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Repertory Grid in EL-305 (Sociolinguistics)

Research Topic: The Mother Tongue as a Medium of Instruction

Title of the Research Problem Research Research Variables Major Salient Recommendations Limitations
Study/Author/ Objectives Approach/ Included Constructs/Concepts Findings for further of the
Publisher/Year of Methods/ Investigation Study
Publication Design
1. Mother Tongue- How teachers and a. To fill the The research All Grade 1 The MTBMLE Policy Results from this 1. Since the study 1.It drew on
Based Multilingual parents in one school theoretical utilized a case through Grade 3 was decided by the study indicated found that most data from
Education in the district in the and practical study approach teachers of the Department of that teachers’ teachers and only one
Philippines: Philippines gaps around with a mixed thirteen Education using the and parents’ parents valued community
Studying Top- understand and MTB-MLE methodology elementary top-down approach views of MTB- MTBMLE for amongst
Down Policy enact MTB-MLE? policy. and an schools of the with less attention MLE focused on Grade 1, it could thousands
Implementation 1. What do teachers b. To analyze embedded, Kaibigan School given to the the short-term also be beneficial in the
from the Bottom and parents know in a bottom- single-case District in the perspectives of those benefits of the to assess the country.
Up/ Burton, Lisa about MTB-MLE? To up design Bikol region. at the community level policy and the possible changes 2.The
Ann/ ProQuest what extent does perspective Included in the where the long-term in older grades. sampling
LLC/ 2013 their knowledge the reaction study also were implementation will disadvantages. 2. Another area for method
differ? of teachers all the parents of actually occur, While both future research may have
2. What do teachers and parents the Grade 1 especially the teachers groups were could be a produced
and parents believe amidst the pupils of the and the parents. overwhelmingly comparative bias in the
about the outcomes national top- elementary satisfied with perspective data.
of MTB-MLE? To what down reform. schools Two conceptual the increase in between 3.The
extent do their beliefs frameworks that student communities in methods
differ? inform the local-level understanding, which MTBMLE is selected for
3. How do teachers policy analysis: they expressed being enforced this study
and parents Spolsky’s (2004, 2011) concern about from top-down produced
demonstrate support theory of language the future directive and possible
and resistance for policy and Ricento and implications for others that are limitations.
MTB-MLE? In what Hornberger’s (1996) learning in Bikol building the 4. The survey
ways do their actions language policy and rather than in reform from the used in this
differ? planning model. English. They bottom up. study did
overtly not end up
4. What challenges supported the 3. A final area for being as
exist related to policy in terms consideration valuable as
implementation of of complying moves beyond the initially
MTB-MLE? with the perspective of hoped.
requirements, teachers and 5. The final
yet covert parents to include limitation
resistance was that of other relates to
observed in stakeholders. the
their words and translation
actions. The of data.
implications of
these findings
revolve around
the way in
which language
policy is
Rather than a
approach that
does not
consider the
local context,
language policy
must be
between the top
and the bottom.

