa’s body was burned. Bathala did exactly as he was told. Out of the
grave of the two dead gods, it grew a tall tree with a big round nut, which is the coconut tree.

Galang Kaluluwa: My friend, before I’ll die, I need you to bury me on the spot where Ulilang
Kaluluwa’s body was burned.

Bathala: Yes my friend, I will.

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 2
Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
Galang Kaluluwa: Thank you for welcoming me. For being kind and a true friend.

Bathala: I am very glad that I have a friend like you.

Situation no. 5

Bathala took the nut and husked it. He noticed that the inner skin was hard. The nut itself
reminded him of Galang Kaluluwa’s head. It had two eyes, a flat nose, and a round mouth. Its
leaves looked so much like the wings of his dear winged friend. But the trunk was hard and
ugly, like the body of his enemy, the snake Ulilang Kaluluwa. Bathala realized that he was
ready to create the creatures he wanted with him on earth. He created the vegetation,
animals, and the first man and woman.

Bathala: Why is this so hard? Oh, it reminds me of my friend Galang kaluluwa. There are two
eyes, a flat nose, and even a round mouth. The leaves are like the wings of my dear winged
friend. But why is the trunk so hard and ugly? It’s like the body of my enemy, the snake,
Ulilang kaluluwa.

(Stand in front) From now on, I am ready to create creatures and I want them to be with me.
Let the vegetation, animals, first man and woman, reproduce.

And now, I am contented.

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 3

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
Nick Joaquin

The ball had ended, the girls were sent upstairs to sleep, while the guest from Europe who were feeling bad for they
want to party some more went out to finish their drink and have some more fun in that tropical country. At the girls
room Anastasia was telling the girls that witches were abroad for it was a night of divination, night of lovers, and those
who cared might peer in a mirror and would there behold the face of whoever it was they were fated to marry. One girl
told Anastasia to stop and get out of the room and told her that she is a witch, but another girl said that Anastasia is a
maga and was born on Christmas Eve. One girl is very eager and much interested on Anastasia’s story and want
Anastasia to tell her everything, so Anastasia for tell to the girls what to do. That she must go to a mirror close her eyes
and say, “mirror mirror show to me him whose woman I will be”, then Anastasia continued that if all goes right then her
lover will appear above her left shoulder and if it does not go right she will see the devil.

Agueda walked to the hall down to the sala bravely. The girls have not able to stop her and in their facing the mirror, she
whispered the incantation. Agueda felt different and after a while, she has a company.

Then she heard her little child talk that she almost forgets was in her lap. The child asks if what did she saw, if she saw
the devil. Then she told her child that yes she saw the devil, it was smiling at her. The devil has a scar in its face like what
his father has but the difference is that of the devil is a mark of sin while that of his father is a sign of honor. Agueda
continued that the devil has mustache too but unlike to that of his husband that smells of tobacco and is gray, that of
the devil is so black and elegant. Agueda told her child that if she does not want to see a devil, she must stop her habbit
of always looking at the mirror.

“Charms Like Yours have no need for a candle, faire one” Badoy Monitiya told Agueda then mockingly told her how vain
she is that even in the middle of the night she is looking at her face. Agueda got mad and was about to walk away, but
Badoy stop her and told her that she cannot go upstairs until she will dance with him. For during the ball Agueda has not
dance the polka with him. Forcefully Agueda refuses and then the two got into a talk fight. After a while Agueda
piteously cried and Badoy felt sorry for it and ask forgiveness. He told Agueda that he would let her go upstairs if she will
forgive him, but instead of forgiving Badoy, she bit his knucklesand fled upstairs.

Filled with pain, Badoy did not know what to do, If he will call his mother to let know what happened or he himself will
go upstairs to the girls room and drag Agueda out of the house. Then it came to him how Agueda looks, those curves
and that pretty face. Feeling the pain consciousness came that he must take revenge. Later he realize, he want to see,
touch and hear her harsh voice. Then it came to his mind that he is madly deeply in love with her, yet he must let her

One May Night Don Badoy Monitiya walks home not even caring to remember what happened years ago. He walks to
the hall and as he glanced at the mirror, he suddenly felt something. A familiar sense, then he called the ghostly figure in
front the mirror then saw that it was his grandson. Voltaire told his grandpa what the boys in school told him of how he
could see his future wife. Don Badoy led his grandson into a seat, and then they talked. He told him about the witch he
saw when he was about his age and was so vain that he wants to see himself dieing because of drunkenness. Voltaire
ask how awful the witch look like, then he told his grandson that the witch he saw was a hell so very beautiful lad and
how that witch ate his heart and drank his blood. Voltaire told his grandpa what his mother told him, about the story of
his grandma who as well is eager to see her lover but then saw the devil. At the very moment Don Badoy realized, that
was so long ago. Now she was dead, perished, that she were at last at peace and that her body was free from the brutal
pranks of the earth from the trap of a May Night, from a snare of summer. Don Badoy went up to the window and with
tears, reminisce that old love.

