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Table of Contents

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ϭ


Acknowledgements

I would like to express my special gratitude to my supervisor Galina Gorborukova


and Professor Debbie Dergousoff for their valuable advices, encouragements and
constant support in managing the thesis. I appreciate their patience and time
contributed while helping me to work on this research.

I heartily thank Gulnara Ibraeva, Aida Bekturova and Mehrigul Ablezova for their
useful remarks during the course of Senior Thesis Seminar and mock defense.

I am very grateful to my respondents who shared with me their experience and


knowledge related to the topic of my thesis.

Special thanks are dedicated for my family, sociology fellows, friends that are always
with me and ready to share their endless support and inspiration.

My deepest gratitude to Guljamal Pirenova, for always inspiring and believing in my


personality.

Ϯ


Abstract

The comparative study of countryside cases is aimed at the identi¿cation and


interpretation of speci¿F SUDFWLFH RI ³FROODERUDWLYH PRGHOV´ REVHUYHG ZLWKLQ WKH
rural contexts of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan Republics.

,W HPSOR\V DQ RYHUYLHZ RI WKH ³5HVRXUFH 0RELOL]DWLRQ 7KHRU\´ E\ %RE (GZDUGV
(2007), as an approach for investigation of main differences and commonalities of
mutual communal activities, aimed on acquisition of social changes and other rural
benefits, analyzing experiences, interactions and practices of villagers within their
own rural realities.

Finally the study thinks over the retrieved collaborative phenomenon and calls
DWWHQWLRQWRWKHUHVHDUFKHU¶VDWWHPSWWRSURSRVHVFKHPLQJRIWKHPRVWIXQFWLRQDODQG
optimal aspects of the studied collaborative models.

ϯ


Introduction and research background

My interest in this topic began during my internship in a research project organized


by Debbie Dergousoff (Canadian Instructor) with the assistance of WESA (Women
Entrepreneurs Support Association), ³5HEXLOGLQJ UXUDO HFRQRPLHV WKURXJK D
comprehensive program RI LQIRUPDO DGXOW HGXFDWLRQ´ 7KH SULQFLSDO IRFXV RI WKH
project was communities in rural regions of the Kyrgyz Republic. I accompanied the
research team on one of their trips to Jerge-Tal village in Naryn region. We
conducted interviews with youth, cooperative workers, entrepreneurial women and
representatives of the municipality, who emphasized Kyrgyz governmental
instability and passiveness toward the development of this rural region, while at the
same time highlighting the role of NGO projects that contributed to rural
community needs by introducing market economy principles and supporting
competitiveness of villagers in the post-Soviet labor market. Using some of the data
we collected, I performed an analysis of non-JRYHUQPHQWDORUJDQL]DWLRQV¶SUHVHQFH
and contribution toward the development of Jerge-Tal village and its community,
and their reliance on a neoliberal theoretical approach.
My findings demonstrated three significant trends that I realize are worth
further investigation: governmental instability and inadequate provision of effective
assistance in remote rural regions; the reliance and desperate need of rural
communities for education on how to build sustainable livelihoods in a market
economy through comprehensive training programs; and vilODJHUV¶ XVH RI
voluntary mutual collaboration models when dealing with non-governmental
organizations. In the case of Jerge-Tal, lack of government support motivated
people to employ a mutual collaboration model to solve problems and meet basic
needs. For LQVWDQFH SUHYLRXVO\ RUJDQL]HG YLOODJH PHHWLQJV ZLWK ³:(6$´
representatives emphasized the necessity of conducting professional trainings
among the female villagers, regarding the haircut, sewing, and leather handicraft

ϰ


with its communal benefits. Currently that idea contributed toward the establishment
RI ³FRPPXQLW\ FHQWHU´ ZLWKLQ WKH YLOODJH >D QXPEHU RI VPDOO HQWUHSUHQHXULDO
enterprises] with the financial assistance of international donors, where these trained
villagers get their sustainable financial profit relying on the attained knowledge and
VNLOOV $V ZHOO DV GZHOOHUV¶ GHPDQG LQ VHUYLFHV HQDEOHV UXUDO FRPPXQLW\ WR
contribute into the collective sustainability of their livelihoods.

³,WZDVDGHFLVLRQWKDWZDVWDNHQWRJHWKHUZLWKDOOYLOODJHUV6RWKis is how the idea of the community


SODFHHPHUJHGDQGWKHQZHDSSOLHGIRUWKHSURMHFW´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³,W >&RPPXQLW\FHQWHU@FRQVLVWHGRIVHYHUDOURRPVKDLUGUHVVLQJVDORQEDWKSKRWRVDORQ
shoes repairing, room for repairing TV, fridge and etc., seZLQJSODFHZLWKWKUHHPDFKLQHV´
(Respondent # 5 .Jerge-Tal)

³2YHUDOOSHRSOHDUHZRUNLQJWRGD\IRUFRPPXQLW\SODFHLQGLIIHUHQWVHUYLFHV«WKH\DUH
JHWWLQJ VDODULHV« ZRPHQ LQ WKH VHZLQJ PDQXIDFWRU\«7KUHH PHQ VWDUWHG WR ZRUN ZLWK
already processed leather and doing small souvenirs staff for school children like bracelets,
ceOOSKRQHEDJV´ 5HVSRQGHQW-HUJH-Tal)

The self - initiated and mutually supportive cooperation strategy that I observed in

Jerge-Tal village inspired me to explain in more details the relationship between the

state, social mobilization and principles of cooperation in rural communities.

ϱ


Research question and objectives

This thesis is based on a combination of secondary and primary research, involving


a re-examination and analysis of transcripts from Jerge-Tal village, and the
gathering of additional data in Kenes village in Kazakhstan for comparison
purposes, following the main research question:
x What are the collaborative models of Kyrgyz anG.D]DNK5HSXEOLFV¶
villages? (Identified differences, similarities and possible patterns)

The objective of my fieldwork was to identify and analyze the differences,


similarities and patterns of mutual collaboration people engaged in to meet their
needs in Kyrgyz and Kazakh villages. I then applied resource mobilization theory to
a comparative analysis of the collaborative models used in each village in order to
assess and recommend the most optimal model for these two different rural
contexts.
)LQDO RXWFRPH RI WKDW FRPSDUDWLYH ³FROODERUDWLYH PRGHOV´ DQDO\VLV LV  D
possible functional model of collaboration - more like my attempt that is not
claimed to be fundamental, rather than the logical proposition of an optimal
functioning model, built in relation to the theory distinctive features from two
studied cases. Besides, it might be advanced and examined in my future academic
career as a contributing source toward the strategic development of rural regions and
within the poverty reduction disciplines.

ϲ


Schematic view of research objectives are the following:

x &RPH XS ZLWK FRPPXQDO FROODERUDWLYH PRGHOV¶ GLIIHUHQFHV VLPLODULWLHV DQG


specifics of patterns, presented by Jerge-Tal village, Kyrgyz Republic and
.HQHV YLOODJH .D]DNK 5HSXEOLF ILHOGZRUN UHVXOWV LQ D IUDPH RI ³5HVRXUFH
MoELOL]DWLRQ´WKHRU\
x To propose an optimal and functional model designed from two analyzed
cases.

Rationale for research

According to Evers, Kaiser and Muller (2009), the tacit knowledge of an epistemic
community that produces certain communal knowledge should be shared by
researchers and transformed into explicit knowledge made available for further
study. $VZHOODV%HUJQRWHGWKDW³VRFLDOVFLHQWLVWVKDYHDSURIHVVLRQDOUHVSRQVLELOLW\
to share with the scientific community and the community at large, the information
WKH\XQFRYHU«´ %HUJS 7KHUHIRUHWKLVVWXG\H[DPLQHVWKHFDSDFLW\
of resource mobilization theory to explain Central Asian rural contexts. It also
provides empirical information about Kyrgyz and Kazakh rural communities that
will be useful to international organizations and NGOs who want to better
understand how to work with effective collaborative models, and more locally
appropriate social and economic rural development policies in both countries.
It is my hope that this research will contribute to the growing body of scientific
knowledge regarding Central Asian and its current rural contexts, leading to further
research by foreign scholars and researchers. I am personally motivated to publish
some interesting findings in academic articles, share the studied cases at Research
Conferences, and work on the topic for principal research in MA, focusing on

ϳ


security, developing or poverty reduction programs at OSCE Academy in Bishkek,
Kyrgyz Republic.

Literature review

This literature review examines theoretical and explanatory works on


communicative and collaborative processes and helps define some of the key terms
related to my study. The following section introduces a short historical overview
and transformation features of the contexts of comparative villages, followed by
examples of recent practical researches that demonstrate diversified structures of
employment and alternative rational joint decision-making processes in rural
communities.

A relevant starting point for understanding the concept of social collaboration


DQG FRPPXQLFDWLRQ SURFHVV ZLWKLQ WKH FRPPXQLW\ LV -XUJHQ +DEHUPDV¶V
Communicative Action (1984). Habermas posited the theoretical concepts
³FRPPXQLFDWLYH DFWLRQ´ and ³SXEOLF VSKHUH´ to explain the transformation of
communication into certain forms of group action. In relation to the first concept,
Habermas asserts that conflict arises in society due to lack of communication among
its subjects. In other words, society is not capable of self-operating and progressing
without some form of communicative process among its members (Habermas, 1984,
p.86). Lack of communication can lead to deteriorating social conditions in the
absence of a shared communicative experience. In the case of Jerge-Tal village,
rural dwellers learn and profit from the shared practices of an organized community
center [a number of small entrepreneurial enterprises] that came about because of
meetings and cooperation of village representatives with NGOs officials. This
communal action came about because of a shared means of communication.
Habermas also put forth the concept of a public sphere, a platform in social life

ϴ


where people gather to freely discuss and identify social problems and propose
affirmative actions towards solving them. The matters of general interest are
discussed by all participants of the public sphere. Habermas cited the historical
example of a bourgeois public sphere that originated at the turn of the eighteen-
century Europe, wherein a number of salons and coffeehouses became primary
platforms where people met to discuss certain literary masterpieces, news, and
political events, and to share their critical views and feedback with each other. I
observed the principle of public sphere in Jerge-Tal village in the practice of
kurultai, a public gathering of village municipality, union representatives and NGO
officials for evaluation of local problems and possible project proposals and
implementation.

Robert Dahl has made important contributions to understanding public activity


through his works on democratic behavior. ,Q ³:KHUH DQG KRZ GLG GHPRFUDF\
GHYHORS" $ EULHI KLVWRU\´   KH GLVFXVVHV WKH LPSRUWDQFH RI WKH FRQQHFWLRQV
among social actors, and the way these can potentially lead to the rise of democratic
tendencies within societies. According to Dahl, when people originally organized
together and formed tribes, it was assumed that elders of those groups were
qualified to govern or regulate the whole group. This phenomenon led to particular
GHPRFUDWLF WUHQGV FUHDWLQJ ³WKH ORJLF RI HTXDOLW\´ ZKHQ ³WKH ROGHU RU PRUH
experienced ones participated in whatever decision needed to be made by DJURXS´
(Dahl, 2000, p. 10). Afterwards the logic of equality replaced the logic of elder
wisdom as the ultimate deciding factor, creation of local assemblies with
representatives and election campaigns (Dahl, 2000, p. 22). In the case of Jerge-Tal
village, we find communal initiatives and established local democratic decision-
making based on representative principles of structuring rural society into unions
with representation and presence at public meetings with the NGO sector. The
representatives of elder unions were not characterized as dominant during the
communal meetings, rather they shared the same privilege of contribution as the rest

ϵ


of the participants at the meeting. Dahl also cites examples of communal
participation in the governance of several European states. In ancient Greece, citizen
participation was decided by lottery, whereas in Rome military men gained the right
to participate in governing the state. Analogous situations occurred in Italy where at
first the right to participate was given only to upper-class families, however, when
middle-class members came to outnumber the upper class, they attained the right to
participate in governance through threats of violence. The weakness of the
GHPRFUDFLHV LQ WKHVH VWDWHV ZDV D ³ODFN RI HIIHFWLYH QDWLRQDO JRYHUQPHQW´ 'DKO
2000, p. 15-16). This situation improved as kings in the 1700s began to organize
meetings with representatives from different sectors of society to assist in decision-
making. This helped develop the system of checks and balances and the separation
of power within government.

,ULQD0RUR]RYDDQ(DVWHUQVFKRODUDQGGLUHFWRURIWKHSURMHFW³7KHKLVWRU\RI
perestroika in Central Asia: Social transformation in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and
Mongolia, 1982-´ GLVFXVVHV WKH QHJDWLYH VLGHV RI WUDQVIRUPDWLRQ SRLQWLng to
consequences that experienced by the states such as weakening economies,
stagnation, social marginalization, and polarization of different population groups
within the states (Morozova, 2011). Her analysis looks at the historical and political
context of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan as post socialist countries experiencing a
shift from a socialist state economy and communist party rule, to a market-oriented
model and neoliberal ideology. Even though post-Soviet independent Kazakh and
Kyrgyz Republics obtained different trajectories of development and their own
trends and priorities within the institutions, these states are still dealing with the
consequences of transformation nowadays. Economic decline has particularly
DIIHFWHGWKHVWDWHV¶UXUDOVHFWRUDQGLWVVRFLHWLHVWURXEOLQJWKHLUZHOOEHLQJ-HUJH-Tal
village respondents repeatedly indicated in-village effects such as unemployment,
low salaries rates, absence of manufactories and factories that were abandoned and
plundered in post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan (Dergousoff, 2011).