2. Demographic Profile The study a. To The study The independent Baker (2000), Cummins 1. Generally, the 1. The school
and Perception of investigated and investigate utilized the variables (2000), and Skutnabb- participants administration may
Teachers and analyzed the the descriptive- included in the Kangas (2000) belong to the continually
School Heads on demographic profile demographic survey and study were age, enumerated the middle age implement relevant
Mother Tongue as and perception of profile and descriptive- gender, length of following about group. activities and
Language of teachers and school perception of correlational to teaching mother 2. Female programs on the use
Instruction/ Ganal, heads on mother teachers and investigate and experience, tongue development: participants of mother
Nicette N./ Indian tongue as language school heads analyze the length of 1. Bilingualism has prevailed in the tongue to increase
Journal of of instruction. on mother relationship of administrative positive effects on study. the level of
Management 1. What is the tongue as demographic experience, children’s linguistic 3. The cognition and
Science/ 2014 demographic language of profile and performance and educational participants are appreciation of all
profile of the instruction. perception of rating during development. relatively curriculum
respondents in b. To teachers and school year 2012- 2. The level of adequate in implementers.
terms of variables determine school heads 2013, mother development of teaching and 2. The mass
such as: age, and analyze if on mother tongue spoken at children’s mother administrative trainings on
gender, length of relationship tongue as home and tongue is a strong experiences. Enhanced K to 12
teaching exists language of seminars and predictor of their 4. Almost all Basic Education
experience; length between the instruction. trainings second language teacher Curriculum should
of administrative demographic Descriptive attended on development. participants be compulsory to
experience; profile of research mother tongue 3. Mother tongue were evaluated both teachers and
performance participants involves data as language of promotion in the outstanding in school heads for
rating during and their gathering to instruction. school helps develop their proper
school year 2012- perception test not only the mother performance dissemination and
2013; mother on mother hypotheses The participants tongue but also rating. correct
tongue spoken at tongue as and describes were limited to children’s abilities in 5. Ilocano is the implementation of
home; and language of existing 54 public the majority school most prevalent the curriculum.
seminars and instruction. conditions and elementary language. mother tongue 3. There must be
trainings attended relations on school teachers 4. Spending instructional spoken at home. regular and
on mother the present of Kindergarten, time through a 6. Most of the objective
tongue? status of the Grade I and minority language in participants supervision of
2. What is the subjects being Grade II and 13 the school does not have attended school heads to
perception of studied. public hurt children’s seminars and evaluate teaching
teachers and Descriptive- elementary academic trainings on practices as well as
school heads on correlational school heads of development in the mother tongue investigate
mother tongue as research is an Alicia, Isabela problems and
language of associational during the school majority school as language of difficulties teachers
instruction? research in year 2013-2014. language. instruction. encounter in using
3. Is there a which the In the choice of 5. Children’s mother 7. Both teachers mother tongue as
significant relationships participants, tongues are fragile and school language of
difference on the among two or non-random and easily lost in the heads perceived instruction.
perception of more variables sampling early years of school. mother tongue 4. Teachers and
teachers and are studied particularly 6. To reject a child’s as effective parents should
school heads on without any purposive language in the school language of motivate and
mother tongue as attempt to sampling is to reject the child. instruction. encourage children
language of influence them technique was 7. Shaping a dynamic 8. The profile of to use their mother
instruction? (Calderon used. The identity for the future. participants has tongue in daily
4. Is there a & Gonzales, participants no direct social activities.
significant 2013). came from the bearing on their 5. Teachers and
relationship of the 13 perception on school heads should
demographic public mother tongue continually model
profile of teachers elementary as language of the use of mother
and their schools of the instruction. tongue for learners
perception on three school to practice the
mother tongue as districts of Alicia, same.
language of Isabela namely 6. The study can be
instruction? Alicia East replicated involving
5. Is there a District, Alicia variables such as
significant North highest educational
relationship of the District and Alicia qualification,
demographic South District. eligibility, marital
profile of school status and
heads and their interests/hobbies.
perception on 7. Another study can
mother tongue as be undertaken
language of delving on the best
instruction? predictors in using
mother tongue as
language of

3. The Effect of L1 What is the influence To determine The study The study had L1 translation To employ the L1,
Translation vs L2 of L1 translation (the the employed a one dependent has shown a teachers should
Definition on the bilingual effectiveness quantitative variable (the positive effect judiciously design
Immediate Recall approach) in contrast of using the L1 methodology vocabulary score on the learning activities employing
of Vocabulary to English definition in ESL settings and used of participants, of L2 vocabulary L1 translation that
Words/ Al Hashim, (the monolingual compared to demographic measured by an among Saudi engage L2 learners
Abdulrahman approach) in an ESL the use of L2 survey. immediate ESL low- in a metalinguistic
Saad/ Proquest setting. posttest) and one advanced task.
LLC/ 2016 1. Does the use of L1 independent learners.
translation variable
promote (consisting two Saudi L2
immediate recall learning learners mostly
of vocabulary conditions – L1 use their L1 to
among low- translation and access unknown
advanced Saudi L2 definition). L2 meaning.
ESL learners
compared to the The study
use of the L2 recruited 30
definitions? Saudi ESL
2. To what extent do students from
Saudi ESL learners the Center for
independently use English as a
L1 translation as a Second Language
learning strategy at the Southern
when learning Illinois University.
new vocabulary?
4. The Implementation What is the To offer ways The qualitative The public school The Philippines have There are four
of Mother Tongue- stakeholders’ in narrowing research design teachers, pupils, recently adopted the main benefits of
Based Multilingual perspective on the the gaps in was utilized in local school utilization of the first the MTBMLE:
Education: Seeing It implementation of both the the study and board, local language of learners as expressing
from the the MTB-MLE as a postulatory used the government unit, a medium of better ideas,
Stakeholders’ pedagogical and the actual embedded parent-teachers instruction. building self-
Perspective/ approach? differences single-case association, non- confidence,
Cabansag, John N./ surrounding design. And the government The dilemma on better retention,
International Journal the policy on focus group organization and language policy in the and promoting
of English mother method was parents of two Philippines was friendly
Linguistics/ 2016 tongue-based used in the elementary addressed by policy environment.
multi-lingual data collection. schools at the makers.
education Echague West The challenges
District in which hinder
Echague, Isabela the
were the implementation
respondents of the MTB-MLE
are grouped into
four significant
difficulty in
inadequacy of
materials, and
compliance to
the Dep.Ed.