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 4

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
“May Day Eve”
By: Nick Joaquin
I. Title :
II. Author :
Nick Joaquin
III. Setting :
“In a room with a mirror during May Day Eve”
IV. Character/s :
Anastasia- Old woman, who is so obedient to her mistress, accused for being a witch and
believes in superstitious beliefs.
Agueda- Pretty, young woman who is so curious, hardheaded, brave and very much willing to
know her future husband.
Dona Agueda- Old lady who has gray hair, full of sentiments, emotional , and Resentful
Dona Agueda’s Daughter- A vain curious girl, who is persistent to know about the past of her
Don Badoy Montiya- A great lover, emotional and full of sentiment old man, who repents for
what he has done to Agueda.
Voltaire- Believe in superstitious belief and was like his grandmother who at an early age want
to know who will he marry.
V. Conflict
“Man vs. Supernatural”
VI. Summary
The story started with a flashback. Dona Agueda was facing the mirror on Monday eve
because her sister told her to do so. Dona Agueda really believed in her sister. That's when she
faced the mirror, her future lover would appear in the mirror. As soon as Don Badoy appeared
in the mirror, they decide to marry each other because they believed in Anastasia. When they
got their married life began to be miserable. Because of the fact that they don't love each
other and nothing special happened to them.

VII. Theme “Magical Relism”- Is a genre of fiction that occurs when elements of the magical
world start to blend or mix with the real world. “The theme centers on intense remorse
caused by wrong decisions. Like believing in superstitions.”

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 5

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
There are several different research approaches, or research designs, that qualitative researchers
use.[27][28] In the academic social sciences, the most frequently used qualitative research approaches
include the following points:

1. Basic/generic/pragmatic qualitative research, which involves using an eclectic approach taken up

to best match the research question at hand. This is often called the mixed-method approach.
2. Ethnographic Research. An example of applied ethnographic research is the study of a particular
culture and their understanding of the role of a particular disease in their cultural framework.
3. Grounded Theory is an inductive type of research, based or "grounded" in the observations or data
from which it was developed; it uses a variety of data sources, including quantitative data, review
of records, interviews, observation and surveys.[29]
4. Phenomenology describes the "subjective reality" of an event, as perceived by the study
population; it is the study of a phenomenon.[30]
5. Philosophical Research is conducted by field experts within the boundaries of a specific field of
study or profession, the best qualified individual in any field of study to use an intellectual
analysis, in order to clarify definitions, identify ethics, or make a value judgment concerning an
issue in their field of study their lives.
6. Critical Social Research, used by a researcher to understand how people communicate and
develop symbolic meanings.
7. Ethical Inquiry, an intellectual analysis of ethical problems. It includes the study of ethics as
related to obligation, rights, duty, right and wrong, choice etc.
8. Social Science and Governmental Research to understand social services, government operations,
and recommendations (or not) regarding future developments and programs, including whether
or not government should be involved.
9. Activist Research which aims to raise the views of the underprivileged or "underdogs" to
prominence to the elite or master classes, the latter who often control the public view or positions.
10. Foundational Research, examines the foundations for a science, analyzes the beliefs, and develops
ways to specify how a knowledge base should change in light of new information.
11. Historical Research allows one to discuss past and present events in the context of the present
condition, and allows one to reflect and provide possible answers to current issues and problems.
Historical research helps us in answering questions such as: Where have we come from, where are
we, who are we now and where are we going?
12. Visual Ethnography. It uses visual methods of data collection, including photo, voice, photo
elicitation, collaging, drawing, and mapping. These techniques have been used extensively as a
participatory qualitative technique and to make the familiar strange.[31][32]
13. Autoethnography, the study of self, is a method of qualitative research in which the researcher
uses their personal experience to address an issue.