ϭϬ


Another description of post-soviet Central Asian regions and their condition is
presented by Western scholar Neil Melvin in his study of authoritarian pathways in
Central Asia based on comparison of Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Uzbek Republics. In his
study, he raises the idea that despite the negative outcomes of the collapse of Soviet
Union and post-communist epoch, Central Asia could restore stability by
maintaining traditionalism, a characteristic that favors consolidation over
fragmentation, particularly in the face of internal and external threats. Traditional
conservatism is characterized by: 1) absolute respect for seniority ± interlocking
hierarchies of age, social standing and administrative power; 2) great emphasis on
consensus ± resolving through negotiation and compromise leading to the
formulation of common views; and 3) all-embracing sense of community ± high
degree of conformity expected, full participation and realization of obligations and
responsibilities in exchange for material and emotional support from the community
(Melvin, 2004, p.123). 0HOYLQ¶V LGHDV DERXW WKH DGKHUHnce to traditional
conservative values are expected to be revealed while studying rural communities,
as well as specify its current function and maintenance principles.

Adams and 5XVWHPRYD LQ WKHLU DUWLFOH ³0DVV VSHFWDFOH DQG VW\OHV RI
governmentality in .D]DNKVWDQ DQG 8]EHNLVWDQ´ GHVFULEH .D]DNKVWDQ DV D VWDWH
ZKHUHLQ ³«VWDWH DFWRUV VHH WKH SULPDU\ UROH RI WKH VWDWH DV PDQDJLQJ VRFLHW\ YLD
incentives and regulations within the framework of market competition,
HPSKDVL]LQJWKHLGHDWKDWµDFRPSHWLWLYHQDWLRQ¶LVµFRPSHWLWLYHSURGXFWV´ S
1250). They suggest the Kazakh government views its society not as a dangerous
mass that must be controlled and suppressed, but rather as a network of individuals
who act according to their needs and desires. In theiUYLHZWKHFXUUHQWJRYHUQPHQW¶V
role is to provide people with incentives and corrections that remove obstacles to
meeting desired needs of the public. The president Nazarbaev guarantees this
strategy not through moral authority, but through beneficence and efficiency that is

ϭϭ


linked to the management of diversity and integration into the global economy
(Adams & Rustemova, 2009, p. 1251).

Antoine %OXD   GHILQHV 1*2V DV ³QRQSURILW SROLWLFDOO\ XQDIILOLDWHG


organizations that advance a particular cause or set of different causes in the public
LQWHUHVW´. According to Blua the NGO sector is more oriented toward public
concerns than politically focused attachments. Blua cites two authorities on the role
of the NGO sector in his study of post-soviet Central Asian regional development.
David Lewis, who ran the Central Asia project for the Brussels-based International
Crisis Group (ICG) in the southern Kyrgyz city of Osh, asserts that in Central Asia,
NGOs play significant roles, providing civil society with a democratic space for
SURMHFWV¶ GLVFXVVLRQV DQG LPSOHPHQWDWLRQV %OXD   ,Q WKLV VHQVH WKH QRQ-
governmental sector can be understood as the initiator of civil society and
participation in collaborative forums where project proposals and implementation
take place. Blua also cites George Deikun, head of the Central Asian mission of the
United States Agency for International Development (USAID), a major grant
provider for NGOs in Central Asia who says,

NGOs help to build participation and give voice to people in how resources are
managed and allocated. NGOs can also help build transparency and public
accountability for government decisions. They give people a vehicle to express
their views at the community or national levels on important issues like the
independence of the media, on education or health needs (Blua, 2004).
Both these authorities characterize NGOs as stimulating civil society consciousness
for rational resource management and public cooperation, and encouragement of
transparency of government operations. In Jerge-Tal village of Narin region, the
Kyrgyz government is involved in establishing public collaboration with NGOs
through the village municipality that acts according to Kyrgyz national laws.
However, respondents pointed to the issue of governmental passiveness and lack of
funding toward their village development. As such, they prefer to cooperate with the
NGO sector to meet their needs. According to the municipal representative of Jerge-

ϭϮ


Tal village, improvements to the village condition came primarily through grants
and investments from this list of officially registered donors: USAID, UNDP, Asia
Universal Bank, DFID, Helvetas, Red Cross, Ala Too Camp, Euro Asian Fund, and
Grand Stimuli organizations, who work through NGOs to deliver aid to the region.

&KDUOHV %X[WRQ ZKR ZDV SDUW RI ³1*2 QHWZRUNV LQ &HQWUDO $VLD DQG JOREDO
FLYLOVRFLHW\SRWHQWLDOVDQGOLPLWDWLRQV´FRQGXFWHGE\,175$& ,QWHUQDWLRQDO1*2
Training and Research Centre) for Oxfam-Novid in 2006-2007, studied Western
donors influence and NGO networking in Central Asian communities. According to
Buxton, by 2000 the NGO sector had diversified, covering urban as well as rural
regions; worked in formal and informal ways; and used both flat and hierarchical
structures. The stronger NGOs were generally located in capital cities and provincial
FHQWHUV DQG WKHUH ZDV D VWURQJ JHQGHU GLPHQVLRQ WR WKH 1*2 VHFWRU ZRPHQ¶V
leadership and staffing). Most NGOs were founded by a strong individual,
sometimes without a clear stated niche or mission (Buxton, 2000, p. 44, 55). The
crucial debates of his report were dedicated to the appropriateness and effectiveness
of the Western model of civil society for the post-Soviet space of Central Asia
(Buxton, 2000, p. 45). In addition, his research showed that informal and semi-
formal NGOs were mostly focused on information exchange, learning and
transferring new ways of working in the form of seminars and training of
beneficiaries, whereas formal unions were created to develop common platforms to
lobby civil society concerns to government (Buxton, 2000, p. 46). In Jerge-Tal
village, WESA NGO was in form of informal and semi-formal NGOS, conducting
certain trainings aimed on women empowerment by introducing market economy
principles and supporting competitiveness of villagers in the post-Soviet labor
market.

Moving on from a discussion of theoretical and situational backgrounds of


regions I studies, I switch the attention to practical research and projects focused on
rural areas, by scholars who point out variations in the forms of social relations and
ϭϯ


diversified structures of employment that rural dwellers come up with. Samuel L.
3RSNLQLQ³7KHUDWLRQDOSHDVDQW7KHSROLWLFDOHFRQRP\RIUXUDOVRFLHW\LQ9LHWQDP´
applied the viewpoint of moral economy to analyze the peasant society of Vietnam
in its pre and post-colonial periods (Popkin, 1984). Popkin describes post-colonial
9LHWQDPYLOODJHFRPPXQLWLHVDVWKHUHDOL]DWLRQRI³FROOHFWLYHUHVSRQVLELOLWLHV>ZLWK@
well-GHILQHG FRQFHSWV RI YLOODJH FLWL]HQVKLS« ZKR PDUNHWHG VXUSOXV SURGXFWLRQ«
[characterized by] precise and well-GHILQHG FRQWUDFWXDO UHODWLRQV IRU REWDLQLQJ´
different resources (1984, p.2). Popkin observes these changes through the prism of
moral economy approach, based on the relations between economic and social
discipline. The main principle of the moral economy is a compatibility of economic
and social aspects operating together within a certain group such that human welfare
and statuses can be improved by the economic activities in relation to social norms,
values and expectations of the community (Scott, 1976). According to this
approach, there is no independent existence of the economic branch of knowledge
because it is supposed to emerge and operate within the social realm, as a guiding
base for societal existence, benefiting its members (Scott, 1976). This reading
informs my study about the complexity and interdependence of rural activities that
requires economic and social entrepreneurial activities from the rural public in order
to maintain their wellbeing.

Another rural study conducted by Walker, Mitchell & Wismer (2001) in Molas
village in Indonesia focused on livelihood strategies of farmers and fishers,
especially examining the specifics of villager interactions with natural resources to
construct their way of life through rational everyday practices. Interviews with
village experts and systematic observations led the research team to conclude that
livelihood practices were evolving due to a shift in: ³RII-farm work; decreasing
manual RUDJULFXOWXUDOEDVHGODERUSDUHQWVWRLQYHVWLQWKHLUFKLOGUHQ¶VHGXFDWLRQ
providing opportunities for women to become secondary wage earners additionally
FRQWULEXWRUV WR IDPLO\ EXGJHW´ (Walker, Mitchell & Wismer, 2001, p. 305). As

ϭϰ


natural resources lose their practical value, villagers come up with alternative ways
RI UHDOL]LQJ DQG SHUSHWXDWLQJ WKHLU OLYHOLKRRGV PRUH VLPLODU WR WKH XUEDQ VRFLHW\¶V
preferences. More diverse forms of rural employment have taken the place of
traditional resource use. Transformation and changes in basic practices were also
motivated by adopting modern methods of fishing to replace traditional inefficiency
in an economic sense. Local policy dysfunctions were also identified as a reason for
the increased inability of farmers to meet their needs through agriculture-oriented
resources, the main causes being land speculation and unstable land management on
the part of government. Taking into consideration their findings, the team of
VFKRODUVFRQFOXGHGE\UHFRPPHQGLQJWKDW³PRVWFRmmunities should be involved in
planning and decision making to enhance opportunities for success and to allow
local people to anticipate, adapt and realize whatever potential there might be to
GHYHORSDOWHUHGRUQHZOLYHOLKRRGVWUDWHJLHV´ :DONHU0LWFKHOl & Wismer, 2001, p.
307).

$GGPRUH¶V  GLVVHUWDWLRQ ³/LYHOLKRRG VWUDWHJLHV RI WKH DJHG SHRSOH LQ
0XEDLUD FRPPXQLW\ =LPEDEZH´ IRFXVHG VSHFLILFDOO\ RQ XQGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH
livelihood strategies (prioritized practices) of rural elderly people, and the way they
maintain their wellbeing in old age. The study pointed to the absence of old age
SHQVLRQVDVDPDWHULDOILQDQFLDOUHVRXUFHDQGFRQVHTXHQWO\DJHGYLOODJHUV¶DFWLYLWLHV
were mainly focused in the agricultural sector as a stable source of food; self-
employment in the form of additional income sources through the craft business,
clothing (tailoring) activities and carpentry. In this case, resources are put to use in
traditional and cultural practices as a means of obtaining additional finance
resources, performing carpentry, clothing and crafting. In Jerge-Tal village I
observed that local villagers, especially females, and not only elderly, but also the
young people, produced self-made souvenirs from leather and carpentry for
distribution and sale in WKHFLWLHV$GGPRUH¶VVWXG\DWWULEXWHGWKHSUDFWLFHVRIDJHG
people to the previous economic instability of Zimbabwe, and blamed the ignorance

ϭϱ


and passiveness of the government state authorized representatives to look after
people living in rural regions. Similar reasons were indicated in Jerge-Tal village
fieldwork, where villagers mentLRQHG DQG SHUFHLYHG WKH ³7 April UHYROXWLRQ´ DQG
³-XQH events´ 2010 ethnic conflict on South of Kyrgyzstan as the negative
consequences of state ignorance and passiveness toward rural village conditions.

One last study conducted by Kamp (2004) on the Uzbek state evaluates
traditional Mahalla committees or councils organized as informal social welfare
institutions built around communal ties and bonds. Kamp found that in post-Soviet
Uzbekistan, local self-governing agencies still operate in rural regions where they
serve as mediators between the government and rural audiences. They are designed
in such a way that when rural dwellers encounter difficulties they can actually rely
on the Mahalla members to come up with collectively assisted solutions. The Uzbek
Mahallas operate in a similar way to Kazakh aksakal courts, which consist of well-
respected and authoritative village elders, engaged into village affairs. Although
Jerge-Tal village dwellers mentioned that aksakal courts were not functional there
anymore, but still this council was represented as a unit of aged people, who have a
right to participate and contribute to communal rural meetings along with the
representatives of youth, women and workers units.

This literature review section was designed based on the classification of the
literature sources, introducing the theoretical, explanatory, historical backgrounds
and practical researches in relation to studied concept of cooperative activity of rural
public. It supposed to familiarize my reader with research basic context and scope,
DVZHOODVGHPRQVWUDWHVUHVHDUFKHU¶V constructed knowledge regarding the concept.
The next section of the research is devoted to the theoretical frame overview and
picture of main collaborative players, mechanisms and resources to attain common
social benefits.