5. The Implementation How were the Grade To look into The study used Majority of the
of the Mother 1 pupils faring in the the status of the descriptive instructional
Tongue-Based Mother Tongue as a the method of objectives in the
Multilingual learning subject? implementati research mother tongue
Education in Grade 1 on of the utilizing a as a subject are
in the Public What is the Grade 1 MTBMLE in survey not being met as
Elementary School teachers’ proficiency Grade 1 in the questionnaire indicated by the
in Pangasinan/ Cruz, in the mother tongue public schools and areas they are
Nora T./ DLSU (Pangasinan)? in the Division documentary found weak,
Research Congress/ of Pangasinan analysis. particularly in
2015 What are the 1 grammar
problems the awareness,
teachers vocabulary
encountered with development,
the implementation and reading
of the MTBMLE? comprehension.

The Grade 1
teachers use
language as
accessory to the
mother tongue.

The teachers
problems with
of MTBMLE such
as attendance to
trainings and
the provision of
6. “Binisaya” Is the “Binisaya” (L1) To examine The study Teachers, A mapping study is
Instruction: Facing used in Grades 1 to 3 how teachers, employed the parents and recommended.
the MTBMLE classrooms in QASI? parents, and qualitative pupils were
Challenges Head-on/ If so, how frequently pupils in two method using supportive of A comparative and
Eslit, Edgar R./ 2015 is it used and for elementary questionnaies, the program but experimental study
what purpose? schools classroom skeptical due to between and among
(Public and observations the growing the private and
What are the Private) in and interviews. challenges public institutions
attitudes of the Iligan City face brought by the will be conducted in
students and and lack of MT order to measure
teachers towards the understand learning the MT, “Binisaya”,
“Binisaya” instruction the challenges materials and learning outcomes
in the classroom and affecting the books which quantitatively.
what would be its MTBMLE? they have
effect to the considered as
learners? MTBMLE’s
What are the challenge.
encountered by the
teachers, students,
and parents?

7. Gaps and Challenges To discuss the Susan Malone’s There are gaps
in the MTBMLE gaps and framework in the in policy and
Implementation in challenges in assessment and practice.
the Philippines Basic the policy analysis
Education: A Policy impementatio There are flaws
Issue Paper on n of the in the policy
Language-in- MTBMLE as itself.
Education Policy/ reflective of
Igcalinos, Antonio the language- There is
D./ in-education interference in
policy in both policy and
Philippine implementation
basic by other state
education agencies whose
official actions
are not
sanctioned by
its mandates.

There are
ambiguities in
the relationships
and synergies of
directly or
indirectly, in the
policy and
of K12.

8. Strategies and What are the The study used The respondents The teachers
Problems strategies of teachers the qualitative were teachers used strategies
Encountered by in implementing method with purposively such as
Teachers in Mother Tongue- interview as selected from the translation of
Implementing based instruction in a the main suggested pilot target language
Mother Tongue- Multilingual gathering tool. schools of to other tongue,
based Instruction in Classroom? The study MTBMLE in utilization of
a Multilingual employed Baguio City multilingual
Classroom/ Lartec, What are the phenomenolog teaching,
Jane K. et. al/ The problems that ical analysis. utilization of
IAFOR Journal of teachers encounter lingua-franca,
improvisation of
Language Learning/ in implementing instructional
2014 them? materials
written in
mother tongue,
remediation of
instruction, and
utilization of
literary piece
written in
mother tongue
as motivation.

Some problems
encountered by
the teachers in
mother tongue-
include absence
of books written
in mother
tongue, lack of
vocabulary, and
lack of teacher