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 6

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
2. 2. WHAT IS PRAGMATIC APPROACH? • The pragmatic approach involves using the method which
appears best suited to the research problem. • Pragmatic researchers therefore give themselves the
freedom to use any of the methods, techniques and procedures associated with quantitative or qualitative
research. They recognize that every method has its limitations and that the different approaches can be
3. 3. MIXED METHODS DEFINITION • Mixed methods research is a methodology for conducting research that
involves collecting, analyzing and integrating quantitative (e.g., experiments, surveys) and qualitative (e.g.,
focus groups, interviews) research. This approach to research is used when this combination provides a
better understanding of the research problem than either of each alone.
4. 4. A MIXED METHODS RESEARCHER… • Collects both quantitative and qualitative data • Mixes them at
the same time or one after the other. • Emphasizes on both equally or unequally
quantitative and qualitative research • To use qualitative research to help explain quantitative findings • To
explore using qualitative research and then to generalize findings to a large population using quantitative
6. 6. WHAT IS THE REASON FOR USING MIXED METHODS? • The insufficient argument – either
quantitative or qualitative • Multiple angles argument – quantitative and qualitative approaches provide
different “pictures” • The more-evidence-the-better argument – combined quantitative and qualitative
provides more evidence • Community of practice argument – mixed methods may be the preferred approach
within a scholarly community • Eager-to-learn argument – it is the latest methodology
& Expensive. • Difficult finding a researcher with experience in both qualitative and quantitative research. •
Researcher has to learn multiple methods and be able to know how to mix each method effectively. • The
research design can be very complex. • Takes more resources to plan and implement this type of research. •
It may be difficult to plan and implement one method by drawing on the findings of another. • It may be
unclear how to resolve conflicts that arise in the interpretation of the findings.
8. 8. ADVANTAGES OF MIXED METHOD RESEARCH • Provides strengths that compensate the weaknesses
of both quantitative and qualitative research. For instance, quantitative research is weak in understanding
the context or setting in which people behave, something that qualitative research makes up for. • Also,
qualitative research is seen as deficient because of the potential for biased interpretations made by the
researcher and the difficulty in generalizing findings to a large group. Quantitative research does not have
these weaknesses. Thus, by using both types of research, the strengths of each approach can make up for
the weaknesses of the other. • Provides a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the research
problem than either quantitative or qualitative approaches alone.
9. 9. TRIANGULATION • One of the most advantageous characteristics of conducting mixed methods research
is the possibility of triangulation. Triangulation is the use of several means (methods, data sources and
researchers) to collect data on the same topic. This is a way of assuring the validity of research through the
use of a variety of methods which involves different types of samples as well as methods of data collection. •
Triangulation allows one to identify aspects of a phenomenon more accurately by approaching it from
different points using different methods and techniques. Successful triangulation requires careful analysis of
the type of information provided by each method, including its strengths and weaknesses. • It is used to
double (or triple) checking results. The idea is that one can be more confident with a result if different
methods lead to the same result.
10. 10. THE PURPOSE OF TRIANGULATION • The purpose of triangulation is to increase the validity of the
results. • Cohen and Manion (2000) define triangulation as an "attempt to map out, or explain more fully, the
richness and complexity of Human Behavior by studying it from more than one standpoint." • Altrichter et al.
(2008) state that triangulation "gives a more detailed and balanced picture of the situation." • According to
O’Donoghue and Punch (2003), triangulation is a “method of cross-checking data from multiple sources to
search for regularities in the research data." • According to Erina Audrey (2013) “Triangulation also
crosschecks information to produce accurate results for certainty in data collection.”
11. 11. ADVANTAGES OF TRIANGULATION • the use of a variety of data sources (data triangulation) • the use
of several different researchers (investigator triangulation) • the use of multiple perspectives to interpret the
results (theory triangulation) • the use of multiple methods to study a research problem (methodological
12. 12. CONCLUSION • Mixed methods researchers need to be versatile and innovative with a lot of research
skills that exceed those needed for single mode research. They need to explicitly state their stance before
defending their methodological choices and demonstrate a good knowledge base of mixed methods
Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 7
Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
research designs and methodological considerations. • They need to demonstrate proficiency and
competence in both the quantitative and qualitative methods chosen as well as proficiency and competency
in applying the rules of integration to methods and data analysis.
research/Types-of-research/The-four-main-approaches • -approach-in-mixed-
methodology.html • research/ • search.html • •
mixed-method- design/ • •
antages_of_mix_method_research •