ϭϲ


$QRWHRQVWXG\LQJFRQFHSWRI³&ROODERUDWLRQ0RGHO´

0\ XVH RI µFROODERUDWLRQ PRGHO¶ FRQFHSW ZDV LQVSLUHG ILUVW E\ IRUPV RI
collaboration I identified in the results and trends of Jerge-Tal village research, and
also by comparing the specific kinds of mutual cooperation within the two different
UXUDO FRQWH[WV 7KHUHIRUH WKURXJKRXW WKH UHVHDUFK WKH FRQFHSW RI ³FROODERUDWLRQ
PRGHO´UHIHUVWR volunteer collective action of rural people to mobilize and organize
networks to deal with rural challenges, and to propose alternative problem-solving
mechanisms for attaining certain resource and improving the village condition. I
observed that group dialogues produced ideas and alternative options through self-
initiative and cooperative support. I apply the RMT mechanisms and resources
described in the following section to understand variations in the realization of
benefits and the kinds of mutual communal activities organized for acquisition of
social changes and benefits in the two villages I study. The RMT mechanisms and
resources are also useful in the analytical stage for coding, and as basic categories
for comparative analysis, allowing the research to be organized more coherently.

Resource mobilization theory (RMT)

According to Edwards & McCarthy (2004), the potential of benefiting from


resources can work to stimulate social mobilization and unify certain groups of
people to work collaboratively to attain the benefits, if they can see potential
optimistic outcomes. Contrary to revolution-oriented theories, new social movement
WKHRU\SRVLWHGWKDWLWLVQRW³JULHYDQFHV´DJDLQVWWKHVWDWHEXWDFFHVVWRSURVSHFWLYH
benefits and the mechanisms that manage them that explain voluntary social
mobility and its reorganization. Classical collective behavior and rational action
theories tended to theorize social movements in one dimension, as somewhat
dysfunctional and irrational (Smelser, 1962). According to Edwards (2007), social
ϭϳ


movement research was initiated in North America and Europe during the 1970s in
an attempt to comprehend the emergence, significance, and effects of the social
movements of the 1960s. :KHUHDV (XURSH VWDUWHG WR HPSOR\ ³QHZ VRFLDO
PRYHPHQWV´ WKHRU\ WR H[SODin the essence and significance of social changes that
occurred due to these movements, in the United States the study of social
movements was integrated into a frame of functioning social systems. Resource
mobilization theory (RMT) was devised as an alternative way of understanding how
people engage formal organizations to secure resources and mobilize organizational
change towards desired end.

507¶V PRGH RI UHWKLQNLQJ VRFLDO PRYHPHQWV UHSODFHG ³UHYROXWLRQ´ RULHQWHG


motivations with organizational and population mobilization principles based on
mutual networking. In this approach, the key players are adherents, individuals who
share common preferences for social change; constituents, those who contribute
resources and support mobilization; and bystanders, those who observe from the
sidelines and take a neutral position. The crucial point of RMT is to understand how
to convert bystanders to functional members of a cooperative system who will either
assist as adherents or take on the role of constituents (Edwards, 2007 p. 3902). RMT
analysis underlines the unequal distribution of resources within society and seeks to
understand how collective actors can work to overcome uneven distribution of
DVVHWV WKURXJK VRFLDO PRELOL]DWLRQ HIIRUWV 507 LV WKXV ³PRUH H[SOicitly a partial
WKHRU\ RI RYHUFRPLQJ UHVRXUFH LQHTXDOLW\«>ZLWK@ TXHVWLRQV RI JHQHUDO UHVRXUFH
³DYDLODELOLW\´ >VKLIWLQJ@ WRZDUG TXHVWLRQV RI VSHFLILF PHDQV RI UHVRXUFH DFFHVV´
(Edwards, 2007, p.3902). RMT looks at social collective behavior as the rational
mutual product of a particular community, wherein participants weigh the pros and
cons of grouping together to mutually work towards control of potential benefits
through mechanisms and resources that contribute to accumulation of benefits.

One of the principal questions RMT is whether the sources of support required
to reach desired assets should be/or are initiated internally within the community, or
ϭϴ


externally by contributors that stimulate social organizational objectives. For this
purpose, RMT comes up with four mechanisms such as self-production,
aggregation, cooptation/appropriation and patronage employing which particular
groups can approach and manage certain benefits (Edwards & McCarthy, 2004). In
addition to mechanisms, RMT categorizes five types of resources such as moral
resources, cultural resources, social organizational, human and material
resources (Edwards, 2007, p. 3904). I applied the main RMT elements: actors,
mechanisms and resources in order to understand variations in the realization of
benefits and the kinds of mutual communal activities organized for acquisition of
collective changes and benefits in the two explored villages.

Fieldwork Planning, Objectives and Procedures

Principally this research sues a qualitative approach that allows researchers to share
in the understandings and perceptions of people, and explore how they structure and
give meaning to their daily events. Qualitative research examines phenomena within
the natural settings where and does not necessarily need to be concerned with
generalization of findings. The qualitative technique allows a researcher to examine
³KRZ SHRSOH OHDUQ DERXW DQG PDNH VHQVH RI WKHPVHOYHV DQG RWKHUV´ %HUJ 
p.7). This methodology used during the internship research was a qualitative case
study that examined the social organization of relations in Jerge-Tal village. There I
found that rural representatives incorporated a particular kind of collaborative model
with distinctive interactions and logic of practices. The crucial distinction between
case studies and broader forms of research is that the focus of attention is on a
particular example rather than the whole population of cases. In case study research,
the primary role of a researcher is to provide a persuasive and engaging profile of
the case, using appropriate examples and making relations to broader issues
(Merriam, 1988, p.18). I applied the same technique to study the rural context of
ϭϵ


Kenes village in order to make a comparison theoretical evaluation of the functional
combination of attributes of the collaborative models used in Kazak versus Kyrgyz
villages. I am grateful to the American University of Central Asia and Sociology
Department for providing me with Travel Grant funding that covered my basic
travel expenses for fieldwork in Kenes village.

Fieldwork planning and sampling strategy

Overall ten interviews were conducted for coding and analysis (5 from Jerge-Tal
village, Kyrgyzstan, and 5 of Kenes village, Kazakhstan). I followed a model
similar to that used in my Internship research of Jerge-Tal village. Purposive and
convenience sampling was used in selecting respondents from Kenes village as
potential interview subjects as I had to approach and rely on available subjects who
were close at hand and easily accessible in the village. I was able to access
respondents via a key informant from the village who had recently moved to Taraz
city where I am from. Her family and relatives lives in a Kenes village and she visits
the village weekly. She was interested in my intentions concerning my Senior
Thesis topic and the research I had done in Narin village, and offered to support and
take part in my planned fieldtrip to a Kazakh village, assisting me with gaining
access to her family members and village people for interviews. I knew in the case
of Jerge-Tal village that its dwellers were more comfortable being interviewed in
Kyrgyz language, since Russian language was less commonly spoken there. I
suspected there might be a similar language barrier for me with Kazakh village
respondents and that I would have to rely on my key informant for translation
during the interviews.

According to Berg (1989), a researcher should choose an appropriate interview


environment and conditions where the interviewees will feel comfortable and
secure, and therefore freer to express their points of view. With the help of my key
ϮϬ


LQIRUPDQW ZH DUUDQJHG WR KROG LQWHUYLHZV ZLWK IDPLO\ PHPEHUV LQ WKH SHRSOH¶V
homes as this atmosphere was most predisposed to an easy going interviewing
process. I likewise found in the case of interviews in Jerge-Tal village, that doing
WKHLQWHUYLHZLQJLQSHRSOH¶VKRPHSURYLGHGDQDWPRVSKHUHZKHQWKHUHVHDUFKHUZDV
able to access substantial responses rich in the content. A semi-structured interview
guide (Appendix 1) was used for data gathering with the intention of detecting all
possible forms of cooperation used to maintain life in Kenes village. The guide
consisted of a predetermined list of questions that was altered at times during the
interview to introduce sub-questions. Sub-questions also helped me get back on
track when respondents provided me with irrelevant and less detailed information
for understanding my main research questions.

Fieldwork objectives

During the fieldworks and interviewing of village representatives from both Jerge-
Tal and Kenes villages, I was mainly focused on the following aspects contributing
toward the village communities and overall condition:

x Local communal incentives and cooperation

My objective was to find out all possible forms of communal cooperation among the
villagers that contribute toward the rural societies and village conditions. For this
purpose I concentrated on current villages characteristics, social interactions and
relationships that benefit or challenge village rural livelihoods, rather than focusing
RQSHRSOH¶VSHUFHSWLRQVHYDOXDWLRQVDQGVXEMHFWLYHRSLQLRQV

Ϯϭ


x Forms of Government Support

This stage was dedicated to the states presence and role examined in each village,
and the extent to which villagers were aware of state presence and forms of
assistance offered by Kyrgyz and Kazakh states to villagers. Essentially, I was more
interested in getting people to talk about actual examples of assistance rather than
what their opinions were of government assistance. I tried to stimulate respondents
to discuss practical examples of the way the village received government support
and assistance. I was also interested in the role of local administrative village
organization. In case of Jerge-Tal village, it was officially represented by a village
municipality, operating under patronage of the state and based on Kyrgyz national
legislation. It was relevant therefore to investigate what Kenes village
administration (akimat) looks like and its roles, responsibilities, rights, relations and
contribution toward the village development and its community.

x Non-governmental assistance, external contributors, donors and


international organizations

This final objective takes into consideration external contributors such as non-
governmental organizations (NGOs), donors and international organizations who
operated in, studied or contributed in some way toward the villages and their
communities. I knew from my research that in Jerge-Tal village there was a fair
degree of reliance on contribution of NGOs and foreign donors to facilitate rural
EHQHILWV ZLWK WKH VWDWH¶V LQSXW SUDFWLFDOO\ UHGXFHG WR SURYLGLQJ .\UJ\] QDWLRQDO
legislation principles for the village municipality to operate accordingly. This
appeared to be another key point of comparison with the Kazakh Kenes village
situation, in terms of both government and NGO sectors.

ϮϮ


Fieldwork in Kenes Village

My role as an interviewer was to obtain substantial narratives from villagers about


real life examples of societal organization in Kenes village, rather than on their
personal subjective evaluations and perceptions. Nevertheless, I encountered a
number of obstacles during the interviews in Kenes village. First, no one had even
been to Kenes village to do a study so they were skeptical and mocked my interest
in their village life and intention to study their community. They frequently made
efforts to have me write only about positive things in relation to their village, and
tried to draw attention away from difficulties and problems. Respondents were also
more interested in sharing their attitudes and personal evaluations, rather than
talking about actual situations and facts. I found I had to interfere in the
conversation, drawing respondents back to the primary objectives of fieldwork,
constantly encouraging respondents to provide me with the information I was
looking for. Only three of the five respondents agreed to allow me to tape-record
their responses, the other two were uncomfortable with recording devices and also
felt uncomfortable with their weak speaking Russian [but still their preferred
Russian language for being interviewed] and personal discomfort in terms of
recording device. I could not object to their will to skip recording, and I proceed to
write a field diary and took notes of interview responses so that I would have some
form of recorded information to use in my analysis. Generally, the whole
interviewing process was in Russian language because it was convenient for Kenes
respondents, while in the case of Jerge-Tal village where Russian language was less
commonly spoken, a Kyrgyz-English translator assisted our research team.

Ϯϯ


Limitations of the Research

My research findings are limited by comparison of two villages from different state
contexts in relation to a theoretical framework. These two villages cannot represent
or be generalized to the overall situation of the rural condition of two independent
states. Nevertheless, these two cases of rural life provide valuable insights into the
questions I sought to answer and allowed me to test the appropriateness of the
theory I used for conducting this kind of research. Therefore this can serve as a pilot
study for a more comprehensive project that would involve a larger research team,
scale and funding. Time restrictions were also an issue ± the duration of an
academic semester was less than optimum time to complete the kind of fieldwork
that would have been ideal for an ethnographic study. I would have liked to perform
a more in-depth study and examine more villages for comparative analyses between
Kyrgyz and Kazakh Republics.

7KH LVVXH RI EHLQJ D ³VWUDQJHU´ IRU YLOODJH GZHOOHUV DOVR OLPLWHG P\ ILQGLQJV
since respondents did not fully give me a vote of confidence. Village dwellers
tended to be somewhat closed and not serious in their dialogues with me, in many
instances providing subjective answers, rather than responses in relation to my
theoretical framework. In order to overcome this issue, I firstly had to interfere and
facilitate every interview with additional questions and also to change the sequence
of prepared questions. I also had to rely on a key informant (native dweller of
village) to assist me with introducing my research intentions and approaching
potential respondents during the Kenes village fieldtrip. Language was also an issue
during the fieldtrip to Kenes village. Initially when I asked, Kazakh speaking
respondents said that interviewing in Russian was working and convenient, but later
on during the interview processes, I found that respondents sometimes struggled and
found it challenging to convey their thoughts in Russian. One final limitation is the
issue of subjectivity. In translating and transcribing interviews, the attained
transcript cannot be entirely perfect because it is already rephrased outcome (Gibbs,
Ϯϰ


2007). This is because transcribed interview protocols already involve a process of
interpretation. To translate transcriptions from Russian or Kyrgyz language into
English further influences the substance of gained responses. As a result, I tried to
work as much as possible with what was actually said according to the transcripts so
as to reduce researcher bias in my analysis. In the future, I would recommend
relying on the service of a Kazakh translator in order to get information that is more
reliable and in-depth data from village respondents in their native language. I also
found the presence and cooperation of a village key informant invaluable during the
fieldtrips, for help with introduction of research intentions to the village audience
and setting up interviews with them. From my personal obtained experience of
conducted fieldworks, I have written a set of recommendations to assist future
researchers with the preparatory stage of village fieldwork (see appendix III).