15. 2. A. Meaning of Ethnographic Research<br />B. Methodology of Ethnographic Research<br />C. Types of
Ethnographic Designs<br />D. Key Characteristics of an Ethnographic Design<br />
16. 3. MEANING OF ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH<br /> Ethnography is the in-depth study of naturally
occurring <br />behavior within a culture or social group. It seeks to understand<br />the relationship
between culture and behavior; with culture <br />referring to the beliefs, values, and attitudes of a specific
group <br />of people.<br /> The ethnographic research method was developed by <br />anthropologists as
a way of studying and describing human <br />cultures. Anthropologists immerse themselves in the lives of
the <br />people they study, using primarily extended observation and <br />occasionally in-depth
interviewing to gain clarification and more <br />detailed information.<br />
17. 4. The ethnographer undertakes the study without any priori <br />hypotheses to avoid predetermining what
is observed or what<br />information is elicited from informants. The ethnographer <br />explores and tests
hypotheses, but the hypotheses evolve out<br />of the fieldwork itself. Ethnographer refer to the people from
<br />whom they gather information as informants rather than <br />participants, and they study sites rather
than individuals. The<br />term ethnography is used to refer to both the work of <br />studying a culture and
also the end product of the research.<br />
18. 5. Spindler and Hammond (2000) describe some of the <br />characteristics of good ethnography: (1)
extended participant<br />observation; (2) long time at the site; (3) collection of large<br />volumes of
materials such as notes, artifacts, audio, and <br />videotapes; and (4) openness, which means having no
specific<br />hypotheses or even highly specific categories of observation at<br />the start of the study<br
19. 6. As in any studies, a variety of data collection techniques may<br />be used as part of the ethnographic
study. Common means of <br />collecting data include interviewing, document analysis, <br />participant
observations, research diaries, and life stories. It is <br />not the data collection techniques that determine
whether the <br />study is ethnography but rather the “socio-cultural interpretation<br />that sets apart from
other forms of qualitative inquiry. Ethnography <br />is not defined by how data are collected, but by the lens
through <br />which the data are interpreted (Merriam & Associated, 2002)<br />
20. 7. Ethnographic Designs are qualitative research procedures <br />for describing, analyzing, and
interpreting a culture-sharing <br />group’s shared patterns of behavior, beliefs, and language <br />that
develop over time. To understand the patterns of a <br />culture-sharing group, the ethnographer typically
spends<br />considerable time in the field interviewing, observing, and <br />gathering documents about the
group in order to<br />understand their culture-sharing behaviors, beliefs, and<br />language.<br />
21. 8. Spradley (1980) identified the sequence of steps making up<br />the methodology of ethnographic
research:<br />Selecting an Ethnographic Project. The scope of these <br /> projects can vary greatly, from
studying a whole complex<br /> society to a single social situation or institution. The <br /> beginner would
be wise to restrict the scope of his or her<br /> project to a single social situation so that it can be <br />
completed in a reasonable time. A social situation always<br /> has three components: a place, actors, and
activities. <br />
22. 9. 2.Asking Ethnographic Questions. The researcher needs<br /> to have questions in mind that will guide
what he or she<br /> sees and hears and the collection of data.<br />Collecting Ethnographic Data. The
researcher does <br /> fieldwork to find out the activities of the people, the <br /> physical characteristics of
the situation, and what it<br /> feels like to be part of the situation. This step generally<br /> begins with an
overview comprising broad descriptive<br /> observations. Then, after looking at the data, you move on<br