Ϯϱ


Ethical consideration

It is necessary to address ethical considerations, because I was using an interview


approach, relying on direct quotations from the interview records and protocols.
Every respondent was introduced to basic research background information and
asked to sign his/her personal agreement to participate in interviews. Then I
guaranteed anonymity by hiding names of rural representatives (example:
Respondent #1: Jerge-Tal village). Respondents were assured of confidentiality in
sharing their opinions, attitudes and characteristics regarding the government
presence and village administration. I asked the interviewees to give their consent
for using a tape recorder and in the cases when they rejected that motivation, I did
not insist on it and alternatively was ready to take notes during the interviews. The
information that was recorded on tape recorder cannot be shared with other
researchers because respondents requested that I not do so. However, the transcribed
protocols with hidden names are available for future possible intentions of
conducting research or elaborating on data collected in the villages.

Research findings and analysis

Overview of comparative cases

As a citizen of the Kazakh Republic, I have been following the situation concerning
the political condition and strategic development priorities of the current Kazakh
state. As such, I was aware that the situation in rural Kazakhstan is characterized by
established cooperation among village community actors and the direct involvement
of the Kazakh state in the development of rural regions. The state is involved in
governmental projects, strategies and assistance such as micro-credits for business
incentives and different forms of entrepreneurial subsidies. Kazakhstan is
Ϯϲ


FKDUDFWHULVWLF RI D ³VWDWH FHQWHUHG DSSURDFK´ ZKHUHLQ SHRSOH ORRN WR WKH VWDWH IRU
guarantees of security over the nation, law and legitimacy, economic system
stability, and the regulation of order and social welfare (Mulgan &Wilkinson, 1992).
As such, the state is viewed as a direct partner to communities, and state policies are
expected to be designed specifically to focus on giving power to classify, distribute
and administer appropriate forms of social action to communities, and to propose
solutions to their social issues. This is similar to welfare state economics as
proposed by Keynes (Polanyi, 2006) who favored the idea of state intervention in
managed economies, where the state is responsible for the economic relationships
within that state. Although I had prior assumptions about the relationship between
rural villages and the state in the Kazakh context I chose to enter the field with a
neutral point of view in order to discover how the relationship actually worked in
practice. I also tried to remain neutral about what I already knew from research in
Jerge-Tal village.

I found that the specific form cooperation took in Jerge-Tal village was due to a
combination of the absence of Kyrgyz government strategies to improve the village
situaWLRQDQGWKHFRPPXQLW\¶VGHVLUHWREULQJDERXWSRVLWLYHFKDQJH,QWKHDEVHQFH
of governmental assistance, people began to practice alternative problem-solving
techniques by mobilizing representative groups to overcome rural challenges. The
aim of the group dialogues was to attain positive changes within the village by
sharing ideas and discussing possible solutions to village problems. The village
representatives kept mentioning about some of the optimistic outcomes that
emerged from their cooperation to obtain employment opportunities, funding and
sources of income from non-governmental organizations to implement projects
based on communal needs. 

Ϯϳ


Comparative analysis of cases: actors

The first comparative unit of the study was Jerge-Tal village, a remote village in the
mountainous Naryn region of the Kyrgyz Republic. I selected data from five in-
depth interviews that were conducted during my second sociological professional
internship with a Canadian professor and official representatives of the NGO,
WESA. That fieldtrip was quite productive and provided the team with detailed
narratives on the material circumstances of villagers, who revealed the phenomena
of mutual collaboration. For my thesis, I revisited the transcripts from Jerge-Tal by
analyzing them through the lens of resource mobilization theory. My objective was
to examine the mechanisms and resources that rural actors apply and mutually
practice in order to illustrate the major collaborative principles employed and their
impact on village reality. The research codes and direct quotations of Jerge-Tal
villagers can be found in Appendix IV. Kenes village, the second comparative unit,
is located in the Zhambylskaya oblast of the Kazakh Republic. Five in depth
interviews were also conducted in Kenes village and the theoretical categories with
direct quotations of Kenes villagers can be found in ppendix V.

In the first step of my analysis I concentrated on the key players using the
categories Edwards (2007) suggested in his interpretation of RMT to examine social
mobility and networking for changes in Jerge-Tal village. Adherents in Jerge-Tal
are formally represented by a Commission comprised of village dwellers and their
representatives, such as village municipality and representatives of community
unions (women, youth, elders, workers) who share common perspectives on village
wellbeing.

³&RPPLVVLRQ LVD JURXS RI SHRSOH FRQVLVWLQJ RI PXQLFLSDOLW\ KHDG UHJLRQDO GHSXWLHV UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV RI
elders, youth, women and some others who together decide what EHQHILWVQHHGWREHGLVWULEXWHG´5HVS
Jerge-Tal)

Ϯϴ


³:HOOKRZZHZRUNHGLQWKHYLOODJHZHJRWWRJHWKHUZLWKUHSUHVHQWDWLYHVIURPYLOODJHPXQLFLSDOLW\1*2
SHRSOHDQGUHSUHVHQWDWLYHVIURPXQLRQV HOGHUO\\RXWKDQGZRPHQ ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

In Kenes village, dwellers voiced their concerns with the way village problems are
managed. Decision-making processes do not seem to be socially structured
consisting of various agents of cooperation, as is found in Jerge-Tal village society.
Village people appear to be much limited in power and decision-making, primarily
depending on akimat, the local operating control and decision-making body. There
seems to be a pronounced distance between the villagers and akimat ± the
relationship is characterized by disappointment and irrational cooperation. Villagers
ZHUH QRW ZLOOLQJ WR HODERUDWH LQ GHWDLO RQ WKH DNLPDWV¶ FRPSRVLWLRQ VWUXFWXUH RU
functional patterns. This ignorance can be defined by the lack of the information or
confidence issue that impacts on the villagers¶ SUR[LPLW\ WR WKH DNLPDW GHFLVLRQ
making body that could play a significant role in cooperative action intentions.

³<HV WKHUH LV DQ DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ LW LV FDOOHG ³$NLP´ RI YLOODJH´ $SSRLQWHG  E\ UHJLRQDO DNLPV«´
(Resp#3. Kenes).

³$NLPLDWLVORFDOO\RSHUDWLQJ«´,W $NLPDW LVIURPWKHUH>SRLQWLQJRQXS@2IWHQLWLVHOHFWHGEXWQRZLWLV


mafia [laughing], pointing out on theirs only« 5HVS.HQHV

³3RLQWOHVV WR DSSURDFK ORFDO DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ >DNLPDW@ 7KH\ GR QRWKLQJ DQG LJQRUH 7KH\ UHOLHYHG WKHLU
responsibility, saying that the electricity and gas are the problems of villagers. Villagers stopped
DSSURDFKLQJDNLPDWQRZDQGWU\LQJWRVXUYLYHE\WKHPVHOYHV´ 5HVS,QWHUYLHZQRWHV.HQHV

The next set players in collaborative relations among the villagers are
constituents, those who assist and contribute achieving some means for initiating
common desired changes. In Jerge-Tal village, constituents are in form of
municipality (local administration), governing according to Kyrgyz national
legislation and responsible for monitoring over the proposed projects and training
programs initiated by non-governmental sector, and also the rural community itself
that acts in their interests to participate in public gatherings, as representatives of
unions founded within the rural community of Jerge-Tal village.
Ϯϵ


³«ZHPHDQYLOODJHPXQLFLSDOLW\EHFDXVHZHZRUNXQGHULW´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³ Municipal worker) we have our own duties and responsibilities under the law of Kyrgyz Republic and,
we comply with our established duties. There is a regulation for village administration according to which
we have to work, it is also known as competence/authority for village administration. We do everything in
accordance with that. Every aspect of our responsibility is written here in detail. It consists of 23 units
where competences and responsibilities are written... (Resp#3. Jerge-Tal)

During public gatherings of representatives of villagers, unions of workers, elders,


women, and youth contribute toward the public discussions of project proposals
with village administration, identify main village obstacles for beneficial proposals,
and represent rural people and their interests. The NGO sector and international
organizations in Jerge-Tal village are the central mechanisms of rural change, being
the main sources of financial means and informational training.

³1RQ-governmental organizations are being much more useful and reliable for us (villagers) today. For
example I am participating in UNDP projects for 10 years already. This training was also funded by
UNDP and tender was won by WESA. It is also good organization. They taught us many things. One of the
VLPSOHWKLQJVWKH\KHOSHGXVWRFUHDWHJURXSVDQGKHOSHDFKRWKHULQWLPHVRIGLIILFXOW\´ 5HVS-HUJH -
Tal)

³«DOO JUDQWV DQd investments that were done in village such as: projects by: USAID, UNDP, Asia
Universla Bank, DFID, Red Cross, Helvetas, $OD 7RR &DPS (XUR $VLD )XQG *UDQW 6WLPXOL DQG HWF´
(Resp#2. Jerge-Tal)

In Kenes village despite the akimat specific functioning role, there did not seem to
be NGOs and international organizations involved as operating characters. Village
initiatives and projects generally functioned under the auspices of the Akimat
(village governing organ), headed by akims (village governors) who are primarily
appointed by the Kazakh state.

³2QO\DNLP>.D]DNKKHDGRIORFDORSHUDWLQJDJHQF\@LVZRUNLQJRQVWDWHFRQWUROOLQJNROKR]DQGWKDWLVLW´
(Resp#1. Kenes)

³5HJDUGLQJ1*2VLIZHVWDUWZRUNLQJZLWKWKHP,WKLQNORFDODGPLQLVWUDWLRQZLOOIRUJHt about us, but we


cannot live without akimat¶VVXSSRUW´ 5HVS Interview notes, Kenes)
ϯϬ


³:K\ ZRXOG 1*2VKHOSXV? :H GR QRWKDYH DQ\ UHVRXUFHV WKH\HYHQGRQRW NQRZ DERXWXV´ 5HVS
Interview notes, Kenes)

An interesting finding in Kenes village was the involvement of aksakals (respected


elders) of Kazakh societies who participate and collaborate with the akimat. It refers
WR 1HLO 0HOYLQ¶V LGHD RI PDLQWDLQLQJ WUDGLWLRQDOLVP D FKDUDFWHULVWLF WKDW IDYRUV
partnership over fragmentation, characterized by social respect for seniority
(Melvin, 2004). In Jerge-Tal, community aksakals also have their representatives in
commission established due to its social mobilization for possible cooperation
actions, together with the interests of aged people. Youth and women were also
defined as included actors in mutual dialogues with akimat, similar to aksakals
union attached to akim. In this sense, the mutual participation in decision-making
and discussions in Kenes village appears similar to that of the Jerge-Tal village
situation, though with visibly fewer representatives of Kenes society involved in the
conversations. Nonetheless, the roles and activities of aksakals, youth and women in
relation to akimat activity were not described sufficiently, except of their sort of
³DWWDFKPHQW´LWLVVWLOOSRWHQWLDOO\DIXQFWLRQDOSUHFXUVRUWRWKHFUHDWLRQRIEURDGHU
representation in the rural community, with more people being given rights to share
and promote their ideas and concerns. Such way is exactly the democratic roots of
³WKHORJLF RI HTXDOLW\´ PHQWLRQHG E\ 'DKO   ZKHQ WKH HVWDEOLVKPHQW RI ORFDO
democratic decision-making is based on representative principles (Dahl, p. 10).

³%XW ZH KDYH DNVDNDO DJHG UHVSHFWHG SHRSOH  XQLRQ DWWDFKHG WR DNLP«3DUWLFLSDWH LQ GLVFXVVion of
GLIIHUHQWSUREOHPV VROYHWKHVHSUREOHPV´ )XUWKHU TXHVWLRQ ZDV What about women participation [in
these discussions]? Aksakal: Yes they do, youth basically«´(Resp#3. Kenes)

In Jerge-Tal village I was unable to identify any people who acted as


bystanders, that is, people who are not integrated into the cooperation and stay
passive, observing form the sidelines. The main actors seem to include village
dwellers, union representatives, village municipality (operating under the Kyrgyz
ϯϭ


state patronage) and non-governmental organizations all of whom are dynamic
participants in the collaborative model used to regulate and benefit the situation in
Jerge-Tal village. Kenes village people seemed to indicate that the introduction of
international organizatiRQV DQG 1*2V FRXOG SRWHQWLDOO\ VKLIW WKH VWDWXV RI SHRSOH¶V
involvement from bystanders towards constituents of potential networking,
including interest of all village dwellers and social confidence toward akimat
governing organs. Although Blua (2004) states that NGOs play their significant
UROHVSURYLGLQJFLYLOVRFLHW\ZLWKDGHPRFUDWLFVSDFH IRU SURMHFWV¶GLVFXVVLRQVDQG
implementations, nevertheless this raises additional question as to: What does the
degree of involvement of NGOs and international orgaQL]DWLRQV¶ VXSSRUW PHDQ IRU
WKH &HQWUDO $VLDQ VWDWHV¶ DGPLQLVWUDWLYH SULQFLSOHV" ,V 1*2 DQG LQWHUQDWLRQDO
organization invovlement compatible with Kazakh state security concerns?
$FFRUGLQJWR(GZDUGV¶V507WKHVHDUHLPSRUWDQWFRQFHUQV>GHPRQWUDWHVLWVOLPLted
focus on micro level of social organization and not touching upon the issue of
politics that might be also influencial in terms of cooperation legitimization]
drawing attention to one of the shortcomings of RMT that I realize.

Comparative analysis of cases: mechanisms and resources

In the following paragraph, I characterized the major existing mechanisms and


resources, proposed by Edwards, which seems to be substantial components within
the collaborative models of both villages. One of the principal questions RMT is
whether the sources of support required to reach desired assets should be/or are
initiated internally within the community, or externally by contributors that
stimulate social organizational objectives. For this purpose, RMT came up with idea
of mechanisms and resources using which groups approach and manage collective
benefits (Edwards & McCarthy, 2004).

ϯϮ


According to Edwards (2007), self-production is a fundamental mechanism
FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ D FRPPXQLW\¶V FDSDFLW\ WR SURGXFH GHVLUHG UHVRXUces by
themselves and through existing communal agencies, organizations, or other
activists. This mechanism creates networks and forms coalitions within the society
for further results-oriented collaborative actions aimed at obtaining certain ends. In
case of Jerge-Tal village, its dwellers indicated their distinctive social construct,
relying on participation of representatives from unions, covering the interests of the
whole population, and maintaining functional links within the collaborative model.
In addition that case reveals the significance of cooptation/appropriation
mechanism that is mainly about the networked bonds of cooperation among the
social groups (unions) accessing communal profit. This mechanism involves village
municipality, NGO representatives and village population being interconnected and
optimally consistent to function as a whole. Moreover, at the stage of patronage
mechanism, village population obtains certain responsibilities of monitoring and
control over the attained resources. Villagers become in a role of beneficiaries
(patrons) getting their communal responsibilities to monitor and propose the ideas
for further directions of means. They engaged into the collaborative model as a
functional and required element.

³:HOOKRZZHZRUked in the village: we got together with representatives from village municipality, NGO
people, and representatives from unions (elderly, youth and women). We created focus groups to discuss
LVVXHVLQWKHYLOODJH´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³:HKDYHVHYHUDOXQLons: youth, women, elderly and others. They all help us to invite people and organize
VXFFHVVIXOLPSOHPHQWDWLRQ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³1RQ-governmental organizations are being much more useful and reliable for us (villagers) today. For
example, I am participating in UNDP projects for 10 years already. This training was also funded by
UNDP and tender was won by WESA. It is also good organization. They taught us many things. One of the
simple things they helped us to create groups and help each other in timHVRIGLIILFXOW\´ 5HVS-HUJH-
Tal)

ϯϯ


³6LQFHWKH HVWDEOLVKPHQWRI WKH SODFH>&RPPXQLW\FHQWHU@JLYLQJIRU UHQW VHUYLFH URRPV ZDV LQWURGXFHG
Whoever works there pays rent and for electricity. They need to keep the place well; it is checked by
municipality monthly. If something is broken, they take full responsibility for its repair. If they do not come
WRZRUNWKHQWKH\ZLOOEHODLGRIIDQGUHSODFHGE\RWKHUV´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

The indicated mechanisms specified the additional existence of social


organizational resources in form of social capital in Jerge-Tal village - intentional
and motivated villagers, volunteers, and other participants who take responsibilities
and actions in rural commission, enabling cooperation to function smoothly. In
addition, human resources are principally characteristics of dwellers in relation to
their social skills, labor, experience and other beneficial qualities of actors in social
movements. If the functional model of cooperation requires more members to be
involved, rural dwellers are basically fit to this requirement. The particular skills
and knowledge of villagers often depend and vary according to the different
proposed projects.

³&RPPLVVLRQ LVD JURXS RI SHRSOH FRQVLVWLQJ RI PXQLFLSDOLW\ KHDG UHJLRQDO GHSXWLHV Uepresentatives of
HOGHUV\RXWKZRPHQDQGVRPHRWKHUVZKRWRJHWKHUGHFLGHZKDWEHQHILWVQHHGWREHGLVWULEXWHG´ 5HVS
Jerge-Tal)

³«YLOODJHUVWKHPVHOYHVGHFLGHGWRPDNHDFRQWULEXWLRQ  VRPV ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³7KHRQH ZKR LV ZRUNLQJLQ WKHFommunity center just has a talent; he was not trained at all. But he is

doing good job, so far villagers are satisfied by his work. As for photo salon, so far we villagers thought

that only boys can work, but during competition out of many boys we found very skillful girl who knows

almost evHU\WKLQJ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

Whereas the Kenes rural society was elaborating on the self-production mechanism
more on the individualistic level and ignoring the collective principle to support
themselves with the desired means, but now being individually (entrepreneurially)
engaged, rather than operating through the formed communal agencies, networks or
social organizations as it was proposed by RMT of Edwards. People in Kenes

ϯϰ


village become more self-responsible in that sense, individually accumulating
certain benefits through the business initiatives and trends. As Melvin would
comment on this case that Kenes dwellers bonds are probably fragmented losing the
consolidation principles (Melvin, 2004). Therefore, obviously aggregation
mechanism is less practiced there, and the transformation of accumulated capital
into collective usage through the personal employment, is irrational for Kenes
dwellers.

³7KHUH LV QR NROKRV >FROOHFWLYH IDUPLQJ@ 1RZDGD\V LW LV SULYDWH SURSHUW\ HYHU\WKLQJ«ZH KDYH SULYDWH
property. There was built a fazenda - private peasant households occupied with. Here for instance farming,
HYHU\ERG\KDVLWVRZQSRUWLRQRIODQGDQGWKH\WKHPVHOYHVDUHHQJDJHGLQLW´ 5HVS.HQHV

³«QRZDGD\VDOOLVprivate. You can do what you want [occupation], you have money, you doing something
DQGVXSSRUW\RXUVHOI´ 5HVS.HQHV

³6RPHERG\LVWD[LGULYLQJGHDOLQJZLWKOLYHVWRFN´ 5HVS.HQHV

In addition, cooptation and patronage mechanisms in Kenes village society doubt


all possible forms of communal responsibilities or monitoring and control over the
attained means. Legitimized body and activity of local administration in form of
akimat, was the only distinguished performer that control and administrate the
situations in village.

³:KRP \RX FDQ DFWXDOO\ WUXVW QRZDGD\V" (YHU\RQH LV ORRNLQJ IRU KLV RZQ EHQHILWV EDQNV FDQ GHFODUH
bankrupt, deputies can be killed, you can be appeared on the street [meaning without your home and
means]. (Resp#5, Interview notes, Kenes)

³7KH\ >DNLPDW VWDII@SURPLVH DORW HVSHFLDOO\ GXULQJ WKH HOHFWLRQVEXW IXUWKHU GR WRROLWWOH«ZH KDYH WR
VXUYLYHE\RXUVHOYHV«WKH\>DNLPDWJRYHUQRUV@DUHQRWHOHFWHGSUREDEO\WKH\DUHDSSRLQWHGE\SUHVLGHQWRU
regional akimat that is not fair´ 5HVS,QWHUYLHZQRWHV.HQHV 

ϯϱ


However, the cultural resource in Kenes village was the most distinct among the
other types and pays attention to certain cultural traditions in form of collective
knowledge that in some extent benefits the community of Kenes village. Such
community knowledge can be illustrated by specific tasks or techniques used to
accomplish organized events, access resources, or run a meeting. The functionality
of cultural resources depends on the content of social movement organization,
whether its participants are aware and share common cultural practices or not.

³<HVVXUHLWLVRXUFXVWRPWRKHOSILQDQFLDOO\VRPHERG\FDQJLYHcattle«´ Resp#3.Kenes)

³+HUHIHUVWR.D]DNKWUDGLWLRQRI$VDU>WUDGLWLRQRIFROODERUDWLYHXQSDLG assistance]. If young family has


all resources to build up the house, but they need builders, so villagers start to assist them. In case of my
interviewee, villagers helped him to construct the house (sun-dried bricked) for 2 months from absolutely
the baVLV7KHUHLVQRWDONDERXWPRQH\DQGQRZKHLVUHDG\WRKHOSWKHPLQFDVHWKH\QHHGVRPHWKLQJ´
(Resp#4. Interview notes. Kenes)

³*RRGUHODWLRQVKLSVZLWKQHLJKERUVDOOGZHOOHUVNQRZHDFKRWKHU«'XULQJWKHWRLV>KROLGD\V@WKH\JDWKHU
together, males kill sheep or horse for meat for feast. Then females are involved in cooking and serving the
table. Each of them brings some food from their households. Also they help financially for the newly
PDUULHGFRXSOHVWRVWLPXODWHWKHLUOLYHLQYLOODJH´ 5HVS,QWHUview notes. Kenes)

Whereas Jerge-Tal village respondents did not mention any examples of cultural
resources that refer to the certain cultural traditions or cultural artifacts that benefit
FRXOGEHQHILWWKHP +RZHYHU³VXFKFXOWXUDOSURGXFWVIDFLOLWDWH the recruitment and
socialization of new adherents and help movements to maintain their readiness and
FDSDFLW\IRUFROOHFWLYHDFWLRQ´ (GZDUGVS 

ϯϲ


Summary and Conclusion

My research was dedicated for a studying of retrieved and further constructed


FRQFHSW RI ³PRGHO RI FROODERUDWLRQ´ WKDW ZDV REVHUYHG LQ -HUJH-Tal village of
Kyrgyz Republic and Kenes village of Kazakh Republic during the organized field
trips and employed in-depth interviewing tool with village representatives. The
³PRGHOV RI FROODERUDWLRQ´ LQ WKLV VWXG\ UHIHUUHG WR volunteer collective action of
rural people to mobilize and organize networks to deal with rural challenges, and to
propose alternative problem-solving mechanisms for attaining certain resource and
improving the village condition.

The theory of Resource Mobilization proposed by Edwards was applied as a


basic frame to analyze the concept and answering the main research question. RMT
main elements, including the actors, mechanisms and resources were made sense to
the systematic and relevant comparative analysis of rural societies in frame of RMT.

During my analytical stage of research and comparing rural contexts through the
prism of RMT, I faced with the similarities and differences of communal practicing
patterns performing social incorporation and mutual activities, precisely the
collaborative models. Further analysis indicated that the structure of that
cooperation can vary in terms of mechanisms and resources that rural dwellers
employ and socially utilize for attaining the communal benefits.

Evaluating the RMT explanatory functions during the interpretation of findings,


some questions were raised because of the RMT limitations and inability to explain
certain deviations in Edwards optimal RMT main elements, especially why the
transformation of some elements meanings and functions took place in post-Soviet
rural realities. What can be the position of RMT in relation to macro level
influence? Can it be though studied apart or necessarily requires macro level
(political) approach for considerations? The observed cases of rural realities raised

ϯϳ


the questions opened but partially backed up by the authors whose approaches were
mentioned in literature review section. Their ideas were able to cover some of the
shortages and misunderstandings of the phenomenon of models of collaboration.

As a result, my research has illustrated the distinctive collaborative models of


post-Soviet Kyrgyz and Kazakh rural realities, especially the way its dwellers
mobilizing and arranging in certain networks for the further actions against the
faced rural challenges. As a result, depicted group dialogues of Jerge-Tal
community (adherents), which were enabled into the collaborative dialogues with
village administration and non-governmental sector (constituents) was productively
estimated, and did not pointed out on neutral players (bystanders) that stay apart,
ignoring the communal intentions for actions. Whereas Kenes village of Kazakh
Republic indicated, the individualistic principle dominated among the villagers and
opportunity of transforming the bystander element (non-governmental or
international assistance for dwellers) into the functioning collaborative model.
However at this point the RMT theory of Edwards was not able to explain the
governmental and state possible reaction formations toward that introductory
intention. Nevertheless, following the last of the research intentions, concerning the
suitable collaboration model formation for Kenes village, the elements of Jerge-Tal
village communal networking were adopted (see appendix VI).

ϯϴ


Suggestions for Further Study

The triangulation method can be usefully applied in order to verify and enhance the
quality of research credibility and validity, conducting more crosscheck studies of
rural regions, employing additional research methods and tools. Furthermore, urban
contexts can be retrieved for potential Resource Mobilization Theory evaluations,
and studying a certain urban cooperation patterns and networking of urban dwellers.
Finally, it could be advantageous to design action research, applied to rural
communities, introducing the villagers with the proposed beneficial collaborative
moments, mechanisms and resource attainability. 
My analysis demonstrated a pronounced tendency of Kyrgyz village to
depend on assistance from non-governmental and international organizations,
ZKHUHDV WKH  .D]DNK UXUDO FDVH SRUWUD\HG D FRQWUDU\ UHDOLW\ RI WKH VWDWH¶V GLUHFW
LQYROYHPHQW DQG SDWURQDJH RYHU LWV YLOODJH DQG DEVHQFH RI 1*2V¶ DFWLYLW\ 0\
findngs raised a number of questions worth for further researches: What does the
GHJUHH RI LQYROYHPHQW RI 1*2V PHDQ IRU WKH &HQWUDO $VLDQ VWDWHV¶ RUJDQL]DWLRQDO
principles? Does it have a link with state security concerns? And how can it affect
the population well-being?