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 8

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
/> to more focused observations. Here you use participant<br /> observation, in-depth interviews, and so on
to gather data.<br />
23. 10. Making an Ethnographic Record. This step includes<br />taking field notes and photographs, making
maps, and using any other appropriate means to record the observations.<br />Analyzing Ethnographic
Data. The fieldwork is always<br /> followed by data analysis, which leads to new questions and new
hypotheses, more data collection, and field notes, and more analysis. The cycle continues until the project is
completed.<br />6.Writing the Ethnography. The ethnography should be <br /> written so that the culture or
group is brought to life, <br /> making readers feel they understand the people and their <br /> way of life.
The ethnographic report can range in length from several<br /> pages to a volume or two. You can greatly
simplify this task by<br /> beginning the writing early as data accumulate instead waiting until<br /> the end.
The writing task will also be easier if, before writing, you<br /> read other well-written ethnographies.<br />
24. 11. TYPES OF ETHNOGRAPHIC DESIGNS<br />Realist Ethnographies<br /> Realist ethnography is a
popular approach used by<br />cultural anthropologists. It is an objective account <br />of the situation,
typically written in the third person<br />point of view, reporting objectively on the <br />information learned
from participants at a field site.<br />
25. 12. <ul><li> The realist ethnographer narrates the study in a third-person</li></ul> dispassionate voice and
reports on observations of participants and their views. The ethnographer does not offer <br /> personal
reflections in the research report and remains in the background as an omniscient reporter of the facts.<br
/><ul><li>The researcher reports objective data in a measured style uncontained by personal bias, political
goals, and judgment. The researcher may provide mundane details of everyday life among the people
studied. The ethnographer also uses standard categories for cultural description (family, work life, social
networks, and status systems).
26. 13. The ethnographer produces the participants’ view through closely edited quotations and has the final
word on the interpretation and presentation of the culture. (Van Maanen, 1988)</li></li></ul><li>Case
Studies<br /> A case study is an important type of ethnography, <br />although it differs from ethnography in
several<br /> important ways. Case study researchers may focus on a<br />program, event, or activity
involving individuals rather <br />than a group per se (Stake, 1995). The ethnographer <br />searches for
the shared patterns that develop as a group<br />examine at the beginning of a study, especially one
from<br />anthropology; instead they focus on an in-depth <br />exploration of a bounded system (activity,
event, process,<br />or individuals) based on extensive data collection (Creswell, 1998)<br />
27. 14. Critical Ethnographies<br /> Ethnography now incorporates a “ critical approach” <br />(Carspecken,
1995; Carspecken & Apple, 1992; Thomas, 1993)<br />to include an advocacy perspective to ethnography.
Critical <br />ethnographies are a type of ethnographic research in which <br />the author is interested in
advocating for the emancipation<br />of groups marginalized in our society (Thomas, 1993). <br />Critical
researchers are typically politically minded <br />individuals who seek , through research, to advocate
against<br />inequality and domination (Carspecken & Apple, 1992).<br />
28. 15. The major components of a critical ethnography are the ff:<br /><ul><li>Critical researchers are usually
politically minded people.
29. 16. Critical ethnographers speak to an audience on behalf of their participants as a means of empowering
participants by giving them more authority.
30. 17. Critical ethnographers seek to change the society.
31. 18. Critical ethnographers identify and celebrate their biases in research. The y recognize that all research is
value laden.
32. 19. Critical ethnographers challenge the status quo and ask why it is so.
33. 20. Critical researchers seek to connect the meaning of a situation to broader structures of social power and
34. 21. Critical researchers seek to create a literal dialogue with the participants they are
studying.</li></li></ul><li>KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ETHNOGRAPHIC DESIGN<br />With the
diverse approaches to ethnography identified in the <br />realist, case study, and critical approaches, it is
not easy to <br />identify characteristics they have in common. However, for <br />those learning about
ethnographers, the ff. characteristics <br />typically mark an ethnographic study: <br /><ul><li>Cultural
35. 22. A Culture-Sharing Group
36. 23. Shared patterns of behavior, belief , and language
37. 24. Fieldwork
38. 25. Description, themes, and interpretation
39. 26. Context or Setting

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 9

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
40. 27. Researcher Reflexivity</li></li></ul><li>Cultural Themes<br /> Ethnographers typically study cultural
themes drawn from<br />cultural anthropology. Ethnographers do not venture into <br />the field looking
haphazardly for anything they might see.<br />Instead, they are interested in adding to the knowledge about
<br />culture and studying specific cultural themes. A cultural <br />theme in ethnography is a general
position, declared or<br />implied, that is openly approved or promoted in a society<br />or group. As with
all qualitative studies, these does not <br />serve to narrow the study, instead, it becomes a broad lens<br
/>that researchers use when they initially enter a field to study<br />a group, and they look for
manifestations of it.<br />
41. 28. A Culture-Sharing Group <br /> In the study of a group, ethnographers identify a single site<br
/>(elementary classroom), locate a group within it (reading <br />group), and gather data about the group
(observe a reading<br />period). This distinguishes ethnography from other forms of<br />qualitative
research that focus on individuals rather than<br />groups of people. A culture-sharing group in ethnography
is<br />two or more individuals who have shared behaviors, beliefs, <br />and language. <br />
42. 29. Shared Patterns of Behavior, Belief, and Language<br /> Ethnographic researchers look for shared
patterns of <br />Behavior, beliefs, and language that the culture-sharing <br />group adopts over time. This
characteristic has several <br />Elements to it. First, the culture-sharing group needs to have<br />Adopted
shared patterns that the ethnographer can discern.<br />A shared pattern in ethnography is a common
social <br />Interaction that stabilizes as tacit rules and expectations of <br />The group (Spindler &
Spindler, 1992). Second, the group <br />Shares any one or a combination of behaviors, beliefs, and<br
/>Language.<br /><ul><li>A behavior in ethnography is an action taken by an individual in a cultural setting.
43. 30. A belief in ethnography is how an individual thinks about or perceives things in a cultural setting.
44. 31. Language in ethnography is how an individual talks to others in a cultural setting.
</li></li></ul><li>Fieldwork<br /> Ethnographers collect data through spending time at <br />participants’
sites where they live, work, or play. To <br />understand best patterns of a cultural group, an <br
/>ethnographer spends considerable time with the group. The <br />patterns cannot be easily discerned
through questionnaires<br />or brief encounters. Instead, the ethnographer goes to the <br />“field,” lives
with or frequently visits the people being studied<br />and slowly learns the cultural ways in which the group
<br />behaves or thinks.<br />
45. 32. Fieldwork in ethnography means that the researcher <br />gathers data in the setting where the
participants are located<br />and where their shared patterns can be studied. This data <br />collection
involves the following:<br /><ul><li>Emic Data is information supplied by participants in a study. Emic often
refers to first-order concepts, such as local language, concepts, and ways of expression used by members
in a cultural-sharing group (Schwandt, 2001)
46. 33. Etic Datais information representing the ethnographers' interpretation of the participants’ perspectives.
Etic typically refers to second-order concepts, such as the language used by the social scientist or educator,
to refer to the same phenomena mentioned by the participants (Schwandt, 2001)_
47. 34. Negotiation Dataconsists of information that the participant and the researcher agree to use in a study.
Negotiation occurs at different stages in research, such as agreeing to entry procedures for a research site,
mutually respecting individuals at the site, and developing a plan for giving back or reciprocating with the
individuals.</li></li></ul><li>Description, Themes, and Interpretation<br /> A description in ethnography is a
detailed rendering of <br />individuals and scenes in order to depict what is going on<br />in the culture-
sharing group. To do this, the researcher must <br />single out some detail to include while excluding
others.<br /> Theme Analysis moves away from reporting the facts to <br />making an interpretation of
people and activities. As part of <br />making sense of the information, thematic data analysis in <br
/>ethnography consists of distilling how things work and <br />naming the essential features in themes in the
cultural setting.<br /> After description and analysis comes interpretation. In <br />interpretation, the
ethnographer draws inferences and forms conclusions <br />about what was learned. This phase of analysis
is the most subjective.<br />
48. 35. Context or Setting<br /> Ethnographer present the description, themes, and<br />Interpretation within
the context or setting of the culture-<br />Sharing group. The context for ethnography is the setting,<br
/>Situation, or environment that surrounds the cultural group<br />Being studied. It is multilayered and
interrelated, consisting <br />Of such factors as history, religion, politics, economy, and the <br
/>Environment (Fetterman, 1998)<br />
49. 36. Researcher Reflexivity<br /> Ethnographic researchers make interpretations and write <br />their report
reflexively. Reflexivity in ethnography refers to <br />the researcher being aware of and openly discussing
his or<br />her role in the study in a way that honors and respects the <br />site and participants.<br />

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 10

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)


1. Human understanding and interpretation: Data analysis shows an individual’s mental, social,
and spiritual understanding of the world. Hence, through their worldviews, you come to know what
kind of human being he or she is, including his or her values, beliefs, likes, and dislikes.

2. Active, powerful, and forceful: A lot of changes occur continuously in every stage of a qualitative
research. As you go through the research process, you find the need to amend or rephrase interview
questions and consider varied ways of getting answers, like shifting from mere speculating to
traveling to places for data gathering.

3. Multiple research approaches and methods: Qualitative research allows you to approach or
plan your study in varied ways. You are free to combine this with qualitative research and use all
gathered data and analysis techniques.

4. Specificity to generalization: Specific ideas in a qualitative research are directed to a general

understanding of something. It follows an inductive or specific method of thinking, where you start
thinking of particular or specific concept that will eventually lead you to more complex ideas such as
generalization conclusion.

5. Contextualization: A qualitative research involves all variables, factors, or conditions affecting the
study. Your goal here is to understand human behavior.

6. Diversified data in real-life situation: A qualitative researcher prefers collecting data in a natural
setting like observing people as they live and work, analyzing photographs or videos as they
genuinely appear tom people, and looking at classrooms unchanged or adjusted to people’s
intentional observations.

7. Abounds with words and visual: Words, words, and more words come in big quantity in this kind
of research. Data gathering through interviews or library reading, as well as the presentation of data
analysis results, is done verbally. In some cases, it resorts to quoting some respondent’s answer.