These questions are of great interest to me and highly motivate me to conduct


a more in-depth study concerning Central Asian international and regional security
principles, and attitudes towards the role of international organizations in them.

ϯϵ


Reference list

Adams, L. & Rustemova, A. (2009). Mass spectacle and styles of governmentality


in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Europe-Asia Studies, 61:7, pp. 1249 - 1276.
Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09668130903068798.

Addmore, M. (2011). Livelihood strategies of aged people in Mubaira community,


Zimbabwe. University of Fort Hare.

Berg, B. (1989). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Boston: Allyn
& Bacon.

Blua, A. (2004). Central Asia: NGOs helping to develop civil society.

Buxton, C. (2009). NGO networks in Central Asia and global civil society:
potentials and limitations. Central Asia Survey, 28:1, pp. 43-58. Retrieved from
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02634930902775129.

Dahl, R. (2000). Where and how did democracy develop: A brief history. (1 ed), pp.
7-25. Yale University Press.

Dergousoff, D. (2011). Rebuilding rural economies through a comprehensive


program of informal adult education: Opportunities, prospects and obstacles for
women and youth in the Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic.

ϰϬ


Edwards, B. & McCarthy, J. D. (2004). Resources and social movement
mobilization. In: Snow, D. A., Soule, S. A., & Kriesi, H. (Eds.), pp.1126-52, The
Blackwell Companion to social movements. Blackwell, Malden, MA.

Edwards, B. (2007). Resources mobilization theory. In the Blackwell encyclopedia


of sociology. Edited by George Ritzer. p. 3901-3905. Blackwell publishing Ltd.

(YHUV + .DLVHU 0  0OOHU   Knowledge in development: Epistemic


machineries in a global context. International Social Science Journal 195:55-68.

Gibbs, G. (2011). Analyzing qualitative data. London et al, Sage.

Haberman, J. (1987). The Theory of communicative action, Boston: Beacon.

Habermas, J. (1984). Theory of communicative action, Vol. 1: Reason and the


rationalization of society. Boston: Beacon.

Jenkins, C. (1983). Resource mobilization theory and the study of social movements.
Annual Review of Sociology, (9), 527-553. Retrieved November 11, 2011, from
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2946077.

Kamp, M. (2004). Between women and the state: Mahalla committees and social
welfare in Uzbekistan. In Luong, P. (Ed.). The Transformation of Central Asia (pp.
29-58).

ϰϭ


Melvin, N. J. (2004). Authoritarian pathways in Central Asia: A comparison of
Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz republic and Uzbekistan, pp. 119-142 in Democracy and
Pluralism in Muslim Eurasia HGLWHGE\<DDFRY5R¶L/RQGRQDQG1HZ<RUN)UDQN
Cass.

Merriam, S. B. (1988). Case study research in education: A qualitative approach.


San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Morozova, I. (2011). The history of Perestroika in Central Asia: Social


transformation in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia, 1982-1991. Humboldt
University, Berlin.

Mulgan, G. & Wilkinson, H. (1992). The enabling and disabling state. In Fusfeld,
D. (2002). The Age of the Economist, (9ed.). Boston: Addison Wesley.

Polanyi, K. (2006). The great transformation from 1920 to 1990. In K. Polanyi


(Ed.), The contemporary significance of the great transformation (2nd ed.) (pp.3-
11). Montreal, New York, London: Black Rose Books.

Samuel, L., Popkin. (1984). The rational peasant: The political economy of rural
society in Vietnam. University of California Press.

Scott, J. (1976). The Moral Economy of the Peasant, New Haven: Yale University P
ress.

ϰϮ


Smelser, N. (1962). Theory of collective behavior. New York: The Free Press.
Retrieved from
http://www.archive.org/stream/theoryofcollecti00smel/theoryofcollecti00smel_djvu.
txt

Walker, J., Mitchell B. & Wismer S. (2001). Impact Assessment and Project
Appraisal, volume 19, number 4, pages 297-309. Beech Tree Publishing, UK.

ϰϯ


Appendix I. List of questions

Predetermined list of questions as a guide for Kazak village fieldwork was


partially rely on questions that were designed for Kyrgyz village examination, and
additionally developed questions, aimed on the detailed investigation of all possible
forms of cooperation within the Kazakh village.

INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

1. Could you please provide me with historical background of your village specific
characteristics, specialization, and societal composition? [Try to construct social
map of a village: population, age, gender, financial position, employment]
- What life was like in Soviet times here? [Generate more facts and examples]

- Sources of income, employment, administration, economy and social field.

- What changed after Independence? [Income sources, employment, administration,


economy, society]

2. What would you say are the main current challenges facing your village on macro
[financing, state involvement, legislation, local administration] and micro [family,
village condition, society] levels? Do you think things will improve in the next 5 to
10 years? [In what ways worse? or better?] [Generate examples and facts].

3. What can you say about your relationships with other villagers? Have you ever
UHOLHG RQ YLOODJHUV¶ DVVLVWDQFH RU KHOSHG WKHP E\ \RXUVHOI LQ ZKDW FDVHV" $Q\
H[DPSOHV"'R\RXLQYLWH\RXUQHLJKERUVIRU\RXUIDPLO\³7RLV´>Vuch as birthdays,
weddings, funerals]. What are their roles during these rituals?

4. What is the role of local administration and its contribution toward the village
GHYHORSPHQW" >µ)RXU 5V¶ WHFKQLTXH UROHV UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV ULJKWV DQG UHODWLRQV@

ϰϰ


Who arHWKHDGPLQLVWUDWLRQUHSUHVHQWDWLYHV"$UHWKH\HOHFWHGRU«"+RZRIWHQGRHV
election occur? Do you participate in elections?

5. What kind of things do you think needs to be changed (improved) in village, what
things need to be preserved (does not need change)?

- economic condition

- infrastructure

- administrative issues

- non-governmental assistance

- social relationships and common practices

6. Have you ever heard of non-governmental assistance (external contributors,


donors,
international organizations) ever visited and operating in your village?

- What were their contributions toward the village?

- Did they approach you [villagers] for mutual assistance?

- Did they cooperate with village administration?

- Do you think your village is in need of this assistance in addition to


governmental? Why?

/HW¶VVD\\RXZDQWWRLPSURYH\RXUYLOODJHDQG\RXKDYHDOOUHVRXUFHVIRULWZKDW
would you start from? Whom should you contact in such case? Who can be your
followers and supporters? Is it possible to realize your [villagers] ideas? Any
previous examples of how villagers contributed to village? Will it be possible to rely
on non-governmental assistance? How can you approach state officials?

ϰϱ


8. What kinds of government assistance are currently available for villagers?
[Practical examples]

- How can villagers find out about that?

- Who is responsible for information delivering to the villagers?

/HW¶VVXSSRVHDIDUPLQJSURMHFWZDVGHYHORSHGIRU\RXUYLOODJH

- Who would be in charge of deciding what was needed for the village?

- What kind of work is involved in making these decisions?

[I will try to illustrate the step-by-step process ± what are the protocols involved?
Who would initiate things? How would they go about initiating something? What
authorities would they need to deal with locally or nationally? What kind of work
would be involved in these dealings?] Additional detailed description of what is
involved is necessary:

- Who is consulted? How are they consulted?

- Are both men and women involved? What about youth?

- Are decisions made democratically or by the authority of leaders?

[Who are the leaders? $UHWKH\HOHFWHGRU«"@

ϰϲ


Appendix II. Interview consent form for respondents

Explain purpose of research:

I am working on my senior thesis as a final research project representing Sociology


Discipline of American University of Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek city.

My primarily intention is to illustrate a cooperative model of your rural society.


Further objective is to use the model to make recommendations how to improve this
model introducing to interested scholars how to effectively modernize and
implement developing projects and strategies contributing toward rural regions of
the country.

The information recorded from you today will be used in the following ways:

x By me and my adviser to illustrate a cooperative model of your rural society


x Information may be published in academic articles, and shared in classrooms,
internet site, at Conferences: both locally and internationally
x $VGDWDIRUWKHSULQFLSDOUHVHDUFKHU¶V0$ study

Agreeing to participate in this interview does not oblige you to answer questions I
ask that you would rather not talk to me about. Do you understand the purpose of
the interview?

Would you prefer to be named or should be keep you anonymous in our research?

Do you agree to participate and being recorded on tape recorder?

Signature: Date:

ϰϳ


Appendix III. Interview directions 1

Introduce myself. Present myself and read out interview intentions to the person I
am interviewing.

Request consent. Examine the interview consent form file (see appendix II) with the
interviewees getting their signatures. Make sure the interviewees give their consent
for using tape recorder.

Start up the tape recorder. %HJLQWKHLQWHUYLHZE\VD\LQJ,


PVSHDNLQJZLWK«ZKR
LVJRLQJWR«´LQRUGHUWRGLVWLQJXLVKDQGFDWHJRUL]HUHFRUGV

Making notes. In case tape recording intention will be rejected, be ready to make
notes as an alternative.

Let the interviewee talk. Try to create situation when the interviewee should do
most of the talking. Try to be in a role of listener.

Show interest. Follow the interviewee, demonstrating an interest toward what


person is saying. Pay attention to eye contact and nodding a head occasionally.

Be aware of asking questions. In case the interviewee stops talking or mentions a


certain attractive phenomenon, I supposed to interfere with additional questions to
stimulate the person to provide more descriptive information.

Demonstrate respect and empathy. Greet the interviewees with basic Kazakh
VDOXWDWRU\ SKUDVHVOLNH³6DOHPHWVL]EH´³'HQVDXOLJLQNDODL"´³5D[PHWVDKDQ´³6DX
EROLQL]´ HWF GHPRQVWUDWLQJ UHVSHFW WRZDUG WKH .D]DNK FXOWXUH DQG JDLQLQJ
UHVSRQGHQWV¶IDYRUIURPWKHP


ϭ
Based on http://www.dceverest.org/srhigh/socialstudies/histday/Process/InterviewTips.htm

ϰϴ


Thank the person. Express your gratitude for the dedicated time and willingness to
participate in interviews.

ϰϵ


Appendix IV. List of codes with citations: Jerge-Tal village,
Kyrgyzstan

Self-production mechanism:

³:HZURWHDSURMHFW*RGKHDUGXVDQGWKHSURMHFWZDVVXSSRUWHGWKHRQHZULWWHQ
RQFRPPXQLW\SODFH´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³,WZDVDGHFLVLRQWKDWZDVWDNHQWRJHWKer with all villagers. So this is how the idea


RI WKH FRPPXQLW\ SODFH HPHUJHG DQG WKHQ ZH DSSOLHG IRU WKH SURMHFW´ 5HVS
Jerge-Tal)

³:H ZHUH DVNHG DOO WRJHWKHU GLVFXVV RXU PRVW LPSRUWDQW QHHGV DW WKH YLOODJH 6R
SHRSOHJDWKHUHGDQGOLVWHQWKHP>81'3¶VSURJUDP@DFFRUGLQJO\´ 5HVS-HUJH-
Tal)

³:HOO KRZ ZH ZRUNHG LQ WKH YLOODJH ZH JRW WRJHWKHU ZLWK UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV IURP
village municipality, NGO people, and representatives from unions (elderly, youth
and women). We created focus groups to discuss issues LQ WKH YLOODJH´ 5HVS
Jerge-Tal)

³:H KDYH VHYHUDO XQLRQV \RXWK ZRPHQ HOGHUO\ DQG RWKHUV 7KH\ DOO KHOS XV WR
LQYLWHSHRSOHDQGRUJDQL]HVXFFHVVIXOLPSOHPHQWDWLRQ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³:H KDYH QXPEHU RI XQLRQV WKDW JHW WRJHWKHU 7KHVH DUH PXQLFLpality workers,
union of youth, women, elders, local deputies and others. We have youth union.
They are involved for gathering that is hold annually for other unions. They are free
to say their opinion and concerns. If it is approved by other union members, it will
be addressed. It can be addressed only in annual gathering because ministry of
-XVWLFHDSSURYHVLWRQO\RQFHD\HDU´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)
ϱϬ


³,KDYHDOUHDG\PHQWLRQHGWKHUHDUHQXPEHURIXQLRQV\RXWKHOGHUVZRPHQDQG
etc. we will invite representatives from all those unions to discuss it [training
project], but if it is already reformed on governmental level we will accept it. But it
would be better if government would not propose us some trainings/projects without
identifying what are the most important priorities for the village depending on
YLOODJH SHRSOH¶V QHHGV DQG QHFHVVLWLHV 2Q SXEOLF JDWKHULQJV LQ WKH YLOODJH LW LV
SRVVLEOHWRUDQNSULRULWLHVWKDWDUHVKDUHGZLGHO\´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³7KHFRPPXQLW\SHRSOHPHPEHUVYLVLWSHRSOHLQQHHG to see how they live and what


help they need, there are people who are disable, who live alone, too old to come
DQGDGGUHVVWKHLUQHHGV´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³&RPPLVVLRQ LV D JURXS RI SHRSOH FRQVLVWLQJ RI PXQLFLSDOLW\ KHDG UHJLRQDO
deputies, representatives of elders, youth, women and some others who together
GHFLGHZKDWEHQHILWVQHHGWREHGLVWULEXWHG´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

Aggregation mechanism:

³6R WRGD\ HLJKW ZRPHQ DQG ILYH PHQ ZRUN RQ RXU FRPPXQLW\ SODFH FRPPXQLW\
FHQWHU ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³3RYerty reduction program in village, those 80 families are working actively,


getting micro credits, still participating in trainings, some of them already have
WKHLURZQEXVLQHVVHV7KH\WDXJKWVXUYLYDOVNLOOV´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³ $IWHU WUDLQLQJV  WKUHH Pen started to work with already processed leather and
doing small souvenir staff for school children like bracelets, cell phone bags and
etc. Some of them are using leather from their old belts and bags instead of sitting
ZLWKQRMRE´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

ϱϭ


³$VIRUWKHGHPDQGIRUVHUYLFHDYDLODEOHDWFRPPXQLW\SODFH>KDLUFXWVHZLQJDQG
OHDWKHU KDQGLFUDIW@ , WKLQN WKHUH HQRXJK GHPDQG WR NHHS WKH SODFH UXQQLQJ´
(Resp#1. Jerge-Tal)

³«QRZZHKDYHPRUHSHRSOHZLOOLQJWRZRUNDQGSHRSOHZKRZLOOLQJO\VHQGWKHLU
children here in (Kindergarten). People started to understand the importance of
NLQGHUJDUWHQVQRZ«WKHUHDUHSHRSOHZRUNLQJKHUH,WLVJRRG´ 5HVS-HUJH-
Tal)

³3UREDEO\ \RX ZHUH WROG WKDW WKLV SODFH FRPPXQLW\ FHQWHU  ZDV DOVR IXQGHG E\
UNDP to meet the needs and help not only one or two person, but to meet the needs
RIZKROHYLOODJH´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

Cooptation/appropriation mechanism:

³:H KDYH WR DFNQRZOHGJH YLOODJH PXQLFLSDOLW\ KHOSHG D ORW 81,)(0 JDYH DERXW
GROODUV´ 5HVS-HUge-Tal)

³:H PHW ZLWK 81'3 YROXQWHHUV 7KH\ UHDG QHHGV WKDW ZHUH DGGUHVVHG E\ XV DQG
VDLGWKDWWKH\FDQZRUNZLWKXV´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³:HJRWIURP81,)(0LQRUGHUWRVWDUWXSWKHVHSODFHV>&RPPXQLW\FHQWHU
within the village with a number of smaOOHQWUHSUHQHXULDOHQWHUSULVHV@´,WZDVQRW
enough and we got 600000 soms from the village municipality, it included taxes
taken from salaries of working people. In addition to that there were many
individual supporters. Overall 156300 soms were spent in order to build the
FRPPXQLW\SODFH´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³0DQ\ SHRSOH DUH WU\LQJ WR GR VRPHWKLQJ WKHPVHOYHV DV ZHOO WKH\ DUH WDNLQJ
credits. In comparison with what was life like five years ago it improved for 10-

ϱϮ


12%. There are available micro credits for people with 3% interest rate monthly. It
is good. Now almost all villagers are doing (taking micro credits) it, buying
OLYHVWRFNDQGVHOOLQJEDFNEX\LQJVHHGVDQGSHWUROIRUODQGZRUN´ 5HVS-HUJH-
Tal)

³3XEOLFJDWKHULQJV«XVXDOO\RYHUSHRSOHMRLQ LW´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³«DOO JUDQWV DQG LQYHVWPHQWV WKDW ZHUH GRQH LQ YLOODJH VXFK DV SURMHFWV E\
USAID, UNDP, Asia Universal Bank, DFID, Red Cross, Ala Too Camp, Euro Asia
)XQG*UDQW6WLPXOLDQGHWF´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³«ZH UHFHLYH KHOS IURP LQWHUnational organizations such as MerciKo, Akted


(French NGO she said) and others. They come usually with Poverty Reduction
Programs. They ask to prove what are the indicators of poverty and the list of
SHRSOHVXIIHULQJIURPLW´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³,Q IDFW we have comprehensive training program designed according to village


needs. One is already functioning with two groups. Each group has 30 students. It
ZDV RSHQHG E\ 6ZLVV RUJDQL]DWLRQ +HOYHWDV«SURYLGLQJ WHDFKLQJ YLOODJHUV¶ VNLOOV
that are important to vilODJH VXFK DV IDUPLQJ FDWWOH EUHDGLQJ´ 5HVS -HUJH-
Tal)

³3HRSOH YLOODJHUV¶ IDPLOLHV ZKR VHQG WKHLU FKLOGUHQ  DQG JRYHUQPHQW DUH
VXSSRUWLQJIRRGVXSSOHPHQWV« )RUNLQGHUJDUWHQ ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³/DWHU XQGHU WKH VXSSRUW RI 2%,(5 ZH ZURWH DQRWKer project that allowed us to
ZHOFRPH  FKLOGUHQ WR NLQGHUJDUWHQ  :LWK 2%,(5¶V VXSSRUW ZH FRXOG EXLOW 
more rooms in first floor and 2 rooms in the second floor. OBIER also helped us to
EX\DOOWKHVHWDEOHVDQGFKDLUV79WR\VIXUQLWXUH«´ 5HVS-Hrge-Tal)

ϱϯ


³2%,(5DQG$JD-Khan Foundations are helping us (village kindergarten workers)
DORW$OOVWXIIWKDWZHKDYHKHUHIRUYLVXDOOHDUQLQJSDLQWLQJVZHUHJLYHQE\WKHP´
(Resp#4. Jerge-Tal)

³1RQ-governmental organizations are being much more useful and reliable for us
(villagers) today. For example, I am participating in UNDP projects for 10 years
already. This training was also funded by UNDP and tender was won by WESA. It
is also good organization. They taught us many things. One of the simple things they
KHOSHG XV WR FUHDWH JURXSV DQG KHOS HDFK RWKHU LQ WLPHV RI GLIILFXOW\´ 5HVS
Jerge-Tal)

³3HRSOH IURP RXU YLOODJH KDYH DOUHDG\ SDUWLFLSDWHG LQ :(6$ SURMHFWV EHIRUH ,I ,
remember correctly in one that was focused on sewing curtains. As far as I
understood their projects focus on teaching new skills, they try to teach it well so
that one can practice by producing qualitative products. I work in cooperative
FRQVLVWLQJRIILYHSHRSOH LQWKHYLOODJH ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³ :(6$WUDLQLQJSDUWLFLSDQW although we did not learn processing leather visually


we (village participants of trainings) were distributed handouts prepared by WESA
(NGO) to refresh our knowledge if we forget it. We learned beautiful designs
(sewing). I hope after the training we will put our own fantasy and start to produce
products made in combination of felt with leather. They (WESA trainings) showed
XV D ZD\ QRZ ZH VKRXOG FRQWLQXH WKLV WUDFN ZH DUH YHU\ JUDWHIXO WR SURMHFW´
(Resp#5. Jerge-Tal)

Patronage mechanism:

³6LQFH WKH HVtablishment of the place [Community center] giving for rent service
rooms was introduced. Whoever works there pays rent and for electricity. They need

ϱϰ


to keep the place well; it is checked by municipality monthly. If something is broken
they take full responsibility for its repair. If they do not come to work then they will
EHODLGRIIDQGUHSODFHGE\RWKHUV´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³(YHU\SURMHFWKDVLWVRZQOHDGHUVDQGOHDGHUVSURYLGHXVYLOODJHPXQLFLSDOLW\ZLWK
GHWDLOHGLQIRUPDWLRQDERXWSURMHFW¶VDLPIXnding spent (on what), work done, who
LVLPSOHPHQWLQJLWDQGHWF´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³«ZHPHDQYLOODJHPXQLFLSDOLW\EHFDXVHZHZRUNXQGHULW´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

Moral resources:

³:HOO KRZ ZH ZRUNHG LQ WKH YLOODJH ZH JRW WRJHWKHU ZLWK UHSUHVHQWDWLYHs from
village municipality, NGO people, and representatives from unions (elderly, youth
DQGZRPHQ ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³ $ERXWYLOODJH0XQLFLSDOLW\ ZHKDYHRXURZQGXWLHVDQGUHVSRQVLELOLWLHVXQGHUWKH
law of Kyrgyz Republic and, we comply with our established duties. There is a
regulation for village administration according to which we have to work, it is also
known as competence/authority for village administration. We do everything in
accordance with that. Every our responsibility is written here in detail. It consists of
23 units where competences and responsibilities are written... (Resp#3. Jerge-Tal)

³:H YLOODJHSHRSOHDOOWRJHWKHURYHULW:HVWXG\WKHH[HPSODU\IRUWRVHHWKDWLW
fits to our needs and necessities. In addition, we raise important point/issues that
are related to our village administration. It is not related (totally alone by
JRYHUQPHQW LWLVVRPHWKLQJUHODWHGWRXVIRURXUQHHGVDQGQHFHVVLWLHV´ 5HVS
Jerge-Tal)

ϱϱ


³:KLOH FKRRVLQJ OHDGHU IRU YLOODJH ³$\LO-Okmoty-Village GoverQRU´ ZH WU\ WR
choose the one who would work for people, who would feel for people, who
understand current economic, social and political issues. In fact, people together
choose 6-7 candidates for this position and among them we (villagers) choose the
one. 6LQFH SHRSOH YRWH IRU WKHP , EHOLHYH LW LV GRQH LQ GHPRFUDWLF ZD\´ 5HVS
Jerge-Tal)

³:HFKRRVHRXUORFDOJRYHUQRUWKURXJKUHIHUHQGXPLQGHPRFUDWLFZD\%RWKPHQ
DQGZRPHQFDQSDUWLFLSDWH´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

Cultural resources:

* Jerge-Tal village respondents did not mention any examples of cultural resources
that refer to the certain cultural traditions or cultural artifacts in form of particular
collective knowledge that could benefit community. As Edwards argues, ³Vuch
cultural products facilitate the recruitment and socialization of new adherents and
help movements to maintain their readiness and capacity fRUFROOHFWLYHDFWLRQ´ p.
3904).

Social organizational resources:

³:HOO KRZ ZH ZRUNHG LQ WKH YLOODJH ZH JRW WRJHWKHU ZLWK UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV IURP
village municipality, NGO people, and representatives from unions (elderly, youth
DQGZRPHQ ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³(YHU\SURMHFWKDVLWVRZQOHDGHUVDQGOHDGHUVSURYLGHXVYLOODJHPXQLFLSDOLW\ZLWK
GHWDLOHGLQIRUPDWLRQDERXWSURMHFW¶VDLPIXQGLQJVSHQW (on what), work done, who
LVLPSOHPHQWLQJLWDQGHWF´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

ϱϲ


³7KHFRPPXQLW\SHRSOHPHPEHUVYLVLWSHRSOHLQQHHGWRVHHKRZWKH\OLYHDQGZKDW
help they need, there are people who are disable, who live alone, too old to come
and address their QHHGV´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³&RPPLVVLRQ LV D JURXS RI SHRSOH FRQVLVWLQJ RI PXQLFLSDOLW\ KHDG UHJLRQDO
deputies, representatives of elders, youth, women and some others who together
GHFLGHZKDWEHQHILWVQHHGWREHGLVWULEXWHG´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³«YLOODgers themselves decided to make a contribution (30  VRPV ´ 5HVS
Jerge-Tal)

³:H YLOODJHUV  KDYH EHHQ UXQQLQJWKLVSODFH VLQFH 'HFHPEHU  DQGWLOO$SULO


2010 we worked for free, we did not even get 1 som. Monthly children paid 200
soms (for kindHUJDUWHQ  EXW LW ZDV XVHG IRU WKHLU IRRG ZH GLG QRW JHW DQ\WKLQJ´
(Resp#4. Jerge-Tal)

³6LQFH , DP D KHDG RI WKH FRRSHUDWLYH LW LV P\ UHVSRQVLELOLW\ WR GR LW , WU\ WR
observe and record who is doing what. Also I am a math teacher, thus I make
calculatioQVFRUUHFWO\´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

Human resources:

³7KH RQH ZKR LV ZRUNLQJ LQ WKH FRPPXQLW\ FHQWHU MXVW KDV D WDOHQW KH ZDV QRW
trained at all. But he is doing good job, so far villagers are satisfied by his work. As
for photo salon, so far we villagers thought that only boys can work, but during
competition out of many boys we found very skillful girl who knows almost
HYHU\WKLQJ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