8. Internal analysis: Here, you examine the data yielded by the internal traits of the subject
individuals (i. e., emotional, mental, spiritual characteristics). You study people’s perception or views
about your topic not the effects of their physical existence on your study.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Qualitative Research


1. It adopts a naturalistic approach.

2. It promotes a full understanding.
3. Good instrument for positive societal changes.
4. It is endangers respect for people's individuality as it demands the researcher’s careful and
attentive stand toward peoples world view.
5. It is the way of understanding and interpreting social life

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 11

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
6. It increases researcher’s interest.
7. It offers multiple ways of acquiring and examining knowledge about something.


1. It involves researcher’s subjectivity in data analysis.

2. Hard to know the validity of reliability of the data.
3. It is open-ended questions yield data overload that requires long time analysis.
4. Time consuming.
5. Involves several process, which may result greatly depend on thhe researcher’s view or

Difference between Quantitative and Quantitative


1. Hypothesis testing
2. Variables
3. Measuring the instrument before the actual project starts
4. Numeric data, precise, exact measurements
5. Standardized procedure, repetition
6. Analysis: statistical methods, charts and tables
7. Results: chart, tables and facts
8. Validity: statistical test


1. Discovery and understanding of events

2. Theme, motives, and categories
3. Measuring instruments develop during the project, considering setting and researchers
4. Textual data, observation, documents, descriptive.
5. Individualized procedures, repetition are difficult and different.
6. Analysis: seeking patterns, generalization from available data.
7. Results: stories, narrative, description
8. Validity: triangulation, peer review

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 12

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
Key elements that define a qualitative research study
I. The Design

 Naturalistic -- refers to studying real-world situations as they unfold naturally; nonmanipulative

and noncontrolling; the researcher is open to whatever emerges [i.e., there is a lack of
predetermined constraints on findings].
 Emergent -- acceptance of adapting inquiry as understanding deepens and/or situations
change; the researcher avoids rigid designs that eliminate responding to opportunities to
pursue new paths of discovery as they emerge.
 Purposeful -- cases for study [e.g., people, organizations, communities, cultures, events,
critical incidences] are selected because they are “information rich” and illuminative.

II. The Collection of Data

 Data -- observations yield a detailed, "thick description" [in-depth understanding]; interviews

capture direct quotations about people’s personal perspectives and lived experiences; often
derived from carefully conducted case studies and review of material culture.
 Personal experience and engagement -- researcher has direct contact with and gets close to
the people, situation, and phenomenon under investigation; the researcher’s personal
experiences and insights are an important part of the inquiry and critical to understanding the
 Empathic neutrality -- an empathic stance in working with study respondents seeks vicarious
understanding without judgment [neutrality] by showing openness, sensitivity, respect,
awareness, and responsiveness; in observation, it means being fully present [mindfulness].
 Dynamic systems -- there is attention to process; assumes change is ongoing, whether the
focus is on an individual, an organization, a community, or an entire culture, therefore, the
researcher is mindful of and attentive to system and situational dynamics.

III. The Analysis

 Unique case orientation -- assumes that each case is special and unique; the first level of
analysis is being true to, respecting, and capturing the details of the individual cases being
studied; cross-case analysis follows from and depends upon the quality of individual case
 Inductive analysis -- immersion in the details and specifics of the data to discover important
patterns, themes, and inter-relationships; begins by exploring, then confirming findings, guided
by analytical principles rather than rules.
 Holistic perspective -- the whole phenomenon under study is understood as a complex
system that is more than the sum of its parts; the focus is on complex interdependencies and
system dynamics that cannot be reduced in any meaningful way to linear, cause and effect
relationships and/or a few discrete variables.
 Context sensitive -- places findings in a social, historical, and temporal context; researcher is
careful about [even dubious of] the possibility or meaningfulness of generalizations across time
and space; emphasizes careful comparative case analyses and extrapolating patterns for
possible transferability and adaptation in new settings.
 Voice, perspective, and reflexivity -- the qualitative methodologist owns and is reflective
about her or his own voice and perspective; a credible voice conveys authenticity and
trustworthiness; complete objectivity being impossible and pure subjectivity undermining

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 13

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)


Qualitative researchers use their own eyes, ears, and intelligence to collect in-depth perceptions and
descriptions of targeted populations, places, and events. Their findings are collected through a variety
of methods, and often, a researcher will use at least two or several of the following while conducting a
qualitative study.

 Direct observation: With direct observation, a researcher studies people as they go about their
daily lives without participating or interfering.

 Open-ended surveys: While many surveys are designed to generate quantitative data, many
are also designed with open-ended questions that allow for the generation and analysis of
qualitative data.
 Focus group: In a focus group, a researcher engages a small group of participants in a
conversation designed to generate data relevant to the research question.