ϱϳ


³7KHFRPPXQLW\SHRSOHPHPEHUVYLVLWSHRSOHLQQHHGWRVHHKRZWKH\OLYHDQGZKDW
help they need, there are people who are disable, who live alone, too old to come
DQGDGGUHVVWKHLUQHHGV´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³7KHUH DUH PDQ\ \RXWK LQ WKH YLOODJH ZKR GR QRW VWXG\ DIWHU ILQLVKLQJ VFKRRO
because of various reasons. These (farming) trainings are very good opportunity for
WKHP´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³+HUHDOOVWDIIKDVFHUWLILFDWHVDOOKDYHWKHLUVHFRQGDU\DQGKLJKHUHGXFDWLRQ:H
YLOODJHUV DOVRSDUWLFLSDWHGLQQXPEHURIWUDLQLQJGHGLFDWHGIRUFKLOGUHQ´ 5HVS
Jerge-Tal)

Material resources:

³6RPHSDUWRIWhe community place is not finished, we are planning in the future to


repair it and build billiard and tennis playing place, for youth and one room for
cleaning and softening wool. The walls are there, we need to clean the place, put
roof, window and doors. 81,)(0JDYHDERXWGROODUV´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³:HJRWIURP81,)(0LQRUGHUWRVWDUWXSWKHVHSODFHV,WZDVQRWHQRXJK
and we got 600000 soms from the village municipality, it includes taxes taken from
salaries of working people. In addition to that there were many individual
VXSSRUWHUV´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

³ 000 soms were given by villagers and support from TOS, OBIER to start up the
SODFH« .LQGHUJDUWHQ ´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)
³2%,(5DOVR KHOSHGXV WREX\DOOWKHVH WDEOHVDQG FKDLUV 79, toys, furniture and
HWF´ 5HVS-HUJH-Tal)

ϱϴ


Appendix V. List of codes with citations: Kenes village, Kazakhstan

Self-production mechanism:

³%DVLFDOO\ ZH GR FDWWOH EUHHGLQJ FDWWOH UDLVLQJ KDYLQJ )D]HQGDV )D]HQGD LW LV
OLNH«IRU LQVWDQFH RQ =KDLODX [in Kazakh pasture] I can build a house and raise
FDWWOH VKHHS ZLOG UDP KRUVHV FRZV ,W LV FDOOHG P\ SULYDWH )D]HQGD´ 5HVS
Kenes)

³%HIRUHZHKDGOLYHVWRFNVHFWRUEXWQRZDOOLVSULYDWHEHFDPH%XWEDVLFDOO\ZHGR
beet growing, grain, how it is called-JUDLQFXOWXUH´ 5HVS.HQHV

³«QRZDGD\V DOO LV SULYDWH <RX FDQ GR ZKDW \RX ZDQW >RFFXSDWLRQ@ \RX KDYH
PRQH\\RXGRLQJVRPHWKLQJDQGVXSSRUW\RXUVHOI´ 5HVS.HQHV

³6RPHERG\LVWD[LGULYLQJGHDOLQJZLWKOLYHVWRFN´ 5HVS.HQHV

³+HUH\RXcan open your Fazenda and it will feed you. Or you can buy a car and
become taxi driver, because we do not have our bus here. Every morning you can
HDUQ>WHQJH@IURPHDFKSDVVHQJHUERWKZD\V´ 5HVS.HQHV 

³7KHUH LV QR NROKRV >FROOHFWLYH IDUPLQJ@ Nowadays it is private property


HYHU\WKLQJ«ZH KDYH SULYDWH SURSHUW\ 7KHUH ZDV EXLOW ID]HQGD - private peasant
households occupied with. Here for instance farming, everybody has its own portion
RIODQGDQGWKH\WKHPVHOYHVDUHHQJDJHGLQLW´ 5HVS.HQHV)

³+HUHGZHOOHUVDUHOLYLQJSRRUKHUH7KH\IHHGWKHPVHOYHV%XWWKHUHDUHWKRVHZKR
KDYHPDQ\FDWWOH³ID]HQGD´VSHFLILFDOO\WKH\KLUHSHRSOHWKH\OLYHJRRG7KH\VHOO
WRWKHVWDWHWRWKHED]DUV´ 5HVS.HQHV

³6RPHWLPHVRXUORFDODXOVIHHGWKHDGPinistrative centers by providing with fodder


DQGJUDLQVXSSOLHV´ 5HVS,QWHUYLHZQRWHV.HQHV
ϱϵ


³3RLQWOHVVWRDSSURDFKORFDODGPLQLVWUDWLRQ>DNLPDW@7KH\GRQRWKLQJDQGLJQRUH
They relieved their responsibility, saying that the electricity and gas are the
problems of villagers. Villagers stopped approaching akimat now, and trying to
VXUYLYHE\WKHPVHOYHV´ 5HVS,QWHUYLHZQRWHV.HQHV

Aggregation mechanism:

³«:HKDYHVWDWHVFKRRONLQGHUJDUWHQPHGLFDOZDUG´ 5HVS.HQHV

³:H QHHG ZKDW \RX KDYe just heard about, gas we need basically. We have water
«KHUHZDVZDWHU-pump station, now there is substation, and it is not enough, there
will be installed the electricity-electric motor this year only, earlier it was
PDQXDOO\´ 5HVS.HQHV

³:KHQ ZH [villagers] installed a pump for water, everybody who contributed
VRPHKRZKDVDQDFFHVV´ 5HVS,QWHUYLHZQRWHV.HQHV

Cooptation/appropriation mechanism:

³7KDWGHSXW\>SUHVHQWLQJDWYLOODJHRUJDQL]HGPHHWLQJZLWKGHSXW\@LVSURPLVLQJWKH
JDV«WKHPRVW FUXFLDOSUREOHPVDUHZDWHUDQGWKHJDV´ 5HVS.HQHV

³ 6WDWH HGXFDWLRQDO JUDQWV  :KHQ \RX ILQLVK D VFKRRO« VSHFLDO IRU FKLOGUHQ
>VWXGHQWV@WKH\JRWRFLW\SDVVH[DPVWHVWVDQGVWXG\WKHUH´ 5HVS.HQHV

³%XWZHKDYHDNVDNDO DJHGUHVSHFWHGSHRSOH XQLRQDWWDFKHGWRDNLP«3DUWLFLSDWH


LQGLVFXVVLRQ RIGLIIHUHQWSUREOHPVVROYHWKHVHSUREOHPV´ )XUWKHUTXHVWLRQZDV
What about women participation [in these discussions]? Aksakal: Yes they, do,
\RXWKEDVLFDOO\«´(Resp#3. Kenes)

ϲϬ


³7KRVHZKRDUHZHDOWK\, they supposed to have about 100 or 50 heads, further they
KDYHWRSD\WD[«WKH\WDNHFUHGLWVDQGSD\EDFN«´ 5HVS.HQHV 

³'HSXWLHV DUH GHFLGLQJ VROYH D JDV SUREOHP SURMHFW  WKHQ WR WKH 6WDWH« ,W LV
GHFLGHG RQ WKH WRS ZKR VLWV WKHUH«WKH\ GHFLGH JLYH (financial assistance) or
QRW«%XWWKLVGHSXW\>IURPPHHWLQJVZLWKORFDOV@KDVKLVRZQILQDQFH'LGQRW\RX
KHDUKHKDVKLVRZQUHVWDXUDQWLQWKHFLW\+HKDVPHDQV´ 5HVS.HQHV

³:KRP\RXFDQDFWXDOO\WUXVWQRZDGD\V"HYHU\RQHLVORRNLQJIRUKLVRZQEenefits:
banks can declare bankrupt, deputies can be killed, you can be appeared on the
street [meaning without your home and means]. (Resp#5, Interview notes, Kenes)

Patronage mechanism:

³Only akim [Kazakh head of local operating agency] is working on state,


FRQWUROOLQJNROKR]DQGWKDWLVLW´ 5HVS.HQHV 

³$NLPLDWLVORFDOO\RSHUDWLQJ«´,W $NLPDW LVIURPWKHUH>SRLQWLQJRQXS@2IWHQLW


LVHOHFWHGEXWQRZLWLVPDILD>ODXJKLQJ@SRLQWLQJRXWRQµWKHLUV¶« 5HVS.HQHV

³<HV WKHUH LV DQ DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ LW LV FDOOHG ³$NLP´ RI YLOODJH´ $SSRLQWHG  E\
UHJLRQDODNLPV«´ 5HVS.HQHV 

³5HJDUGLQJ1*2VLIZHVWDUWZRUNLQJZLWKWKHP,WKLQNORFDODGPLQLVWUDWLRQZLOO
IRUJHWDERXW XVEXW ZH FDQQRW OLYH ZLWKRXWDNLPDW¶V VXSSRUW´ 5HVS Interview
notes, Kenes)

³7KH\ >DNLPDW VWDII@ SURPLVH D ORW HVSHFLDOO\ GXULQJ WKH HOHFWLRQVEXW IXUWKHU GR
WRR OLWWOH«ZH KDYH WR VXUYLYH E\ RXUVHOYHV«WKH\ >DNLPDW JRYHUQRUV@ DUH QRW
elected, probably they are appointed by president or regional akimat that is not
fair´ 5HVS#5, Interview notes, Kenes)
ϲϭ


Moral resources:

³&XUUHQW SUDFWLFH RI KLJK VFKRRO JUDGXDWHV ZKR DJUHHG WR PHHW HYHU\  \HDUV
[ each graduates] in order to help and contribute to village, like pay tribute to
village in different formats, where they grew up and got their education. Previous
results from that practice are built arch when you entering the village like gates;
madrasah or Muslim religious school, mosque and pressure motor for making cold
ZDWHU DYDLODEOH IRU YLOODJHUV WR XVH´ 5HVS Interview notes. Kenes)

Cultural resources:

³<HV VXUH LW LV RXU FXVWRP WR KHOS ILQDQFLDOO\ VRPHERG\ FDQ JLYH cattle«´
(Resp#3.Kenes)

³+H UHIHUV WR .D]DNK WUDGLWLRQ RI $VDU >WUDGLWLRQ RI FROODERUDWLYH XQSDLG
assistance]. If young family has all resources to build up the house, but they need
builders, so villagers start to assist them. In case of my interviewee, villagers helped
him to construct the house (sun-dried bricked) for 2 months from absolutely the
basis. There is no talk about money, and now he is ready to help them in case they
QHHGVRPHWKLQJ´ 5HVS,QWHUYLHZQRWHV.HQHV 

³*RRGUHODWLRQVKLSVZLWKQHLJKERUVDOOGZHOOHUVNQRZHDFKRWKHU«'XULQJWKHWRLV
[holidays] they gather together, males kill sheep or horse for meat for feast. Then
females are involved in cooking and serving the table. Each of them brings some
food from their households. Also they help financially for the newly married couples
WRVWLPXODWHWKHLUOLYHLQYLOODJH´ 5HVS,QWHUYLHZQRWHV.HQHV 

ϲϮ


Social organizational resources:

³%XWZHKDYHDNVDNDO DJHGUHVSHFWHGSHRSOH XQLRQDWWDFKHGWRDNLP«3DUWLFLSDWH


LQ GLVFXVVLRQ RI GLIIHUHQW SUREOHPV VROYH WKHVH SUREOHPV´ The further question
was: what about women participation [in these discussions]? Aksakal: Yes they,
do, \RXWKEDVLFDOO\«´(Resp#3. Kenes)

Human resources:

³2IWHQSHRSOHRIP\DJH>\HDUVROG@FRPHEDFN>WRYLOODJH@«LWLVEHWWHUKHUH>LQ
terms of employment - ID]HQGD@´ 5HVS.HQHV

³:H KDYH VFKRRO DQG NLQGHUJDUWHQ ZDV RSHQHG WKLV \HDU )XUWKHU TXHVWLon of
teaching staff?

Aksakal: Yes, ZH KDYH PDQ\ RI WKHP«IURP ORFDOV DJHG DQG \RXWK  5HVS
Kenes)

³7KHUHLVQRWKLQJWRGRKHUHIRU\RXWKLQWHUPVRIHPSOR\PHQWRQO\LIKHOSWRWKHLU
IDPLOLHV WKHUHIRUH WKH\ PLJUDWH WR 7DUD] 6K\PNHQW $OPDW\´ 5HVS5, Interview
notes, Kenes)

Material resources:

³«:HKDYHVWDWHVFKRRONLQGHUJDUWHQPHGLFDOZDUG´ 5HVS.HQHV

³ 9LOODJH HPSOR\PHQW RSSRUWXQLWLHV  ZH KDYH YLOODJH FRXQFLO >NRQWRUD@ DQG .D]-
post [Kazakhstan post]. The others are privatized. (Resp#2. Kenes)

³7KHVWDWHLVSD\LQJWKHSHQVLRQVDODULHVLQVFKRROV´ 5HVS.HQHV 
ϲϯ


³:HKDYHVFKRRODQGNLQGHUJDUWHQZDVRSHQHGWKLV\HDU´ 5HVS.HQHV 

³'ZHOOHUV GRQDWLRQV IRRG ILQDQFLDO  GXULQJ WKH WRLV >IHDVWV@´ 5HVS ,QWHUYLHZ
notes. Kenes)

ϲϰ


Appendix VI. Proposed Collaborative Model

Schematic view.

ϲϱ


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