 In-depth interviews: Researchers conduct in-depth interviews by speaking with participants in a

one-on-one setting. Sometimes a researcher approaches the interview with a predetermined
list of questions or topics for discussion but allows the conversation to evolve based on how
the participant responds.
 Oral history: The oral history method is used to create a historical account of an event, group,
or community, and typically involves a series of in-depth interviews conducted with one or
multiple participants over an extended period of time.
 Participant observation: This method is similar to observation, however with this one, the
researcher also participates in the action or events in order to not only observe others but to
gain first-hand experience in the setting.
 Ethnographic observation: Ethnographic observation is the most intensive and in-depth
observational method. Originating in anthropology, with this method, a researcher fully
immerses herself into the research setting and lives among the participants as one of them for
anywhere from months to years.
 Content analysis: This method is used by sociologists to analyze social life by interpreting
words and images from documents, film, art, music, and other cultural products and media.

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 14

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)
there are distinct but related aspects of inquiry on which credibility depends and any credible qualitative study
needs to address all of the following in order to ensure credibility and rigor of findings:

 Context: Keeping things in context is a cardinal principle of qualitative analysis because methods,
results and conclusions of qualitative analysis are context-dependent. Therefore, they must be carefully
reported in reference to certain situations, certain people and certain time periods, as well as the
purpose for which the data are applicable.
 Credibility: In order to establish researcher credibility, it is essential that a qualitative report include
information about the researcher that could have affected data collection, analysis, interpretation and
conclusions. Such information includes the personal connections that the researcher has with the
participants, the topic and the situation or context. The job of the researcher is to maintain intellectual
rigor as she does her best to make sense of all the information collected. The researcher engages in
immersion as she returns to the data again and again to see if categories, themes, constructs,
explanations, interpretations and conclusions make sense and really reflect the nature of the
phenomenon being investigated. Credibility requires that the researcher engage three activities (the
numbered bullet points are within this credibility bullet point):
1. Prolonged engagement: The researcher must spend enough time in the research context to become
sufficiently familiar with all aspects of the context and to identify contextual factors that influence the
phenomenon of interest, as well as to establish trust from and rapport with the participants.
2. Persistent observation: Such observation allows the researcher to identify and focus on the most
relevant characteristics of the situation or context.
3. Triangulation: Triangulation most commonly refers to the use of multiple and different sources of data. It
is a strategy for reducing systematic bias in the data and involves checking findings against different
sources and perspectives. The process guards the researcher from being accused that the findings are
simply a result of a single method, a single source or the single researcher's personal bias.
 Intellectual Integrity: To demonstrate intellectual integrity and lend credibility to the findings of a study,
it is important to search for negative cases or disconfirming evidence that does not fit the general
patterns that have been identified. This may include identifying alternative themes and explanations to
findings, inductively looking for other ways to organize the data and logically thinking about other
explanations and then examining whether those possibilities can be supported by the data. In
qualitative research, steps are taken to challenge such bias through an active and conscientious search
using the following techniques (two bullet points within intellectual integrity):
1. A self-reflexive journal: The researcher adopts an attitude of skepticism and documents her
perspective, guiding ideas and personal thoughts throughout the research process.
2. Participant checks: In this ongoing process, the data, analytic categories or themes, interpretations and
conclusions are reviewed by the participants from whom the data are collected so that they have an
opportunity to correct errors of fact and to challenge interpretations that to them seem incorrect. The
researcher also uses follow-up questions based on the need for clarification and greater depth of
 Transferability: Transferability may be thought of as being somewhat analogous to the external validity
or generalizability of traditional quantitative methods. While qualitative findings are not generalizable,
the qualitative researcher provides the necessary database from which anyone interested in making a
transfer to their context of interest can make transferability judgments and decisions.
 Dependability may be determined through an audit with the "auditor" or peer reviewer examining the
process of the research inquiry and the product, namely the data, findings, interpretations and
recommendations. The review confirms that the results, finding, and conclusions, are supported by the
data and is internally coherent and establishes the confirmability.
 Confirmability: An audit trail along with triangulation and the keeping of a reflexive journal are
techniques for establishing confirmability. The audit trail includes the complete set of records and
documents that are produced and accumulated during the research process. This includes, but is not
limited to, all the raw data, written summaries and analyses, the records of analysis, findings and
conclusions, final reports, any notes on methodology, trustworthiness and any reflexive journals. The
audit trail is reviewed by an independent researcher or peer de-briefer for feedback on the
conceptualization and processes of the research.

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 15

Practical Research 1 ( Qualitative Research Design)

Prepared: Angelito T. Pera, BSci., B.Ed., LPT 16